Chifley became Australian Prime Minister on CURTIN’s death in the last months of the war. During the war he had been Treasurer and had set about introducing uniform taxation laws which prevented states from levying income tax and he also implemented a scheme of national insurance. He became acting Prime Minister on 30 April 1945 and Prime Minister in July 1945 and vigorously put into effect welfare reform and. the nationalization aims of the Australian Labor Party. In the last months the main problems facing Australia were the British Empire’s collapse and Asian nationalism.