Sources cited here are listed in order of appearance of an individual quoted, or the authors’ statement of a fact, in a given chapter; each note is numbered for ease of subsequent reference.
1. Army pay information was taken from U.S. Army Register (U.S. Government Printing Office), January 1, 1965, vol. 1, pp. 785-86.
2. Information on the numbers of Americans killed in the Pleiku campaign was compiled from the March 4, 1966, after-action report of the 1st Cavalry Division, covering operations from October 23 to November 26, 1965, and the subsequent change of status from “missing in action” to “killed in action” of four men of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cav and one man of Alpha Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Cav. In addition to the 1st Cavalry Division personnel, one U.S. Air Force A-1E Skyraider pilot was killed in action in the campaign.
3. Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg, by Busey and Martin, was used for the Gettysburg comparison. Triumph Without Victory: The Unreported History of the Persian Gulf War, by the staff of U.S. News & World Report, was used for the Persian Gulf War comparison.
1. Heat of Battle
1. All quotations and information from Robert H. Edwards in this and all subsequent chapters are from one or more of the following sources: unpublished 42-page U.S. Army Infantry School monograph, dated February 6, 1967, by then-Captain Edwards covering his personal experiences in LZ X-Ray. Transcript of August 28, 1967, interview of Edwards by Major John A. Cash of the Office, Chief of Military History (OCMH). Letter, May 5, 1983, from Edwards to Galloway, with completed questionnaire and personal recollections. Taped discussion of X-Ray battle on May 21, 1983, between Edwards, Lt. Col. L. R. (Ray) Lefebvre (ret.) and Moore. Edwards letters to Moore dated June 12, 1988, and August 22, 1988. Taped discussion between Edwards and Moore at Ia Drang reunion, Fort Benning, August 1990. Telephone interview, Moore/Edwards, August 28, 1991. Edwards letters to Moore, August 19, 1991; December 1, 1991; December 11, 1991. Telephone interview with Moore, January 30, 1992.
2. Recorded interview/discussion, Moore/Ernest E. Paolone at Ia Drang reunions, July 1988 and November 1989.
3. Undated written statements, from about late November-early December 1965, by Platoon Sgt. Glenn A. Kennedy, Sgt. James P. Castleberry, and PFC Ervin L. Brown, Jr., in support of a recommendation for an award of valor for then-Captain Edwards.
4. 1965 Terrain/Topo Map Sheet #6536 III Series L 7014, PL. YA BO, Vietnam; Cambodia. Scale 1:50,000. Army Map Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. “Map Information as of 1965.”
5. Unless otherwise noted, all quotations and information in this and subsequent chapters, from Senior General Vo Nguyen Giap, Senior General Chu Huy Man, Lt. Gen. Nguyen Huu An, and Maj. Gen. Hoang Phuong are from the authors’ recorded interviews with Giap and Phuong in September 1990, and the authors’ recorded interviews and discussions with Man, An, and Phuong in November 1991, in Hanoi.
6. All quotations and information from Arthur Viera, Jr., in this and subsequent chapters are from one or more of the following sources: Telephone interview, August 28, 1991, Moore/Viera. Undated (1966 or 1967) feature article on Viera from the Providence (R.I.) Journal-Bulletin.
It is clear from Viera’s statements that Lieutenant Neil Kroger died heroically. Unfortunately, Viera is the only survivor of the 1st Platoon of Charlie Company whom the authors have been able to locate; thus we have no other details of Kroger’s death.
7. All quotations from Clinton S. Poley in this and subsequent chapters are from: Poley letters to Moore dated February 10, 1969; July 7, 1988; and September 1990, with details of the X-Ray battle. Interviews of Poley at the July 1988, summer 1989, November 1989, and July 1991 Ia Drang reunions. Sketch by Poley and Moore of locations of fighting positions of Poley and other 2nd Platoon, Charlie Company personnel. Article, “A Band of Brothers” by Joseph L. Galloway in BRAVO Veterans Outlook, December/January 1990. Multiple telephone discussions by Moore and Galloway with Poley, 1988-1992.
8. All quotations and information from retired SFC Robert Jemison, Jr., in this and subsequent chapters are from the following sources: Undated 1984 response by Jemison to our questionnaire with statement on battle. Moore interview of Jemison, summer 1984. Galloway telephone interviews with Jemison, October 1990. Moore telephone interview with Jemison, August 28, 1991.
9. All quotations and comments from Air Force Col. Charlie W. Hastings (ret.) in this and subsequent chapters are from the following sources: Hastings letter to Moore, April 21, 1988. Telephone interview, Moore/Hastings, fall 1988, on air support at X-Ray. Telephone interviews, Galloway/Hastings, October 1990, December 1991, and May 1992.
2. The Roots of Conflict
1. On the birth of battlefield airmobility and the 11th Air Assault Division (Test): chapter 1 of Gen. John Tolson’s monograph Vietnam Studies: Airmobility 1961-71; Moore’s memories of his service in the Airmobility Division of Army Staffin the Pentagon in 1958-1959. Airmobile: The Helicopter War in Vietnam, by Jim Meskos, contains little-known information on the early days of the helicopter.
2. For the 11th Air Assault tests and subsequent formation of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), Tolson’s monograph and Moore’s personal records and recollections.
3. On the temper of the times and the situation in Vietnam: The authors’ memories of those days; generally, see Bernard Fall’s The Two Viet-Nams and Street Without Joy; Neil Sheehan’s A Bright Shining Lie; David Halberstam’s The Best and the Brightest andThe Making of a Quagmire;Stanley Karnow’s Vietnam: A History; Lt. Gen. Philip B. Davidson’s Vietnam at War: The History 1946-1975; and Dave R. Palmer’s Summons of the Trumpet.
4. For political-military decisions in Washington and Hanoi, and actions on troop buildups in South Vietnam in 1964-1965: Karnow, Palmer, and Davidson books.
5. On the February 6, 1965, sapper attack at Pleiku, and President Johnson’s bombing decisions: Karnow, pp. 412-415. Chapter 2 of Mark Clodfelter’s The Limits of Air Power contains more detailed information.
6. The Marine and logistics buildup in March and April and the President’s Mekong River development speech: The World Almanac of the Vietnam War, edited by John S. Bowman. Also see Karnow, pp. 415-19.
7. Westmoreland’s spring 1965 requests for U.S. reinforcements and 173rd Airborne Brigade operations: Karnow, p. 422. An excellent description of the 173rd deployment and ground operations from May 5 through November 9, 1965, can be found in Shelby L. Stanton’s The Rise and Fall of an American Army, pp. 45-48.
8. President Johnson’s guns-and-butter decisions on the conduct of the Vietnam War are extensively covered in the books cited in n. 3 for this ch.; Maj. Gen. John K. Singlaub’s Hazardous Duty, pp. 277-83, describes the impact on the Army of the Johnson refusal to declare an emergency and extend enlistments.
9. The June 1965 Hanoi decision to change the plan of attack in the Central Highlands, and General Man’s comments, are from the authors’ November 4, 1991, interview with Man in Hanoi.
10. Activities at Fort Benning, Georgia, the summer of 1965: written records; Army documents; and Moore’s personal recollections. Moore and his battalion officers and NCOs watched the president’s televised address ordering the 1st Cavalry Division to Vietnam on a small TV set at battalion headquarters.
11. General H. K. Johnson’s aborted trip to the White House to resign as Army Chief of Staff in protest: Singlaub’s Hazardous Duty, p. 283. Also “The Paramenters of Military Ethics: Introduction,” by Col. Harry Summers, Jr., p. 27. Tran script Galloway interview with Lt. Gen. Stanley Larsen, August 19, 1990, and Galloway discussions with Summers and Singlaub, May 5–6, 1992.
12. Details of the North Vietnamese troop movement south and the Ia Drang sanctuary: From “The Lure and the Ambush,” an unpublished article-length monograph, dated December 1965, by Majors William P. Boyle and Robert Samabria. On file at the Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C.
13. Biographical data concerning the officers and NCOs are from division and battalion records; the West Point Register of Graduates; questionnaire responses and written biographies provided at our request; and (as in the case of Sgt. Maj. Plumley), personal interviews.
14. Data on organization and equipment of an airmobile infantry battalion from Army Tables of Organization and Equipment (T/O&Es) of the period. Available from Headquarters, Department of the Army, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, Washington, D.C.
15. Remarks by Vietnamese generals Giap, Man, An, and Phuong, here and elsewhere in this book, are from their taped interviews with the authors in Hanoi in 1990 and 1991.
16. In an interview with Galloway at his U.S. Central Command headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in late January 1991, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf de tailed his participation with the South Vietnamese Airborne Task Force as a blocking force along the Cambodian border in the final days of the Ia Drang campaign.
17. Notes on the rapidly dwindling strength of the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry and activities at An Khe base camp in the fall of 1965 are from two of Moore’s personal notebooks.
18. Descriptions of the attack on Plei Me, the hospital fight, and the November 3 ambush are based on the division after-action report, as well as a report dated November 6, 1965, which Lt. Col. Stockton wrote to division headquarters. Despite his troubles with Brig. Gen. Knowles and division headquarters, Stock ton was on the colonel’s promotion list and got his eagles in late November. He was then transferred out of the 1st Cavalry Division at Knowles’s insistence. Knowles discussion with Galloway at the August 1990 Ia Drang reunion at Fort Benning, and in a telephone discussion with Galloway in April 1992.
3. Boots and Saddles
1. In a June 20, 1983, letter to Moore, Knowles detailed his discussion with Lt. Gen. Larsen which resulted in Moore’s battalion being ordered into the Ia Drang Valley.
2. Viet Cong attack on 3rd Brigade command post: from division after-action report.
3. Catecka Tea Plantation and manager’s villa: Galloway’s observations and notes during his twenty-four-hour stay at 3rd Brigade headquarters, November 13–14, 1965.
4. ARA attack on Nadal’s Alpha Company troops: Nadal letter to Moore.
5. All quotations and information from Lt. Col. Bruce Crandall (ret.) in this and subsequent chapters are from: Questionnaire, letter, and written statement, Crandall to Galloway, June 4, 1984. Copy of a Crandall letter dated November 20, 1965, addressed to himself at his home address, with a notation that it was not to be opened until his return from Vietnam. Crandall wrote his observations on the Ia Drang campaign while they were fresh. Moore/Crandall inter views, taped, in 1984 and 1985 in Colorado. Tape of Crandall’s speech at Ia Drang reunion, Fort Benning, Georgia, August 1990. Telephone interviews, Galloway/Crandall, October 1990. Crandall statement to authors, January 1992.
6. Winkel’s quotes on aviator training are extracted from a lengthy written description to Moore in November 1988 and from his completed questionnaire plus a detailed written statement to authors, summer 1983.
7. Information on manpower shortages came from 1st Battalion, 7th Cav headquarters records of November 1965, plus Moore notebooks of that time, and are included in Moore’s December 9, 1965, after-action report. When a battalion is as understrength as this, the captains and lieutenants try to do the jobs of the missing officers and NCOs, and the remaining NCOs also try to do the jobs of missing NCOs and missing troopers in the ranks. The result is additional degradation of unit integrity and effectiveness, and higher officer and NCO casualties: exactly what happened in LZ X-Ray.
4. The Land and the Enemy
1. The description of the Central Highlands is from map studies and from personal observations of the authors. On the Montagnards: Personal observations of the authors. An especially good source is the book Special Forces of the United States Army 1952/1982, by Lt. Col. Ian D. W. Sutherland (ret.), pp. 113, 114, 259, 272. Also, Norman Lewis’s A Dragon Apparent is a good source.
2. For information on North Vietnamese troop training and travel down the Ho Chi Minh Trail: “The Training, Infiltration and Operations of a North Vietnamese Soldier from 12 April 1963 to 11 June 1966 in North and South Vietnam and Laos (Based on a Personal Interview by a Battalion Civil Affairs Officer),” a monograph by Captain Jerry P. Laird, Advance Course Class 68-1, Roster Number 91, Advisory Group Number 9 of the Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, January 4, 1968. The People’s Army soldier was a Sgt. Chien from the village of Hanan on the coast southeast of Hanoi. He entered South Vietnam in January 1966 and surrendered in June 1966. Laird interviewed Chien for fourteen hours.
3. For the travels of the 320th, 33rd, and 66th PAVN regiments down the trail and into South Vietnam, the Boyle and Samabria monograph (n. 12, ch. 2) was a valuable reference. The authors used captured diaries, interrogation reports, and Knowledgeability Briefs of 35 People’s Army POWs.
4. For all quotations from Giap, Man, An, and Phuong in this chapter, see n. 5, ch. 1.
5. On the results of the Plei Me attack as it affected Man’s forces: Boyle and Samabria monograph (see n. 12, ch. 2); Man, An, and Phuong, recorded statements (n. 5, ch. 1).
6. Information on the organization and strengths of the People’s Army B-3 Front: Man, An, Phuong interviews (n. 5, ch. 1); and an undated, declassified U.S. Army Intelligence Document in the files of the OCMH, Army, which details the history, organization, and strengths of all units of the B-3 Front.
5. Into the Valley
1. Dillon’s report of a Mandarin-language radio intercept: Dillon letter to Galloway, summer 1983. Undated 1987 letter Dillon to Moore commenting on the intercept and other matters. The frag order is “Copy #9 dated 131500 Nov 65, Frag 0 65-12,” in Moore’s possession.
2. It was Moore’s personal practice always to land with the first wave of assault helicopters, and to put out operations orders verbally and personally. Listeners could thus discern the emphasis he placed on various elements of the concept.
3. Both Dillon and Moore recall Brown’s remarks and his obvious concern.
4. The news back home on Saturday, November 13, 1965, is excerpted from The New York Times.
5. Dillon’s quote on an air assault: letter to Galloway (n. 1, above).
6. Crandall’s quotes: letter to Galloway, June 4, 1984.
7. The precise time of the landing is from the Battalion Operations Journal of November 14, 1965.
8. General An’s quotes: n. 5, ch. 1.
9. All quotations and information for Master Sgt. Larry M. Gilreath (ret.) in this and subsequent chapters are from: taped interview, Gilreath/Moore, May 1985. Tape recording and letter, undated, from Gilreath to Moore, late 1985. Letter and annotated photographs and sketches, from Gilreath to Moore, August 28, 1988.
10. Hastings’s comment: letter to Moore, April 21, 1988.
6. The Battle Begins
1. A treasure trove of research material was opened to the authors in August 1988, when numerous 1965 First Cavalry Division veterans gathered in Orlando, Florida, for the first Ia Drang Alumni Reunion. All participants were urged to bring their photos, their letters, their newspaper and magazine clip pings, their Army orders—and their memories. Moore did a slide show and talk on the battle at X-Ray, then threw the floor open to comments, questions, and remembrances of the audience. The entire proceeding was recorded and videotaped. Moore followed up with a number of taped interviews with individuals. There have been seven reunions of Ia Drang veterans since the first in August 1988. Those gatherings and the October 29, 1990, U.S. News & World Report cover article on the twenty-fifth anniversary of Ia Drang, written by Galloway, brought in literally scores more veterans of X-Ray and Albany—as well as the families of a number of Ia Drang casualties—who have contributed to the historical record.
2. All quotations and information from Colonel John D. Herren (ret.) in this and subsequent chapters are from: transcript of Major John Cash’s interview of Herren, August 21, 1967; Herren’s undated (1967) letter to Major John Cash; Herren interview with Major Cash, March 19, 1968; long detailed battle narrative, complete with several map sketches, from Herren to Galloway, April 29, 1983; written response from Herren, undated (1987), to Moore, detailing answers to 12 specific questions, including notations on three aerial photos of the battlefield; letter, Herren to Moore, July 25, 1988; letter and sketch maps, Herren to Moore, November 10, 1988; telephone interview, Herren/Galloway, October 1990; letter and chapter revisions, Herren to Moore, December 1991.
3. All quotations and information from Galen E Bungum for this chapter and subsequent ones are from: letter to Moore entitled “My Ia Drang Valley Story,” April 20, 1988; letter answering specific Moore questions, September 9, 1988; interview with authors at the August 1990 Ia Drang reunion at Fort Benning; telephone interviews, Bungum/Galloway, October 1990.
4. Platoon Sgt. Gilreath’s letter/maps/photos/sketches to Moore, August 28, 1988.
5. All quotations and recollections in this and subsequent chapters from Dennis J. Deal are from: three hours of taped statements to the authors in 1983; sketches and manuscript he provided Moore at the 1986 1st Cavalry Division Association reunion; interview, Deal/Moore, at 1988 Ia Drang reunion; multiple telephone and personal interviews with both authors, 1989-1991; letter to Moore, December 1, 1991.
6. For Sgt. Jimmie Jakes’s comments: his 1983 response to authors’ questionnaire; telephone discussion with Moore, December 31, 1988; and Jakes letter to Moore, January 3, 1989.
7. Retired CSM William Roland’s quote is from his completed questionnaire, April 1983.
8. All quotations, comments, and information from SFC Ernie Savage in this and subsequent chapters are from: undated (1967) transcript of an interview of Savage by Major John Cash; two recorded interviews, Savage/Moore, May 1983 and June 13, 1986; recordings and notes taken at the 1988 Ia Drang reunion. At the 1988 session, Savage and others of Lieutenant Herrick’s platoon used a screened slide aerial photo to pinpoint the precise location of the Lost Platoon during its ordeal.
9. Information on the North Vietnamese battalion facing Herren is from an intelligence analysis cited in the March 1966 division after-action report. Also, General Phuong’s statement that the air assault into X-Ray landed right in the 9thBattalion, 66th People’s Army Regiment assembly area. Bill Beck, the Alpha Company machine gunner, says: “We landed right on top of ’em!”
10. All quotations and information from Medical Platoon Sergeant Keeton in this and subsequent chapters are from a recorded interview, Moore/Keeton, May 5, 1984; interview at Ia Drang reunion, August 1990; telephone interviews, June 8, 1991; January 1992; February 1992.
11. A declassified cable dated 11/28/65 from 2nd Air Div Tansonnhut, RVN, to Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force, states: “From 1315 H [1:15 P.M.] on 14 Nov to 0600 H [6 A.M.] 15 Nov, 67 strike sorties expended GP [General Purpose bombs], Napalm, WP [white phosphorus bombs], Frag [bombs], .50 caliber ma chine gun and 20mm [cannon]. 28 F4B, 12 F-100, 10 A-1E, Six F4C, Six B-57, 4 A-4 and one FC-47 [Puff the Magic Dragon] saturated areas of reported con centrations.” Note that the B-57 Canberra carried a typical load of 6,000 pounds of bombs in the bomb bay plus 2,000 pounds in wing racks. For details on the Canberra, see Chris Ellis, A History of Combat Aircraft, p. 234.
12. All quotations and comments from Sgt. George Nye in this and subsequent chapters are from: his completed questionnaire; a detailed early May 1983 telephone discussion with Galloway and a tape-recorded statement from Nye, transcribed on May 15, 1983; telephone interview, Moore/Nye, spring 1991. Also notes of literally dozens of telephone conversations between Nye and both authors, plus personal discussions at five different Ia Drang reunion gatherings over the years.
7. Closing with the Enemy
1. Account of Taft’s death: recorded interview with Master Sgt. Robert Hazen (ret.) at the 1988 Orlando reunion, plus telephone interviews, Moore/Hazen, March 7 and 8, 1992.
2. All quotations and information from Colonel Ramon A. (Tony) Nadal in this and subsequent chapters are from the following sources: letter, Nadal to Major John Cash, October 2, 1967; undated (summer 1983) Nadal response to authors’ questionnaire; Nadal letter to his wife and son, November 17, 19, 22, and 23, 1965; undated (summer 1983) letter, Nadal to Galloway; Nadal, taped statement to Galloway, late 1983; letter, Nadal to Moore, April 10, 1984; discussions, Moore/Nadal/Herren, at Nadal’s home, May 1985; letter, Nadal to Moore, answering specific questions, July 13, 1988; discussions with Moore at July 1988 reunion; letter to Moore, July 31, 1988, with map sketches, annotated aerial photos; telephone interview, Moore/Nadal, August 1991; letter to Moore, comments on chapter drafts, December 1991.
3. Deal: Seen. 5, ch. 6.
4. Nadal was a combat veteran of an earlier tour with the Special Forces and had fought the Viet Cong. Those within hearing, and those monitoring the battalion radio net, will never forget him yelling, as he first saw the khaki-clad North Vietnamese regulars swarming down the dry creekbed: “They’re PAVN! They’re PAVN!”
5. Quotations from Carmen Miceli are from the recorded discussion of X-Ray at the first Ia Drang reunion in 1988, plus a separate Moore/Miceli recorded interview at that same gathering.
6. Steven Hansen’s statements in this and subsequent chapters: from recorded interview at the August 1988 reunion; letters, Hansen to Moore, June 22, 1988, and fall 1988.
7. On Taft’s death: See n. 1 above.
8. On Hazen being shot: See n. 1 above.
9. Platoon Sgt. Troy Miller’s statements on the enemy attack on 3rd Platoon: from telephone interview notes, Miller/Cash, December 26, 1967.
10. The remarkable saga of Specialist Bill Beck detailed in this and subsequent chapters draws on a thick file of letters from Beck to Moore, beginning with the first, dated November 10, 1969, and including others dated April 11, 1983; May 16, 1983; June 14, 1985; September 3, 1986; February 24, 1988; and two from August 1989. The Beck story emerges from those letters and scores of telephone conversations and personal interviews with both authors. Beck is a trained professional graphic artist—which has much to do with the clarity and detail of his statements, his maps, and his sketches, and with his vivid memory. It was Beck who drew the map sketches for Moore’s original December 9, 1965, after-action report. Notes from an April 6, 1989, telephone conversation, Beck/Moore, are important. Also extremely valuable are Beck’s comments recorded during the 1988 Ia Drang reunion discussions. Also, Beck shipped home every scrap of official paper the Army handed him—and his mother preserved it all. He was thus able to provide the authors original company rosters, movement orders, and awards lists, with names and serial numbers, that were priceless.
11. Staley’s quote is from the Cash research file at the OCMH, Army.
12. Miller: See n. 9 above.
13. Nadal: See n. 2 above.
14. Beck: See n. 10 above.
15. Russell Adams’s statement, “Nobody told me to stop …”: from a conversation with Moore at the 1990 Ia Drang reunion.
16. Description of the A-IE aircraft and their capabilities and support at X-Ray, and then—Captain Bruce Wallace’s quotes and remarks: from a letter to Moore, dated August 8, 1983.
17. Dillon on calling ARA on the crash site: n. 1, ch. 5.
18. McClellan’s death in the November 14 crash is reported in Wallace’s letter; by the A-1 Skyraider Association; and the Vietnam Memorial Directory of Names. McClellan’s body was recovered. The 2nd Air Div cable to Chief of Staff, USAF of 28 Nov 25 (n. 11, ch. 6) states: “One A1E was hit by ground fire at 1404 H [2:04 P.M.], Acft caught fire, exploded and crashed. No chute was observed and pilot’s body was recovered 1720 H [5:20 P.M.].”
19. The identity of the enemy POW’s parent regiment, and other nearby North Vietnamese units: from a 1967 undated letter to Major Cash from then-Captain John S. Prichard, former assistant intelligence officer, 3rd Brigade; and also letter, Prichard to Cash, April 4, 1968. Also, notes of a Cash telephone interview with Prichard, August 22, 1967: Prichard told Cash that the 66th Regiment prisoners pointed out on a map the location of the regimental supply point. A later napalm strike on that location resulted in five secondary explosions and an estimated 80 enemy killed.
20. Brig. Gen. Knowles’s tense moments at the briefing for Maj. Gen. Kinnard at 1st Cav Div forward command post: described in letter, Knowles to Moore, June 20, 1983.
21. Information on Sgt. Hurdle’s machine guns: from Sgt. Ernie Savage (n. 8, ch. 6). For the progress of the battle of Herrick’s 2nd Platoon, including the actions of Hill, Hurdle, Anderson, and Zallen: Sgt. Zallen’s interview at July 1989 Ia Drang reunion and Galen Bungum’s submissions, n. 3, ch. 6.
22. Details of those wounded and types of wounds suffered by personnel of 2nd Platoon B/l/7: from a letter from then–Specialist 5 Charles Lose, the platoon medic, to Major John Cash, February 11, 1968.
23. Bungum’s remarks: n. 3, ch. 6.
24. Dorman’s statement was made to Galloway on November 16, 1965, on the battlefield.
25. All quotations and information provided by then-Specialist 4 Vincent Cantu in this chapter and subsequent ones: from Cantu’s detailed recollections of X-Ray contained in a 10-page letter delivered to Galloway at the August 1990 Ia Drang reunion at Fort Benning.
26. Information on redistribution of ammunition, collecting maps and signal data: from Savage (n. 8, ch. 6).
8. The Storm of Battle
1. All quotations and information from Lt. Col. L. R. (Ray) Lefebvre (ret.) in this and subsequent chapters are from: taped discussion May 21, 1983, Moore with Edwards and Lefebvre; letter, then-Major Lefebvre to Major Cash, January 12, 1968; undated (summer 1984) questionnaire and written submission to authors; taped discussion at the 1988 Orlando Ia Drang reunion; multiple telephone discussions with Moore and Galloway, 1989-1992.
2. Quotations and personal accounts from Army Aviators Lombardo and Jekel derive from their written submissions and letters and completed questionnaires received in the summer of 1983; telephone interviews, Galloway/Jekel, October 1990; telephone interview, Moore/Lombardo, March 6, 1992.
3. Letter from then-Brig. Gen. Roger Bean to Moore, July 7, 1989, described his experiences in the Ia Drang. Pilot Jon Mills’s written account, provided in the summer of 1983, corroborates.
4. For General An’s comment: n. 5, ch. 1.
5. For Edwards: n. 1, ch. 1.
6. For Herren: n. 2, ch. 6.
7. For Hansen: n. 6, ch. 7.
8. Beck’s recollections: n. 10, ch. 7.
9. McDonald: from questionnaire and statement enclosed with letter to Moore, December 18, 1989.
10. Information on Edwards’s platoon leaders and NCOs: from battalion records; Edwards material, n. 1, ch. 1; Vietnam Memorial Directory of Names; personal recollections.
11. Wallace material: n. 16, ch. 7.
12. Washburn account: his written notes, December 3, 1991, provided by Paul P. Winkel.
13. Barker comment about “five straight hours”: from a personal conversation with Moore at An Khe base camp after the battle.
14. Winkel’s observations: from an undated letter to Moore, received in late 1991.
9. Brave Aviators
1. Captain Metsker: Sgt. Maj. Plumley witnessed Metsker, down on one knee and firing his M-16 at the enemy on full automatic, when Metsker was struck in the shoulder by a bullet. Plumley said he last saw Metsker being bandaged by First Sergeant Arthur Newton of Alpha Company.
2. Crandall: See n. 5, ch. 3.
3. The detailed and invaluable recollections of Col. Paul Patton Winkel (ret.): from his letters, statements, and studies since 1983 of the helicopter operations and Army Aviator actions during the Ia Drang campaign. Winkel’s completed questionnaire and accompanying written account to Galloway and Moore, May 27, 1983, was the reference most used. Titled “The First Team and Landing Zone X-Ray, November 1965: A Helicopter Pilot’s View,” it is a compelling and forceful account of Winkel’s view of terror, death, and horribly wounded men in a vicious battle. He candidly writes about how he came to grips with and conquered his own fear in his first combat action. Other Winkel references: letters to authors, September 1, 1988; October 9, 1988; March 18, 1991; October 6, 1991; November 3, 1991; November 5, 1991; January 23, 1992; January 30, 1992; February 28, 1992; March 6, 1992; and countless telephone discussions with both authors over the years.
4. Winkel mentions battalion supply officer Rozanski personally bringing ammunition into X-Ray. The other side of this story took place at the ammo-supply point at Camp Holloway and is a good example of how our NCOs and troopers were trained to act on their own, in the absence of orders or instructions. Staff Sgt. James T Godfrey, 30, was battalion ammo sergeant. From a January 20, 1988, letter to Moore: “We had to use our own knowledge of what the units needed because the officers didn’t have time to request it item-by-item. I used my knowledge of what type ammo they needed in a defense, and what they could carry if ordered to attack or move out. Everyone had to think. There was no time to wait for someone to tell [you].”
5. Then–Col. Thomas W. Brown’s August 8, 1967, letter to Major Cash, and an August 25, 1967, letter to Cash from then-Major Henri S. Mallet, Brigade S-3, are very revealing on Brown’s decisions on reinforcement of X-Ray. The letters clearly show that, on the basis of information from Dillon in the chopper over head and 3rd Brigade’s monitoring of our battalion command radio net, Brown was way ahead of the requirement.
6. Quotations and information from Joe Marm in this and subsequent chap ters: from then-Captain Marm’s January 10, 1968, letter to Major Cash and from the authors’ personal and telephone discussions with Colonel Marm.
7. In a February 1992 telephone discussion with Moore, former Medical Platoon Sgt. Keeton said, “There was a hole as big as your fist in Bouknight’s back.”
8. Savage’s terse description of his cheery greeting to the three NVA soldiers he then killed: Time, November 26, 1965, p. 32, headlined THE VALLEYS OF DEATH.
9. Dorman’s remarks were made to Galloway, November 16, 1965.
10. Fix Bayonets!
1. Biographical information on then-Captain Diduryk: from a letter to Moore from Mrs. Delores Diduryk, June 10, 1984.
2. Quotes and information in this and subsequent chapters from Jon Wallenius are from: the 1983 questionnaire; Wallenius letter to Moore, August 29, 1986; 1988 Orlando reunion taped discussions; written statement, October 15, 1988, in which Wallenius recounts his experiences at X-Ray; letter to Moore, September 20, 1988; Wallenius discussion with Galloway at Ia Drang reunion in Washington, D.C., November 1989; recorded speech by Wallenius at My 1991 Ia Drang reunion lunch, Fort Hood, Texas; and numerous telephone discussions with both authors,.
3. Nadal information: n. 2, ch. 7. Miller: n. 9, ch. 7. Deal: n. 5, ch. 6. kreischer and Beck: n. 6, n. 11, ch. 7. Gell’s last words: recounted by Sgt. Sam Hollman, Jr., to Bill Beck, August 1989.
4. Marm’s charge against the machine-gun bunker was recounted by several witnesses. See Gilreath, n. 9, ch. 5, and Deal, n. 5, ch. 6. Also Marm’s letter to Major Cash, January 10, 1968.
5. Wallenius landing: n. 2 above, and Paul Winke’s helicopter support study n. 3, ch. 9. Setelin quotes in this chapter and subsequent ones: from a tape-recorded statement by Setelin, December 1988; Setelin’s completed questionnaire, December 1988; tapes of the Orlando 1988 reunion discussions; a second statement Setelin recorded in 1991; transcript of a recorded interview by Galloway, December 1991.
6. The DASPO film-crew mission was Project No. DCS 200-13B65. “Date shot: 14-15 Nov” is on the caption forms. Also, Galloway interview of Sgt. Jack Yamaguchi (ret.), one of the two Army cameramen present in X-Ray, Septem ber 1990.
7. Nadal’s request for permission to fall back and the WP smoke mission: n. 2, ch. 7. Gilreath’s comment to Herren: n. 9, ch. 5.
8. Tanner on the noise and bright light: undated (early 1990) letter to Moore.
9. Edwards: n. 1, ch. 1. Herren: n. 2, ch. 6.
10. Setelin’s anguish over the wounding of Willard: n. 5 above.
11. Tally of the day’s killed and wounded: battalion records; Moore’s personal records and notebooks.
12. Adams and the field antenna: Delta Company was designated the backup battalion CP; thus Adams carried the RC-292.
13. A North Vietnamese map sketch captured in 1966 and studied for this book shows three separate attacks on 1st Battalion, 7th Cav at X-Ray on November 14. That is corroborated by the statements of Generals An and Phuong (n. 5, ch. 1). There was one attack from the northwest by elements of the 33rd Regiment; one from the west-southwest by the 9th Battalion, 66th Regiment; and a third from the south and southeast by the 7th Battalion, 66th Regiment.
11. Night Falls
1. Rescorla’s quotes and information: Col. USAR (ret.) Cyril R. (Rick) Rescorla’s detailed memories of the Ia Drang campaign are drawn from a 26-page written account, with map sketches, September 19, 1991, accompanying his completed questionnaire. Also multiple telephone discussions with Moore and Galloway, beginning in September 1991.
2. Dillon on the lights on the mountain: letter to Major Cash, August 18, 1967.
3. Night landing in X-Ray: Crandall, n. 5, ch. 3.
4. Crandall’s return to the Turkey Farm: n. 5, ch. 3.
5. Medical treatment and evacuation: letter from Lt. Col. George H. Kelling (ret.), November 21, 1983; undated (spring 1984) letter and questionnaire; undated (summer 1984) letter with lengthy description of medical support activities.
6. Edwards on the probes: n. 1, ch. 1.
7. The foxholes: Platoon Sgt. Robert Jemison’s questionnaire and written description, undated (summer 1983); Moore interview at Jemison’s home in 1984; multiple telephone discussions with both authors, most recently August 1991.
8. Setelin’s account of the sniper in the trees: n. 5, ch. 10.
9. Warren Adams’s quotes and information: from two cassettes he recorded in 1988; recorded discussions at the 1988 Orlando reunion and subsequent reunions; numerous telephone discussions, the last on January 30, 1992.
10. Cantu on his first-class foxhole: n. 25, ch. 7.
11. Quotations and information from then-Captain Diduryk in this and subsequent chapters: from an undated eight-page Diduryk paper with three sketch maps describing his and his company’s actions at X-Ray provided by Delores Diduryk. Also a November 27, 1965, seven-page letter and sketch maps pro vided by Diduryk to a classmate for use in teaching ROTC students at Diduryk’s alma mater. A copy was sent to the authors in November 1990.
12. Herren in the dry creekbed: n. 2, ch. 6.
13. Nadal on Herren’s left: n. 2, ch. 7.
14. Tanner: n. 8, ch. 10.
15. Beck: n. 10, ch. 7.
16. Dillon to Nadal on the M-79 H&I fires: Moore recollection.
17. Bungum: n. 3, ch. 6.
18. Gilreath: n. 9, ch. 5.
19. Quotes from Lt. Dick Merchant in this and subsequent chapters: from his completed questionnaire and accompanying statement, April 24, 1983.
20. Information from Col. Wirth (ret.) are from his letters to the authors, August and September 1984.
21. Herren on Savage’s report on possible attack: n. 2, ch. 6.
12. A Dawn Attack
1. Edwards on the patrols: n. 1, ch. 1.
2. Jemison’s memory of how he and Lt. Geoghegan shared the last of the water was relayed to Moore by Geoghegan’s parents during a visit in the summer of 1967. They had exchanged letters with Sgt. Jemison. Also see n. 8, ch. 1.
3. Phuong: n. 5, ch. 1.
4. Edwards, Viera, Jemison: n. 1, n. 6, and n. 8, ch. 1.
5. Setelin: n. 5, ch. 10.
6. Hastings uses the “Broken Arrow” code word for an American unit in trouble: n. 10, ch. 5. Hastings/Galloway telephone conversation, April 28, 1992. Also, 2nd Air Div cable to Chief of Staff US AF 28 Nov 65 (n. 11, ch. 6): “From 6 A.M. 15 Nov until 6 A.M. 16 NOV there were 48 fighter-bomber sorties by AlEs, F-lOOs, B-57s, and F4Cs.” Authors’ note: Most of this firepower exploded for ward of Charlie Company.
7. Adams and his RTO clean up the termite hill: n. 9, ch. 11.
8. McDonald uses the M-79 and grenades: from his letter of December 18, 1989.
9. McCulley shot in the throat: from Nadal’s award recommendation for Sgt. McCulley, late November 1965.
10. Wallenius and Sgt. Alvarez-Buzo and the pop-up targets: n. 2, ch. 10.
11. Parish’s actions: his recorded 1987 statement to Moore and the citation ac companying his Silver Star award.
12. Not only did those nine machine guns create a wall of steel, but the terrain to their front was flat, and tree growth was sparse in the beaten zone. The maximum effective range of an M-60 is 1,100 meters (Infantry Leader’s Reference Card, GTA 7-1-27, September 1975, Fort Benning). If an M-60 round did not hit a tree or termite hill, it could still kill a man three-quarters of a mile downrange from Adams’s firing positions.
13. Cantu on the jets, artillery, De La Paz, and meeting his old friend Galloway: n. 25, ch. 7.
13. Friendly Fire
1. Viera and Jemison: n. 6 and n. 8, ch. 1. From what Viera says (and Edwards also) it is clear that had the NVA troops been better led and disciplined, and not diverted to killing our wounded and stripping them of loot, they would have had a fleeting opportunity to take Captain Edwards’s command post. That, in turn, would have opened a path to the battalion CP. That brief opportunity was eliminated by the rain of air and artillery fire support.
2. Poley on getting hit: n. 7, ch. 1.
3. Edwards and Herren on fire support: n. 1, ch. 1; n. 2, ch. 6.
4. Edwards on the enemy sniper and Sgt. Kennedy: n. 1, ch. 1; Jemison on Byrd and Foxe: n. 8, ch. 1.
5. Keeton: n. 10, ch. 6.
6. Dillon on the napalm: n. 1, ch. 5; Nye on the napalm and Nakayama: n. 12, ch. 6.
7. Burlile’s death: n. 1, ch. 11.
8. Hastings on the second F-100: n. 10, ch. 5.
9. Moore well remembers the black-uniformed enemy soldier stumbling, weaponless, into the clearing—the only enemy to break through the lines.
10. Setelin on the WP: n. 5, ch. 10.
11. Sugdinis and Sisson landing at X-Ray: from battalion after-action report, December 9, 1965.
12. On Gwin’s quotations and information in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of Galloway telephone interview with Gwin, August 27, 1991; also “Narrative by Lt. Gwin,” 1983; Gwin letter to Moore, October 18, 1991; with 26-page transcript “A Day at Albany” and four map sketches; Gwin letter to Moore dated June 1, 1984, enclosing a draft chapter on LZ X-Ray from “Some Came Home,” a work in progress on the Ia Drang. Also multiple Galloway/Gwin telephone discussions.
13. Maruhnich’s recollections: undated autobiography by SFC Maruhnich and 10-page handwritten attachment; Maruhnich statement and sketch, May 12, 1984; letter to Moore, March 19, 1991.
14. Jemison on why his platoon held: n. 8, ch. 1.
15. Tally of friendly casualties: battalion records and Moore notebooks.
16. Diduryk: n. 11, ch. 11. Rescorla: n. 1, ch. 11.
17. Robert Tully quotations and information in this and subsequent chapters: from Tully letter to Major Cash, September 5, 1967; Galloway telephone interview with Tully, September, 1991.
18. Bennett on enemy resistance: from a letter from Bennett to Major Cash, September 20, 1967.
19. Pop Jekel waits in the landing zone: n. 2, ch. 8.
20. Edwards: n. 1, ch. 1. Dillon: n. 1, ch. 5. Wirth: n. 20, ch. 11.
21. Tully reaches X-Ray: Rescorla (n. 1, ch. 11); Adams (n. 9, ch. 11); Cantu (n. 25, ch. 7).
22. Selleck’s information in this chapter and subsequent ones are from his undated questionnaire, received late in 1985, and his undated (1986) tape-recorded statement.
23. The artillery at LZ Falcon: letter to Moore from Gen. Bill Becker, formerly 1st Cav Div assistant division commander for support, June 25, 1984; completed questionnaire from James W. Green, formerly communications chief 1/21 Artillery, summer 1983; statement from Harold M. Hamilton, former 1/21 Artillery supply officer, 1983. Keeping the tubes supplied with 105mm ammo was critical. At Camp Holloway every man in reach was dragooned into service loading the shells aboard CH-47 Chinook helicopters. When the Chinooks reached Falcon, the pilots lowered the tail ramps while hovering, tilted the chopper rear down, and let the round canisters roll out the back, ready for use.
14. Rescuing the Lost Platoon
1. On Tully’s formation and use of Herren: Moore notes and n. 17, ch. 13.
2. Bennett quote: n. 18, ch. 13. Location of Boyt’s company: letter, Capt. Edward A. Boyt to Major Cash, November 20, 1967. Time of attack: after-action report.
3. Herren and Deal quotes: n. 2, ch. 6, and n. 5, ch. 6, respectively.
4. Crooks quotations in this and subsequent chapters: letter, Crooks to Major Cash, September 19, 1967.
5. In July 1991, at the 1st Cav Div Reunion at Fort Hood, Moore taped an hour-long interview with three of Captain Bennett’s men that was most helpful in understanding the move out to Savage’s perimeter; the physical appearance of the perimeter and the surrounding area; the linkup and brief firefight on arrival; the gathering-up of Savage’s men and equipment; and the return to X-Ray. Those men are Melvin Gregory of Jefferson City, Mo.; Stanley Rothstein of Waco, Tex.; and Ted C. Kolbusz of Chicago, III. On April 3, 1966, the 1st Battalion, 7th Cav returned to X-Ray. With a platoon as security, Plumley and Moore retraced the attack route Bravo 1/7 had used on November 15, 1965, and walked the ground around Savage’s perimeter on the knoll.
6. Setelin onMcManus’s death: n. 5, ch. 10.
7. Wallenius and the seven dead enemy: n. 2, ch. 10.
8. On the evacuation of the dead: Moore recollection and Cantu (n. 25, ch. 7).
9. Brown’s visit and Merchant’s quote: n. 19, ch. 11. Also recollection of Moore and others in CP. Also, Moore telephone discussions with Tademy and Plumley, June 1992.
10. Brown alerting us that 1/7 would pull out of X-Ray on November 16: Dillon (n. 1, ch. 5); Moore/Dillon telephone discussion, fall 1991.
11. The B-52 strike: an April 1983 chance meeting between Moore and Lt. Col. Ewing P. Goff, USAF Reserve, who flew on that mission. Goff said it was “the one meaningful memory from all my Vietnam missions to know that we helped your battalion when you were in a very tight situation. We’d been told you were in trouble and accuracy was paramount.” From declassified Volume IV of 3rd Air Div and 3960th Strategic Wing records of July–December 1965: Goff was commander of B-52 Tail No. 170 on the “Ivory Tusk” Mission; his radio call sign was White 7. Goff says there were 18 B-52s on that mission in a trail formation, groups of three aircraft in a tight V, with each aircraft carrying 48 500-pound bombs. Each group of three dropped 36 tons of bombs in an area 1/4 by 3/4 of a mile. Total bombs dropped by all 18 aircraft: 216 tons.
12. General An: n. 5, ch. 1.
13. Herren, Savage, and Tully quotes from previously cited sources: Herren, n. 2, ch. 6; Savage, n. 8, ch. 6; Tully, n. 17, ch. 13.
14. Platoon casualty figures: Herren (n. 2, ch. 6).
15. Deal: n. 5, ch. 6.
16. Translation of NVA soldier’s handwritten diary: provided 1987 by the Department of Defense Language Institute, Presidio of Monterey, Calif.
17. Tully: n. 17, ch. 13.
18. Gilreath: n. 9, ch. 5.
19. Stoner on smoking shrapnel and Knowles’s visit: n. 21, ch. 7. Also, Moore telephone interviews with Plumley, Knudson, and Dillon in June 1992. See pp. 239–40 in Coleman: Pleiku.…
20. Tally of casualties: battalion records; Moore notebooks and records.
15. Night Fighters
1. All quotations and information from Rescorla and Diduryk: n. 1, ch. 11; n. 11, ch. 11.
2. Martin: his undated 1988 written statement and completed questionnaire.
3. Lund quotes and information in this and later chapters are from his undated (January 1992) letter to Moore.
4. Both Dillon and Moore have a clear memory of the radio message that 1st Battalion, 7th Cav would be pulled out of X-Ray on November 16. It was logged in the battalion journal and reviewed by Moore during the writing of the after-action report, late November 1965. The journals of 3rd Brigade and the 1st and 2nd battalions, 7th Cav for the period of the Ia Drang campaign have never been located, according to the Office of the Chief of Military History and the Suitland Branch of the National Archives. It has never been adequately explained why those particular records are missing. The loss of those journals has been keenly felt by the authors and other historians interested in reconstructing the events of November 1965 in the Ia Drang.
5. Moore’s memory of the radio message from then-Lt. Col. Meyer alerting him to leave the battlefield and brief the MACV staff in Saigon and the amazement and anger he felt is strong and clear, as is his memory of registering his objections in a radio conversation with Meyer two hours later. The Moore/Meyer radio conversations of that night are also covered in Major Cash’s memo of a phone interview with Moore, August 8, 1967.
6. Plumley actions: from his Silver Star citation.
7. Setelin quotations: n. 5, ch. 10.
8. Selleck quotations: n. 22, ch. 13.
9. Results of the Mad Minute: 1/7 Battalion after-action report, December 9, 1965, p. 12.
16. Policing the Battlefield
1. Times of sweeps: after-action report, December 9, 1965.
2. Rescorla: n. 1, ch. 11.
3. Wallace quotes: n. 16, ch. 7.
4. The 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry march overland from Columbus to X-Ray: from 3rd Brigade and 2nd Battalion after-action reports.
5. Ackerman quote: from his November 25, 1990, letter to Galloway.
6. Selleck: n. 22, ch. 13.
7. The order at 10:40 A.M.: 1/7 Battalion after-action report.
8. Kluge finding the dead American sergeant: telephone conversation, Kluge/Galloway, December 21, 1991.
9. McCulloch recollection: notes from McCulloch/Galloway telephone conversation in November 1990.
10. Enemy weapons count: 1/7 Battalion after-action report.
11. Cantu: n. 25, ch. 7.
12. Parish: from previously cited recorded statement to Moore, 1987, n. 11, ch. 12.
13. Julie Moore quote: tape-recorded statement made for the authors, December 1991.
14. On Dickey Chapelle’s death: personal memory of Galloway. Also, U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Landing and the Buildup 1965, book by Jack Shulimson and Maj. Charles M. Johnson, p. 94. Chapelle was killed on November 4, 1965, while on patrol with U.S. Marines on Operation Black Ferret 10 miles south of Chu Lai. A Marine walking in front of her triggered a booby-trapped 81mm mortar shell and an M26 hand grenade, and a tiny piece of shrapnel severed an artery in Chapelle’s throat. Chapelle was only the first of the war correspondents to die in combat; in the 10 years that followed a total of 63 lost their lives covering the war in Indochina.
17. It Ain’t Over Till It’s Over
1. Adams: n. 9, ch. 11.
2. Blount: letter to authors, April 24, 1983.
3. Beck: n. 10, ch.7.
4. Tanner: n. 8, ch. 10.
5. Wallenius: n. 2, ch. 10.
6. Hansen: n. 6, ch. 7.
7. The standoff at the Camp Holloway bar: J. D. Coleman, Pleiku: The Dawn of Helicopter Warfare in Vietnam, pp. 227-28. Galloway interview with Mills, November 1991. Moore’s memory.
8. Rescorla: n. 1, ch. 11.
9. Staff Sgt. Robert Brown went on to become a sergeant major in the prestigious 3rd Infantry Regiment at Fort Myer, Virginia. Now retired, he supervises a veterans’ cemetery in the Washington, D.C., area.
10. Information on the night of November 16 at X-Ray and the November 17 march out of X-Ray: from the after-action reports of 3rd Brigade, 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry and 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry.
11. Biographical information on Tully: West Point Register of Graduates. On McDade: Coleman, Pleiku, pp. 231-32. Transcript of Galloway telephone interview with McDade, October 1990.
12. Information and quotations from Col. Brown on the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of an interview of Brig. Gen. Brown (ret.) by Galloway, August 21, 1991.
13. Sgt. Maj. Scott on the 2nd Battalion: All Scott quotations and information in this and subsequent chapters are from: Time, December 31, 1965, “The Year in Review: The War”; transcript of Galloway’s interview with Scott, September 1991; letters and enclosures from Scott to Galloway, October-December 1991; telephone conversation, Scott/Galloway, January 1992.
14. Alley on the 2nd Battalion; Alley’s biography: All quotations and information from J. L. (Bud) Alley in this and subsequent chapters are from the transcript of an interview of Alley by Galloway, November 20, 1991, and a letter from Alley to Galloway, November 25, 1991.
15. Quotations and information by then-Lt. Col. Edward C. (Shy) Meyer in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of an interview of Meyer by Galloway, August 28, 1991.
16. Biographical information on Gwin, and his comments on McDade and the battalion officers: n. 12, ch. 13.
17. Epperson on McDade: This and other quotations from Epperson in this and subsequent chapters are from the transcript of an interview of Epperson by Galloway, August 24, 1991.
18. All quotations, comments, and information attributed to then-Lt. Col. McDade in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of telephone interviews by Galloway, October 19, 1990, and November 15, 1991; interview by Galloway; notes of phone conversation Galloway/McDade, January 17, 1992; and letter, from McDade to Moore and Galloway, January 18, 1992.
19. All quotations and comments from Rescorla on the rest at Holloway, B Company 2/7 saddling up for more combat, and his subsequent accounts of what he saw in LZ Albany: from his nineteen-page written statement on the fight at Albany, provided the authors in late 1991; three hand-drawn sketches of the Albany battlefield; four-page “Postmortem” on Albany; and two memos with comments on draft chapters, December 1991-January 1992.
20. The nine A.M. departure time from X-Ray is from the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry after-action report, December 5, 1965, p. 2.
18. A Walk in the Sun
1. All information and comments attributed to then-Lt. Col. Bob Tully in this and later chapters: from transcript of Galloway telephone interview with Tully, August 1991.
2. Brown at X-Ray, November 17: n. 12, ch. 17.
3. All quotations and comments by CWO Ainsworth in this and later chapters: April 1983 questionnaire; Ainsworth letters to Moore, June 2, 1983, and May 11, 1991; notes of phone conversation, Moore/Ainsworth, October 1991; transcript of Galloway interview of Ainsworth, November 1991.
4. Comments on the 2/7 Cav’s mission: Brown, n. 12, ch. 17; Meyer, n. 15, ch. 17; McDade, n. 18, ch. 17.
4.1 On the journals: September 8, 1967, letter to OCMH from Army Records Center stating they had not been received; Moore/Galloway 1984 discussion with Chief of Military History Douglas Kinnard. Also, Moore’s May 4, 1992, discussion with Richard Boylan, National Archives.
5. All quotations and information attributed to then-Captain Jim Spires in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of Galloway interview of Spires, June 4, 1991. Multiple telephone discussions, Galloway/Spires, fall 1991.
6. All quotations and information from then-Captain Dudley Tademy in this and later chapters: transcript of interview by Galloway, August 15, 1991.
7. Description of beginning of march by Scott, n. 13, ch. 17, and Gwin, n. 12, ch. 13.
8. All quotations and information from then-Captain Joel Sugdinis in this and later chapters are from a detailed 30-page memoir of X-Ray and Albany by Sug dinis, November 20, 1991. Biographical information on Sugdinis is from the West Point Register of Graduates. Notes of multiple telephone discussions, Galloway/Sugdinis, summer and fall 1991.
9. All quotations and information from then-Captain Henry Thorpe in this and later chapters: transcript of a recorded interview of Thorpe by Galloway, August 9, 1991, Washington, D.C.
10. All quotations and information from then-Captain Skip Fesmire in this and subsequent chapters: detailed statement written by Fesmire at the request of Moore, October 21, 1991; letter, Fesmire to Moore, January 1992.
11. Pujals: All comments, information, and quotations from then-Lt. Enrique Pujals in this and later chapters: letter, Pujals to Moore, March 20, 1991; letter, Pujals to Galloway, March 22, 1991; and a most valuable, detailed 20-page letter, Pujals to Moore, April 4, 1991.
12. Specialist Smith on the rotting bodies: Smith’s article, “Death in the Ia Drang Valley,” Saturday Evening Post, January 28, 1967, p. 81.
13. All comments and information from John Howard in this and later chapters: Howard’s written statement; with maps, to Galloway, November 19, 1990; notes of multiple telephone conversations, Galloway/Howard, August-December 1991.
14. All quotations and information from then-Captain Shucart in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of an interview of Shucart by Galloway, November 1991.
15. All quotes, comments, and information from then-Captain George Forrest in this and later chapters: transcript of an interview of Forrest by Galloway, August 24, 1991.
16. All quotes from the Vietnamese generals: n. 5, ch. 1.
17. Slovak on the tracks and arrows: undated (December 1991) written statement from Donald J. Slovak to the authors.
18. All quotes, comments, and information from then-PFC James H. Shadden: letter to Moore, October 7, 1988; detailed seven-page letter to Moore, November 17, 1988; Galloway discussion with Shadden at the August 1990 Ia Drang reunion; telephone conversations, Shadden/Moore/Galloway, fall 1991.
19. Then-Specialist 4 Bob Towles provided the authors with a detailed 20-page account of his actions at LZ Albany, March 9, 1991; letter to Moore, March 21, 1991; multiple telephone discussions with Galloway, 1990-1991. All comments and information from Towles in this and subsequent chapters are from those sources.
20. Payne and the captured prisoners: With a cover letter of November 20, 1991, Pat Payne transmitted a detailed 30-page account, with five sketch maps, of his recollections of the Albany battle. All quotes and comments in this and subsequent chapters attributed to Lt. Payne are from that account.
21. Captain Cash’s recollections in this and subsequent chapters from transcript of taped discussion with Galloway on August 16, 1991, and multiple telephone discussions with Galloway, 1990-1992.
22. Casualty figures compiled and crosschecked from after-action reports of 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, and 1st Cavalry Division. Also, Sergeant Cumberland’s book of the dead, Army Adjutant-General’s list of Vietnam dead.
19. Hell in a Very Small Place
1. All quotes and comments attributed to Specialist 4 Ackerman in this and later chapters: letters to U.S. News & World Report, November 25, 1990, and a December 27, 1990, letter to Galloway.
2. All attributions to Gooden in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of a Galloway interview of Gooden, August 17, 1991; multiple telephone discussions, Galloway/Gooden, in the latter part of 1991.
3. Then-PFC Jack Smith’s account of the beginning of the fight at Albany and seeing his friends shot down: transcript of a speech by Smith, given at the Ia Drang reunion in Washington, DC, November 1991. Material on Thorpe from n. 9, ch. 18, and a February 10, 1966, citation awarding Thorpe an Army Commendation Medal.
4. All quotes and information from David A. (Purp) Lavender in this and later chapters: letter to Moore, December 7, 1983; his completed questionnaire and the transcript of a statement recorded for Moore, spring 1984; transcript of Galloway’s interview of Lavender, September 4, 1991.
5. All quotes and comments by James Young in this and subsequent chapters: transcript of a telephone interview of Young by Galloway, December 1991, during which time Young referred back to the pocket diary he kept after he was wounded for times and dates.
6. Tademy on himself and Brown at LZ Columbus and overflying Albany; also on Bartholomew and Price: n. 6, ch. 18.
7. Colonel Brown on his radio talks with McDade, the Westmoreland briefing, and reinforcements: n. 12, ch. 17.
8. Tademy and Cash on the radio conversations: n. 6, ch. 18, and n. 21, ch. 18, respectively.
9. McDade’s view of the situation and his actions: n. 18, ch. 17.
10. Hemphill quotes in this and subsequent chapters: from transcript of August 21, 1991, telephone discussion with Galloway.
11. Knowles flies to Albany, talks to McDade: Moore telephone interviews of Knowles on May 5 and 6, 1992. Warrant officer reports 14 KIA to Knowles: corroborated by his letter to Moore cited in n. 20, ch. 7.
12. On the dispositions of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry at Albany and across the valley to the southeast; how the battle began and developed; and the resulting melee: These are the conclusions of the authors based on detailed study of all the accounts of the battle.
20. Death in the Tall Grass
1. Smith on what he saw all around him: n. 3, ch. 19.
2. Howard, Alley, Shucart, Shadden, Towles, Young, McDade, and Ackerman quotes and comments: See notes to chapters 17, 18, 19.
3. On the alerting of Myron Diduryk’s company: Dillon, Moore, and three men of the 1/7 Battalion operations section had been listening to McDade’s 2nd Battalion command frequency during the late morning and early afternoon of November 17 at Camp Holloway. Suddenly that radio went wild with the sound of explosions, small arms, and men shouting. We knew immediately that the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cav was in deep shit. The word for us to alert Diduryk’s Bravo Company came at around four P.M. and was instantly relayed to him.
4. Wallenius’s birthday: n. 2, ch. 10.
5. Rescorla: n. 19, ch. 17.
6. Although the 1st Cav Division after-action report and the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cav after-action report specify 6:25 P.M. as the time the reinforcements began landing, study of other reports and of comments by the aviators and the officers and men of Bravo 2/7 lead the authors to be more comfortable with the 6:45 P.M. time that we use here.
21. Escape and Evade
1. Howard: n. 13, ch. 17.
2. Alley: n. 14, ch. 17.
3. The story of James Young: See n. 5, ch. 19.
4. The saga of Toby Braveboy is covered briefly here from the following sources: article by Charlie Black in the Columbus (Ga.) Ledger-Enquirer, early December 1965; account in J. D. Coleman’s Pleiku; letter to Moore, August 9, 1983, from Bob McMahon, who was in 2nd Brigade Headquarters when Braveboy was brought in; undated (December 1965) report of the 1st Squadron, 9th Cavalry on the rescue and its aftermath (this report states that within an hour of Braveboy’s rescue, the North Vietnamese attempted unsuccessfully to lure another H-13 scout helicopter into an ambush by emulating the Braveboy circumstances; the scouts killed two North Vietnamese, and the rest ran for it). A letter dated July 12, 1991, from Dave Bray, former 1/9 pilot, to Moore provided details of the first sighting of Braveboy and how near he came to being shot by the H-13 observer; also, Joel Sugdinis, Braveboy’s company commander (n. 8, ch. 18), details how he changed the Alpha Company 2/7 radio call sign to “Braveboy” after visiting Toby Braveboy in the hospital. Also, Galloway telephone discussions with members of the Braveboy family (his father and a sister-in-law) who still reside in Coward, S.C.
22. Night Without End
1. Lombardo and Jekel lose the chin bubble on their Huey: n. 2, ch. 8.
2. Stinnett: from Paul P. Winkel’s “Table 11 and Enclosures” in his aviation studies of the exhaustively researched 257-page report compiled 1990-1991 to support Winkel’s recommendation that 5 aviators of the 229th Assault Helicopter Battalion—Bruce P. Crandall, Ed W. Freeman, Jon R. Mills, Frank Moreno, and Leland Komich—be awarded, belatedly, the Medal of Honor for their heroic actions in the Ia Drang Valley, November 14-16, 1965. The authors and Winkel have copies. Also, Galloway’s telephone interview of Stinnett, December 1991.
3. Diduryk: n. 11, ch. 11.
4. Rescorla: n. 19, ch. 17.
5. Gwin, Shadden, Payne: See Gwin, n. 12, ch. 13; Shadden, n. 18, ch. 18; Payne, n. 20, ch. 18.
6. Jack Smith lights a cigarette, even if it may get him killed: Smith’s 1991 Veterans Day speech in Washington.
7. Shucart, n. 14, ch. 18; Pujals, n. 11, ch. 18; Forrest, n. 15, ch. 18; and Lavender, n. 4, ch. 19.
8. Sgt. Ibach isolates and eventually links up with battalion perimeter: undated written statement, Ibach to Galloway, December 1991.
9. Ainsworth: n. 3, ch. 18.
10. Stinnett and the landing under fire: n. 2, above.
11. Sugdinis, n. 8, ch. 18; Scott, n. 13, ch. 17; Gwin, n. 12, ch. 13; Ackerman, n. 1, ch. 19; Shucart, n. 14, ch. 18; Payne, n. 20, ch. 18; and Fesmire, n. 10, ch. 18.
12. Captured bugle: The inscription was taken by the authors directly from the bugle itself.
13. Tademy, n. 6, ch. 18; Tully, n. 1, ch. 18; Brown, n. 12, ch. 12; An, n. 5, ch. 1.
14. Wallenius and the dead: n. 2, ch. 10.
15. Shadden’s ordeal ends: n. 18, ch. 18.
23. The Sergeant and the Ghost
1. Transcript of Galloway’s interview of Fred J. Kluge, December 17, 1991.
2. Transcript of Galloway’s interview of Robert J. Jeannette, December 18, 1991.
24. Mentioned in Dispatches
1. Knowles and the news conference: J. D. Coleman’s Pleiku; Galloway, who was present at the conference. Also, Moore’s telephone interviews with Knowles on May 5-6, 1992.
2. Entries from General Westmoreland’s daily journal: “Memoirs, Gen. Westmoreland’s History Notes 11/14-11/20/65 pp. 7-12 only” from Collection: “Papers of William C. Westmoreland.” Folder Title: #2 History File 25 Oct-20 Dec 65, Lyndon B. Johnson Library. Also, daily schedule of events, November 14-20, 1965 (5 pages), “Papers of William C. Westmoreland,” Box Seven: #2 History File, Document nos. 22 and 23, pp. 1-7. Lyndon B. Johnson Library.
3. Westmoreland visits the 1st Battalion at Holloway; the briefing; his talk to the troopers: Moore’s personal recollections, verified by n. 2 above and by Galloway recollection. The matter of whether or not Chinese advisers were inside South Vietnam with the NVA regiments in late 1965 has never been answered to the satisfaction of Moore and Dillon.
4. General Johnson’s message: quoted from a copy given Moore by Maj. Gen. Kinnard, and in Moore’s collection.
5. Sugdinis, Rescorla: n. 8, ch. 18, and n. 19, ch. 17, respectively.
6. Move of 1st Battalion to Catecka: brigade and battalion after-action reports; Moore’s personal recollection.
7. The 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry moves to LZ Crooks: 1st Cavalry Division and 2nd Battalion after-action reports.
8. Setelin: n. 5, ch. 10.
9. Friendly-fire tragedy at Catecka: Galen Bungum (n. 3, ch. 6); personal statements of Dillon, Herren, Plumley, and Whiteside, to Moore.
10. Some men leave Catecka—and the U.S. Army: Moore, Plumley, Warren Adams recollections.
11. Rescorla: n. 19, ch. 17.
12. The battalion leaves Catecka for An Khe: Moore and Plumley recollections and notes.
13. The 3rd Brigade turns over the Ia Drang operation to the 2nd Brigade, and the action of the ARVN Airborne Task Force: from 1st Cavalry Division after-action report; Samabria and Boyle, “The Lure and the Ambush.”
14. General Schwarzkopf’s recollection of the action along the Cambodian border: interview by Galloway in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, January 1991.
15. Kinnard, Larsen, and Westmoreland on going into Cambodia: transcript of Galloway interview with Kinnard, September 19, 1990; transcript of Galloway interview with Larsen, September 19, 1990; transcript of Galloway interview with Westmoreland, September 1990.
16. Bundy’s cable on ground rules for any cross-border actions in Cambodia: copy of four-page top-secret State Department cable from W. P. Bundy to the American embassy in Saigon, dated November 20, 1965, with copies to McNamara, Wheeler, McGeorge Bundy, and the secretary of state’s office. Sanitized and declassified on September 17, 1991, at the authors’ request. Approximately 1V2 pages were blanked out in the “sanitization” process. National Security File, Country File Vietnam. Box 46. Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Tex.
17. Orders to cavalry commanders to keep quiet about NVA in Cambodia: Moore’s personal recollection.
18. Rescorla, n. 19, ch. 17; Setelin, n. 5, ch. 10; Shucart, n. 14, ch. 18; Sugdinis, n. 8, ch. 18; Gwin, n. 12, ch. 13; McDade, n. 18, ch. 17; General An, n. 5, ch. 1.
19. Enemy weapons captured: 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry after-action report.
20. Setelin, n. 5, ch. 10; Tanner, n. 8, ch. 10; McDade, n. 18, ch. 17; Gwin, n. 12, ch. 13.
21. On Moore’s promotion to colonel: He had been on the promotion list for over 13 months. It was not a “battlefield promotion,” as some media reports stated at the time.
22. The McNamara briefing: Moore’s recollection, corroborated by Lt. Col. Ben Silver’s history notes.
23. Charlie Hastings shot down: notes of conversation with Galloway in January 1992.
24. Forrest and his distress over the missing PFC Ackerman: n. 15, ch. 18.
25. Recovering the missing men’s remains: Moore’s recollection; also, page 6, 3rd Brigade after-action report on Operation Lincoln III, dated April 27, 1966.
25. “The Secretary of the Army Regrets …”
1. Casualty totals: from battalion and division after-action reports.
2. Jemison, n. 8, ch. 1; Young, n. 5, ch. 19; Poley, n. 7, ch. 1.
3. Yellow Cab casualty notification: statements of surviving family members who were thus notified. Drunk taxi driver: statement of Sara Elliott to Galloway at August 1990 Ia Drang reunion at Fort Benning.
4. Betty Jivens Mapson: letter to Galloway, November 28, 1990.
5. Julie Moore on the taxis and the funerals and on visiting the families: transcript of her tape-recorded statement of November 28, 1991.
6. Kornelia Scott: written statement provided to the authors, October 1991.
7. The remarkable story of Barbara Geoghegan Johns emerges in her own words in a series of typed single-spaced recollections to Galloway totaling more than 10 pages, plus cover letters, dated between April 1991 and October 1991. Enclosures include the “before” and “after” copies of Lt. Geoghegan’s death certificate; a copy of the elder Mrs. Geoghegan’s September 24, 1965, letter to her son in Vietnam; a copy of the letter to the people of Pelham written by the elder Mrs. Geoghegan and published on January 13, 1966, in The Pelham Sun; and copies of Geoghegan’s obituary in The Dome (the newspaper of Pennsylvania Military College), December 2, 1965, and in The Catholic News of New York, N.Y., December 9, 1965.
8. No less moving is the story told by Betty Jivens Mapson in two lengthy handwritten statements to Galloway dated November 28, 1990, and December 2, 1991. Also her enclosures of copies of letters September-October 1965, from Sgt. Jerry Jivens, copies of newspaper clippings, and a telegram from the Army providing details of how Sgt. Jivens’s body would be shipped home and details of how the family would be entitled to a burial allowance of between $75 and $200, depending on whether burial was in a national cemetery or a private one. Also multiple telephone discussions between Galloway and Mrs. Mapson between November 1990 and January 1992.
9. Catherine Metsker McCray: The story of her marriage to Captain Metsker and the impact of his death in combat is told in a handwritten statement to Galloway, November 16, 1991.
10. Karen Metsker Rudel: Her story of growing up without a father comes directly from a detailed typed, single-spaced statement provided at Galloway’s request. Also, multiple telephone conversations with the authors, and a memorable personal meeting with Mrs. Rudel at the 1990 Ia Drang reunion in Washington, D.C.
11. Edward D. Monsewicz: His story of his father covers three typed pages, provided through the kind assistance of CSM James Scott (ret.).
26. Reflections and Perceptions
1. McNamara’s “long war” prediction to the reporters in Saigon: Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History, p. 480.
2. McNamara’s assessment of the Vietnam situation and recommendations to the president: from a declassified “Memorandum for the President,” November 30, 1965. Collection National Security Country File, Vietnam. Container No. 75. Folder Title 2EE. Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Tex. Declassified January 31, 1985.
3. The more detailed memo: “Memorandum for the President dated 6 December 1965, Subject: Military and Political actions recommended for South Vietnam.” National Security Country File, Vietnam. 2E, Box 75. Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Tex. Declassified January 31, 1985.
4. The mid-December meeting: Karnow’s coverage of this December 17-18, 1965, White House meeting is on pp. 481-82, and discusses McNamara’s arguments and the concurrence of Rusk, Ball, and McGeorge Bundy. Will Bundy’s comment on McNamara’s option number one: transcript of telephone interview by Galloway, fall 1990. See also: ch. 33, pp. 7-14, Will Bundy’s unpublished manuscript on the Vietnam decisions, in the Historical Office of the Department of State and the JFK and LBJ libraries for a more detailed discussion of the decision-making climate in December 1965, in the wake of the Ia Drang battles.
5. Kinnard on pursuit of the enemy into Cambodia: transcript of telephone interview by Galloway, September 19, 1990.
6. Will Bundy’s comments on hot pursuit of enemy into Cambodia: See n. 16, ch. 24, also n. 4, above.
7. American casualties: 3rd Brigade after-action report. The Kys’ visit: They were such a bizarre duo, in their matching black jump suits and purple silk scarves, that Moore will never forget them. On the enemy return to the Bong Son within one week: intelligence reports of that time. The 3rd Brigade was ordered back in April for a “show of force” dubbed Operation Bee Bee. In early May, 3rd Brigade and ARVN units carried out Operation Davy Crockett in the Bong Son, destroying the 9th Battalion of the People’s Army’s Quyet Tam Regiment. This is when SFC Glenn Kennedy, a Charlie Company veteran of LZ X-Ray, lost his life in combat. Also of interest: When the 1st Cav Div left Bong Son in early 1968, the 173rd Airborne moved in, and remained there until at least early in 1969.