List was an engineering officer in the Bavarian Army. In 1939 he commanded the Fourteenth Army and led it into Poland. In 1940 he led the Twelfth Army which led the advance into Belgium by crossing the Meuse between Namur and Dinant. On 19 July 1940 he became Field Marshal and in the spring of 1941 was Commander in Chief of German Forces for Operation Margarita (invasion of Greece). In the USSR he commanded Army Group A (July-October 1942) as it advanced into the Caucasus. His failure to break through the line caused him to be dismissed by HITLER. He was tried for war crimes at Nuremberg and sentenced to life imprisonment but was pardoned and released after five years.