Military history


Administration Coloniale, Ruanda-Urundi. Report administratif. Brussels, 1925.

Africa Direct. Submission to the United Nations Tribunal on Rwanda. Appendix One: “The Making of War.” London, 1996.

Africa News Report, 12 September 1994.

African Rights. Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance. Rev. ed. London, 1995.

———. “Dr. Sosthene Munyemana, the Butcher of Tumba, at Liberty in France.” Witness to Genocide, issue 2, February 1996.

———. “Presumption of Innocence: The Case against Innocent Mazimpaka.” Witness to Genocide, issue 3, May 1996.

Amaza, Major Ondonga Ari. “Rwanda and Uganda: Post-War Prospects for Regional Peace and Security.” Paper presented to CODESRIA Conference on Academic Freedom, Social Research and Conflict Resolution in the Countries of the Great Lakes, 4–7 September 1995, Arusha, Tanzania.

Amin, Samir. Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory of Under-development. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974.

Amselle, Jean-Loup, and Elikia M’bokolo, eds. Au coeur de l’ethnie: Ethnies, tribalisme et état en Afrique. Paris: La Découverte, 1985.

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975.

Bart, F. Montagnes d’Afrique, terres paysannes: Le cas du Rwanda. Bordeaux: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 1993.

Bayoumi, R.A.L., N. Saha, A. S. Salih, A. E. Bekkar, and G. Flatz. “Distribution of the Lactose Phenotype in the Population of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan.” Human Genetics 57 (1981): 279–281.

Bayoumi, R.A.L., S. D. Flatz, W. Kuhnow, and G. Flatz. “Beja and Nilotes: Nomadic Pastoralist Groups in the Sudan with Opposite Distributions of the Adult Lactose Phenotypes.” Amer. J. of Physical Anthropology 58 (1982): 173–178.

Bazaara, Nyangabyaki. “Ugandan Politics and the Crisis of Rwandese Refugees and Immigrants.” Paper presented to the 10th All-African Student Conference, Temple University, Philadelphia, 16–18 May 1997.

Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi Information and Public Relations Office. Ruanda Urundi 60, no. 4, September.

Berkeley, Bill. “Sounds of Violence.” New Republic, 22 August 1994.

Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. Vol. 1: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785–1985. New York: Vintage, 1991.

Bessell, M. J. “Nyabingi.” Uganda Journal 6 (1938–39).

Bézy, F. Rwanda: Bilan socio-économique d’un régime, 1962–1989. Louvain: Inst. d’étude des pays en développement, Université de Louvain-la-Neuve, 1990.

Bizimungu, H. E. Pasteur. President of the Republic of Rwanda, Opening Speech, International Conference on Genocide, Impunity, and Accountability, Kigali, 1–5 November 1995.

Block, Robert. “The Tragedy of Rwanda.” New York Review, 20 October 1994.

Bonner, Raymond. “Clergy in Rwanda Is Accused of Abetting Atrocities.” New York Times, 7 July 1995, sec. A, p. 3.

Botte, Roger. “Rwanda and Burundi, 1889–1930: Chronology of a Slow Assassination, Part 1.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 18, no. 1 (1985): 53–91.

———. “Rwanda and Burundi, 1889–1930—Chronology of a Slow Assassination, Part 2. International Journal of African Historical Studies 18, no. 2 (1985): 289–314.

Brasseur, D., P. Goyens, and H. L. Vis. “Some Aspects of Protein-Energy Malnutrition in the Highlands of Central Africa.” In R. E. Eeckels, O. Ransome-Kuti, and C. C. Kroonenberg, eds., Child Health in the Tropics, pp. 167–178. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1985.

Bright, Martin. “Rwanda: Blurred Roots of Conflict.” The Guardian (London), 9 May 1994, p. E13.

Bucyalimwe, Mararo. “Land Conflicts in Masisi, Eastern Zaire: The Impact and Aftermath of Belgian Colonial Policy (1920–1989).” Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1990.

Cambrezy, L. Le surpeuplement en question: Organisation spatiale et écologie des migrations au Rwanda. Collection Travaux et Documents no. 182. Paris: Ed. Orstom, 1984.

Chairman (President of Uganda). National Resistance Council, Wednesday, 22 August 1990, in Parliament of Uganda, Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), Official Report, 4th sess., 2nd meeting, issue no. 14, 28 June–23 August 1990, Kampala.

Chatterjee, Partha. The Partha Chatterjee Omnibus. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Chrétien, Jean-Pierre. “Hutu et Tutsi au Rwanda et au Burundi.” In Jean-Loup Amselle and Elikia M’bokolo, eds., Au coeur de l’ethnie: Ethnies, tribalisme et état en Afrique. Paris: La Découverte, 1985.

———. “La crise politique Rwandaise.” Genève Afrique 30, no. 2 (1992): 121–141.

———. Burundi: Histoire retrouvée: 25 anś de métier d’historien en Afrique. Paris: Karthala, 1993.

Clay, D. C. “Fighting an Uphill Battle: Demographic Pressure, the Structure of Land Holding, and Land Degradation in Rwanda.” East Lansing: Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, 1993.

Clay, D., et al. “Promoting Food Security in Rwanda through Sustainable Agricultural Productivity: Meeting the Challenges of Population Pressure, Land Degradation and Poverty.” Staff paper 95-08, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, March 1995.

Commission of Inquiry into Government Ranching Schemes. Report to the Government of Uganda. Entebbe, December 1988.

Dash, Leon. “Many Rwandan Refugees Moving North in Uganda to Escape Attacks.” Washington Post, 2 December 1983, final edition.

Davidson, Basil. The Black Man’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State. New York: Times Books, 1992.

Ddungu, Expedit. “The Other Side of Land Issues in Buganda: Pastoral Crisis and the Squatter Movement in Sembabule Sub-District.” Mimeo, Centre for Basic Research, Kampala, no date.

Dedering, Tilman. “ ‘A Certain Rigorous Treatment of all Parts of the Nation’: The Annihilation of the Herero in German South West Africa, 1904.” In Mark Levene and Penny Roberts, eds., The Massacre in History, pp. 204–222. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999.

Deng, Francis M. “An African Reflects on Race and Ethnicity.” Brookings Review 13, no. 3 (1995).

Denon, V. Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt. London, 1903.

Des Forges, Alison. “Kings without Crowns: The White Fathers in Rwanda.” In D. F. McCall, N. R. Bennett, and J. Butler, eds., Eastern African History. New York: Praeger, 1969.

———. “ ‘The Drum Is Greater than the Shout’: The 1912 Rebellion in Northern Rwanda.” In Donald Crummey, ed., Banditry, Rebellion and Social Protest in Africa. London: James Currey, 1986.

———. “The Ideology of Genocide.” Issue 23, no. 2 (1995).

———. “Leave None to Tell the Story”: Genocide in Rwanda. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999.

d’Hertefelt, M. “The Rwanda of Rwanda.” In J. L. Gibbs, ed., Peoples of Africa. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1965.

———. Les clans du Rwanda ancien. Tervuren: MRAC, 1971.

Diller, L. “Human Rights Group Condemns UN in Rwanda.” British Medical Journal 309 (8 October 1994): 895.

Diop, Cheikh Anta. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth of Reality. Westport: Lawrence Hill, 1974.

Doornbos, Martin R., and Michael F. Lofchie. “Ranching and Scheming: A Case Study of the Ankole Ranching Scheme.” In Michael F. Lofchie, ed., The State of the Nations: Constraints on Development in Independent Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Dorsey, L. Historical Dictionary of Rwanda. London: Scarecrow Press, 1994.

Drechsler, Horst. “Let Us Die Fighting”: The Struggle of the Herero and the Nama against German Imperialism (1884–1915). London: Zed Press, 1980.

Exoffier, Laurent, Beatrice Pellegrini, Alicia Sanchez-Mazas, Christian Simon, and Andre Langaney. “Genetics and History of Sub-Saharan Africa.” Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 30 (1987): 151–194.

Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. London: Penguin, 1967.

Flatz, Gebhard. “Genetics of Lactose Digestion in Humans.” Advances in Human Genetics 1 (1987): 1–77.

Fleming, Neil. “Rwanda and Burundi—Africa’s Northern Ireland?” United Press International, BC Cycle, Internet, 7 October 1990.

Fortt, J. M. “The Distribution of the Immigrant and the Ganda Population within Buganda.” In Audrey Richards, ed., Economic Development and Tribal Change: A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda, pp. 77–118. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Franche, Dominique. “There’s Only One Ethnic Group in Rwanda: Rwandan.” Le Monde Diplomatique/Guardian Weekly, 24 November 1996.

Gasarasi, Charles P. “The Mass Naturalization and Further Integration of Rwandese Refugees in Tanzania: Process, Problems and Prospects.” Journal of Refugee Studies (Oxford) 3, no. 2, (1990).

Gatwa, Tharcisse. “The Churches and Ethnic Ideology in the Rwandan Crises (1900–1994).” Ph.D. diss., University of Edinburgh, 1998.

Gewald, Jan-Bart. Herero Heroes: A Socio-Political History of the Herero of Namibia, 1890–1923. Oxford: James Currey, 1999.

Gossett, T. F. Race—the History of an Idea in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Gourevitch, Philip. “After the Genocide.” New Yorker, 18 December 1995.

———. We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998.

Goyvaerts, Didier. Conflict and Ethnicity in Central Africa, p. 194, fn. 28. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2000.

Graves, R., and R. Patai. Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis. New York: Doubleday, 1964.

Greene, J. “The American Debate on the Negro’s Place in Nature, 1780–1815.” Journal of History of Ideas 15 (1954): 384.

Grosse, Scott. “The Roots of Conflict and State Failure in Rwanda: The Political Exacerbation of Social Cleavages in a Context of Growing Resource Scarcity.” School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mimeo, 15 November 1994.

———. “More People, More Trouble: Population Growth and Agricultural Change in Rwanda.” School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, manuscript, prepared for the Africa Bureau, U.S. Agency for International Development, revised draft, 16 November 1994.

Haguma, Captain Eugene M. “The Rwandese Crisis: A Political Economy of Genocide.” Symposium on Interface, Dialogue, and Co-Operation between Government and NGO’s for Popular Participation in National Reconstruction, Conflict and Psycho-Social Trauma Management. Organized jointly by Africa Humanitarian Action and the UN Economic Commission for Africa, Kigali, 28 February 1995.

Hannsen, A. Le désenchantement de la coopération. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1989.

Hegel, G.F.W. The Philosophy of Right. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books.

———. “Introduction: Reason in History.” in Lectures on the Philosophy of World History, trans. from the German edition of Johannes Hoffmeister by H. B. Nisbet. London: Cambridge University Press, 1975 (Hegel’s second draft is dated 1830).

———. The Philosophy of History. Trans. J. Sibree. New York: Dover, 1956.

Heusch, Luc de. Rwanda: Tableau d’une monarchie féodale. Brussels, 1954 (film produced in cooperation with Jacques Maquet).

———. “Rwanda: Responsibilities for Genocide.” Anthropology Today 11, no. 4 (August 1995).

Hiernaux, Jean. “Heredity and Environment: Their Influence on Human Morphology. A Comparison of Two Independent Lines of Study.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 21 (1963): 579–590.

———. La croissance des écoliers rwandais. Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer, 1965.

———. The People of Africa. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974.

Hilsum, Lindsey. “Hutu Warlord Defends Child Killings.” The Observer (London), 3 July 1994.

Hopkins, Elizabeth. “The Nyabingi Cult of Southwestern Uganda.” In Robert I. Rotberg, ed., Rebellion in Black Africa. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

———. “Review of Catharine Newbury, The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda 1860–1960.” Contemporary Sociology 20, nos. 1–3 (1991): 365–366.

Human Rights Watch Arms Project. Arming Rwanda: The Arms Trade and Human Rights Abuses in the Rwandan War. Vol. 6, issue 1, January 1994, Appendix.

Human Rights Watch/Africa. Genocide in Rwanda, April/May 1994. Vol. 6, no. 4, May 1994.

———. Rwanda: A New Catastrophe? Vol. 6, no. 12, December 1994, p. 7.

Human Rights Watch and Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme. Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. London and New York: Human Rights Watch; and Paris: Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme, 1999.

Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.

Ibrahim, Jibrin. “The Narcissism of Minor Difference and the Rise of Genocidal Tendencies in Africa: Lessons from Rwanda and Burundi.” Paper presented to CODESRIA, 8th General Assembly, 26 June–2 July 1995.

International Conference on Genocide, Impunity and Accountability. Final report, Kigali, 1–5 November 1995.

Itandala, Buluda. “Ethnicity versus Nationalism in Rwanda.” Paper presented at the Conference on Academic Freedom, Social Research, and Conflict Resolution in the Countries of the Great Lakes, organized by CODESRIA in collaboration with the University of Dar-es-Salaam and the Centre for Basic Research (Kampala), Arusha, Tanzania, 4–7 September 1995.

Jefremovas, Villia. “Acts of Human Kindness: Tutsi, Hutu and the Genocide.” Issue 23, no. 2 (1995).

Jere-Malanda, Regina. “The Tribe Germany Wants to Forget.” New African (London), no. 383 (March 2000): 16–21.

Jones, Bruce D. “Roots, Resolution and Reaction: Civil War, the Peace Process and Genocide in Rwanda.” Mimeo, Toronto, 1999.

Kagabo, J., and C. Vidal. “L’extermination des Rwandais Tutsi.” Cahiers d’études Africaines 34, no. 4 (1994) 538.

Kagame, Alexis. Un abrégé de l’ethno-histoire du Rwanda. 2 vols. Collection “Muntu,” 3–4 Butare: Editions Universitaires du Rwanda, 1972–75.

Keene, Fergal. Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey. London: Viking, 1995.

King, M. “Rwanda, Malthus and Medicus Mundi.” Medicus Mundi Bulletin, no. 54 (August 1994).

Lacger, Louis de. Ruanda. Kigali: Kabgayi, 1961.

Lamb, David. “Rwanda Tragedy May Reflect Larger Africa Problem.” Dallas Morning News, 12 June 1994, p. 21A.

Lema, Antoine. Africa Divided: The Creation of “Ethnic Groups.” Lund Dissertations in Sociology 6. Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press, 1993.

Lemarchand, René. Rwanda and Burundi. New York: Praeger, 1970.

———. “Recent History.” In section on “Rwanda,” in Africa South of the Sahara, 1974. London: Europa Publications, 1975.

———. “Review of Catharine Newbury, The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860–1960.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 24 (1990): 473–475.

———. “Rwanda: The Rationality of Genocide.” Issue 23, no. 2 (1995), African Studies Association of USA.

Levene, M. and P. Roberts, eds. The Massacre in History. NY: Berghahn, 1993.

Lewis, L. A. “Terracing and Accelerated Soil Loss on Rwandan Step Lands: A Preliminary Investigation of the Implications of Human Activities Affecting Soil Movement.” Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 3 (1992): 241–246.

Leys, Colin. Under-development in Kenya. London: Heinemann.

Linden, Ian. Church and Revolution in Rwanda. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977.

Lofchie, Michael. Zanzibar: Background to Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.

Longman, Timothy. “Anarchy and the State in Africa: Power, Democratization and the Rwandan Catastrophe.” Mimeo, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa, no date.

———. “Democratisation and Disorder: Political Transformation and Social Deterioration in Rwanda.” Mimeo, Drake University, no date.

Loupais, P. “Tradition et légende des Tutsi sur la création du monde et leur etablissement au Rwanda.” In Anthropos 3, no. 9 (1908) 1–33.

Lwanga-Lunyigo, S.L., and J. Vansina. “The Bantu-Speaking Peoples and Their Expansion.” In M. El Fasi, ed., UNESCO General History of Africa, vol. 3. London: Heinemann, 1988.

Mafeje, Archie. “The Agrarian Revolution and the Land Question in Uganda.” In Roger Leys, ed., Dualism and Rural Development in East Africa, p. 145. Copenhagen: Institute of Development Research, 1973.

———. “The Ideology of Tribalism.” Journal of Modern African Studies 9, no. 2 (1971).

———. The Theory and Ethnography of African Social Formations: The Case of the Intralacustrine Kingdoms. Dakar: CODESRIA, 1991.

Mafeje, Archie, and A. I. Richards. “The Commercial Farmer and his Labour Supply.” In A. I. Richards, Ford Sturrock, and Jean M. Fortt, eds., Subsistence to Commercial Farming in Present-day Buganda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Mamdani, Mahmood. Politics and Class Formation in Uganda. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1976.

———. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

———. “Babu: A Personal Tribute.” Review of African Political Economy (London), no. 19 (1996).

———. “From Conquest to Consent Is the Basis of State Formation: Reflections on Rwanda.” New Left Review, no. 216 (March/April 1996).

———. Kivu, 1997: An Essay on Citizenship and the State Crises in Africa. Mimeo, Dakar, CODESRIA, 1998.

———. “When Does a Settler Become a Native? Reflections on the Colonial Roots of Citizenship in Equatorial and South Africa.” Inaugural Lecture, University of Cape Town, new series no. 208, 13 May 1998.

———. “The Truth According to the TRC.” In Ifi Amadiume and Abdullahi An-Nai’im, eds., The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice. London: Zed Press, 2000.

Mao Tse-tung. “Analysis of the Classes in Chinese Society.” In Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, vol. 1. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1967.

Maquet, Jacques J. “Les pasteurs de l’Itombwe.” Science et Nature 8 (1955): 3–12.

———. The Premise of Inequality in Ruanda: A Study of Political Relations in a Central African Kingdom. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Marrus, Michael R. The Holocaust in History. New York: Meridian Penguin, 1987.

Martin, S. “Boserup Revisited: Population and Technology in Tropical African Agriculture, 1900–1940.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 16 (October 1987): 109–123.

Marysse, S., and T. de Herdt. L’ajustement structurel en Afrique: Les expériences du Mali et du Rwanda. Antwerp: UFSIA/Centre for Development Studies, 1993.

Marysse, S., T. de Herdt, and E. Ndayambaje. Rwanda: Appauvrissement et ajustement structurel. Brussels: CEDAF/L’Harmattan, 1994.

Maser, Peter. “Crimes of the Children.” The Gazette (Montreal), 23 September 1995.

Mazimpaka, Patrick. Interview. Kigali, 11 July 1997.

McDowell, Patrick. “342 Women Implicated in Genocide,” Rocky Mountain News, Denver, Colorado, 26 September 1995, p. 30A.

Meister, Robert. Political Identity: Thinking through Marx. New York: Blackwell, 1991.

———. “Forgiving and Forgetting.” In Carla Hesse and Robert Post, eds., Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, pp. 135–176. New York: Zone Books, 1999.

Mfizi, Christophe. Le réseau zéro. Open letter to the president of the MRND. Kigali: Editions Uruhimbi, July–August 1992.

Minister for Animal Industry and Fisheries (Prof. G. Kagonyera). National Resistance Council, Wednesday, 22 August 1990, in Parliament of Uganda, Parliamentary Debates (Hansard), Official Report, 4th sess., 2nd meeting, issue no. 14, 28 June–23 August 1990, Kampala.

Muhereza, Frank Emmanuel. “The Struggles for Land Rights and 1990 Squatter Uprisings in the Former Government Ranching Schemes of Uganda.” Mimeo, Centre for Basic Research, Kampala, March 1998.

Mujawamariya, Monique. “Report of a Visit to Rwanda: September 1–22, 1994.” Issue 23, no. 2 (1995).

Murray, James. “Rwanda’s Bloody Roots.” New York Times, 3 September 1994.

Museveni, H. E. Yoweri Kaguta. President of the Republic of Uganda, Speech on “The Background to the Situation in the Great Lakes.” Harare, Zimbabwe, 9 August 1998.

Muvala, F. Introduction à l’histoire de l’evangélisation. Kigali: Pallotti Presse, 1990.

National Commission of Inquiry into Local Government. Report, Entebbe, Uganda, 1986.

Newbury, Catharine. The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860–1960. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.

———. “Ubureetwa and Thangata: Catalysts to Peasant Political Consciousness in Rwanda and Malawi.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 14, no. 1 (1980).

———. “Ethnicity in Rwanda: The Case of Kinyage.” Africa 48, no. 1 (1978).

Newbury, Catharine, and David S. Newbury. “Was the Genocide in Rwanda an Ethnic Struggle?” Mimeo, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill.

———. “Identity, Genocide and Reconstruction in Rwanda.” Paper presented at the conference “Les racines de la violence dans la région des Grands-Lacs,” European Parliament, Brussels, 12–13 January 1995.

Newbury, David S. “The Invention of Rwanda: The Alchemy of Ethnicity.” Mimeo, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill.

———. “The Clans of Rwanda: An Historical Hypothesis.” Africa 50, no. 4 (1980).

———. “Trick Cyclists? Recontextualizing Rwandan Domestic Chronology.” History in Africa 21 (1994): 191–217.

———. “ ‘Bunyabungo’: The Western Rwandan Frontier, c. 1750–1850.” In Igor Kopytoff, ed., The African Frontier: The Reproduction of Traditional African Societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Nisbet, Stephen. “60,000 Frightened Refugees Give Burundi Little to Celebrate.” Reuters, AM cycle, 2 September 1988.

Nkundabagenzi, F. Rwanda Politique, 1958–1960. Brussels: CRISP, 1961.

Nkurikiyimfura, Jean-Népomucene. Le gros bétail et la société rwandaise: Evolution historique: Des XIIe–XIVe siècles à 1958. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1994.

Nzisabira, J. Accumulation du peuplement rural et ajustements agro-pastoraux au Rwanda. Cahiers du CIDEP no. 1. Louvain-la-Neuve: CIDEP, 1989.

Ogot, B.A. “The Great Lakes Region.” In D. T. Niane, ed., UNESCO General History of Africa, vol. 4. London: Heinemann, 1988.

Omaar, Rakiya. “Introduction.” In African Rights, “Burying the Truth in the Name of ‘Human Rights’: Antoine Sibomana and His Supporters.” Witness to Genocide, issue 7, May 1997.

Onyango-Obbo, Charles. “Inside Rebel-Controlled Rwanda.” Africa News Service, 26 April 1993.

Oyog, Angeline. “Human Rights-Media: Voices of Hate Test Limits of Press Freedom.” Inter-Press Service, 5 April 1995.

Pagès, A. Au Rwanda, sur le bord du Lac Kivu (Congo Belge): Un royaume Hamite au centre de l’Afrique. Brussels: IRCB, 1933.

Patterson, J. “Rwandan Refugees.” Nature 373, no. 6511 (19 January 1995).

Philips, J.E.T. “The Nyabingi: An Anti-European Secret Society in Africa.” Congo 1 (1928).

Plaut, Martin. “Rwanda—Looking beyond the Slaughter.” The World Today 50, no. 8–9 (1994).

Postan, Cynthia. “Changes in the Immigrant Population in Buganda, 1948–59.” In M. Audrey I. Richards, Economic Development and Tribal Change: A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda, appendix F. table 8, p. 307. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Pottier, Johan. “Review of Catharine Newbury, The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860–1960.” Journal of Peasant Studies 18, issue 2, (1991): 346–347.

Powesland, G. F. “History of the Migration in Uganda.” In M. Audrey I. Richards, ed., Economic Development and Tribal Change: A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Press, Robert M. “Escape from Kigali: Odyssey of a Hutu Family.” Christian Science Monitor, 14 November 1994.

Prunier, Gérard. “Elements pour une histoire du Front Patriotique Rwandais.” Politique Africaine 51 (October 1993): 121–138.

———. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide, 1959–1994. London: Hurst & Co., 1995.

Reed, William Cyrus. “Exile, Reform and the Rise of the Rwandan Patriotic Front.” In Journal of Modern African Studies 34, no. 3 (1996).

———. “The Rwandan Patriotic Front: Politics and Development in Rwanda.” Issue 23, no. 2 (1995).

Rennie, J. K. “The Precolonial Kingdom of Rwanda: A Reinterpretation.” Transafrican Journal of History 2, no. 2 (1972).

Report of the International Commission of Investigation on Human Rights Violations in Rwanda since October 1, 1990. March 1993, Geneva.

Reyntjens, Filip. Pouvoir et droit au Rwanda. Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Annales—Serie—80—Sciences Humaines—no. 117, Tervuren, 1985.

———. “Démocratisation et conflits ethniques au Rwanda et au Burundi.” Cahiers Africains—Afrika Studies 4–5 (1993): 209–227.

———. “Sujets d’inquiétude au Rwanda, en Octobre 1994.” Dialogue, no. 179: 3–14.

———. L’Afrique des Grands Lacs en crise: Rwanda, Burundi, 1988–1994. Paris: Karthala, 1994.

———. Talking or Fighting? Political Evaluation in Rwanda and Burundi, 1998–99. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1999, Current African Issues, no. 21.

Richards, M. Audrey, ed. Economic Development and Tribal Change, A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973.

———. “The Assimilation of the Immigrants.” In M. Audrey I. Richards, ed., Economic Development and Tribal Change: A Study of Immigrant Labour in Buganda. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Rieff, David. “Rwanda: The Big Risk.” New York Review, 31 October 1996.

Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Dar-es-Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House, 1971.

Report Administration Coloniale. Ruanda-Urundi, 1927.

Rotberg, Robert, ed. Rebellion in Black Africa. London: Oxford Uiversity Press, 1971.

Rutanga, Murindwa. “The Agrarian Crisis and Peasant Struggles in Kigezi, 1910–1995.” Ph.D. diss., Jadavpur University, Calcutta, 1999.

“Rwanda: Priests Who Failed Moral Test Face Another Kind of Trial.” Final report, Kigali, 1–5 November 1995.

Saint-Exupéry, Patrick de. “Rwanda: Les assassins racontent leurs massacres.” In François-Xavier Verschave, Complicité de génocide? La politique de la France au Rwanda. Paris: La Découverte, 1994.

Sanders, Edith R. “The Hamitic Hypothesis: Its Origin and Functions in Time Perspective.” Journal of African History 10, no. 4 (1969).

Schmitt, Carl. The Concept of the Political. Trans. and with an introduction by George Schwab. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Schoenbrun, David Lee. A Green Place, A Good Place Agrarian Change, Gender, and Social Identity in the Great Lakes Region to the 15th Century. Kampala: Fountain, 1998.

———. “Cattle Herds and Banana Gardens: The Historical Geography of the Western Great Lakes Region.” African Archeology Review 11, (1993): 41–75.

Scott, David. Refashioning Futures. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Scrivener, Leslie. “Rage and Religion: What Role Did the Churches Play in Rwanda’s Genocide?” Toronto Star, 5 August 1995.

Seligman, Charles Gabriel. Races of Africa, 4th ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Sellstom, Tor, and Lennart Wohlgemuth. The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience, Study 1, Historical Perspective: Some Explanatory Factors. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordic Africa Institute, 1997.

Shields, Todd. “Invasion Stirs Tribal Tension in Rwanda.” Washington Post, 13 October 1990.

Shivji, Issa. Silent Class Struggle. Dar-es-Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House, 1973.

———. Class Struggles in Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam: Tanzania Publishing House, 1976.

Smith, Charles David. “The Geopolitics of Rwandan Settlement: Uganda and Tanzania.” Issue 23, no. 2 (1995): 54–57.

Speke, J. H. Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1864.

Stalin, Joseph. Marxism and the National Question: Selected Writings and Speeches. New York: International Publishers, 1942.

———. The Essential Stalin. Ed. Bruce Franklin. London: Croom Helm, 1973.

Takeuchi, Shinichi. “Hutu and Tutsi: A Note on Group Formation in Pre-colonial Rwanda.” In Didier Goyvaerts, ed., Conflict and Ethnicity in Central Africa. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, pp. 190–191, appendix 1, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2000.

Theroux, Paul. Sir Vidia’s Shadow: A Friendship Across Five Continents. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.

Tung, Shao. “Rwanda Takes on New Look.” Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 8 June 1978, item no. 060728.

United Nations Commission of Experts Established Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 935 (1994) on Rwanda. Final Report. Geneva, 25 November 1994.

United Nations Information Center. “United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda.” Africa News Service, 23 August 1993.

U.S. Department of State. 1990 Human Rights Report, 1 February 1991, section on Rwanda.

———. 1993 Human Rights Report, February 1994, section on Rwanda.

Uvin, Peter. “Tragedy in Rwanda: The Political Ecology of Conflict.” Environment, April 1996.

———. Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Africa. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1998.

Uwezeyimana, L. “L’équilibre ethnique et régional dans l’emploi.” Dialogue 146 (May–June 1989): 15–31.

Van Hoyweghen, Saskia. “The Rwandan Villagisation Programme: Resettlement or Reconstruction?” In Didier Goyvaerts, ed., Conflict and Ethnicity in Central Africa, p. 212. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2000.

Vansina, Jan. L’évolution du royaume Rwanda des origines à 1900. Brussels: Arsom, 1962.

Vidal, Claudine. “Situations ethniques au Rwanda.” In Jean-Loup Amselle and E. M’bokolo, eds., Au coeur de l’ethnie: Ethnies, tribalisme et état en Afrique. Paris: La Découverte, 1985.

Vlassenroot, Koen. “The Promise of Ethnic Conflict: Militarisation and Enclave-Formation in South Kivu.” In Didier Goyvaerts, ed., Conflict and Ethnicity in Central Africa. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2000.

Volney, Constantin-François. Travels through Syria and Egypt, 1783–1784–1785. Published 1787.

Waldman, Amy. “Is It Too Late for Rwanda?” Houston Chronicle, 12 June 1994, sec. A, p. 1.

Waller, D. Rwanda: Which Way Now? Oxford: Oxfam, 1993.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. “The Uses of Racism.” London Review of Books 22, no. 10 (18 May 2000): 11–14.

Wamba-dia-Wamba, Ernest. “The State of all Rwandese: Political Prescriptions and Disasters.” Paper presented to CODESRIA conference, Arusha, Tanzania.

Watson, Catherine. Exile from Rwanda: Background to an Invasion. Issue paper. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Committee for Refugees, February 1991.

———. “War and Waiting.” Africa Report, November/December 1992, p. 54.

World Bank. World Development Report, 1992. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Wrigley, C. “Some Thoughts on the Bachwezi.” Uganda Journal 22, no. 1 (1958): 11–21.

Yeld, Rachel. “Repatriation of Rwandan Refugees.” Refugee Studies Programme, Oxford University, 4 December 1995.

Young, Crawford. “Rebellion and the Congo.” In Robert Rotberg, ed., Rebellion in Black Africa. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Zarembo, Alan. “The Church’s Shameful Acts.” Houston Chronicle, 29 January 1995, p. 22.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!