Dulles was the American Chief of OSS (Office of Strategic Services) in Switzerland. He was an experienced diplomat who arrived in Switzerland via Vichy France in November 1942 and soon built up a large network of resisters and informers. He achieved a famous coup at the end of the war when he was able to negotiate the surrender of German troops in Italy. Through various intermediaries, SS General WOLFF approached Dulles with an offer of surrender. However, before it could be signed there were many hitches: Wolff had to rescue his family from protective custody and send them abroad. Then STALIN objected to a separate treaty being made and Dulles had to apply considerable pressure on ROOSEVELT to get the President to agree. The instrument of surrender was finally signed on 29 April 1945 at Caserta. It came into effect on 2 May and is thought to have shortened the war.