Notes

INTRODUCTION

1 “He had once conceived”: Boswell, p. 1100.

2 Andrew Roberts has painted: Roberts, Masters.

3 The most vivid wartime memory: Author interview, 1992.

4 he told his staff: Colville, December 12, 1940.

5 “Everything depended upon him”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 236.

6 “He was not mad”: Knight, p. 366.

7 “may overstate his indispensability”: Wrigley, p. 85

8 “It would be easy by a cunning”: LHA, MS diary of Maj. Gen. Sir John Kennedy (hereafter “Kennedy diary, LHA”), January 26, 1941.

9 “Churchill so evidently”: Lees-Milne, p. 69, August 19, 1972.

10 “I wish I were twenty”: Nicolson, p. 37, September 9, 1939.

CHAPTER ONE: THE BATTLE OF FRANCE

11 “It was a marvel”: Reynolds, In Command, p.126.

12 “If there is going to be a war”: Baldwin to Lord Davidson, in Young, p. 112.

13 “several fishing rods”: IWM, Sir C. Nicholson Papers, p. 9.

14 “I don’t think WSC will be”: Quoted in Roberts, Masters, p. 199, undisclosed source, May 13, 1940.

15 “It’s all a great pity”: Butler Papers, G11, quoted in ibid., p. 209.

16 “If I had to spend my whole life”: Broad and Fleming, eds., p. 51.

17 “Events are moving so fast”: New Yorker, May 12, 1940.

18 “Elizabethan zest for life”: Harold Nicolson, Spectator, May 17, 1940.

19 “How Winston thinks that he can be Prime Minister”: Amery, p. 615, May 11, 1940.

20 “conscious of a profound”: Churchill, Second World War, 1:526.

21 “David, sir, David!”: Sebag-Montefiore, p. 59.

22 “British troops have landed in Iceland”: Sir Michael Howard, personal recollection to the author, December 28, 2008.

23 “Perhaps the darkest day in English history”: Channon, p. 248.

24 In May 1940, while few influential figures: Rhodes-James.

25 “‘Keep your eye on Churchill’”: Gardiner, Pillars, p. 77.

26 “additional complication”: Collier’s, January 1939.

27 “the poor tank”: News of the World, April 14, 1938.

28 “the submarine will be mastered”: Gilbert, War Papers, Churchill to Neville Chamberlain, March 25, 1939.

29 “I feel we may compare the position”: Gilbert, War Papers, 1:568.

30 “It may well be”: Speech to the St. George’s Association, April 24, 1933.

31 “I am beginning to come round”: Amery, p. 584, March 14, 1940.

32 “Winston has not been nearly bold”: Amery, p. 617, May 11, 1940.

33 “head of school’s fag”: Private information to author.

34 “So at last that man”: Headlam, p. 197, May 10, 1940.

35 “The new War Cabinet”: Bond, p. 131.

36 “perfectly futile for war”: Roskill, Hankey, 3:464.

37 “May I wish you every possible”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 219.

38 “seemed well satisfied”: Eden, p. 98.

39 “In Winston’s eyes”: Moran, p. 275.

40 “He proved in this one short speech”: Philadelphia Inquirer, May 14, 1940.

41 “That smart, tough, dumpy little man”: Time, May 27, 1940.

42 “We have for twenty years”: Richardson, p. 77.

43 “purely physical soldiers”: Lee, p. 216, January 9, 1941.

44 “not too happy about the military”: Colville, p. 131, May 14, 1940.

45 “I think myself that the battle”: Kimball, 1:37, May 15, 1940.

46 “The summer landscape”: Quoted in Horne, pp. 286–87.

47 “Harold, I think it would be wise”: Nicolson, p. 86, May 17, 1940.

48 “superb confidence”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 219.

49 “What a beautiful handwriting”: Colville, p. 184, July 3, 1940.

50 Embracing his staff as: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 219.

51 “I went up to my father’s bedroom”: Quoted in Gilbert, Finest Hour, p. 358.

52 “It must be remembered that the defence”: BNA, INF1/264, May 19, 1940.

53 “Militarily, I did not see how”: Eden, p. 107, May 24, 1940.

54 “About time number 17”: Ibid.

55 “sole remaining bargaining counter”: Kimball, 1:40, May 20, 1940.

56 “the government should at once”: New Statesman, May 25, 1940.

57 “Nobody minds going down”: Pownall, 1:327.

58 “Can nobody prevent him”: Ibid., 1:333, May 23, 1940.

59 “Everything is complete confusion”: Cadogan, p. 189, May 25, 1940.

60 A Gallup poll showed Americans: Gallup, May 29, 1940.

61 “too rambling and romantic”: Cadogan, p. 190, May 26, 1940.

62 “He is still thinking of his books”: Colville, p. 132, May 16, 1940.

63 he “would be addressing”: Ibid., p. 118, May 7, 1940.

64 “so great … it is madness”: Quoted in Lawlor, p. 96.

65 “It is not the descendants”: Harold Nicolson, Spectator, May 17, 1940.

66 “I think they’re going to beat us”: Sheridan, p. 91.

67 “The decision affected us all”: Ismay, p. 131.

68 “It is a drop in the bucket”: Morgenthau diary, Morgenthau Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N.Y.

69 “The least costly solution in both life”: New York Herald Tribune, May 24, 1940.

70 “I thought Winston talked”: Halifax diary, Borthwick Institute, York, May 27, 1940.

71 “His world is built upon the primacy”: Berlin, p. 6.

72 “Some of Mr. Churchill’s broadcasts”: Waugh, pp. 222–23.

CHAPTER TWO: THE TWO DUNKIRKS

73 “And so here we are back”: Pownall, 1:351–52.

74 “on reasonable conditions”: Reynolds, In Command, p. 170.

75 “He was quite magnificent”: Dalton, May 28, 1940.

76 “I hope you realise your distinction”: Horsfall, p. 142.

77 “There was a limit to what any of us”: Private information to the author, 2001.

78 “It does seem to me incredible”: Hichens, p. 81.

79 “No one in the room”: Ian Jacob, “His Finest Hour,” Atlantic, March 1965.

80 “the Luftwaffe, badly weakened”: Potsdam Institute for the Study of Military History, 2:291.

81 “A dejected-looking old man”: Ismay, p. 133.

82 “he could count on no artillery”: Karslake, p. 124.

83 “The political object of the re-constituted BEF”: C. P. Stacey, p. 278.

84 “the Breton redoubt”: L. F. Ellis, p. 298.

85 “People who go to Italy”: Colville, p. 152, April 10, 1940.

86 “Reynaud was inscrutable”: Eden, p. 116.

87 “Mr. Churchill appeared imperturbable”: De Gaulle, L’Appel (Plon: 1999), p. 54.

88 “That woman … will undo”: Ismay reported conversation in Kennedy diary, LHA, March 3, 1941.

89 “M. Reynaud felt that while Mr. C”: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1940–41. pp. 4–115.

90 “Normally I wake up buoyant to face”: Eden, p. 182, December 19, 1940.

91 “Churchill, who objected”: Colville, p. 232.

92 “If the French will go on fighting”: Ibid., pp. 155–56, June 14, 1940.

93 “it was impossible to make a corpse feel”: Brooke, p. 81, June 14, 1940.

94 “It is a desperate job being faced”: Ibid., p. 83, June 15, 1940.

95 “Much equipment had been”: Stacey, p. 284.

96 “The lack of previous training”: Quoted in Karslake, p. 262.

97 “Their behaviour was terrible!”: Ibid.

98 “repeating poetry, dilating on the drama”: Colville, pp. 157–58, June 15, 1940.

99 “told one or two dirty stories”: Ibid.

100 “less violent, less wild”: Ibid., p. 170, June 25, 1940.

101 “We are France!”: Lacouture, p. 240.

102 “Mr. Churchill finds that there are not enough French”: Le Matin, June 24, 1940.

103 “When a flood comes the water flows over”: Brooke, p. 69, May 25, 1940.

104 “My reason tells me that it now be”: Nicolson, p. 96, June 15, 1940.

105 “This period was one of carefree”: Fleming, pp. 88, 92.

106 “Here lies the material of a whole army”: Potsdam Institute, Bock diary, June 2, 1940.

107 An American correspondent reported home: New Yorker, June 17, 1940.

CHAPTER THREE: INVASION FEVER

108 “Thank heavens they have”: Horsfall, p. 153.

109 “Winston Churchill has told us”: IWM, G. W. King, 85/49/1, June 16, 1940.

110 “Now we know that we have got to”: Hichens, p. 90.

111 “Now I suppose it’s our turn”: Patrick Mayhew, ed., p. 77.

112 “[Captain] Bill Tennant came in”: CAC, Edwards diary, REDW1/2.

113 “one thing that strikes me”: Lee, p. 5, June 17, 1940.

114 “It is no secret that Great Britain”: Quoted in Lash, p. 197.

115 “The great majority of Americans”: Philadelphia Inquirer, May 23, 1940.

116 Richard E. Taylor of Apponaugh: IWM, Misc 200/3160.

117 “I have a feeling … that in the England”: Somerset Maugham, Time, October 21, 1940.

118 “Propaganda is all very well”: Colville, p. 175, June 28, 1940.

119 “One queer thing”: Lee, p. 23, May 25, 1940.

120 “I don’t know what we’ll fight”: Kennedy diary, LHA, November 12, 1942, story recounted by Walter Elliott.

121 “when so many interesting things”: CAC, Martin diary, MART1, p. 12.

122 “You ought to have cried ‘Shame’”: Colville, p. 135, May 19, 1940.

123 “We should have had an enormous army”: Kennedy diary, LHA, May 27, 1941.

124 “I went on my knees”: Halifax diary, Borthwick Institute, York, February 8, 1941.

125 “It was a terrible decision”: Moran, p. 316, July 9, 1945.

126 Oran, a painful necessity: See, for instance, Payne, passim.

127 “But all contingent upon”: BNA, PREM3/131/1, June 27, 1940.

128 “You will observe that the document”: BNA, PREM 3/131/2.

129 “Am profoundly shocked and disgusted”: Ibid.

130 “Please remember the serious nature”: Ibid.

131 “This declaration would take the form”: Ibid.

132 “There are difficulties which appear”: CAC, Bevin Papers, Ernest Bevin to Professor W. K. Hancock, BEVNII/4/1, November 13, 1940.

133 “if the Government of Eire”: Kimball, 1:106, December 7, 1940.

134 “Winston was in great form”: Ironside, July 6, 1940.

135 “strikes me as tired”: Gilbert, War Papers, 2:132, June 10, 1940.

136 “They paid lip-service”: Fleming, p. 80.

137 “The menace of invasion”: Ibid., p. 307.

138 “Hitler must invade or fail”: Colville, p. 195, July 14, 1940.

139 Not until March 1941: Hinsley, 1:429, 451.

140 “in wonderful spirits”: Brooke, p. 92, July 17, 1940.

141 “Radio sets were not then very”: Henry Fairlie, “The Voice of Hope,” New Republic, January 27, 1982, p. 16.

142 “Gradually we came under the spell”: Hodgson, p. 5.

143 “sent shivers (not of fear)”: Nicolson, p. 93, June 5, 1940.

144 “Mr. Churchill is the only man”: New Yorker, August 25, 1940.

145 “Like a great actor”: Berlin, p. 22.

146 “It is certainly his hour”: Headlam, p. 213.

147 “I won’t go on about the war”: IWM, Papers of Mrs. E. Elkus.

148 she had saved her wages: CAC, Eade Papers, 2/2, September 11, 1942.

149 “Romans in Rome’s quarrel”: CAC, Martin diary, p. 7.

CHAPTER FOUR: THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN

150 “Il y a beaucoup de puérilités”: Boswell, p. 876.

151 “I shall always associate that garden”: Colville, p. 505, August 24, 1944.

152 “Winston wept”: CAC, Martin diary, p. 29.

153 “The odds today have been unbelievable”: Barclay, pp. 51–52.

154 “This sounds very peculiar today”: IWM, Alec Bishop MS, 98/18/1.

155 “a farrago of operational”: Colville, p. 288, November 7, 1940.

156 “It is the sneaks and stinkers”: BNA, PREM3/220/48.

157 Jones spent twenty minutes: Jones, p. 101.

158 “Here was strength”: Ibid., p. 107.

159 “a little ruffled”: Colville, p. 211, August 7, 1940.

160 “Don’t speak to me”: Ismay, pp. 179–80.

161 “He paweth in the valley”: John Kennedy, Business of War, p. 62.

162 “I try myself by court martial”: Colville, p. 231, August 27, 1940.

163 “glaucous, vigilant, angry”: Nicolson, p. 127, November 20, 1940.

164 “There goes the bloody British Empire”: Colville, p. 340, January 24, 1941.

165 “Gimme ‘Pug’!”: Nel, p. 74.

166 “whether very great men”: Colville, p. 389, May 20, 1941.

167 “an unscrupulously rough-and-tumble fighter”: Lee, p. 77, October 10, 1940.

168 “You know, I may seem to be very fierce”: CAC, Martin diary, p. 4.

169 “Ll[oyd] G[eorge] was purely external”: Amery, p. 1034, March 26, 1945.

170 “It’s very naughty of the PM”: Moran, p. 287.

171 “the formidable ramparts”: Moran, p. 324.

172 “Darling Winston”: quoted in Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 454.

173 “to find himself subjected to a flow”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 53.

174 “He has more wit than humour”: Moran, p. 226, September 21, 1944.

175 “collapsed between the chair”: Colville, p. 319, December 15, 1940.

176 “Winston feasts on the sound”: Moran, p. 8, December 12, 1941.

177 “No one could predict”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 177.

178 “the ferment of ideas”: Ibid., p. 150.

179 “almost certain invasion”: Channon, p. 266, September 16, 1940.

180 “like all the other soldiers”: Neville Chamberlain diary, July 1, 1940.

181 “the nakedness of our defences”: Brooke, p. 90, July 2, 1940.

182 “not satisfied that … the co-operation”: BNA, CAB69/1.

183 “I feel an immense joy”: Hichens, p. 99.

184 On August 25: Elmhirst, p. 51.

185 “Thank God … the defeatist opinions”: Lee, p. 108, September 15, 1940.

186 “usual vigorous rhetorical good sense”: Dalton, p. 80.

187 “I am on top of”: Elmhirst, p. 53.

188 “That man’s effort is flagging”: Colville, p. 261, October 11, 1940.

189 “The club is burning, sir”: CAC, Martin diary, p. 32.

190 “a farmer driving pigs”: Colville, p. 217, August 10, 1941.

191 “For something like a year”: Thompson, p. 41.

192 “One can now say confidently”: Dokumenty Vneshnei Politiki, pp. 361, 387.

193 Lothian’s “wild” appeal: Nicolson, p. 104, July 22, 1940.

194 “[He] was very interesting about the City”: Lee, p. 165, December 8, 1940.

195 “Feeling in the Carlton Club”: Channon, p. 268.

196 “I think it’s a good thing that we’ve suffered”: IWM, Green Papers, 99/9/1, letter of September 4, 1940.

197 “this was the sort of war which would suit”: Colville, p. 262, October 12, 1940.

198 “We … soon adapt ourselves”: Trollope, p. 102.

199 “if one looked on all this”: Colville, p. 240, September 16, 1940.

200 “Malaya, the Australian government’s intransigence”: Eden, p. 214, January 21, 1941.

201 “We [have] got to admit that Germany”: Colville, p. 312, October 13, 1940.

202 “the narrowest, most ignorant”: Colville, p. 406, June 22, 1941.

CHAPTER FIVE: GREEK FIRE

203 saw no prospect beyond stalemate: See Bond, pp. 119–59.

204 “sit tight and defend ourselves”: Dalton, p. 87.

205 “They say no one knows”: Lee, p. 54, September 12, 1940.

206 “in a month’s time”: Ibid., p. 10, July 3, 1940.

207 “If Hitler were to postpone invasion”: Nicolson, p. 103, July 20, 1940.

208 “I have heard a good many members”: Diary, November 14, 1940, quoted in Garfield, p. 18.

209 “At our weekly meeting last night”: CAC, Bevin Papers, letter from F. Price, BEVN6/59, September 22, 1940. 100

210 “Winston, why don’t we land a million men”: CAC, Eade Papers, 2/2, March 6, 1941.

211 “We will go easy at first”: Gibb, pp. 40–41.

212 “the discharge of bombs is pitifully small”: BNA, PREM3/21/1.

213 “No more than anyone else did he see clearly”: Pownall, 2:8, November 2, 1940.

214 “As the PM said goodnight to the Air Marshals”: Colville, p. 266, October 13, 1940.

215 “He was always, in effect”: Attlee to New York City press conference, February 1, 1946.

216 “These military men v[er]y often fail”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 23, May 30, 1909.

217 “The book is full of abuse of politicians”: Ibid., p. 357, February 19, 1932.

218 “A series of absurd conventions became established”: Churchill, World Crisis, vol. 2, part 3, chapter 10, pp. 1131, 1134–35.

219 “I am so glad you were able to find the means”: Churchill to Tovey, April 7, 1941.

220 “by 300 determined men”: Colville, p. 286, November 3, 1940.

221 “He lay there in his four-post bed”: Ibid., p. 285, November 3, 1940.

222 “as if it were the only source of information”: Nicolson, p. 121, October 17, 1940.

223 “‘How are you?’”: Ibid.

224 “You should not telegraph at Government expense”: Gilbert, Finest Hour, pp. 905–6.

225 “I purred like six cats”: Churchill, Second World War, 2:480.

226 “At long last we are going to throw off”: Ismay, p. 195.

227 “If, with the situation as it is”: BNA, PREM3/288/1.

228 “Off we went across the unknown country”: Barnett, Desert Generals, pp. 37–65.

229 “For the first time the possibility”: Harvey diary, p. 149, February 22, 1941.

230 “Mr. Churchill’s speech has rather sobered me”: Hodgson, pp. 122–23, February 11, 1941.

231 “We cannot, from Middle East resources”: Eden, p. 168.

232 “The weakness of our policy”: Ibid., p. 170, November 3, 1940.

233 “We were near the edge of the precipice”: Kennedy diary, LHA, January 26 and February 11, 1941.

234 “He thinks Greece is lost”: Sherwood, White House Papers, 1:239–40.

235 “Found Wavell waiting for me at 9am”: Eden, p. 131, August 13, 1940.

236 Churchill and his generals failed to perceive: Hinsley, et al., 1:260.

237 “I hope, Jack”: Eden, p. 240.

238 “General Wavell should regain unit ascendancy”: BNA, CAB120/10, April 14, 1941.

239 “I think it is desperate”: Kennedy diary, LHA, April 10, 1941.

240 “CIGS is miserable”: Ibid., April 11, 1941.

241 “Chiefs of staff overawed & influenced”: Ibid.

242 “I am afraid of a disaster”: Menzies, p. 120.

243 “Aren’t you going to listen to Winston Churchill?”: Broad and Fleming, eds., p. 133, April 27, 1941.

244 “All that the country really wants”: Nicolson, p. 162, April 13, 1941.

245 “He himself took a depressed view”: Roskill, Hankey, 3:506, May 13, 1941.

246 “We hold our breath”: Hodgson, p. 177, May 25, 1941.

247 “The difference between the capability”: IWM, 92/12/1, Belsey Papers.

248 Churchill, a few months later: Colville, p. 443, September 28, 1941.

249 “Once more Germany gives the impression”: Sebastian, p. 343, April 9, 1941.

250 “You’ve lost the game”: Pauli, p. 137.

251 “the utter darkness”: Brooke, p. 379, February 4, 1943.

252 “The PM in conversation will steep himself”: Menzies, p. 169, March 1, 1941.

253 Churchill observed crossly: CAC, Eade Papers, 2/2, July 24, 1941.

254 “was right when he asserted”: Potsdam Institute, 3:555.

255 “As far as I can make out”: BNA, PREM4/17/2, March 20, 1941.

256 “He said some very harsh things about Wavell”: Colville, p. 394, June 3, 1941.

257 “that fine commander whom we cheered”: BBC broadcast, April 27, 1941.

258 “I understand he has a great deal”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 480, May 13, 1943.

259 Wavell’s best biographer, Ronald Lewin: Lewin, The Chief.

260 “My trouble is that I am not really interested in war”: Pownall, 2:95.

261 “Now I’m going to waste a morning”: Kennedy diary, LHA, September 14, 1939.

262 “They are a pretty fair lot of gangsters”: Pownall, 2:19, June 3, 1941.

263 “It is a bad feature of the present situation”: Kennedy diary, LHA, July 9, 1942.

264 “When he is in the right mood”: Kennedy diary, LHA, February 9, 1941.

265 “It is a strange thing”: Brooke, p. 647, January 20, 1945.

266 “At times you could kiss his feet”: CAC, A. V. Alexander Papers, AVAR6/1, diary, June 10, 1942.

267 Capt. Stephen Roskill, the official historian: See Roskill, Churchill, p. 279.

268 “I … have to confess to an inherent difficulty”: Cunningham, pp. 578, 580.

269 “I never saw him ruffled”: Richards, pp. 202–3.

270 “I am thankful I have so little to do with him”: Kennedy diary, LHA, December 5, 1941.

271 “Ismay is such a devotee of PM’s”: Ibid., April 10, 1941.

272 “Is there any evil except in intent?”: IWM, Alec Bishop unpublished MS, 98/18/1.

273 “The chief difficulty is understanding what he says”: CAC, Martin diary, p. 10.

274 “In truth it is only a sham of a parliament”: Davie and Chisholm, p. 664, May 14, 1941.

275 “If you see that you are about to be captured”: Wilson, p. 16 and passim.

276 “Moran was seldom, if ever”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 110.

277 “He always retained unswerving independence of thought”: Colville, p. 125.

278 “The people strike me”: Lee, p. 243, April 16, 1941.

279 “Young man”: John Kennedy, Business of War, p. 236.

280 “War,” he wrote, “consists of fighting”: quoted in Reynolds, In Command, p. 244.

281 “I suppose you realise that we shall lose the Middle East”: Kennedy diary, LHA, June 21, 1941.

CHAPTER SIX: COMRADES

282 “There is nothing straightforward about this war”: Garfield, p. 129.

283 “None of this conflicts with our main interest”: Gilbert, War Papers, 1:147–49, September 25, 1939. On this issue, see, for instance, Carlton, passim.

284 “That the Russian armies should stand”: BBC broadcast, October 10, 1939.

285 “a sentiment widely felt”: Colville, p. 436, September 3, 1941.

286 “They think they are dealing with normal people”: Pownall, 2:36, July 17, 1941.

287 “I don’t suppose that the ‘conquest’”: Headlam, p. 157, June 22, 1941.

288 “One feels that God is on our side”: Ibid., p. 258.

289 “I glory in all this”: IWM, 85/49/1, G. W. King MS, July 30, 1941.

290 “The Russians have not been too nice”: Hodgson, p. 185, June 22, 1941.

291 “Somehow I think Stalin”: Ibid., p. 190, July 2, 1941.

292 “I was agreeably surprised … that Churchill received Russia”: IWM, 92/12/1, Belsey letters, June 25, 1941.

293 “It’s impossible to say how long Russian resistance”: Pownall, 2:30, June 29, 1941.

294 “I don’t believe Winston is at heart”: Ibid., p. 31, June 30, 1941.

295 “Why the authorities at home”: Cunningham, p. 350.

296 “It was quite evident that all of the Britishers”: Lee, p. 416.

297 “Britain’s radio spies are at work”: Daily Mirror, February 14, 1941.

298 “The danger of enemy”: Hinsley, 2:671.

299 “almost a pariah in London”: Lee, p. 317, June 23, 1941.

300 “an obstinate, high-minded man”: Quoted in Reynolds, In Command, p. 256.

301 “The British government, by its passive”: Bellamy, p. 415.

302 “We would like to inform you on the contents”: Ocherki Istorii Rossiikoi Vneshney Radvedki, pp. 143–44.

303 “In order to enable Russia to remain”: Hansard, September 30, 1941.

304 “Hitler is throwing all he has got into the Eastern battles”: IWM, 85/49/1, G. W. King MS.

305 “I can still remember with what close attention”: Kumanyov, p. 300.

306 “Now I have to bring to light the fact”: Roskill, Hankey, 3:533.

307 Chris Bellamy, among the best-informed Western historians: Bellamy, p. 446.

308 “The effect upon us psychologically”: Observer, August 17, 1941.

309 “My main feeling is one of bitter”: Quoted in Garfield, p. 172, October 9, 1941.

310 “the rising temper of the British people”: Gilbert, War Papers, 3:1372, October 25, 1941.

311 “Things are pretty hard here”: CAC, CHAR1/362.

312 “The fundamental difficulty is that altho”: Kennedy diary, LHA, July 7, 1941.

313 “Would that the two loathsome monsters”: Pownall, p. 50, October 29, 1941.

314 “The Labour ministers”: Harvey, p. 179, October 27, 1941.

315 “In two years struggle with the greatest military Power”: Gilbert, War Papers, 3:1204, September 12, 1941.

316 “Winston’s attitude to war is much more realistic”: Menzies, p. 99, March 31, 1941.

317 “The Army must do something”: Kennedy diary, LHA, October 9, 1941.

318 “Winston is in a difficult position”: Ibid., October 13, 1941.

319 “Yes, I am afraid Moscow is a gone coon”: Ibid., October 11, 1941.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE BATTLE OF AMERICA

320 “I wonder if the Americans realise how late”: Kennedy diary, LHA, May 25, 1941.

321 “rushing vast quantities of weapons”: Hull, 2:967.

322 “The United States Administration is pursuing”: Eden, p. 176.

323 “after the victory was won with our blood”: Kimball, 1:102.

324 “I have never realised so strongly as now”: Quoted in Kynaston, 3:472.

325 “Our desperate straits alone”: Eden, p. 135.

326 “I have never liked Americans, except odd ones”: Quoted in Roberts, Holy Fox, p. 280.

327 “The heavy labour of toadying”: Ibid., p. 278.

328 “I only said that I thought you might hate it”: Eden, p. 182.

329 During a trip to Detroit: Christian Science Monitor, May 12, 1941, p. 15 and November 11, 1941, p. 8.

330 “pretty hopeless—the old trouble of being unable”: Harvey, p. 20, July 15, 1941.

331 “because he couldn’t get on with these Americans”: Dalton, p. 272, August 25, 1941.

332 “They really are a strange and unpleasing people”: Headlam, p. 270, August 15, 1941.

333 “no great enthusiasm for the US”: BNA, FO371/34114.

334 “it wouldn’t really pay us for the US”: LHA, Slessor Papers, Box XIIC.

335 “when one is dealing with a people so arrogant”: RAF Museum, Hendon Harris Papers, folder H98, September 15, 1941.

336 “It is just a little humiliating”: Dalton, p. 247, July 10, 1941.

337 “the average man’s … unfavourable view”: Planning Committee minutes, BNA, INF1/249, June 4, 1941.

338 “Donovan … is extremely friendly to us”: Kennedy diary, LHA, March 7, 1941.

339 “a possible America”: Watt, p. 161.

340 “he quite understood the exasperation”: Colville, p. 283, November 1, 1940.

341 “I was … only a Second Lieutenant”: Pilipel, p. 16.

342 “Had he been pure English aristocracy”: Hodgson, pp. 189–90, July 2, 1941.

343 “Here’s a telegram for those bloody Yankees”: Colville, p. 136, May 19, 1940.

344 By late 1941, Churchill ran second: Richard L. Coe, Washington Post, January 11, 1942.

345 “I believe that we really can keep out”: Sherwood, White House Papers, 1:125.

346 “a walking corpse”: Time.

347 “He can work only seven hours a day”: Time, March 10, 1941.

348 “of the exact state of England’s need”: Sherwood, White House Papers, 1:239.

349 “I suppose you could say—but not out loud”: Ibid., 1:237.

350 “We seek no treasure”: Chandros, pp. 165–66.

351 “Hopkins was, I think, very impressed”: Quoted in Gilbert, Finest Hour, pp. 997, 999.

352 “I have never had such an enjoyable time”: Lee, p. 220.

353 “Apparently the first thing that Churchill asks for”: Ickes, p. 181.

354 “He finished with really glorious words of comfort”: Hodgson, pp. 195–96, July 27, 1941.

355 “Winston is completely certain of America’s full help”: Menzies, p. 64, February 22, 1941.

356 “It is never very easy for the British”: Books & Bookmen, October 1977, in a review of Joseph P. Lash’s Roosevelt and Churchill, 1939–41 (Andre Deutsch, 1977).

357 “Personally I am very sorry to see America turning”: IWM, M. P. Troy Papers, 95/25/1, January 1, 1941.

358 “As soon as the Lend-Spend, Lend-Lease”: Harriman and Abel, p. 5.

359 “We can’t take seriously requests”: Ibid., p. 15.

360 “He resented this so much”: Lee, p. 307, June 9, 1941.

361 By contrast Col.—soon to be a lieutenant general: Pogue, Marshall: Ordeal and Hope, pp. 133–34.

362 “if rather than when continued to dominate”: Ibid., p. 139.

363 “I was deeply worried the president”: Harriman and Abel, p. 18.

364 “I must attempt to convince”: Ibid., p. 18.

365 “The PM is much smaller than I expected”: Ibid., p. 61.

366 “the PM bluntly stated”: Ibid., p. 28.

367 “believing that we shall get the Americans”: Amery, p. 689, May 19, 1941.

368 “The great difficulty is re-educating”: Harriman and Abel, p. 57.

369 “The idea of being our armoury”: Headlam, p. 234, December 31, 1940.

370 “The great thing is not to antagonise the United States”: Nicolson, p. 153, March 21, 1941.

371 “Well, yes”: Lee, p. 357, July 26, 1941.

372 “frightened of nothing but Japan”: Cadogan, p. 393, July 21, 1941.

373 “A wonderful story is unfolding”: Quoted in Gilbert, War Papers, 3:810.

374 “a disorderly day’s rabbit-shooting”: BNA, PREM4/27/9, March 13, 1941.

375 “I must say I do not think our friend”: BNA, PREM3/485/6, folio 16.

376 “with a retinue which Cardinal Wolsey might have envied”: Colville, p. 424, August 3, 1941.

377 “Working in H[arry] H[opkins]’s cabin this morning”: CAC, Geoffrey Green, GREE1.

378 “really incapable of a personal friendship with anyone”: Quoted in Davis, p. 212.

379 “Not a single American officer”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/10, August 11, 1941.

380 “It would be an exaggeration to say that Roosevelt and Churchill”: Sherwood, White House Papers, 1:364.

381 “My God, this is history!”: CAC, Geoffrey Green, GREE1, August 10, 1941.

382 the occasion must fulfil the fantasies of a “pressman”: CAC, Jacob diary, August 10, 1941.

383 That afternoon, Churchill took a launch: CAC, Martin diary, p. 60.

384 “Am I going to like it?”: Ibid., p. 62.

385 “It was hard to tell whether Churchill”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 206.

386 “a very interesting and by no means unfruitful meeting”: CAC, Churchill Papers, CHAR1/362/28-32, August 29, 1941.

387 “Roosevelt is all for coming into the war”: Pownall, 1:374.

388 “nothing dressed up very nicely”: Kennedy diary, LHA, August 24, 1941.

389 “There was a statement of War Aims”: Hodgson, p. 201, August 15, 1941.

390 “I ought to tell you that there has been a wave of depression”: Gilbert, War Papers, 3:1125, August 28, 1941. 170

391 “The PM said that after the joint declaration”: Colville, p. 434, August 30, 1941.

392 He even questioned—as did some: Harvey, p. 210, August 31, 1941.

393 “The attitude of the people he had been with”: Quoted in Lee, p. 376, August 24, 1941.

394 “It will not be possible for the whole British Army”: Gilbert, War Papers, 3:1202.

395 “plans were worked out to establish”: Trukhanovsky, p. 273.

396 “the Food Account was very high”: CAC, Churchill Papers, CHAR1/379/12-20.

397 “Oh, Miss, you’ll never guess what he did next …”: Nel, pp. 43–45.

398 “Now run inside and type like HELL”: Ibid., p. 67.

399 “Winston was depressed at outset”: Eden, p. 294, September 22, 1941.

400 “in the event of a collision between Japan”: BNA, HWI/25.

401 “Make sure they have all they want on extreme priority”: Hinsley et al., 3:655, appendix 3.

402 “Another Prayer from the prime minister”: CAC, Edwards diary, REDW2/3, August 24–25, 1941.

403 “There is nothing like having something that can catch and kill anything”: Kimball, 1:165, November 2, 1941.

404 “People are wondering why you don’t do something offensively”: Harriman and Abel, p. 109, October 20, 1941.

405 “Whatever may happen on the Russian front”: Pownall, 2:41.

406 Camrose was sufficiently impressed: Quoted in Hartwell, p. 316.

407 On the nineteenth, Churchill told guests during a lunch: CAC, Eade Papers, November 11, 1941.

408 “A. E. is much perplexed”: Harvey, p. 179, October 10, 1941.

409 “Winston’s methods were frequently repulsive to him”: Brooke, p. 192, October 20, 1941.

410 “too much impressed by the enemy’s will”: John Kennedy, Business of War, p. 78.

411 “his ability to shake himself like a dog”: Kennedy diary, March 19, 1942.

412 “If they declare war on us”: Winant, pp. 196–97.

413 “tired and depressed”: Harriman and Abel, p. 111.

414 “Saturated and satiated with emotion”: Quoted in Reynolds, In Command, p. 264.

CHAPTER EIGHT: A GLIMPSE OF ARCADIA

415 “Well then, this war is over”: Billotte, p. 187.

416 “We simply can’t be beaten”: Nicolson, p. 197, December 11, 1941.

417 “Though I do not wish anyone to be bombed”: Hodgson, p. 232, December 9, 1941.

418 “While the public are prepared to make”: BNA, INF1/292.

419 “I do not know when or how I shall come back”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 460, December 21, 1941.

420 “All is very good indeed”: Ibid., p. 461, December 24, 1941.

421 “No one but he”: Macmillan, p. 294, November 16, 1943.

422 “Senators’ … office telephones carried call”: Washington Post, December 27, 1941.

423 “the greatest orator in the world”: Ickes, December 26, 1941.

424 “It is a great weight off my chest”: Moran, p. 23.

425 “to put it on its throne”: Lash, p. 15.

426 “‘Tommy’ clapped her hands”: Ibid., p. 16.

427 “the aura of the office was always around him”: Bohlen, p. 210.

428 “a patrician democrat whose every simple gesture”: Amery, p. 882, April 15, 1943.

429 “The difference between the President”: Hassett, p. 171.

430 “one of the most untidy rooms”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/12.

431 “How do these people carry on?”: Cadogan, p. 586.

432 “By the side of the Prime Minister he is a child”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/14.

433 “They will have first to close the gap”: Ibid., p. 90.

434 “They tell me I have done a good job here”: Ickes, February 1, 1942.

435 “The time had now come when I must leave”: Churchill, Second World War, 3:625.

436 Amery noted wryly: Amery, p. 242, January 17, 1942.

437 “He wanted to show the President”: Moran, p. 21.

438 “There is bound to be difficulty in practice”: Eden, p. 319, January 28, 1942.

439 “There is one lesson the United States should learn”: Denver Post, February 6, 1942.

440 “It is unfortunate that Mr. Roosevelt”: Chicago Tribune, February 2, 1942.

441 “Who writes Churchill’s speeches for him?”: Time, book review section, p. 94, March 17, 1941.

442 “Even those closest to Roosevelt”: Lash, p. 195.

443 “proposed to reshape the world”: Michael Howard, Books & Bookmen, October 1977.

444 “The academic yet sweeping opinions”: Eden, p. 374.

445 “My whole system is founded on friendship”: Ibid., p. 323.

446 “The British,” wrote Henry Stimson, “are evidently taking advantage”: Stimson diary, Sterling Memorial Library, Yale, January 11, 1942.

447 “as if these had been swept into”: Pogue, Marshall: Ordeal and Hope, p. 265.

448 “It is odd that Winston should want me”: Quoted in Danchev, p. 10.

CHAPTER NINE: “THE VALLEY OF HUMILIATION”

449 “There seems to be plenty of snarling”: Moran, p. 28.

450 “with the mentality of a greengrocer”: Brooke, p. 212, December 19, 1941.

451 “We should thank God for Hitler”: John Kennedy, Business of War, p. 318.

452 “The PM is not really interested in Mackenzie King”: Moran, p. 20.

453 “Mr. Churchill has been unwilling to give”: New Statesman, January 31, 1942.

454 When Amery wished: Bayley and Harper, p. 234.

455 “I think he is”: Harvey, February 9, 1942.

456 “Sometimes … the PM is just like a child”: Dalton, p. 368.

457 “The whole reputation of our country and our race is involved”: Harvey, February 9, 1942.

458 “Lots of people want to”: Bonham Carter, p. 236, February 11, 1942.

459 “striding up and down, all on edge”: Layton Papers, quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 56.

460 “Defeatism is in the air, and … I feel it too”: Garfield, p. 223.

461 “I think it is time he went”: MO report, quoted in Mosley, p. 241.

462 “I’m fed up … I feel very biteful”: Bonham Carter, p. 236, February 11, 1942.

463 “The nature of his words and the unaccustomed speed”: CAC, Colville MS diary, February 16, 1942.

464 “We have so many men in Singapore”: Nicolson, p. 211, February 12, 1942.

465 “But my God, sir, you cannot do that”: Pim Papers, quoted in Gilbert, Road 202 Victory, p. 62.

466 “If the army cannot fight better”: Brooke, p. 231, February 18, 1942.

467 “At the back of his mind and unconsciously”: Harvey, p. 91, February 5, 1942.

468 “We have masses of reinforcements”: Kennedy diary, LHA, February 3, 1942.

469 “These simple rules might help us”: Dill to Brooke, March 5, 1942.

470 “This process does not make Cabinet Ministers”: Bryant, 1:375.

471 “We are indeed walking through the Valley of Humiliation”: Hopkins Papers, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., Box 4, folder 1, Accession 1, Series 1, correspondence.

472 “always been as distant as a lion and an okapi”: Eden, p. 539.

473 “fighting to keep their country free”: Cripps, BBC broadcast, February 6, 1942.

474 “The talk was very much about Winston”: Kennedy diary, March 5, 1942.

475 “Although the British are keeping a stiff upper lip”: Harriman and Abel, p. 126.

476 “he is always careful to consume”: Moran, p. 32.

477 “saddened—appalled by events”: Quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 69.

478 “Poor old P.M. in a sour mood and a bad way”: Cadogan, p. 440, March 4, 1942.

479 “a pregnant fact”: Roskill, Churchill and the Admirals, p. 232.

480 “I believe,” he said, “that if one side in an equal war”: Hansard, November 16, 1937.

481 “built more like a fire-lighter”: Conversation with the author, June 21, 1977.

482 “I hope you were impressed”: Kimball, 1:504, June 1, 1942.

483 “As I lay in bed the other night”: Hodgson, p. 407. August 15, 1943.

484 “a considerable commander—but there was a certain coarseness about him”: Brown, p. 201.

485 perverse to heap praise: New Statesman, Februry 28, 1942.

486 “The disaster of this policy”: Hansard, February 24, 1942.

487 “can be implemented only”: Kennedy diary, LHA, May 31, 1942.

488 “a stubborn and obstinate man”: Roskill, Churchill and the Admirals, p. 130.

489 “I find it very difficult to get over Singapore”: Kimball, 1:438.

490 “CIGS says WSC is often in a very nasty mood these days”: Kennedy diary, LHA, April 7, 1942.

491 “hypothetical post-war problems”: Amery, p. 785, March 8, 1942.

492 “He does not seem to see that the steps”: New Statesman, April 11, 1941.

493 “This nation has become very soft”: Kennedy diary, LHA, February 23, 1942.

494 “lack enthusiasm and interest in the war”: BNA, WO163/52, Quarterly Morale Report.

495 “that America will emerge, after total victory”: BNA, FO371/30656.

496 “When has the Prime Minister made one”: Economist, December 19, 1942.

497 “The feeling is almost universally held”: Kimball, Churchill and Roosevelt, 1:446.

498 “a strange combination of great and small qualities”: Amery, p. 746 (November 19, 1941) and p. 750 (November 25, 1941).

499 “the humiliation of being ordered about”: Ibid., p. 822, July 27, 1942.

500 “lay down arms and accept whatever fate”: Tendulkar, 5:291.

501 “Anything like a serious difference between you”: Kimball, 1:449.

502 “We must remember that this is a bad thing”: Cadogan, p. 450, May 7, 1942.

503 “The depression following Singapore”: CAC, Churchill Papers, CHAR1/369/5-8, May 2, 1942.

504 “Everyone feels safer now”: Ibid.

505 “there are many people in the USA”: Nicolson, p. 222, April 15, 1941.

506 “One trouble is that we want everything”: BNA, CAB122/96, April 7, 1942.

507 “It must be accepted that policy will increasingly”: Salter, pp. 185–86.

508 “I don’t know what we can do for that Army”: Kennedy diary, LHA, June 11, 1942.

509 “Our soldiers are the most pathetic amateurs”: Cadogan, p. 374 (April 29, 1941) and p. 389 (June 18, 1941).

510 “What will happen if the Germans get a footing here?”: Ibid., p. 433, February 9, 1942.

511 “He presents to me in those red years”: Churchill, Great Contemporaries, p. 144.

512 “We manage by terrific efforts to pile up resources”: Kennedy diary, LHA, July 31, 1942.

513 “Rommel was an abler general than any on the British side”: Moorehead, p. 418.

514 “There is a general feeling that there is something wrong”: Garfield, p. 260.

515 “The feeling is growing that we are having”: Ibid., p. 212, February 10, 1942.

516 Ivan Maisky, the Russian ambassador in London: Dalton, November 18, 1941.

517 “Our [career officers] regard [war]”: Pownall, 2:98.

518 “Petrol, food, NAAFI supplies”: Stanford, p. 110 and passim.

519 “the Augean stables are still uncleaned”: Macmillan, p. 322, December 8, 1943.

520 “All this,” noted a general who read Gordon’s rant, “has a devastating effect on army morale”: Kennedy diary, LHA, March 5, 1942.

521 “We are going to lose this war unless we control it”: Brooke, p. 243, March 31, 1942.

522 “too stupid to be employed in any operational capacity”: Macmillan, p. 313, December 2, 1943.

523 “These British administrative generals”: Ibid., p. 347, January 1, 1944.

524 Following Byng’s shooting: See Rodger, 2:272 and passim.

525 Churchill muttered to Dill about the virtues of the Byng precedent: Kennedy diary, LHA, December 5, 1941.

526 “I am devoted to Neil”: Brooke, p. 270, June 22, 1942.

527 Fundamental to many defeats in the desert: French, passim.

528 “Arm yourself therefore my dear”: Quoted in Gilbert, Churchill: A Life, 4:63.

529 “a mere handmaid of the Army”: BNA, PREM3/499/9, Churchill to Attlee, July 29, 1942.

530 “In all its branches, the German war machine”: Moorehead, p. 409.

531 “Father, the trouble is your soldiers won’t fight”: Eden, p. 378, October 6, 1942.

532 “I love Randolph, but I don’t like him”: Brown, p. 148.

533 “a very daring and skilful opponent”: Hansard, January 29, 1942.

534 “These beastly Huns”: McLaine, p. 139.

535 “I gather that production”: Headlam, p. 231, December 5, 1940.

536 “I was disgusted to hear that their production tempo”: Colville, p. 441, September 26, 1941.

537 Of eight serious strikes in the aircraft industry: BNA, AVIA10/269.

538 “a marked absence of discipline”: BNA, CAB102/406.

539 “had failed to improve its productivity”: BNA, CAB70/6.

540 “Strikes continue to cause much discussion”: BNA, INFI/282, October 1943.

541 Byrd complained to harbour security officers: BNA, FO371/34115.

542 “I do not see why the country sh[oul]d not be mobilized”: Kennedy diary, LHA, March 12, 1942.

543 Of all wartime industrial disputes: Inman, p. 365.

544 The Cost of Living Index rose from 88: Ibid., passim.

545 “one can hardly overstress the effect”: Court, p. 325.

546 “The center of the problem … is the bad feeling”: BNA, CAB123/21.

547 “Many of the people had lived for years past”: Ministry of Health report, Cmd.6468.

548 “children in rags”: Titmuss, p. 115.

549 “We [Chamberlain’s ministers in early 1940] were all conscious”: Quoted in McLaine, p. 104.

CHAPTER TEN: “SECOND FRONT NOW!”

550 “I was fortunate if I did not see Winston for 6 hours”: Brooke, p. 247, April 10, 1942.

551 “no very great contribution”: Ibid., p. 246, April 9, 1942.

552 “In many respects he is a very dangerous man”: Ibid., p. 249, April 11, 1942.

553 The CIGS told his staff: Kennedy diary, LHA, April 5, 1942.

554 “The extraordinary thing is that the Russians seem”: Ibid.

555 “I am in entire agreement in principle”: Kimball, 1:448, April 12, 1942.

556 “we are proceeding with plans and preparations on that basis”: Ibid., 1:459, April 17, 1942.

557 “Arrangements are being made for a landing”: Ibid., 1:515.

558 “This universal cry to start a second front”: Brooke, p. 243, March 30, 1942.

559 “I might be the best man to run the war”: Halifax, March 31, 1942.

560 “Concerning the second front, Churchill made a brief statement”: Rzheshevsky, pp. 113, 190.

561 “We do not consider this a meaningless statement”: Ibid., p. 157.

562 “It is the irony of the commitment to the Soviet Union”: Beaumont, p. 99.

563 “Considerable though these achievements and sacrifices were”: Ibid., p. 142.

564 “sending very few aircraft, and not the best they have either”: Ibid., p. 147.

565 “They offered no definite information”: Rzheshevsky, p. 231.

566 “preparations for the second front”: Ibid., p. 222.

567 “Finally, we think it absolutely necessary”: Ibid., p. 250.

568 First, and as the Russian leader acknowledged: Chuev, p. 258.

569 “I mentioned among other things”: Ibid., p. 319.

570 “Roosevelt had calmly told Molotov”: Harvey, p. 244, June 10, 1942.

571 “We had to squeeze everything we could get”: Chuev, p. 66.

572 “the High Contracting Parties … to afford one another”: Pravda, June 14, 1942.

573 found Churchill “smarter”: Chuev, p. 26.

574 “I knew them all, these capitalists”: Ibid., pp. 65–67.

575 “This vicious rag should have no special facilities here”: BNA, PREM4/26/8, June 7, 1942.

576 “Advocacy of a second front has increased”: Nicholas, p. 58, July 25, 1942.

577 A U.S. officer at dinner in London: Kennedy diary, LHA, April 5, 1942.

578 “No Englishman here has the close relationship”: BNA, CAB109/47, Birley to Jacob.

579 “We simply hold no cards at all”: Dykes diary, October 12, 1942, quoted in Danchev, p. 20.

580 Private secretary John Martin was sternly rebuked: Hassett, p. 68.

581 “No responsible British military authority”: CAC, JACB1/14.

582 “it was Britain’s beleaguered helplessness”: Porch, p. 208.

583 “Anti-British feeling is still strong”: Nicholas, p. 38, May 14, 1942.

584 “there was little point in supplying the British”: Ibid., p. 49, June 27, 1942.

585 “These English are too aggressive”: Hassett, June 20 and 24, 1942.

586 “a delightful companion”: Ibid., June 20, 1942.

587 “I knew when I saw your fat-headed PM”: BNA, FO371/30656.

588 “All the old animosities against the British”: USNA, RG84, Box 5.

589 “Phrases such as ‘the British always want someone’”: USNA, RG208, Box 11, Survey of Int. Material, OWI Survey No. 113, June 10, 1942.

590 The OWI’s July survey invited Americans: Ibid., OWI Survey No. 114, July 1, 1942.

591 Some 65 percent said America: Ibid., OWI Survey No. 117, August 29, 1942.

592 “The dominant underlying feeling is not bad”: BNA, FO371/30656.

593 “the Asiatic war has revived”: Lippmann Papers, Yale, April 18, 1942.

594 “old-fashioned imperialism”: BNA, FO371/30656, Clark Kerr dispatch, September 28, 1942.

595 “The Embassy … has a quite fantastically low reputation”: BNA, FO371/30656, July 6, 1942.

596 “were about as friendly to the British”: Ibid., October 5, 1942.

597 “We must have a victory!”: Harvey, p. 249, June 22, 1942.

598 “I told him what Winston had said”: Kennedy diary, LHA, July 18, 1942.

599 “The people do not like him being away”: IWM, Cons Shelf P, Yates letters, June 22, 1942.

600 “I myself felt pretty disgusted with him”: Quoted in Mosley, p. 254.

601 “The enemy did not seem to understand”: Hodgson, p. 293, June 23, 1942.

602 “Mr Churchill’s speech did not contain much comfort”: Ibid., p. 298, July 5, 1942.

603 “We heard yesterday that we have lost Tobruk”: IWM, G. W. King 85/49/1, June 22, 1942.

604 “Where can soldiers go”: Lash, Roosevelt and Churchill, 1939–1941, p. 209, June 25, 1942.

605 “Russian successes continue to provide”: BNA, INF1/292, January 26 through February 1, 1942.

606 “We received nothing in return”: Brooke, p. 223, January 27, 1942.

607 “There is an extraordinary and misguided”: Kennedy diary, LHA, March 23, 1942.

608 “Little as I formerly liked him”: IWM, Cons Shelf P, January 2, 1942.

609 “That danger will never come through admiration”: McLaine, p. 210.

610 “Reactionary attitudes are spreading”: IWM, Belsey 92/12/1, August 8, 1942.

611 “Why is not Mr. Churchill”: Garfield, Private Battle, p. 274.

612 “When the Anglo-Soviet Alliance was signed”: IWM, Papers of Mrs. E. Elkus.

613 ENGLISH PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO HELP THEIR RUSSIAN COMRADES: Pravda, August 5, 1942.

614 “Every week of successful defence”: BNA, INF1/284.

615 “the trouble … is that no one really has any idea”: Macmillan, p. 46, March 20, 1943.

616 “I suppose that, with the exception of some thirty or forty”: Lascelles, p. 41, July 24, 1942.

617 “The fact that, during one of the most critical periods”: Los Angeles Times, June 28, 1942.

618 “Winston is I think far too inclined”: Amery, p. 818, July 6, 1942.

619 “His speech sounds very good to us”: Millburn, p. 144, July 1, 1942.

620 “He is a giant among pygmies”: Headlam, p. 322.

621 “It is to be hoped that the PM takes some notice”: Millburn, p. 145, July 2, 1942.

622 “The simple question—though the answer may be complex”: Times (London), July 1, 1942.

623 “a most objectionable young pup”: Brooke, p. 276, July 3, 1942.

624 “discreditable” and “deplorable”: Reynolds, In Command, p. 302.

625 “The cheek of the young brute”: Brooke, p. 276, July 3, 1942.

626 “May I suggest with all respect that you must convince”: BNA, AIR8/1074, Dill, JSM 300, Aide Memoire on Future Operations, July 16, 1942.

627 “Churchill, however, believes the other way”: Wallace diary, May 25, 1943, quoted in J. M. Blum, ed., The Price of Vision (Houghton Mifflin, 1973).

628 “Well, how are we going to win this war?”: Kennedy diary, LHA, July 18, 1942.

629 “We failed to see that a leader in a democracy”: Pogue, Organizer of Victory, p. 330.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: CAMELS AND THE BEAR

630 “What energy and gallantry of the old gentleman”: Harvey, p. 253, July 30, 1942.

631 “He felt the need for company, especially in Moscow”: Eden, p. 338.

632 “looked exactly as though he was in a Christmas party disguise”: Winfield, p. 69.

633 “Often had I seen the day break on the Nile”: Churchill, Second World War, 3:412.

634 “Old Miles [Lampson, British ambassador to Egypt]”: Harvey, p. 307, October 14, 1943.

635 “There seem to me to be too many people”: IWM, 4/27/1, Papers of Lt. Gen. Sir Charles Gairdner, July 8, 1942.

636 “far too many cases of units surrendering”: Richardson, p. 119.

637 “In the Middle East there was, in August”: Moorehead, p. 412.

638 “I intend to see every important unit”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 467, August 9, 1942.

639 The general received his dismissal ungraciously: Kennedy diary, LHA, August 23, 1942.

640 “Our NKVD resident in London”: Ocherki Istorii Rossiikoi Vneshney Razvedki, August 4, 1942.

641 “Churchill departed for the USSR”: Ibid., August 12, 1942.

642 “We know from a reliable source”: Ibid.

643 “I am downhearted and dispirited”: Moran, p. 68, August 13, 1942.

644 “You know, I was not friendly to you”: Harriman and Abel, p. 161.

645 “May God prosper this undertaking”: Moran, p. 138.

646 “Don’t be afraid”: Golovanov, p. 345.

647 “No one but the Prime Minister”: Richardson, p. 144.

648 “Churchill was decidedly upset”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, pp. 215–16.

649 “He appealed to sentiments in Stalin”: Brooke, p. 300, August 13, 1942.

650 “Stalin told me the British Navy”: Harriman and Abel, p. 161.

651 When Harriman reported back to Roosevelt: Ibid., p. 169.

652 “The deliveries were curtailed”: Trukhanovsky, pp. 283–84.

653 “savages”: Harriman and Abel, p. 352.

654 He commissioned the ambassador’s wife: CAC, Churchill Papers, CHAR1/379/12-20.

CHAPTER TWELVE: THE TURN OF FORTUNE

655 “have changed so frequently that the subject”: Times (London), August 19, 1942.

656 “While I grumble young Russia waits”: Garfield, p. 280.

657 “When looking back at those days”: Brooke, p. 314, August 24, 1942.

658 “was the only one trying to win the war”: Ibid., p. 324, September 24, 1942.

659 “super–chief of staff … Dill agreed”: Amery, p. 830, August 25, 1942.

660 Churchill later described September and October: Moran, p. 85.

661 “It is an awful thing dealing with a man”: Amery, p. 838, September 24, 1942.

662 “a ‘bent’ man, and couldn’t be expected”: Harvey, p. 264, October 9, 1942.

663 “The dominance of Churchill emerges”: Hume Wrong diary, November 11, 1942.

664 “If we are beaten in this battle, it’s the end of Winston”: Moran, p. 91.

665 “the unnecessary battle”: Porch, p. 290.

666 “Winston was like a cat on hot bricks”: Lascelles, pp. 66–67, October 23, 1942.

667 “I am terribly anxious lest even with our superior weight”: Amery, p. 840, October 26, 1942.

668 “How minute and fragile”: Craig, p. 79.

669 “There is more jam to come”: Nicolson, p. 260, November 6, 1942.

670 “If Torch succeeds we are beginning to stop losing this war”: Brooke, p. 338, November 4, 1942.

671 “A sense of exaltation pervaded Mr. Churchill’s speech”: Times (London), November 11, 1942.

672 “The self-respect of the British Army”: Dalton, p. 519.

673 “it was nice Monty had at last mentioned”: Kennedy diary, LHA, August 1, 1942.

674 “We are winning victories!”: Hodgson, p. 331.

675 “the only occasion on which he expressed publicly”: Brooke, p. 340, November 9, 1942.

676 “Is it really to be supposed that the Russians”: Harvey, p. 268, November 10, 1942.

677 “I never meant the Anglo-American Army”: Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 260.

678 “The Russian army having played the allotted role”: Harvey, p. 270, November 14, 1942.

679 “La France ne marchera pas”: Colville, p. 311, December 13, 1940.

680 “Although the French hate the Germans”: Kennedy diary, LHA, November 18, 1942.

681 “In war,” he said, “it is not always possible”: Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 277.

682 “I have always deemed it tragic that the British”: Harriman and Abel, p. 173.

683 “It shows how wrong you get if once you compromise with evil”: Harvey, p. 279, December 26, 1942.

684 The historian David Reynolds believes that the British: Reynolds, In Command, p. 330.

685 “One comes away, as always after conversations with De Gaulle”: Macmillan, p. 101, June 1, 1943.

686 “I do not want any of your own long-term projects”: Brooke, p. 376, January 31, 1943.

687 “not much good”: Ibid., p. 364, January 20, 1943.

688 “Conversations with the British grow wearisome”: Eisenhower, 1:98.

689 “getting on with Americans is frightfully easy”: Dalton, p. 722.

670 “still something of an enigma”: Pogue, Marshall: Organizer of Victory, p. 5.

691 “a general atmosphere of extraordinary goodwill”: Macmillan, p. 8, January 26, 1943.

692 “At present they are working on what is called ‘off the record’”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 473, January 15, 1943.

693 “I think CIGS’s extremely definite views”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/19.

694 “Then you will have to educate them”: Pogue, Marshall: Organizer of Victory, p. 7.

695 “with consummate skill”: Macmillan, p. 9, January 26, 1943.

696 “The PM stood in the hall watching the Frenchman”: Moran, pp. 97–98, January 22, 1943.

697 “Being naturally extremely gullible”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/19.

698 “We feel that the Americans have great drive”: Kennedy diary, LHA, January 14, 1943.

699 “Many American officers found their British opposite numbers”: Ambrose, p. 146.

700 “a pointer pup … If someone with a red mustache”: Orlando Ward Papers, USAMHI Carlisle, diary, January 1943.

701 “they viewed the Mediterranean as a kind of dark hole”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/19.

702 “You know what a mess they would make of it!”: Brooke, p. 362.

703 “My object is to serve my country”: Roosevelt Papers, Hyde Park, PPF 8832.

704 “The better I get to know that man”: LHA, Alanbrooke Papers, 14/39/B, February 9, 1944.

705 “Mr. Churchill … takes his place at the President’s side”: Times (London), January 27, 1943.

706 “He was offended that Roosevelt”: Harriman and Abel, p. 188.

707 “we had made a public statement”: BNA, CAB65/24, November 27, 1941.

708 “He always enjoyed other people’s discomfort”: Harriman and Abel, p. 191.

709 “Whatever we decided to undertake in 1943”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/19.

710 “Hundreds of thousands of Soviet people”: Zhukov, 2:314.

711 “A tumbler was brought”: Brooke, p. 370, January 26, 1943.

712 “I told him that the security arrangements were very poor”: Ibid., p. 374, January 30, 1943.

713 “if they marched with us, we would not concern ourselves with past differences”: Churchill, The Second World War, 4:647–48.

714 “It would be a pity to have to go out in the middle”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/19.

715 “they are now warrior nations, walking in the fear”: Hansard, February 11, 1943.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: OUT OF THE DESERT

716 “In absolute terms the British reduced their casualties”: French, p. 284.

717 “Americans require experience”: Quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 360.

718 “Good news today, sir!”: Bonham Carter, p. 260, March 10, 1943.

719 How Green Is My Ally: Dalton, p. 557.

720 “The enemy make a great mistake”: Reynolds, In Command.

721 Some 50 percent answered: Gallup poll, June 1, 1943.

722 “They all look exactly alike to me”: Macmillan, p. 256, October 14, 1943.

723 “I am told that our efforts”: Headlam, p. 410, June 26, 1944.

724 “It is rather strange”: Brooke, p. 464, October 28, 1943.

725 “He says he would not rule this out”: Dalton, p. 551, February 8, 1943.

726 “The less said about that the better”: Nicolson, p. 291, April 20, 1943.

727 “Sawyers brings the breakfast”: CAC, Jacob diary, JACB1/19.

728 “There is nothing in the world he hates”: Quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 356, letter of March 17, 1943.

729 “He is so funny in the car”: Layton letter, April 7, 1943, quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 375.

730 “We had good news”: Ibid., pp. 374–75.

731 “sharing his secret thoughts with no one”: Moran, p. 198, August 4, 1944.

732 “he is always so reassuring”: Ibid., p. 209, August 20, 1944.

733 “I had never seen him dictate before”: Kennedy diary, LHA, April 6, 1943.

734 “Oh, I shall like that one”: Quoted in Birkenhead, p. 537.

735 “Have you noticed that the President is a tired man?”: Moran, p. 116, May 25, 1943.

736 “unless almost the entire bulk of the German Army”: BNA, CAB120/83.

737 “It was quite evident that Marshall was quite incapable”: Brooke, p. 406, May 18, 1943.

738 “the most exhausting entertainments imaginable”: Ibid., pp. 409–11, May 24 and 25, 1943.

739 “I had always wondered why aircraft”: Churchill, Second World War, 4:727.

740 “very human & lovable side”: Kennedy diary, LHA, December 8, 1943.

741 “I was speaking,” he told guests at dinner that night, “from where the cries of Christian virgins rent the air”: Brooke, p. 416, June 1, 1943.

742 “Experience has taught me that it is not worthwhile arguing”: BNA, CAB120/ 683, July 25, 1943.

743 “I am the last to plead Stalin’s case”: CAC, CHUR4/301/187, fs272-4, p. 276.

744 “In my view there is an undercurrent of uncertainty”: Library of Congress MS Div., H. R. Luce Papers, Box 1, folder 7.

745 “When Mr. Churchill received the freedom of London”: IWM, 85/49/1, King Papers.

746 “To some of the Government it is incredible”: Harvey, p. 304, February 10, 1943.

747 “All these instructions”: Macmillan, p. 167, July 29, 1943.

748 “On this, I’m thankful to say”: Harvey, p. 342, July 24, 1943.

749 “Agreement after agreement may be secured on paper”: Brooke, p. 398, May 4, 1943.

750 “I firmly believe”: USAMHI, Carlisle, OCMH, Forrest Pogue notes of 1947 interview with Morgan for The Supreme Command

751 “The guests take hardly any notice of him”: Moran, p. 130, August 18, 1943.

752 “stir the imagination and win the support”: Pogue, Marshall: Organizer of Victory, p. 241.

753 “As usual, he was full of guile”: Ibid., p. 244.

754 Yet there is no period of the war at which American dismay: Harvey, p. 357, October 24, 1943.

755 “The full implications of this have not yet been assessed”: BNA, WO205/33.

756 “If we once set foot on the Italian mainland”: Kennedy diary, LHA, August 13, 1943.

757 “The Quebec conference has left me absolutely cooked”: Brooke, p. 450, August 30, 1943.

758 He subsequently acknowledged that: Ibid., p. 466, November 1, 1943.

759 “It was like fighting tanks”: Quoted in Atkinson, Day of Battle, p. 207.

760 “He did not believe Germany would try to control”: BNA, CAB120/83.

761 “Must be a relief to the Boss for Churchill is a trying guest”: Hassett, pp. 169, 315.

762 “loves W as a man for the war”: Harvey, p. 238 (March 11, 1943) and p. 239 (March 29, 1943).

763 The chief of staff of the army indulged a brief fantasy: See Pogue, Marshall: Organizer of Victory, p. 318.

764 “mercurial inconstancy”: Ibid., p. 320.

765 “But we cannot dictate and I doubt if we could have done more”: Kennedy diary, LHA, September 3, 1943.

766 “In the end I suppose that we shall probably go into France”: Ibid., September 26, 1943.

767 Beaverbrook had tabled a new motion: Hansard, September 23, 1943. 319

768 “I need him, I need him”: Taylor, p. 500.

769 “He says we must not make things too hard for the PM”: Dalton, p. 660, October 29, 1943.

770 “He says a Second Front is in existence”: IWM, G. W. King, 85/49/1, August 22, 1943.

771 “will save a piece of rope later on”: IWM, 92/12/1, Belsey letters, September 12 and 23, 1943.

772 “No loss … I never did like having that Sikorski person on our side, did you?”: Ibid., letters of May 1 and September 23, 1943.

773 “It would be wrong to belittle the importance of allied military”: Pravda, August 6, 1943.

774 “Even such help was serviceable to us”: Chuev, p. 39.

775 “I think I may claim to know the mind of our workers”: BNA, INF1/220.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: SUNK IN THE AEGEAN

776 “his jumbonic majesty”: Macmillan, p. 425, April 19, 1944.

777 “Good. This is a time to play high”: Churchill, Second World War, 5:182.

778 He believed, probably rightly, that their functions: Brooke, p. 185, September 25, 1941.

779 “was clearly affected by the delay”: Wilson dispatches, 1946, quoted in Holland, p. 33.

780 “It is pretty clear in my mind”: Brooke, p. 458, October 6, 1943.

781 “He is excited about Kos”: Cadogan, p. 565, October 7, 1943.

782 “I have never wished to send an army into the Balkans”: Kimball, 2:498.

783 “worth at least up to a first-class division”: BNA, FO954/32.

784 “I am slowly becoming convinced that in his old age”: Brooke, p. 459, October 8, 1943.

785 “I propose … to tell Gen. Wilson that he is free”: BNA, FO954/32.

786 “It does seem amazing that the PM”: Kennedy diary, LHA, October 13, 1943.

787 “We are being pressed”: Tedder, With Prejudice, p. 484.

788 “the price we were paying [for Leros was] too great”: Ibid., October 28, 1943.

789 “a very nasty problem, Middle East [Command]”: Brooke, p. 464, October 28, 1943.

790 “The enemy had boldly discounted”: Roskill, War at Sea, vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 202.

791 “Lack of RAF support absolutely pitiful”: IWM, LRDG 2/3.

792 “As the battle progressed, it was evident that the enemy”: Holland, p. 135.

793 “We were amazed to see groups of British soldiers”: Rogers, p. 203.

794 “The Germans moved quickly from one position to another”: Holland, p. 148.

795 At midnight on November 14: Bennett, p. 398, appendix 13.

796 “I much regret not to see you tonight”: Quoted in Tedder, p. 485.

797 “One would have thought that some of the bitter lessons”: Ibid., p. 486.

798 “I am still strongly of the opinion that Leros”: Cunningham, p. 582.

799 “Bad news of Leros”: Cadogan, p. 576, November 16, 1943.

800 “The fall of Leros should be a reminder”: Times (London), November 24, 1943.

801 “CIGS feels that the war may have been lengthened”: Kennedy diary, LHA, November 7, 1943.

802 Likewise, the British official historian seems mistaken: Molony, 5:541.

803 “Am still grieving over Leros etc”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 485, November 21, 1943.

804 “the most acute difference I ever had with General Eisenhower”: Churchill, Second World War, 5:199.

805 “and if they were disregarded it was because other reasons”: Ibid., 5:198–99.

806 “All the British were against me”: Pogue, Marshall: Organizer of Victory, p. 307.

807 “I cannot pretend to have an adequate defence of what occurred”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 487, November 26, 1943.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: TEHRAN

808 “His ear is so sensitively tuned”: Foot, p. 326.

809 “Mr. Churchill did not like to give his time to anything”: Eden, p. 441.

810 “The red and gold dressing gown”: Brooke, p. 223, January 27, 1942.

811 “and that it was really too much to go into detailed questions at the moment”: Dalton, p. 676, November 30, 1943.

812 “remind the Turkey that Christmas was coming”: Brooke, p. 467, November 3, 1943.

813 “Why break off the handle of the jug”: Ibid., p. 468, November 8, 1943.

814 “Trying to maintain good relations”: Ibid., p. 516, January 24, 1944.

815 Adam Tooze’s important research: Tooze, p. 625 and passim.

816 “In an expansive moment Winston told us”: Dalton, p. 947, October 18, 1943.

817 “We were greeted by her owner”: Macmillan, p. 293, November 15, 1943.

818 “From the street below came a great hubbub of voices”: Moran, pp. 156–57, November 18, 1943.

819 “We have now crystallised our ideas”: Kennedy diary, LHA, November 7, 1943.

820 “The PM’s stock is not high”: Pownall, 2:119.

821 “The pattern of battle”: Fred Majdalany, Cassino: Portrait of a Battle (Cassell, 1999), p. 33.

822 “Winston is getting”: Macmillan, p. 304, November 25, 1943.

823 This caused Eden to observe: Sherwood, White House Papers, 2:717.

824 “We are inclined to forget the President’s difficulties”: John Kennedy, Business of War, p. 317, at lunch on November 19, 1943.

825 “W. had to play the role of courtier”: Eden, pp. 424, 426.

826 “PM and President ought”: Cadogan, p. 579, November 28, 1943.

827 “bloody Italian war”: Moran, p. 159.

828 “We are preparing for a battle at Tehran”: Ibid., p. 160.

829 “They are far more sceptical of him than they are of Stalin”: Ibid.

830 “Poor Harry, the public is done with him”: Hassett, p. 161, March 9, 1943.

831 “the reported recalcitrance of Churchill”: Selden Menefee, Washington Post, January 13, 1944.

832 “quite enthralling”: Brooke, p. 483, November 28, 1943.

833 “Of course the man was ruthless”: Eden, p. 514.

834 “Do you think they know that we are listening?”: Beria, p. 124.

835 “He was turning his hose on Churchill”: Marshall interview, November 15, 1956, cited in Pogue, Organizer of Victory, p. 313.

836 Cadogan recorded the distress: Cadogan, p. 580, November 29, 1943.

837 Soviet eavesdroppers reported to Stalin: Beria, p. 126.

838 “That the President should deal with Churchill”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 210.

839 “Roosevelt has given a firm commitment”: Zhukov, 3:94.

840 Cunningham and Portal declared the conference: Moran, p. 168.

841 “Every morning when I wake”: Coote Papers, January 27, 1944, quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 646.

842 “the Americans have been taking their islands”: December 9, 1943.

843 “sitting on his suitcase in a very cold morning wind”: Bryant, Triumph of the West, p. 114.

844 “If I die,” he told his daughter Sarah: Quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 606.

845 “We all hope and pray”: IWM, diary of W. A. Charlotte, 93/19/1.

846 “Papa much better today”: quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 613.

847 Macmillan strongly urged: Macmillan, p. 322, December 8, 1943.

848 “Our object is the liberation of Europe”: Churchill to Chiefs of Staff, January 2, 1944.

849 “while Winston, very pink”: Nicolson, pp. 344–45, January 18, 1944.

850 “That all right?”: Ibid., p. 321, September 9, 1943.

851 “We did become like animals in the end”: Quoted in d’Este, Fatal Decision, p. 316.

852 as American corps commander Maj. Gen. John Lucas: See Atkinson, Day of Battle, p. 354.

853 “The more one sees of this peninsula”: Macmillan, p. 429, April 23, 1944.

854 “Sitting in a chair in his study”: Colville, p. 474, February 18, 1944.

855 “Their chirpings will presently be stilled”: Hansard, February 27, 1944.

856 “In the H of C smoking room”: Headlam, p. 403, April 25, 1944.

857 “On no account”: Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 715, March 21, 1944.

858 “Soviet attitude on this business”: Eden, p. 439, March 4, 1944.

859 “I confess to growing apprehension that Russia”: Ibid.

860 “I would much rather get what we want”: Macmillan, p. 124 (June 15, 1943) and p. 126 (June 18, 1943).

861 “Much as I love Winston”: Ibid., p. 335 (December 23, 1943) and p. 338 (December 25, 1943).

862 “We both got quite heated at one time”: Eden, August 20, 1943.

863 “He feels about De Gaulle”: Macmillan, p. 335, December 23, 1943.

864 “I am much distressed to see”: Ibid., p. 389, March 4, 1944.

865 “He may be mentally the man he was”: Eden, p. 442, May 1, 1944.

866 “rather like a small boy”: Kennedy diary, LHA, September 24, 1942.

867 “The raids are very fine”: CAC, Churchill Papers, CHAR1/381/11-18.

868 “Late at night”: Colville, p. 476, March 4, 1944.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: SETTING EUROPE ABLAZE

869 “Subjugated peoples must be caused”: Pownall, 2:21.

870 “simultaneous attacks by armoured forces”: Gilbert, War Papers, 3:1313.

871 “I hope they will, even at the worst, maintain a gigantic guerrilla”: Gilbert, Finest Hour, p. 473.

872 On May 27, 1941, Churchill sent: BNA, CAB120/827.

873 “Far from welcoming”: Gildea, p. 165.

874 “Nothing must be done”: Cabinet Defence Committee, August 2, 1943.

875 “Here, we want every citizen to fight”: Colville, pp. 192–93, July 12, 1940.

876 Berlin wanted only economic plunder: See, for instance, Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, passim.

877 “The cycle is simple”: Quoted in Hastings, Das Reich, pp. 148–49.

878 “Other evidence exists that maquis violence was widely condemned”: Julian Jackson, France, p. 534 and passim.

879 “I think the dropping of men”: AHB/1D3/1588, quoted in M. R. D. Foot, SOE in France (HMSO, 1966), p. 153.

880 “Nobody who did not experience it can possibly imagine”: Sweet-Escott, p. 73.

881 “I was disturbed … by the lack of security”: Chandos, p. 239.

882 “Many French people”: Hastings, Das Reich, passim, interviews by the author.

883 A whimsical November 1941 proposal: Astley and Wilkinson, p. 117.

884 “He believed that all his geese”: Hastings, Das Reich, p. 35.

885 “There is no doubt that, in this critical phase”: Mackenzie, p. 415.

886 German records, by contrast, reveal only thirty-five killed: Hastings, Das Reich, p. 278.

887 “In the history of France”: Julian Jackson, France, p. 387.

888 “of seething factions, who would turn to whoever would give them most support”: BNA, CAB99/28.

889 “How pleased I shall be to return to civilisation again”: Quoted in Bailey, Wildest Province, p. 134.

890 “No one is ever free from the struggle for existence”: Quoted in Mackenzie, p. 486, May 26, 1944.

891 As so often in occupied Europe, political and military objectives: Mazower, Inside Hitler’s Greece, passim.

892 “I am very impressed, and oppressed and depressed”: IWM, audio archive, quoted in Bailey, ed., Forgotten Voices, p. 250.

893 “pundits overestimated what guerrillas could achieve”: Annan, p. 75.

894 “Armed resistance in the open countryside”: Hammond, p. 180.

895 “But by that time, certainly in the case of EAM and ELAS”: Bailey, ed., Forgotten Voices, p. 251.

896 “Self-organised bands … are already getting out of hand”: Quoted in Molony, vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 210.

897 “A Resistance movement may suddenly transfer itself”: Ibid.

898 Michael Howard, a historian of British wartime strategic deception: See Howard, 5:135–55.

899 “Deakin was outstandingly intelligent”: Djilas, p. 253.

900 “we of course felt honoured”: Ibid., p. 368.

901 “The British had no choice”: Ibid., p. 348.

902 “It is a little doubtful whether the Missions”: Mackenzie, p. 434.

903 “the difficulty is that with … the universal listening”: Macmillan, p. 445, May 1 through 23, 1944.

904 “I have come to the conclusion”: BNA, PREM4/381C/341 and 4/369/438, December 19, 1944.

905 “Paradoxically, British influence on Resistance in Europe”: CAC, Deakin Papers, A Note on Resistance MS, DEAK16, p. 25.

906 “He wished and believed it possible to bring about a situation”: War Cabinet paper, quoted in Mackenzie, p. 612.

907 “Only in the USSR did German counter-terror fail”: Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, p. 485.

908 “It was only just worth it”: To the author, interview, March 4, 1980.

909 “The game was not worth pursuing”: Mackenzie, p. 483.

910 Gubbins was even rash enough: Astley and Wilkinson, p. 202.

911 “Moreover, in our desire to attack the Germans”: Macmillan, p. 545, October 9, 1944.

912 “gave a damning account”: Colville, p. 581, April 3, 1945.

913 “The occupied nations believed with passion”: CAC, Deakin Papers, DEAK16, p. 24.

914 “If war, carried out”: Thomas Arnold, Lectures on Modern History (Longman, 1874), pp. 160–61.

915 David Reynolds notes the remarkable fact that: Reynolds, In Command, p. 175.

916 “‘Setting Europe ablaze’ had proved a damp squib”: Ibid., p. 176.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: OVERLORD

917 “It’s not the hard work, it’s the hard worry”: Dalton, p. 714, April 29, 1944.

918 “Spirits remain at a low level”: BNA, INF1/293.

919 “Considerable disquiet”: Nicholas, ed., p. 345.

920 “We discussed … how best”: Brooke, p. 533, March 21, 1944.

921 “Until the invasion”: USAMHI, Carlisle, OCMH Forrest Pogue notes of 1947 interview with Morgan for The Supreme Command.

922 “Difficulties again with our American”: Brooke, p. 537, April 5, 1944.

923 “This battle has been forced upon us”: Cadogan, p. 621, April 19, 1944.

924 “preferred to roll up Europe from the south-east”: BNA, CAB99/28.

925 “Struck by how very tired and worn out”: Colville, p. 484, April 12, 1944.

926 “In my view, it is the Germans”: Kimball, 3:87, April 12, 1944.

927 So skilful were German disengagements: See, for instance, Atkinson, The Day of Battle, passim.

928 “How magnificently your troops have fought”: Kimball, 3:163, June 4, 1944.

929 “Lots of Americans and British”: Gunther, p. 59.

930 “a place that has long been vacant”: Mr. T. Bowman, Times (London), May 30, 1942.

931 “A man who has to play”: Churchill, Second World War, 5:551.

932 “Winston … has taken his train”: Brooke, p. 553, June 4, 1944.

933 “Mr. Churchill seemed to be always in the bath”: Eden, p. 452, June 4, 1944.

934 “Cheap at the price”: Ibid., p. 454.

935 “Yes, there’ll be a landing”: Djilas, Wartime, p. 39.

936 “Don’t look so glum”: Pogue, Marshall: Organizer of Victory, p. 394.

937 “We are surrounded by fat cattle”: Brooke, p. 557, June 12, 1944.

938 “The PM asked if I were frightened”: Holmes diary, quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 813.

939 “[Churchill] was at his best, and said the matter”: Cunningham diary, quoted in ibid.

940 “I do hope it will soon”: IWM, Papers of Mrs. E. Elkus, letter of September 2, 1944.

941 “He kept on repeating”: Brooke, p. 563, June 27, 1944.

942 “Sitting in the drawing-room”: Macmillan, p. 474, June 25, 1944.

943 “We have now reached the stage”: Brooke, p. 581, August 15, 1944.

944 “Whatever the PM’s shortcomings”: Colville, p. 489, May 13, 1944.

945 “By July, the American soldier”: USAMHI, Carlisle, OCMH Forrest Pogue notes of January 21, 1947, interview with Alan Moorehead for The Supreme Command.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: BARGAINING WITH AN EMPTY WALLET

946 Roosevelt sent him a headmasterly rebuke: Kimball, 3:201, June 22, 1944.

947 “I cannot think of any moment”: Ibid., 3:202, June 23, 1944.

948 “Whether we should ruin all hopes”: Ibid., p. 219, June 28, 1944.

949 “My interests and hopes”: Ibid., pp. 222–23, June 24, 1944.

950 “What can I do, Mr. President”: Ibid., p. 229, July 1, 1944.

951 “The Arnold-King-Marshall combination is one of the stupidest”: PM’s personal minute to CoS, D.218/4, quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 843, July 6, 1944.

952 “Up till Overlord”: Colville, p. 574, March 20, 1945.

953 “Up to July 1944 England”: Moran, July 5, 1954.

954 “After dinner a really ghastly defence committee”: Eden, p. 461, July 6, 1944.

955 “A frightful meeting with Winston”: Brooke, p. 566, July 6, 1944.

956 “I called this ‘a deplorable evening’”: Eden, p. 462, July 6, 1944.

957 “He is very tight”: Dalton, p. 473, April 29, 1944.

958 “Lunched alone with W”: Eden, p. 463, July 17, 1944.

959 On 4 August, when Eden called: Ibid., p. 467, August 4, 1944.

960 “he was far more law-abiding”: Brooke, p. 673, March 23, 1945.

961 “Of course it was true that the Germans”: BNA, CAB79/77.

962 “We know that such ‘right-minded people’”: Howard, Liberation or Catastrophe, p. 75.

963 “There is no doubt”: BNA, FO371/42809.

964 An intelligence officer: See Richard Breitman, Official Secrets (Penguin, 1999), p. 216.

965 “This seems to be the best ever”: Kimball, 3:261, July 29, 1944.

966 “After all, he is a frustrated man”: CAC, Randolph Churchill to Winston Churchill, Churchill Papers, CHAR1/381/42-44, August 11, 1944.

967 “I feel that de Gaulle’s France will be a France more hostile”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 501, August 17, 1943.

968 “They did not know that if I had had my way”: Churchill, Second World War, 5:84.

969 “The English are clever”: Djilas, p. 401.

970 “all spread along twenty miles of coast”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 500, August 17, 1944.

971 “I feel sure this is a secondary”: IWM, diary of W. A. Charlotte, 93/19/1.

972 “fooling about in Italy”: Harvey, p. 355, August 26, 1944.

973 David Reynolds notes: Reynolds, In Command, p. 395.

974 “The PM can be counted on to score”: Colville, p. 595, May 1, 1945.

975 “Our Cabinet meetings certainly get more”: Amery, p. 994 (August 9, 1944) and p. 1020 (November 23, 1944).

976 “Churchill is preoccupied by his own”: Berlin, pp. 13, 15.

977 “I do not consider it advantageous”: Kimball, 3:296.

978 “old, unwell and depressed”: Brooke, p. 589, September 8, 1944.

979 “gargantuan in scale”: Colville, p. 509, September 6, 1944.

980 The prime minister said that he would not regret: Ibid.

981 “All he could now do was to finish the war”: Colville, p. 510, September 7, 1944.

982 Earlier that year, Churchill: Brooke, p. 525, February 25, 1944.

983 “high political consequences, but also has serious military potentialities”: Churchill to Chiefs of Staff, September 9, 1944.

984 Brendan Bracken dismissed him: Colville, p. 555, January 23, 1945.

985 Yet there is no reason to suppose: BNA, FO371/38550/AN4451.

986 “my illusions about the French”: Colville, p. 517, September 20, 1944.

987 “The affairs go well”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 306, October 13, 1944.

988 “We fucked this England!”: Chuev, p. 75.

989 “Our lot from London are, as Your Majesty knows”: BNA, CAB120/165.

990 “The Poles’ game is up”: Moran, p. 249, October 17, 1943.

991 “Far quicker than the British”: CAC, Deakin Papers, DEAL16, p. 14.

992 “You must remember … that our armies”: BNA, PREM4/337/23, December 3, 1944.

993 “How much depends on this man”: Headlam, p. 435, December 13, 1944.

994 “He oughtn’t to do it”: Nicolson, p. 406, October 9, 1944.

995 “He is not of course”: Ibid., p. 352, February 22, 1944.

996 “The upper classes feel that all this sacrifice”: Ibid., p. 356, March 27, 1944.

997 “Winston Churchill is a bastard”: Ibid., p. 347, February 7, 1944.

998 “Collins, I should like a whisky and soda”: Ibid., pp. 408–9, October 27, 1944.

999 “completely frozen”: Brooke, p. 625, November 13, 1944.

1000 “[He] is fighting for the future of the world”: Spectator, November 24, 1944.

CHAPTER NINETEEN: ATHENS: “WOUNDED IN THE HOUSE OF OUR FRIENDS”

1001 “It is good that there is one country”: Eden, October 26, 1944.

1002 “Despite Churchill’s belief”: Mazower, Inside Hitler’s Greece, p. 352.

1003 “My darling Winston”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 507, December 4, 1944.

1004 “We expect the Italians to work out their own problems”: Foreign Relations of the United States, Conferences at Washington, 1942, 3:1162.

1005 “‘Liberal’ papers, pleading for a greater representation”: USNA, RG59, Box 11, State Department Surveys of Public Opinion on International Affairs, 1943–1975.

1006 “Substantially universal approval has greeted the proposition”: USNA, RG59, Box 11, Survey No. 17, December 23, 1944.

1007 “seeking to bury”: Ibid.

1008 A Princeton poll: USNA, RG59, Box 11, Princeton Poll, December 23, 1944.

1009 “Winston Churchill, the present”: Tribune, December 1944.

1010 “This is good”: Churchill to Eden, November 23, 1944.

1011 “at its best was one of distressed”: Nicolson, p. 416, December 8, 1944.

1012 “He rambled on”: Macmillan, p. 600, December 8, 1944.

1013 “Our version of the facts is largely disbelieved”: BNA, CAB121/559.

1014 “We do not wish to start the Third World War”: Macmillan, p. 612, December 19, 1944.

1015 “These ELAS guerillas don’t care”: IWM, 06/110/1, letter of January 7, 1945.

1016 “but I think the bulk of Greek youth wants socialism”: IWM, 86/61/1, letters of December 5 and 12, 1944, and February 5, 1945.

1017 “Poor Winston!”: Macmillan, December 21, 1944, p. 613.

1018 “I won’t instal a Dictator”: Cadogan, p. 689, December 21, 1944.

1019 “Indignation with Britain has given way”: Nicholas, p. 481, December 24, 1944.

1020 “Glad I am not going on an expedition”: CAC, Martin Papers, MART/2, December 24, 1944.

1021 “had the air of men to whom a brilliant idea”: Osbert Lancaster, Spectator, November 12, 1965.

1022 “in a most mellow, not to say chastened mood”: Macmillan, p. 616, December 25, 1944.

1023 “struck me as a very remarkable man”: Hansard, January 18, 1945.

1024 “We are now in the curious”: Colville, p. 540, December 26, 1944.

1025 “the pink and ochre panorama of Athens”: Hansard, January 18, 1945.

1026 “One can see the smoke of battle”: Colville, p. 540, December 26, 1944.

1027 “The change in his appearance”: Lancaster, Spectator, November 12, 1965.

1028 “three shabby desperados”: Colville, p. 541, December 26, 1944.

1029 “after some consideration I shook”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 509, December 26–27, 1944.

1030 “I thought it all very disingenuous”: Macmillan, p. 619, December 26, 1944.

1031 “I cannot tell you the feeling of security one enjoys”: Lancaster, Spectator, November 12, 1965.

1032 “Sit down, butcher!”: Macmillan, p. 619, December 27, 1944.

1033 “Of course this affair is a sort of ‘super Sidney Street’”: Ibid.

1034 “This Wednesday has been an exciting”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 509, December 28, 1944.

1035 “a short crack followed by”: Lancaster, Spectator, November 12, 1965.

1036 “Anglo-American differences and British military action”: USNA, RG59, Box 11, State Department Surveys of Public Opinion on International Affairs, 1943–1975.

1037 “an orgy of recrimination”: USNA, RG59, Box 11, p. 500, January 21, 1945.

1038 “The general reaction is that although the British attack”: Nicholas, p. 494, January 7, 1945.

1039 Office of War Information and State Department surveys: USNA, RG59, Box 11, Survey No. 22.

1040 “Despite recent press comment sympathetic to the British”: USNA, RG59, Box 11, State Department Surveys of Public Opinion on International Affairs, 1943–1975, No. 19.

1041 “Terrible Cabinet, first on Greece”: Eden, p. 506, January 12, 1945.

1042 “You know I cannot give you”: Quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 1138.

1043 “France cannot masquerade as a Great Power”: Churchill to Eden, January 19, 1945.

1044 “You wouldn’t like my job”: Holmes diary, January 14, 1945, quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 1148.

1045 “In all his moods”: Holmes letter to Gilbert, February 12, 1985, quoted in ibid.

1046 “It is a mistake to try to write out”: Churchill to Eden, January 4, 1945.

1047 “Smuts and I are like two old love-birds”: Colville, p. 553, January 17, 1945.

1048 “Why are we making a fuss”: BNA, FO954/26/382.

1049 “Make no mistake, all the Balkans”: Colville, p. 555, January 23, 1945.

1050 “Let us think no more of Hitlee”: Ibid., p. 554, January 20, 1945.

CHAPTER TWENTY: YALTA

1051 “As the purely military problems”: Harvey, p. 365, November 11, 1944.

1052 “I have great hopes of this conference”: Hansard, January 18, 1945.

1053 “Impossible even to get near basics”: Eden, p. 511, February 2, 1945.

1054 “What a hole I’ve brought you to!”: Holmes diary, February 3, 1945, quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 1172.

1055 “A terrible party, I thought”: Eden, p. 512, February 4, 1945.

1056 “Big Three”: New York Times, February 4, 1945.

1057 “During the past year, Britain”: USNA, RG59, Box 1, Opinion Studies, Special Poll, March 22, 1945.

1058 “We had the world at our feet”: Quoted in Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 1174.

1059 “Our guards compared Churchill to a poodle”: Beria, p. 137.

1060 “What a crook that man must be”: Chuev, p. 76.

1061 Soviet eavesdroppers laughed heartily: Beria, p. 138.

1062 “It has gone to my heart”: CAC Martin Papers, MART2.

1063 “I do not suppose that at any moment in history”: Sarah Churchill, Keep on Dancing, pp. 75–76.

1064 “I am free to confess to you”: Soames, ed., Speaking, p. 512, February 1, 1945.

1065 “We must do what we can”: BNA, CAB120/170.

1066 “followed so swiftly on the heels”: BNA, PREM4/77/1B/359.

1067 “even if we go to the verge of war”: Colville, p. 566, February 28, 1945.

1068 He voiced aloud his fear: Ibid., p. 562, February 23, 1945.

1069 “he had never been more distressed”: Brooke, p. 665, February 22, 1945.

1070 “Churchill wants a bourgeois Poland”: Zhukov, 3:216.

1071 “We see unprecedented unanimity”: Pravda, February 18, 1945.

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE: THE FINAL ACT

1072 “I cannot agree that we are confronted”: Kimball, 3:568.

1073 “calculated to hasten the disintegration”: BNA, PREM3/12/2, April 20, 1945.

1074 “In the full tilt of war”: Browne, p. 248.

1075 Portal had advocated heavy bombing of Rome: BNA, AIR8/436.

1076 “It was a relief to get Winston home”: Brooke, p. 678, March 26, 1945.

1077 “I’m an old man and I work hard”: Leslie, pp. 142–43.

1078 “The PM is now becoming”: Colville, p. 592, April 24, 1945.

1079 “What do you think?”: Zhukov, 3:224.

1080 “His vanity was astonishing”: Colville, April 26, 1945.

1081 “I have been much disturbed at the misunderstanding”: April 29, 1945.

1082 “I fear terrible things have happened”: BNA, FO954/20.

1083 “We have moved a long way”: Moran, p. 277, February 7, 1945.

1084 “I hoped that they would raise their glasses”: Ismay, p. 394.

1085 “I can’t feel thrilled, my main sensation”: Brooke, p. 688, May 7, 1945.

1086 “There is no doubt that the public has never understood”: Ibid., p. 689, May 8, 1945.

1087 “Without him England was lost for a certainty”: Ibid., p. 590, September 10, 1944.

1088 “in which case there was always a possibility”: Colville, p. 128.

1089 “the significance of the link-up of the Red Army”: Pravda, April 29, 1945.

1090 “From the present point of view”: BNA, FO954/26c.

1091 “Winston delighted, he gives me”: Brooke, p. 690, May 13, 1945.

1092 “Russian bear sprawled over Europe”: Ibid., p. 693, May 24, 1945.

1093 “We received reliable information”: Zhukov, 3:322.

1094 “The overall or political object is to impose upon Russia”: BNA, CAB120/691.

1095 “The idea is of course fantastic”: Brooke, p. 693, May 24, 1945.

1096 “again discussed the ‘unthinkable war’”: Ibid., p. 695, May 31, 1945.

1097 “In the attached report”: Ibid.

1098 In London, the Unthinkable file was taken: BNA, FO954/26c.

1099 On July 3, 1940, the American general: Lee, p. 10, July 3, 1940.

1100 “It would be the highest honour”: Eden, p. 522, February 16, 1945.

1101 “There are … many who think that this war”: Stebbing, November 27, 1940, quoted in Garfield, p. 24.

1102 “It is clear that the Churchill government”: Wall Street Journal, December 13, 1944.

1103 “[I am] in the throes of a mental political upheaval”: Mayhew, ed., pp. 234–35.

1104 “Well, Prime Minister, I know one thing”: Quoted in Levin, Standardbearer, p. 246.

1105 “They have saved this country”: Colville, p. 433, August 30, 1941.

1106 “We have been the dreamers”: Foot, p. 505.

1107 “One of the most extraordinary things”: IWM, Papers of Mrs. E. Elkus.

1108 “a jingo election which is terrifying”: Harvey, p. 383, June 10, 1945.

1109 “I won’t have it … I must have”: Moran, p. 319, July 10, 1945.

1110 “Churchill was extraordinarily angry”: Rzheshevsky, pp. 519–24.

1111 “My hate had died with their surrender”: Churchill, Second World War, 6:545.

1112 “I shall be only half a man”: Moran, p. 313, July 8, 1945.

1113 “I respect the old man, but he is difficult”: Zhukov, 3:325.

1114 “He had absorbed all the minor American”: Brooke, p. 709, July 23, 1945.

1115 During an Allied reception: Zhukov, 3:336.

1116 “He is again under Stalin’s spell”: Eden, July 17, 1945.

1117 “Of all the western leaders Churchill”: Beria, p. 135.

1118 “a lot of people talked a lot of nonsense”: Colville, p. 273, October 22, 1940.

1119 “no one in our conference delegation”: Kumanyov, p. 303.

1120 “I still cannot comprehend”: Chuev, p. 85.

1121 “You must not think of me any more”: Wheeler-Bennett, Action, p. 262.

1122 “The rest of my life will be holidays”: Moran, p. 353, July 27, 1945.

1123 he contributed about £35: CAC, Churchill Papers, CHAR1/379/12–20.

1124 “Winston’s mind has a stop in it”: Eden, p. 350, November 9, 1942.

1125 “I do not believe in this brave new world”: Moran, p. 224, September 20, 1943.

1126 “Churchill sees history—and life”: Berlin, pp. 4, 12.

1127 “After it was over I was on my way”: Eden, p. 551, July 27, 1945.

1128 “Why don’t you tell them to go to hell?”: Nicolson, p. 238, August 7, 1942.

1129 “No, I am a privileged domestic”: Kennedy diary, LHA, February 16, 1941.

1130 “He would no more think of consulting a party”: Gardiner, Prophets, p. 234.

1131 “Dull cabinet without PM”: Brooke, p. 388, March 8, 1943.

1132 “His countrymen have come to feel”: Moran, p. 13, December 23, 1941.

1133 “I should have liked my father”: Mary Soames to the author, May 23, 2004.

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