Nebe had been a policeman and eminent criminologist in the Weimar Republic and a member of the Nazi Party since 1929. By the start of the war he was a top SD official and head of KRIPO, the Criminal Investigation Department. In January 1942 he was put in the charge of an Einsatzgruppe ordered to exterminate the Jews of Russia. It is uncertain to what extent he carried out his orders. Nebe was involved with the conspirators against HITLER for a long time and in July 1944 was involved in the bomb plot. He was arrested soon after and executed on 3 March 1945.