An initiator and perpetrator of many of the Nazi atrocities, Kaltenbrunner was Head of the Austrian SS (Sicherheitsdienst) before the Anschluss. In 1943 he was appointed to replace the assassinated HEYDRICH as Head of the Reich Main Security Office. He was responsible for the Gestapo, the Security Service, the extermination squads and the concentration camps. A favorite of HITLER, he sanctioned the brutal inhumanities of the Nazi regime, murdering POWs, Jews, enemies and rivals indiscriminantly. It was said that although HIMMLER was technically his superior Himmler himself was afraid of the malicious and malevolent Austrian. Refusing to recognize even his own signature at Nuremberg he was the third of ten Nazis hanged on 16 October 1946.