Kimmel had been unexpectedly appointed Commander in Chief of the US Pacific Fleet on 1 February 1941. Although he had received a warning from Washington that war was approaching, the only action he took was to send his carriers on maneuvers. He had not been properly briefed on the seriousness of the situation and expected the Japanese to attack the Philippines first. He did not liaise with General Short, the Army Commander at Pearl Harbor, who controlled land-based aircraft and had radar. By the time the message that Japan was about to declare war arrived from Washington, Pearl Harbor had been under attack for several hours. Kimmel was held responsible and was removed from his command on 17 December 1941. The subsequent investigation censured Kimmel and he applied for retirement and took no further part in the war.