Notes

ABBREVIATIONS

The following acronyms are used in the notes to refer to archives:

BHL

Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

CAH

The Center for American History, The University of Texas, Austin

ESBL

Eleanor S. Brockenbrough Library, Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Va.

LC

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

LCP

The Library Company of Philadelphia

MAHS

Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston

MOHS

Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis

NARA

National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.

NYHS

New-York Historical Society, New York City

NYPL

Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library, Astor, Lennox, and Tilden Foundations, New York City

PAHRC

Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center, Wynnewood, Pa.

RBMSC

Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

SCHS

South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston

SCL

South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia

SHC

Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

VHS

Virginia Historical Society, Richmond

VMIA

Virginia Military Institute Archives, Lexington

WFCHS

Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, Winchester, Va.

WHS

Wisconsin Historical Society Archives, Madison

PREFACE

1. [Stephen Elliott], Obsequies of the Reverend Edward E. Ford, D.D., and Sermon by the Bishop of the Diocese… (Augusta, Ga.: Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, 1863), p. 8.

2. James David Hacker, “The Human Cost of War: White Population in the United States, 1850–1880,” Ph.D. diss. (University of Minnesota, 1999), pp. 1, 14. Hacker believes that Civil War death totals may be seriously understated because of inadequate estimates of the number of Confederate deaths from disease. Civil War casualty and mortality statistics are problematic overall, and the incompleteness of Confederate records makes them especially unreliable. See Chapter 8 of this book. Maris A. Vinovskis concludes that about 6 percent of northern white males between ages thirteen and forty-five died in the war, whereas 18 percent of white men of similar age in the South perished. But because of much higher levels of military mobilization in the white South, mortality rates for southern soldiers were twice, not three times, as great as those for northern soldiers. James McPherson cites these soldiers’ death rates as 31 percent for Confederate soldiers, 16 percent for Union soldiers. Gary Gallagher believes Vinovskis’s overall death rate for the South is too low; he estimates that closer to one in four rather than one in five white southern men of military age died in the conflict. I have cited the more conservative total. See Vinovskis, “Have Social Historians Lost the Civil War?” in Maris A. Vinovskis, ed., Toward a Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 3–7; James M. McPherson, personal communication to author, December 27, 2006; Gary Gallagher, personal communication to author, December 16, 2006.

3. James M. McPherson, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 3, 177, n. 56.

4. [Francis W. Palfrey], In Memoriam: H.L.A. (Boston: Printed for private distribution, 1864), p. 5; Richard Shryock, “A Medical Perspective on the Civil War,” American Quarterly 14 (Summer 1962): 164; H. Clay Trumbull, War Memories of an Army Chaplain(New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1898), p. 67. Vital statistics for this period are very scarce, and the most complete cover only Massachusetts. I am grateful to historical demographer Gretchen Condran of Temple University for discussing these matters with me. See U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Part I (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1975), pp. 62–63. On the “untimely death of an adult child” as “particularly painful” in mid-nineteenth-century England, see Patricia Jalland, Death in the Victorian Family (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 39.

5. One notable appearance of the image of a harvest of death is in the title given Timothy O’Sullivan’s photograph of a field of bodies at Gettysburg in Alexander Gardner, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the War (1866; rpt. New York: Dover, 1959), plate 36; Kate Stone, Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861–1868, ed. John Q. Anderson (Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1955), p. 264; C. W. Greene to John McLees, August 15, 1862, McLees Family Papers, SCL.

6. [Frederick Law Olmsted], Hospital Transports: A Memoir of the Embarkation of the Sick and Wounded from the Peninsula of Virginia in the Summer of 1862 (Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1863), p. 115.

7. The general literature on death is immense and rich. A few key texts not cited elsewhere in this volume include Thomas Lynch, The Undertaking: Life Studies from the Dismal Trade (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997); Thomas Lynch, Bodies in Motion and at Rest: On Metaphor and Mortality(New York: W. W. Norton, 2000); Sandra Gilbert, Death’s Door: Modern Dying and the Way We Grieve (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006); Paul Monette, Borrowed Time: An AIDS Memoir (San Diego, Calif.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988); Paul Monette, Last Watch of the Night (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994); Jessica Mitford, The American Way of Death (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963); Sherwin B. Nuland, How We Die: Reflections on Life’s Final Chapter (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994); Maurice Bloch and Jonathan Parry, eds., Death and the Regeneration of Life(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Peter Metcalf and Richard Huntington, Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

8. Mrs. Carson to R. F. Taylor, September 14, 1864, Carson Family Papers, SCL. On changing notions of the self, see Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The Making of Modern Identity (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989), and Jerrold Seigel, The Idea of the Self: Thought and Experience in Western Europe Since the Seventeenth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

9. New York Times, October 20, 1862. See William A. Frassanito, Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America’s Bloodiest Day (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978); Franny Nudelman, John Brown’s Body: Slavery, Violence and the Culture of War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), pp. 103–31; and Alan Trachtenberg, Reading American Photographs: Images as History, Mathew Brady to Walker Evans (New York: Hill & Wang, 1989). Even as we acknowledge the impact of Civil War photography, it is important to recognize how few Americans would actually have seen Brady’s or other photographs of the dead. Newspapers and periodicals could not yet reproduce photographs but could publish only engravings derived from them, like the many Harper’s Weekly illustrations included in this book.

10. Maude Morrow Brown Manuscript, z/0907.000/S, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Miss.; on nineteenth-century science and the changed meaning of death, see Adam Phillips, Darwin’s Worms: On Life Stories and Death Stories (New York: Basic Books, 2000).

CHAPTER 1. DYING

1. Chesnut cited in James Shepherd Pike, The Prostrate State (New York: D. Appleton, 1874), pp. 74–75.

2. Letter to Mattie J. McGaw, May 5, 1863, McGaw Family Papers, SCL. For a consideration of the size of the Revolutionary army and its mortality, see Charles H. Lesser, The Sinews of Independence (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), pp. 84–86, and Howard H. Peckham, The Toll of Independence (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). On the size of Civil War armies, see James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 306n.

3. Alonzo Abernethy, “Incidents of an Iowa Soldier’s Life, or Four Years in Dixie,” Annals of Iowa, 3rd ser. 12 (1920): 411; William A. Hammond, “Medical Care, Battle Wounds, and Disease,” online at www.civilwarhome.com/civilwarmedicine.htm; George Worthington Adams, Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War (New York: H. Schuman, 1952), pp. 222, 242, 125. On diarrhea and dysentery in the Confederate army, see Horace Cunningham, Doctors in Gray: The Confederate Medical Service (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1958), p. 185; Paul E. Steiner, Disease in the Civil War: Natural Biological Warfare in 1861–1865 (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1968), p. 14. Camp Sink quote in U.S. Sanitary Commission, Two Reports on the Condition of Military Hospitals (New York: W. C. Bryant, 1862), p. 6. See also Joseph Janner Woodward, Outlines of the Chief Camp Diseases of the United States Armies as Observed During the Present War (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1863); Robert E. Denney, Civil War Medicine: Care and Comfort of the Wounded (New York: Sterling, 1994); John W. Schildt,Antietam Hospitals (Chewsville, Md.: Antietam Publications, 1987); Frank R. Freemon, Gangrene and Glory: Medical Care During the American Civil War (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998); James I. Robertson Jr., Soldiers Blue and Gray (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988), pp. 145–69. See also Lisa Herschbach, “Fragmentation and Reunion: Medicine, Memory and Body in the American Civil War,” Ph.D. diss. (Harvard University, 1997).

4. The Sentinel: Selected for the Soldiers No. 319 (Petersburg, Va.: n.p., 1861), p. 1.

5. E. G. Abbott to Mother, February 8, 1862, Abbott Family, Civil War Letters, MS Am 800.26(5), Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

6. A. D. Kirwan, ed., Johnny Green of the Orphan Brigade: The Journal of a Confederate Soldier (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1956), p. 93.

7. John Weissert to Dearest wife and children, October 17, 1862, Box 1, Correspondence Sept.–Oct. 1862, John Weissert Papers, BHL.

8. Jeremy Taylor, The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (London: R. Royston, 1651); Jeremy Taylor, The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living (London: Francis Ash, 1650); Sister Mary Catherine O’Connor, The Art of Dying Well: The Development of the Ars Moriendi (New York: Columbia University Press, 1942), pp. 11, 208. See also L. M. Beier, “The Good Death in Seventeenth Century England,” in Ralph Houlbrooke, ed., Death, Ritual and Bereavement (New York: Routledge, 1989); Ralph Houlbrooke, Death, Religion, and the Family in England, 1480–1750 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998); Ralph Houlbrooke, “The Puritan Death-Bed, c. 1560–c. 1600,” in C. Durston and J. Eales, eds., The Culture of English Puritanism, 1560–1700 (New York: St. Martin’s, 1996), pp. 122–44; M. C. Cross, “The Third Earl of Huntingdon’s Death-Bed: A Calvinist Example of the Arts Moriendi,” Northern History 21 (1985): 80–107; R. Wunderle and G. Broce, “The Final Moment Before Death in Early Modern England,” Sixteenth Century Journal 20 (1989): 259–75; David Cressy, Birth, Marriage and Death: Ritual, Religion and the Life-Cycle in Tudor and Stuart England (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

9. Frances Comper, ed., The Book of the Craft of Dying and Other Early English Tracts Concerning Death (London, 1917); Nancy Lee Beaty, The Craft of Dying: A Study in the Literary Tradition of the Ars Moriendi in England (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970); Jeremy Taylor, The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (London: R. Royston, 1651). At least eight editions of Holy Dying appeared in London in the first half of the nineteenth century; editions were printed in Boston in 1864 and 1865; in Philadelphia in 1835, 1859, 1869; New York, 1864. On conceptions of ars moriendi included in advice and conduct books, see Margaret Spufford, Small Books and Pleasant Histories: Popular Fiction and Its Readership in Seventeenth Century England (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1981), pp. 200–208. For an example of a sermon, see Eleazer Mather Porter Wells, Preparation for Death…Trinity Church, Boston (n.p., 1852). On popular health, see the many American editions of John Willison, The Afflicted Man’s Companion(Pittsburgh: Luke Loomis & Co., 1830), which was reprinted again by the American Tract Society of New York in 1851. So popular was Dickens’s serialized The Old Curiosity Shop that New Yorkers lined the quay for the arrival of the installment that would reveal Little Nell’s fate. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin was the best-selling American book of the nineteenth century. Charles Dickens, The Old Curiosity Shop (London, 1841); William Makepeace Thackeray, The Newcomes (London: Bradbury & Evans, 1844–45); Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851). See also the rendition of death in Samuel Richardson’s Clarissa, or, the History of a Young Lady(London: Published for S. Richardson, 1748).

10. William Corby, Memoirs of Chaplain Life (Notre Dame, Ind.: Scholastic Press, 1894), p. 184. Memorials to this moment are located at Notre Dame and on the field at Gettysburg. It has been estimated that Catholics constituted about 7 percent of Union armies. They would have been a far smaller percentage of Confederate soldiers. See Randall M. Miller, “Catholic Religion, Irish Ethnicity, and the Civil War,” in Randall M. Miller, Harry S. Stout, and Charles Reagan Wilson, eds., Religion and the American Civil War(New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 261.

11. Bertram Korn, American Jewry and the Civil War (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1951), p. 59; D. DeSola Pool, “The Diary of Chaplain Michael M. Allen, September 1861,” Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 39 (September 1949): 177–82; L. J. Lederman, letter to parents of David Zehden upon his death, quoted in Mel Young, Where They Lie: The Story of the Jewish Soldiers… (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1991), p. 149; Rebecca Gratz, Letters of Rebecca Gratz, ed. Rabbi David Philipson (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1929), pp. 426–27. See From This World to the Next: Jewish Approaches to Illness, Death and the Afterlife (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1999), and Jack Riemer, ed., Jewish Insights on Death and Mourning (New York: Schocken Books, 1995), pp. 309–53. On ecumenism see Korn, American Jewry and the Civil War, p. 59; Warren B. Armstrong, For Courageous Fighting and Confident Dying: Union Chaplains in the Civil War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), pp. 53–54; Kurt O. Berends, “‘Wholesome Reading Purifies and Elevates the Man’: The Religious Military Press in the Confederacy,” in Miller, Stout, and Wilson, eds., Religion and the American Civil War, pp. 134, 157; Peter Paul Cooney, “The War Letters of Father Peter Paul Cooney of the Congregation of the Holy Cross,” ed. Thomas McAvoy, Records of the American Catholic Historical Society 44 (1933): 223, 164; Louis-Hippolyte Gache,A Frenchman, a Chaplain, a Rebel: The War Letters of Louis-Hippolyte Gache (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1991), pp. 176–77, 118–19; Sara Trainer Smith, ed., “Notes on Satterlee Hospital, West Philadelphia,” Records of the American Catholic Historical Society 8 (1897): 404. On limitations to that ecumenism, see Gache, Frenchman, pp. 190–91.

12. Once to Die (Richmond, Va.: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 186–), p. 3; see also Karl S. Guthke, Last Words: Variations on a Theme in Cultural History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 36.

13. Confederate States Christian Association for the Relief of Prisoners (Fort Delaware), Minutes, March 31, 1865, Francis Atherton Boyle Books, 1555 Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (hereafter SHC); James Gray to Sister, June 12, 1864, in Mills Lane, ed., Dear Mother: Don’t Grieve About Me. If I Get Killed, I’ll Only Be Dead: Letters from Georgia Soldiers in the Civil War (Savannah, Ga.: Beehive Press, 1990), p. 300. See also William Stilwell to Molly, September 18, 1862, in Lane, Dear Mother, p. 185; letter to Mollie J. McGaw, May 5, 1863, McGaw Family Papers, SCL; Desmond Pulaski Hopkins Papers, July 17, 1862, CAH. Statistics on locations of deaths from Robert V. Wells, Facing the “King of Terrors”: Death and Society in an American Community (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 195.

14. [Frederick Law Olmsted], Hospital Transports (Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1863), p. 80. Disruptions of African American family ties through the slave trade to the southwestern states was, of course, another matter—in its coerciveness, in its permanence. See Michael Tadman, Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders and Slaves in the Old South (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989).

15. Patricia Jalland, Death in the Victorian Family (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 2. The English queen’s own lengthy bereavement after Albert’s death in 1861 focused additional attention on death as a defining element in Anglo-American family and cultural life.

16. The Dying Officer (Richmond, VA.: Soldiers’ Tract Society, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 186–), p. 6; Hiram Mattison quoted in Michael Sappol, “A Traffic in Dead Bodies”: Anatomy and Embodied Social Identity in Nineteenth-Century America(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), p. 31. See statement on meaning of last words in Susie C. Appell to Mrs. E. H. Ogden, October 20, 1862, Sarah Perot Ogden Collection, GLC 6556.01.106, Gilder Lehrman Collection, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, NYHS. Materials quoted courtesy of the Gilder Lehrman Institute may not be reproduced without written permission. See discussion of significance of last words in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly, December 7, 1861, p. 44.

17. See Gregory Coco, Killed in Action: Eyewitness Accounts of the Last Moments of 100 Union Soldiers Who Died at Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1992); Gregory Coco, Wasted Valor: The Confederate Dead at Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1990); Warren B. Armstrong, For Courageous Fighting and Confident Dying: Union Chaplains in the Civil War (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998).

18. “Reminiscence of Gettysburg,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, January 2, 1864, p. 235. On photographs see Steve R. Stotelmyer, The Bivouacs of the Dead: The Story of Those Who Died at Antietam and South Mountain (Baltimore: Toomey Press, 1992), p. 6; Godey’s Lady’s Book,March 1864, p. 311; Mark H. Dunkelman, Gettysburg’s Unknown Soldier: The Life, Death, and Celebrity of Amos Humiston (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999); William Stilwell to Molly, September 18, 1862, in Lane, ed., Dear Mother,p. 186.

19. Clara Barton, Lecture Notes [1866], Clara Barton Papers, LC.

20. Elmer Ruan Coates, “Be My Mother Till I Die” (Philadelphia: A. W. Auner, n.d.), Wolf 115; “Bless the Lips That Kissed Our Darling: Answer to: Let Me Kiss Him for His Mother” (Philadelphia: Auner, n.d.); J. A. C. O’Connor, “Bless the Lips That Kissed Our Darling” (New York: H. De Marsan, n.d.), Wolf 115. See also George Cooper, “Mother Kissed Me in My Dream” (Philadelphia: J. H. Johnson, n.d.), Wolf 1468. All these song sheets are in the American Song Sheet Collection, LCP.

21. William J. Bacon, Memorial of William Kirkland Bacon: Late Adjutant of the Twenty-sixth Regiment of New York State Volunteers (Utica, N.Y.: Roberts Printer, 1863), p. 50.

22. On condolence letters, see Michael Barton, “Painful Duties: Art, Character, and Culture in Confederate Letters of Condolence,” Southern Quarterly 17 (1979): 123–34; and Barton, Goodmen: The Character of Civil War Soldiers (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1981), pp. 57–62. See also William Merrill Decker, Epistolary Practices: Letter Writing in America Before Telecommunications (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998); Janet Gurlin Altman, Epistolarity: Approaches to a Form (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1982). For contemporary guidebooks for letter writers, see The American Letter-Writer and Mirror of Polite Behavior (Philadelphia: Fisher & Brother, 1851), and A New Letter-Writer, for the Use of Gentlemen(Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1860). For an acknowledgment of the ritual of the condolence letter in Civil War popular culture, see the Daily South Carolinian, February 26, 1864; see also June 22, 1864, and the song by E. Bowers, “Write a Letter to My Mother!” (Philadelphia: n.p., [1860s]), Wolf 2677, LCP.

23. Williamson D. Ward diary quoted in Joseph Allan Frank and George A. Reaves, “Seeing the Elephant”: Raw Recruits at Shiloh (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989), p. 98; Minutes, July 1864–June 1865, Confederate States Christian Association for the Relief of Prisoners (Fort Delaware), Francis Atherton Boyle Books, 1555 SHC.

24. W. J. O’Daniel to Mrs. [Sarah A.] Torrence, quoted in Haskell Monroe, ed., “The Road to Gettysburg: The Diary and Letters of Leonidas Torrence of the Gaston Guards,” North Carolina Historical Review 36 (October 1959): 515; William Fields to Mrs. Fitzpatrick, June 8, 1865, Maria Clopton Papers, Medical and Hospital Collection, ESBL; I. G. Patten to Mrs. Cadenhead, August 5, 1864, in I. B. Cadenhead, “Some Letters of I. B. Cadenhead,” Alabama Historical Quarterly 18 (1956): 569; Henry E. Handerson, Yankee in Gray: The Civil War Memoirs of Henry E. Handerson with a Selection of His Wartime Letters (Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University Press, 1962), p. 62.

25. William Fields to Mrs. Fitzpatrick, June 8, 1865, Maria Clopton Papers, Medical and Hospital Collection, ESBL; Clara Barton, Manuscript Journal, 1863, Clara Barton Papers, LC. See also Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Clara Barton: Professional Angel(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987), pp. 94, 148; “Our Army Hospitals,” unidentified and undated newspaper clippings, Louis C. Madeira Civil War Scrapbooks, vol. A, pp. 111–26, LCP. For an example of a nurse cueing a soldier to leave a message for his wife, see William H. Davidson, ed., War Was the Place: A Centennial Collection of Confederate Soldier Letters (Chattahoochie Valley Historical Society, Bulletin no. 5 [November 1961]): 115. On the important role of hospital personnel in a Good Death, see Gary Laderman, The Sacred Remains: American Attitudes Toward Death, 1799–1883 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), p. 131; Gerald Linderman, Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War (New York: Free Press, 1987), p. 29; Corby, Memoirs of Chaplain Life, p. 93. See also Jestin Hampton to Thomas B. Hampton, January 25, 1863, Thomas B. Hampton Papers, CAH; S. G. Sneed to Susan Piper, September 17, 1864, Benjamin Piper Papers, CAH.

26. Christian Recorder, November 12, 1864.

27. Richard Rollins, ed., Pickett’s Charge!: Eyewitness Accounts, (Redondo Beach, Calif.: Rank & File Publications, 1994), p. 96.

28. James R. Montgomery to A. R. Montgomery, May 10, 1864, CSA Collection, ESBL; John M. Coski, “Montgomery’s Blood-Stained Letter Defines ‘The Art of Dying’—and Living,” Museum of the Confederacy Magazine (Summer 2006): 14.

29. Coski, “Montgomery’s Blood-Stained Letter.”

30. Contrast this “checklist” with the “stock messages” that Jay Winter describes from British officers in World War I informing relatives of a soldier’s death: he was loved by his comrades, was a good soldier, and died painlessly. This is a remarkably secular formula in comparison to the Civil War’s embrace of the ars moriendi tradition. See J. M. Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 35. For a Civil War condolence letter written almost in the form of a checklist—indentations and all—see John G. Barrett and Robert K. Turner Jr., Letters of a New Market Cadet: Beverly Stannard (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961), pp. 67–68. For a Catholic example, see Cooney, “War Letters of Father Peter Paul Cooney,” pp. 153–54. Much of the “checklist” had its origins in the deathbed observers’ search for reassurance that the dying person was successfully resisting the devil’s characteristic temptations: to abandon his faith, to submit to desperation or impatience, to demonstrate spiritual pride or complacence, to show too much preoccupation with temporal matters. See Comper, Book of the Craft of Dying, pp. 9–21. For a brief discussion of consolation letters, see Reid Mitchell, The Vacant Chair: The Northern Soldier Leaves Home (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 84–86.

31. Edwin S. Redkey, ed., Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African American Soldiers in the Union Army (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 67. Preparation constituted a significant dimension of the Good Death for Jewish soldiers as well. Note the emphasis of Albert Moses Luria’s family on his preparedness and note his epitaph: “He went into the field prepared to meet his God.” See Mel Young, ed., Last Order of the Lost Cause: The True Story of a Jewish Family in the Old South(Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1995), p. 147. See also, on sudden death, W. D. Rutherford to Sallie F. Rutherford, June 23, 1864, W. D. Rutherford Papers, SCL; Houlbrooke, Death, Religion and the Family, p. 208.

32. Letter to Mrs. Mason, October 3, 1864, 24th Reg. Virginia Infantry, CSA Collection, ESBL.

33. Alexander Twombly, The Completed Christian Life: A Sermon Commemorative of Adjt. Richard Strong (Albany, N.Y.: J. Munsell, 1863), p. 10; David Mack Cooper, Obituary Discourse on Occasion of the Death of Noah Henry Ferry, Major of the Fifth Michigan Cavalry (New York: J. F. Trow, 1863), p. 30.

34. Bacon, Memorial of William Kirkland Bacon, p. 57. On presentiment see also Alonzo Abernethy, “Incidents of an Iowa Soldier’s Life, or Four Years in Dixie,” Annals of Iowa, 3d ser. 12 (1920): 408. For a Jewish example, see the report of the death of Gustave Poznanski in Charleston Daily Courier, June 18, 1862. On presentiment and on soldiers’ deaths more generally, see James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 63–70. See also Reid Mitchell, Civil War Soldiers (New York: Viking, 1988), pp. 63–64; L. L. Jones to Harriet Beach Jones, Herbert S. Hadley Papers, MOHS; W. D. Rutherford to Sallie Fair, July 26, 1861, W. D. Rutherford Papers, SCL. See also E. S. Nash to Hattie Jones, August 19, 1861, Herbert S. Hadley Papers, MOHS; Wells, Facing the “King of Terrors,”pp. 162–63.

35. J. C. Curtwright to Mr. and Mrs. Lovelace, April 24, 1862, in Lane, ed., Dear Mother, p. 116. T. Fitzhugh to Mrs. Diggs, June 23, 1863, Captain William W. Goss File, 19th Virginia Infantry, CSA Collection, ESBL; Sallie Winfree to Mrs. Bobo, October 9, 1862, Henry Bobo Papers, CSA Collection, ESBL.

36. T. J. Hodnett quoted in Davidson, ed., War Was the Place, pp. 80, 76–77; Walter Pharr, Funeral Sermon on the Death of Capt. A. K. Simonton (Salisbury, N.C.: J. J. Bruner, 1862), p. 11; Elijah Richardson Craven, In Memoriam, Sermon and Oration…on the Occasion of the Death of Col. I. M. Tucker (Newark, N.J.: Protection Lodge, 1862), pp. 5–6.

37. James B. Rogers, War Pictures: Experiences and Observations of a Chaplain in the U.S. Army, in the War of the Southern Rebellion (Chicago: Church & Goodman, 1863), p. 182; Guy R. Everson and Edward W. Simpson Jr., Far, Far from Home: The Wartime Letters of Dick and Talley Simpson, 3rd South Carolina Volunteers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 287; J. Monroe Anderson to the Sisters of Gen. Gregg, January 9, 1863, Maxcy Gregg Papers, SCL; John Weissert to Dearest Wife and Children, October 17, 1862, John Weissert Papers, Box 1, Correspondence Sept.–Oct. 1862, BHL. For a Catholic example of reading the body for signs of the state of the soul, see Sister Catherine to Father Patrick Reilly, December 5, 1862, Patrick Reilly Papers, PAHRC, which describes the death of Sister Bonaventure “with sweet peace and joy” and reports “the peace and calm of her soul was evident on her countenance.”

38. L. S. Bobo to Dear Uncle, July 7, 1862, August 14, 1862, Bobo Papers, CSA Collection, ESBL; Cadenhead, “Some Confederate Letters of I. B. Cadenhead,” p. 568; E. and E. Nash to Respected Nephews in Camp, November 11, 1862, Alpheus S. Bloomfield Papers, LC.

39. Frank Perry to J. Buchannon, September 21, 1862, in Lane, ed., Dear Mother, p. 189.

40. Frank Batchelor to Dear Wife, in Batchelor-Turner Letters: 1861–1864: Written by Two of Terry’s Texas Rangers, annotated by H. J. H. Rugeley (Austin, Tex.: Steck Co., 1961), p. 80.

41. Sanford Branch to his mother, July 26, 1861, in Lane, Dear Mother, p. 36; Coco, Killed in Action, p. 91; Alonzo Hill, In Memoriam. A Discourse…on Lieut. Thomas Jefferson Spurr (Boston: J. Wilson, 1862); Davidson, ed., War Was the Place. Chaplain Corby observed that nearly all men called to their mothers as they lay dying. This was enshrined in Civil War popular song: see, for example, Thomas MacKellar, “The Dying Soldier to His Mother” (New York: Charles Magnus, n.d.) Wolf 551, and C. A. Vosburgh, “Tell Mother, I Die Happy” (New York: Charles Magnus, n.d.), Wolf 2290. For a southern example, see Charles C. Sawyer, “Mother Would Comfort Me!” (Augusta, Ga.: Blackmar & Bro., 186–). There were so many songs written as messages to Mother from the battlefield that they began to generate parodies and satirical responses. See John C. Cross, “Mother on the Brain” (New York: H. De Marsan, n.d.), Wolf 1470, and Cross, “Mother Would Wallop Me” (New York: H. De Marsan, n.d.), Wolf 1437. All of these songs, except the southern example, are in the American Song Sheet Collection, LCP. See Chapter 6.

42. William W. Bennett, A Narrative of the Great Revival Which Prevailed in the Southern Armies (Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, 1877), pp. 243–44. T. Fitzhugh to Mrs. Diggs, June 23, 1863, Captain William W. Goss File, 19th Virginia Infantry, CSA Collection, ESBL. For a letter in almost identical language, see E. W. Rowe to J. W. Goss, December 16, 1863, CSA Collection, ESBL.

43. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Touched with Fire: Civil War Letters and Diary of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., 1861–1864, ed. Mark DeWolfe Howe (New York: Da Capo Press, 1969), p. 27; Holmes, Civil War Diary, Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.

44. A. D. Kirwan, ed., Johnny Green of the Orphan Brigade: The Journal of a Confederate Soldier (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1956), p. 37; David Cornwell, quoted in Earl J. Hess, The Union Soldier in Battle: Enduring the Ordeal of Combat(Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997), p. 143.

45. Army and Navy Messenger, April 1, 1864, quoted in Berends, “Wholesome Reading,” p. 154. See also Fales Henry Newhall, National Exaltation: The Duties of Christian Patriotism (Boston: John M. Hewes, 1861); William Adams, Christian Patriotism (New York: A. D. F. Randolph, 1863); Joseph Fransioli, Patriotism: A Christian Virtue (New York: Loyal Publication Society, 1863). The last of these works is Catholic. Note the disapproval of Sister Matilda Coskey of the father who refuses to permit his wounded son to be baptized, arguing “he has served his country, fought her battles & that is enough—he has nothing to fear for his soul.” Sister Matilda Coskey to Father Patrick Reilly, October 18, 1864, Patrick Reilly Papers, PAHRC.

46. William Preston Johnston to Wade Hampton, November 3, 1864; James Connor to Wade Hampton, November 6, 1864, Wade Hampton Papers, ESBL; N. A. Foster to William K. Rash, 52nd North Carolina, CSA Collection, ESBL. For another discussion of gallantry, see Eleanor Damon Pace, ed., “The Diary and Letters of William P. Rogers, 1846–1862,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 32 (April 1929): 299.

47. George Barton, Angels of the Battlefield (Philadelphia: Catholic Art Publishing Co., 1897), p. 181.

48. Linderman makes this point about compulsion in Embattled Courage, p. 30; Smith, ed., “Notes on Satterlee,” pp. 433–34; Berends, “Wholesome Reading,” p. 137.

49. Hugh McLees to John, December 20, 1863, John McLees Papers, SCL; Berends, “Wholesome Reading,” p. 139, n21; Gache, Frenchman, 164. On bad deaths, see also Ralph Houlbrooke, Death, Religion and the Family, p. 207.

50. Laderman, Sacred Remains, p. 99; Robert I. Alotta, Civil War Justice: Union Army Executions Under Lincoln (Shippensburg, Pa.: White Mane Press, 1989); Charleston Mercury, September 18, 1863; John Ripley Adams, Memorial and Letters of John R. Adams, D.D. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1890), p. 123; letters from Guilburton, September 4, 1863, and from Henry Robinson to his wife, both in Lane, ed., Dear Mother, pp. 263–64, 107.

51. Corby, Memoirs, p. 248; Frances Milton Kennedy Diary, M-3008, entry for September 26, 1863, SHC. For examples of descriptions of executions, see Cooney, “War Letters of Father Peter Paul Cooney,” p. 57. On dying badly, see Edward Acton, “‘Dear Mollie’: Letters of Captain Edward Acton to His Wife, 1862,” ed. Mary Acton Hammond, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 89 ( January 1965): 28.

52. Robert Kenzer, “The Uncertainty of Life: A Profile of Virginia’s Civil War Widows,” in Joan E. Cashin, The War Was You and Me: Civilians in the American Civil War (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), p. 120; Clarke County Will Book E, 1860–67, pp. 129–30, Clarke County Courthouse, Berryville, Va.; Lane, ed., Dear Mother, 108. See N. Crosby, Financial Plans in Case of Death, GLC03046. N. Crosby to son, April 23, 1862, Gilder Lehrman Collection, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, NYHS.

53. John Edwards, Noncuptative Will, April 3, 1862, dictated to Hill at the hospital of the 53rd Virginia Infantry regiment at Suffolk, VHS. Thanks to Frances Pollard for drawing my attention to this document.

54. Burns Newman to Mr. Shortell, May 24, 1864, Michael Shortell Papers, WHS. See also Disposition of Personal Effects of Dead Wisconsin Soldiers, 1863, Wisconsin Governor’s Papers, WHS.

55. Daily South Carolinian, May 29, 1864. For other examples, see obituaries of W. W. Watts, August 23, 1864; H. L. Garlington, August 13, 1864; Milton Cox, August 9, 1862; Joseph Friedenberg, September 15, 1862, all in Daily South Carolinian; George Nichols in Richmond Daily Whig,December 24, 1862; Walter Matthews in Richmond Daily Dispatch, December 25, 1862; Isaac Valentine in Charleston Daily Courier, June 18, 1862; Thomas B. Hampton [March 1865] in Thomas B. Hampton Papers, CAH.

56. Roland C. Bowen to Friend Ainsworth, September 28, 1862, in Gregory A. Coco, ed., From Ball’s Bluff to Gettysburg…and Beyond: The Civil War Letters of Private Roland E. Bowen, 15th Massachusetts Infantry, 1861–1864 (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1994), p. 124.

57. Washington Davis, cited in Linderman, Embattled Courage, p. 241. On numbness see Drew Gilpin Faust, “A Riddle of Death”: Mortality and Meaning in the American Civil War, 34th Annual Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture (Gettysburg, Pa.: Gettysburg College, 1995), p. 21.

58. Herman Melville, “The Armies of the Wilderness,” in Melville, Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1866), p. 103.

CHAPTER 2. KILLING

1. Tolstoy quoted in Lieutenant Colonel Dave Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995), p. ix; Orestes Brownson, The Works of Orestes Brownson, ed. Henry F. Brownson (Detroit: T. Nourse, 1882–87), vol. 17, p. 214.

2. Grossman, On Killing, p. xiv. See also Joanna Bourke, An Intimate History of Killing: Face-to-Face Killing in Twentieth-Century Warfare (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

3. Theophilus Perry, quoted in Randolph B. Campbell, A Southern Community in Crisis: Harrison County, Texas, 1850–1880 (Austin: Texas State Historical Press, 1983), p. 239; [Mrs. Frances Blake Brockenbrough,] A Mother’s Parting Words to Her Soldier Boy(Petersburg, Va.: Evangelical Tract Society, 186–), p. 3; Confederate Baptist, December 3, 1862; Knox Mellon Jr., ed., “Letters of James Greenalch,” Michigan History 44 ( June 1960): 198–99; Christian Recorder, October 18, 1864.

4. Scott quoted in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 3, 1861, p. 178;T. Harry Williams, “The Military Leadership of the North and the South,” U.S. Air Force Academy, Harmon Memorial Lecture no. 2, 1960, p. 6, online at www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/usafa/harmon02.pdf.

5. Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 18, 1861, p. 3. On baptism of fire, see also Joseph Allan Frank and George A. Reaves, “Seeing the Elephant”: Raw Recruits at the Battle of Shiloh (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989). The language of virginity was also often used to describe initiation into battle. See, for example, Creed Davis Diary, entry for May 11, 1864, VHS. On soldiers, killing, and religion, see also Reid Mitchell, Civil War Soldiers (New York: Viking, 1988), pp. 138–39.

6. Hugh McLees to John McLees, March 18, 1864, McLees Family Papers, SCL; Oliver Norton quoted in James I. Robertson Jr., Soldiers Blue and Gray (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988), pp. 220–21.

7. “Sensations Before and During Battle,” clipping in George Bagby Scrapbook, 3:149, VHS; Charles Royster, The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), p. 279.

8. Byrd Charles Willis Journal, August 25, 1864, Diary Collection, ESBL. See T. I. McKenny to Earl Van Dorn, March 9, 1862, for description of federal dead being tomahawked and scalped in The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1883–1901), ser. I, vol. 8, p. 194; see report of Thomas Livermore of the Fifth New Hampshire at Antietam ordering his men to put on paint and leading them with a war whoop, James M. McPherson, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam(New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 123.

9. Osmun Latrobe Diary, October 16, 1862, May 10, 1863, transcript at VHS, original in Latrobe Papers, MS 526, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore. Redman quoted in Kent Masterson Brown, Retreat from Gettysburg: Lee, Logistics, and the Pennsylvania Campaign (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), p. 234. On love of killing, see Theodore Nadelson, Trained to Kill: Soldiers at War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), p. 72; Drew Gilpin Faust, “‘We Should Grow Too Fond of It’: Why We Love the Civil War,” Civil War History 50 (December 2004): 368; William Broyles, “Why Men Love War,” Esquire, November 1984, pp. 54–65; Bourke, Intimate History of Killing, p. 31; Earl J. Hess, The Union Soldier in Battle: Enduring the Ordeal of Combat (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997), pp. 92–93.

10. John W. De Forest, A Volunteer’s Adventures: A Union Captain’s Record of the Civil War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1946), pp. 111–12; Mills Lane, ed., “Dear Mother: Don’t Grieve About Me. If I Get Killed, I’ll Only Be Dead”: Letters from Georgia Soldiers in the Civil War(Savannah, Ga.: Beehive Press, 1990), p. 156; Robertson, Soldiers Blue and Gray, 220; William White, July, 13, 1862, William White Collection, PAHRC.

11. Henry Matrau, February 27, 1862, in Marcia Reid-Green, ed., Letters Home: Henry Matrau of the Iron Brigade (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), p. 20.

12. Bagby Scrapbook, vol. 2, p. 55, VHS. On comradeship as motivation to fight, see James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

13. Some historians cite the range of the new rifle as up to a thousand yards, but Gary W. Gallagher of the University of Virginia believes three hundred yards of effective use is a more accurate way to understand its capacities. My thanks to him for his help on this question. James M. McPherson estimates that 20 percent of the Confederate army and 8 percent of the Union army were draftees and substitutes. McPherson, Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), pp. 182–83.

14. Grossman, On Killing, pp. 24–25. Debate has raged about soldiers’ firing rates since the work of S. L. A. Marshall on nonfirers in World War II. See Grossman’s response to these debates on p. 333. See also S. L. A. Marshall, Men Against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command in Future War (New York: Morrow, 1947), and John Keegan, The Face of Battle (New York: Viking Press, 1976).

15. Val C. Giles, Rags and Hope: The Recollections of Val C. Giles, Four Years with Hood’s Brigade, Fourth Texas Infantry, 1861–1865, ed. Mary Lasswell (New York: Coward-McCann, 1961), p. 208.

16. S. H. M. Byers, “How Men Feel in Battle: Recollections of a Private at Champion Hills,” Annals of Iowa 2 ( July 1896): 449; Henry Abbott, July 6, 1863, in Robert Garth Scott, ed., Fallen Leaves: The Civil War Letters of Major Henry Livermore Abbott (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1991), p. 188; Hess, Union Soldier in Battle, pp. 55, 52. On wounds, see George Worthington Adams, Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War (New York: Henry Schuman, 1952), p. 113.

17. Kenneth Macksey and William Woodhouse, eds., The Penguin Encyclopedia of Modern Warfare: 1850 to the Present Day (London: Penguin, 1991), p. 111. On the changing nature and size of battle, see also John Keegan, The Face of Battle (New York: Viking, 1976), pp. 285–336. On tactics, see James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), pp. 474–76, and Brent Nosworthy, The Bloody Crucible of Courage: Fighting Methods and Combat Experience of the Civil War (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2003).

18. William Drayton Rutherford to Sallie F. Rutherford, June 23, 1864, William Drayton Rutherford Papers, SCL. On requirements, see Gerald Smith, “Sharp-shooters,” in David and Jeanne Heidler, eds., Encyclopedia of the Civil War (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC Clio, 2000), vol. 4, p. 1743. “To the Sharp Shooters of Windham County,” August 19, 1861 (Bellows Falls, Vt.: Phoenix Job Office, 1861), reproduced in Letters from a Sharpshooter: The Civil War Letters of Private William B. Greene, 1861–1865, transcribed by William H. Hastings (Belleville, Wis.: Historic Publications, 1993), p. 4.

19. Isaac Hadden to Brother, Wife and All, June 5, 1864, and June 12, 1864, Misc. Mss. Hadden, Isaac, NYHS; Henry Abbott to J. G. Abbott, July 6, 1863, in Scott, ed., Fallen Leaves p. 184. On snakes, see Richard Pindell, “The Most Dangerous Set of Men,” Civil War Times Illustrated, July–August 1993, p. 46.

20. Petersburg paper quoted in William Greene to Dear Mother, June 26, 1864, in Letters from a Sharpshooter, p. 226; De Forest, Volunteer’s Adventures, p. 144. On sharpshooters see also Hess, Union Soldier in Battle, pp. 106–7, and Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars (New York: Basic Books, 1977), p. 140. On sharpshooting and its very personal nature, see “On the Antietam,” Harper’s Weekly, January 3, 1863, reprinted in Kathleen Diffley, ed., To Live and Die: Collected Stories of the Civil War (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002), pp. 128–32. On changing technology of sharpshooting, see Ron Banks, “Death at a Distance,” Civil War Times Illustrated, March–April 1990, pp. 48–55.

21. Howell Cobb to James A. Seddon, January 8, 1865, in War of the Rebellion, ser. 4, vol. 3, pp. 1009–10; Mary Greenhow Lee Diary, April 3, 1864, WFCHS.

22. Thomas R. Roulhac quoted in McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 566; Arkansas Gazette quoted in Gregory J. W. Urwin, “‘We Cannot Treat Negroes…as Prisoners of War’: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in Civil War Arkansas,” Civil War History 42 (September 1996): 202–3; W. D. Rutherford to Sallie F. Rutherford, May 2, 1864, William D. Rutherford Papers, SCL; Urwin, “We Cannot Treat Negroes,” pp. 197, 203. Whether or not Fort Pillow was a massacre has been debated since the day after the event itself. Recent historical work has established persuasively that it was. See John Cimprich, Fort Pillow: A Civil War Massacre and Public Memory (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005); John Cimprich and Robert C. Mainfort Jr., “The Fort Pillow Massacre: A Statistical Note,” Journal of American History 76 (December 1989): 831–33; and Andrew Ward, River Run Red: The Fort Pillow Massacre in the American Civil War (New York: Viking, 2005). For casualty statistics, see Cimprich, Fort Pillow, app. B, pp. 130–31, and table 7, p. 129. See also the official federal investigation: U.S. Congress, House Report (serial 1206), “Fort Pillow Massacre,” 38th Cong., 1st sess., no. 63, 1864. On killing black soldiers, see also Gary W. Gallagher, ed., Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), pp. 462, 465, 487.

23. George Gautier, Harder Than Death: The Life of George Gautier, an Old Texan (Austin, Tex.: n.p., 1902), pp. 10–11.

24. John Edwards cited in Urwin, “‘We Cannot Treat Negroes,’” p. 205; Henry Bird to fiancée, August 4, 1864, Bird Family Papers, VHS, quoted in Chandra Miller Manning, “What This Cruel War Was Over: Why Union and Confederate Soldiers Thought They Were Fighting the Civil War,” Ph.D. diss. (Harvard University, 2002), p. 27.

25. Seddon quoted in John David Smith, “Let Us All Be Grateful That We Have Colored Troops That Will Fight,” in John David Smith, ed., Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), p. 45. See Kirby Smith to Samuel Cooper, in War of the Rebellion, ser. 2, vol. 6, pp. 21–22.

26. William Marvel, Andersonville: The Last Depot (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994), p. 155.

27. Christian Recorder, July 30, 1864, p. 121; April 30, 1864, p. 69; August 22, 1863, p. 133.

28. W. E. B. DuBois, Black Reconstruction in America (1935; rpt. New York: Atheneum, 1969), p. 110; Christian Recorder, August 1, 1863, p. 126; Letter from Henry Harmon, Christian Recorder, November 7, 1863, p. 177; Alice Fahs, The Imagined Civil War: Popular Literature of North and South, 1861–1865 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), p. 175. See Andrew K. Black, “In the Service of the United States: Comparative Mortality Among African-American and White Troops in the Union Army,” Journal of Negro History 79, no. 4 (Autumn 1994): 317–27.

29. Christian Recorder, August 15, 1863, p. 131. On Cailloux, see “The Funeral of Captain Andre Cailloux,” Harper’s Weekly, August 29, 1863; “Funeral of a Negro Soldier”, Weekly Anglo-African (New York), August 15, 1863; James G. Hollandsworth Jr.,Louisiana Native Guards: The Black Military Experience During the Civil War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995); Stephen J. Ochs, A Black Patriot and a White Priest: Andre Cailloux and Claude Paschal Maistre in Civil War New Orleans(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000).

30. “The Funeral of Captain Andre Cailloux,” Harper’s Weekly, August 29, 1863, p. 551; see also Weekly Anglo-African, August 15, 1863.

31. George E. Stephens in Donald Yacovone, ed., A Voice of Thunder: The Civil War Letters of George E. Stephens (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), p. 203.

32. “The Two Southern Mothers,” in Weekly Anglo-African, November 7, 1863.

33. David W. Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), pp. 113, 115. The Covey story is in Douglass, My Bondage and My Freedom (1855; rpt. New York: Dover, 1969), pp. 246–49.

34. Christian Recorder, February 20, 1864, p. 29; December 19, 1863, p. 203.

35. Cordelia A. Harvey to Governor James Lewis, April 24, 1864, Cordelia A. Harvey Papers, Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison.

36. Christian Recorder, April 30, 1864, p. 69; July 9, 1864, p. 110; February 4, 1865, p. 18.

37. Abraham Lincoln, “Second Inaugural Address,” in Lincoln: Speeches, Letters and Miscellaneous Writings, Presidential Messages and Proclamations (New York: Library of America, 1989), pp. 686–87.

38. Aunt Aggy tells this story to Mary Livermore in Livermore, My Story of the War (Hartford, Conn.: A. D. Worthington, 1889), p. 261. On black vengeance, see also Louisa May Alcott, “The Brothers,” Atlantic Monthly, November 1863, in Diffley, ed., To Live and Die, pp. 191–208, and “Buried Alive,” Harper’s Weekly, May 7, 1864, in Diffley, Live and Die, pp. 284–88.

39. Daniel M. Holt, A Surgeon’s Civil War: The Letters and Diary of Daniel M. Holt, M.D., ed. James M. Greiner, Janet L. Coryell, and James R. Smither (Kent, Ohio: Kent University Press, 1994), p. 188; Howells quoted in Gerald Linderman, Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War (New York: Free Press, 1987), p. 128; James Wood Davidson to C. V. Dargan, August 6, 1862, Clara Dargan MacLean Papers, RBMSC; Charles Kerrison to his cousin, July 19, 1862, Kerrison Family Papers, SCL; statistics from “Bull Run, First Battle of,” in Heidler and Heidler, eds. Encyclopedia of the Civil War, vol. 1, p. 316, “Shiloh, Battle of,” vol. 4, p. 1779, and “Casualties,” vol. 1, pp. 373–74. See also James McDonough, Shiloh: In Hell Before Night(Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1977), and Larry Daniel, Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997). On Confederate losses, see The War of the Rebellion, ser. 2, vol. 27, pp. 338–46; Kent Masterson Brown,Retreat from Gettysburg: Lee, Logistics and the Pennsylvania Campaign (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), p. 2. Lee’s losses at Gettysburg, which he systematically understated, can only be estimated. John W. Busey and David G. Martin conjecture 23,231 in Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg, 4th ed. (Hightstown, N.J.: Longstreet House, 2005), p. 258; James M. McPherson suggests between 24,000 and 28,000; personal communication to the author, December 27, 2006.

40. Colonel Luther Bradley to My dear Buel, January 5, 1863, letter in possession of Robert Bradley, Somerville, Mass.; Frank, “Seeing the Elephant,” p. 120; Henry C. Taylor to Father and Mother, October 1863, Henry C. Taylor Papers, WHS.

41. William Stilwell to his Wife, September 18, 1862, in Mills Lane, ed., “Dear Mother: Don’t Grieve About Me. If I Get Killed, I’ll Only Be Dead”: Letters from Georgia Soldiers in the Civil War (Savannah, Ga.: Beehive Press, 1990), pp. 184–85. Indiana soldier quoted in Hess, Union Soldier in Battle, p. 119; James B. Sheeran, Confederate Chaplain: A War Journal, ed. Joseph T. Durkin (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1960), pp. 88–89; W. D. Rutherford to Sallie Rutherford, July 3, 1862, SCL; Robert Goldthwaite Carter, Four Brothers in Blue: or, Sunshine and Shadows of the War of the Rebellion (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1978), p. 325; James Wood Davidson to C. V. Dargan, August 6, 1862, Clara Dargan MacLean Papers, RBMSC; George G. Benedict, Army Life in Virginia: Letters from the Twelfth Vermont Regiment (Burlington, Vt.: Free Press Association, 1891), pp. 190–91.

42. Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly Newspaper, May 24, 1862, p. 98; Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs (1885; rpt. New York: Library of America, 1990), p. 238;L. Minor Blackford, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: The Story of a Virginia Lady (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954), p. 213. On stepping on bodies, see Christian Recorder, July 18, 1863; L. S. Bobo to A. Bobo, July 7, 1862, Bobo Papers, CSA Collection, ESBL; Mary A. Newcomb, Four Years of Personal Reminiscences of the War(Chicago: H. S. Mills, 1893), p. 43; John Driscoll to Adelaide, April 18, 1862, Gould Family Papers, WHS; Alexander G. Downing, Downing’s Civil War Diary (Des Moines: Historical Department of Iowa, 1916), p. 325.

43. John O. Casler, Four Years in the Stonewall Brigade (Guthrie, Okla.: State Capital Printing Co., 1893), p. 29; Thompson in Gregory A. Coco, A Strange and Blighted Land: Gettysburg, the Aftermath of a Battle (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1995), p. 54; Chauncey Herbert Cooke,A Soldier Boy’s Letters to His Father and Mother, 1861–1865 (Independence, Wis.: News-Office, 1915), p. 97; Pierce in Gregory A. Coco, Killed in Action: Eyewitness Accounts of the Last Moments of 100 Union Soldiers Who Died at Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1992), p. 112; Walker Lee to Dear Mother, June 15, 1862, in Laura Elizabeth Lee Battle, Forget-Me-Nots of the Civil War (St Louis: A. R. Fleming Printing Co., 1909), p. 355.

44. Southern Churchman, June 26, 1862; John Weissert to Dearest Mother and Children, December 14, 1862, John Weissert Papers, Box 1, Correspondence Nov.–Dec. 1862, BHL; Henry L. Abbott to J. G. Abbott, October 17, 1863, in Scott, ed., Fallen Leaves, pp. 223–24; “Indifference of Soldiers to Death,” Christian Recorder, November 14, 1863, p. 184; Surgeon [name illegible] to Reverend Patrick Reilly, June 25, 1862, Patrick Reilly Papers, PAHRC; Henry Clay Trumble, War Memories of an Army Chaplain (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1898), pp. 158, 39; Isaac Hadden to his Kate, May 24, 1864, Misc. Mss. Hadden, Isaac, NYHS; Charles Wainwright in Allan Nevins, ed., A Diary of Battle: The Personal Journals of Colonel Charles S. Wainwright, 1861–1865 (New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1962), p. 56; Wilbur Fisk quote in Reid Mitchell, The Vacant Chair: The Northern Soldier Leaves Home (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 157.

45. Weymouth Jordan, ed., “Hugh Harris Robison Letters,” Journal of Mississippi History 1 ( January 1939), p. 54; Elijah P. Petty, Journey to Pleasant Hill: The Civil War Letters of Captain Elijah P. Petty, Walker’s Texas Division, CSA, ed. Norman D. Brown (San Antonio: University of Texas, Institute of Texan Cultures, 1982), p. 304; Angus Waddle to My dear Sister, March 6, 1862, Ellen Waddle McCoy Papers, MOHS; Katharine Prescott Wormeley, The Other Side of War: With the Army of the Potomac: Letters from the Headquarters of the United States Sanitary Commission During the Peninsular Campaign in Virginia in 1862 (Boston: Ticknor & Co., 1889), p. 114.

46. Daniel E. Sutherland, Seasons of War: The Ordeal of a Confederate Community, 1861–1865 (New York: Free Press, 1995), p. 163; Casler, Four Years in the Stonewall Brigade, p. 89; Soldiers’ Almanac (Richmond, Va.: MacFarlane & Fergusson, 1863).

CHAPTER 3. BURYING

1. Board of Trustees of the Antietam National Cemetery, History of Antietam National Cemetery (Baltimore: J. W. Woods, 1869), p. 5.

2. [Henry Raymond], “Editor’s Table,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 8 (April 1854): 690, 691.

3. Ibid., pp. 691, 693. On body and death, see Caroline Bynum, The Resurrection of the Body in Western Christianity (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), and Bynum, Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (New York: Zone Books, 1991).

4. Daniel E. Sutherland, Seasons of War: The Ordeal of a Confederate Community, 1861–1865 (New York: Free Press, 1995), p. 274; Gage in Gregory A. Coco, Wasted Valor: The Confederate Dead at Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1990), p. 137; Wirt Armistead Cate, ed.,Two Soldiers: The Campaign Diaries of Thomas J. Key, C.S.A., December 7, 1863–May 17, 1865 and Robert J. Campbell, U.S.A., January 1, 1864–July 21, 1864 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1938), p. 182;Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 16, 1862, p. 334.

5. Sutherland, Seasons of War, p. 76.

6. A. P. Meylist to Edmund B. Whitman, June 10, 1868, Edmund B. Whitman, Letters and Reports Received, Record Group 92 E A1–397A, NARA; H. Clay Trumbull, War Memories of a Chaplain (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1898), p.209. See especially “Soldiers Graves and Soldier Burials,” pp. 203–32.

7. General Orders of the War Department, Embracing the Years 1861, 1862 & 1863 (New York: Derby & Miller, 1864), vol. 1, pp. 158, 248. See also James E. Yeatman, [Sanitary Commission,] “Burial of the Dead,” printed circular, September 20, 1861, William Greenleaf Eliot Collection, MOHS; Erna Risch, Quartermaster Support of the Army: A History of the Corps, 1775–1939 (Washington, D.C.: United States Army, 1989), p. 464.

8. Horace H. Cunningham, Field Medical Services at the Battles of Manassas (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1968), p. 48; Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States, 1862 (Atlanta: James McPherson & Co., 1862).

9. Report of Colonel Henry A. Weeks, 12th New York Infantry, May 28, 1862, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1884), ser. 1, vol. 11/1, p. 725;Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, February 28, 1863, p. 366; Christian Recorder, May 21, 1864, p. 83; Richard F. Miller and Robert F. Mooney, The Civil War: The Nantucket Experience: Including the Memoirs of Josiah Fitch Murphey (Nantucket: Wesco Publishing Co., 1994), p. 107.

10. Many descriptions of Antietam assert that the dead were buried by the 21st, but Holt’s observations contradict this. Daniel M. Holt, A Surgeon’s Civil War: The Letters and Diary of Daniel M. Holt, M.D., ed. James M. Greiner, Janet L. Coryell, and James R. Smither (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1994), p. 28; Mrs. H. [Anna M. E. Holstein], Three Years in Field Hospitals in the Army of the Potomac (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1867), p. 11.

11. James M. McPherson, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 4; W. D. Rutherford to Sallie Rutherford, May 21, 1864, William Drayton Rutherford Papers, SCL. (This example is not from Antietam, as are all others in this section, but from Spotsylvania in 1864.) See also Steven R. Stotelmyer, The Bivouacs of the Dead: The Story of Those Who Died at Antietam and South Mountain (Baltimore: Toomey Press, 1992), p. 10.

12. Stotelmyer, Bivouacs of the Dead, pp. 9, 5.

13. Gregory A. Coco, A Strange and Blighted Land: Gettysburg, the Aftermath of a Battle (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1995), p. 313; Gerard A. Patterson, Debris of Battle: The Wounded of Gettysburg (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1997), p. 28; Coco, Strange and Blighted Land., pp. 60, 64. On lack of tools, see also Richard Coolidge to Major General W. A. Hammond, September 4, 1862, Papers of George A. Otis, RG 94 629A, NARA.

14. W. B. Coker to his Brother, July 28, 1861, in Mills Lane, ed., “Dear Mother: Don’t Grieve About Me. If I Get Killed, I’ll Only Be Dead”: Letters from Georgia Soldiers in the Civil War (Savannah, Ga.: Beehive Press, 1990), p. 40; Official Records, ser. 1, vol. 27, p. 79, cited in Gerard A. Patterson, Debris of Battle: The Wounded of Gettysburg (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1997), p. xi; Theodore Fogel to his parents, September 28, 1862, in Lane, ed., Dear Mother, p. 190.

15. John A. Wyeth, With Sabre and Scalpel: The Autobiography of a Soldier and Surgeon (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1914), p. 254; Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, November 14, 1863, p. 124; Frank Oakley’s reactions described in Cynthia to My Dear Father, August 22, 1862, Frank Oakley Papers, WHS.

16. Quotes from Joseph Allan Frank and George A. Reaves, “Seeing the Elephant”: Raw Recruits at the Battle of Shiloh (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989), p. 122.

17. Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, p. 89; Stotelmyer, Bivouacs of the Dead, p. 4; Frank and Reaves, “Seeing the Elephant,” 123; Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, p. 127; Earl J. Hess, The Union Soldier in Battle: Enduring the Ordeal of Combat (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997), p. 41; Cyrus F. Boyd, The Civil War Diary of Cyrus F. Boyd, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry 1861–1863, ed. Mildred Throne (Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus Reprint Co., 1953), pp. 41–42; H. Clay Trumbull, War Memories of an Army Chaplain (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1898), p. 209; Robert Zaworski, Headstones of Heroes: The Restoration and History of Confederate Graves in Atlanta’s Oakland Cemetery (Paducah, Ky.: Turner Publishing Co. 1997), p. 7.

18. New York Herald, September 7, 1862; James Eldred Phillips Diary, entry for May 1863, p. 16, VHS. On hogs see for example Sutherland, Seasons of War, pp. 193, 228; William D. Rutherford to Sallie Fair, August 26, 1861, Rutherford Papers, SCL.

19. “Burials,” Sanitary Commission Bulletin 1, no. 20 (August 15, 1864): 623; R. A. Wilkinson to M. F. Wilkinson, July 8, 1862, Wilkinson-Stark Family Papers (mss. 255), The Historic New Orleans Collection, New Orleans; Hardin quoted in Frank and Reaves,“Seeing the Elephant,” p. 122.

20. William Corby, Memoirs of Chaplain Life: Three Years Chaplain in the Famous Irish Brigade, “Army of the Potomac” (Notre Dame, Ind.: Scholastic Press, 1894), p. 91; Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, p. 119; Wyeth, With Sabre and Scalpel, p. 248; Holt,Surgeon’s Civil War, pp. 190, 103.

21. William Gore, February 25, 1865, BV Gore, William B., NYHS. Edgar Allan Poe wrote frequently about the fear of being buried alive in his widely popular short stories. See, for example, “The Premature Burial” and “The Fall of the House of Usher,” in Stephen Peithman, ed., The Annotated Tales of Edgar Allan Poe (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981). See also Timothy Trend Blade, “Buried Alive!” American Cemetery, September 1991, pp. 34–54.

22. Gregory A. Coco, Killed in Action: Eyewitness Accounts of the Last Moments of 100 Union Soldiers Who Died at Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1992), p. 34.

23. Cate, ed., Two Soldiers, p. 93; Houghton quoted in Coco, Killed in Action, pp. 44–45; Fannie A. Beers, Memories: A Record of Personal Experience and Adventure During Four Years of War (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1888), p. 83.

24. Trumbull, War Memories of a Chaplain, p. 219.

25. J. W. McClure to My Dearest Kate, August 17, 1864, McClure Family Papers, SCL.

26. Sutherland, Seasons of War, pp. 160–61; Charles Kerrison to My Dear Sister, May 19, 1864, Kerrison Family Papers, SCL; George R. Gauthier, Harder Than Death: The Life of George R. Gauthier, an Old Texan (Austin, Tex.: n.p., 1902), p. 15; Oliver Wendell Holmes, “My Hunt After ‘The Captain,’” Atlantic 10 (December 1862), p. 743.

27. Narrative of Privations and Sufferings of United States Officers and Soldiers While Prisoners of War in the Hands of Rebel Authorities, Being the Report of a Commission of Inquiry, Appointed by the United States Sanitary Commission (Philadelphia: King & Baird, 1864), p. 159; Holt,Surgeon’s Civil War, p. 63.

28. Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, p. 49. On death and Civil War horses, see Drew Gilpin Faust, “Equine Relics of the Civil War,” Southern Cultures 6 (Spring 2000): 23–49.

29. Hollywood Cemetery, Records, 1847–1955, VHS; Mary H. Mitchell, Hollywood Cemetery: The History of a Southern Shrine (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1985), p. 48.

30. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 1991).

31. John Thompson, “The Burial of Latané,” online at www.civilwarpoetry.org/confederate/officers/latane.htm. See Drew Gilpin Faust, “Race, Gender and Confederate Nationalism: William D. Washington’s Burial of Latané,” in Faust, Southern Stories: Slaveholders in Peace and War(Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1992), pp. 148–59.

32. Faust, “Race, Gender and Confederate Nationalism,” pp. 149–51.

33. Harper’s Weekly, October 11, 1862, p. 655; Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, p. 11; John W. Schildt, Antietam Hospitals (Chewsville, Md.: Antietam Publications, 1987), p. 14.

34. Flora McCabe to Dearest Maggie, January 26, 1862, Flora Morgan McCabe Collection, LC. On fear of getting the wrong body, see also Friedrich Hartmann to Sarah Ogden, September 10, 1863, Sarah Ogden Correspondence and Ephemera, GLC6559.01.114, Gilder Lehrman Collection, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, NYHS.

35. Patterson, Debris, p. 173; see also, “Yorktown,” New York Herald, April 30, 1862; Robert E. Denney, Civil War Medicine: Care and Comfort of the Wounded (New York: Sterling Publishers, 1994), p. 58; W. White to Dear Parents, June 21, 1862, William White Papers, PAHRC.

36. See Pennsylvania State Agency, December 10, 1863, Record Book, November 1863–December 1864, NYHS; New England Soldiers Relief Association Papers, RG 94, p. 800, NARA. On Central Association, see T. N. Dawkins to J. W. McClure, December 4, 1864, McClure Papers, SCL;Louisiana Soldiers Relief Association and Hospital (Richmond, Va.: Enquirer Book and Job Office, 1862), p.30. On support from a single community, see Robert V. Wells, Facing the “King of Terrors”: Death and Society in an American Community, 1750–1990 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 129.

37. On the U.S. Sanitary Commission, see “Burials,” Sanitary Commission Bulletin 1, no. 20 (August 15, 1864): 623; “Rev. Mr. Hoblitt on Nashville Hospitals,” Sanitary Reporter, 1, no. 5 ( July 15, 1863): 34; “The Commission on the James River and the Appomattox,” Sanitary Commission Bulletin 1, no. 18 ( July 15, 1864): 567. On Sanitary Commission and burials, see [Holstein], Three Years in Field Hospitals, p. 71; J. S. Newberry, “Report of the Hospital Directory,” Sanitary Reporter 1, no. 11 (October 15, 1863): 81.

38. Chattanooga, Tenn., Disinterments from March to September 1864, Telegrams from January to July 1864, ms. vol. bd., Box 284.1, folder 3, p. 119, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

39. Mary C. Brayton, October 15, 1864, J. S. Moore, November 2, 1864, Chattanooga, Tenn., Orders for Disinterment and Removal of Bodies, September 1864–February 1865, Box 284.1, folder 5, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

40. “Soldiers’ Cemetery at Belle Plain Va May 23 1864,” Box 192.3, folder 4; “Plot of Soldiers’ Cemetery, Port Royal Va 28 May 1864,” Box 192.3, folder 5, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

41. Cornelius quoted in Christine Quigley, The Corpse: A History ( Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1963), p. 55. See Cain and Cornelius Ledger, 1859, 1862, RBMSC.

42. “The Terrible Telegram,” March 18, 1863; Henry I. Bowditch to My Own Sweet Wife [Olivia Yardley Bowditch], March 19, 1863, both in Manuscripts Relating to Lieutenant Nathaniel Bowditch, vol. 2, pp. 98, 92, Nathaniel Bowditch Memorial Collection, MAHS.

43. Henry I. Bowditch, A Brief Plea for an Ambulance System for the Army of the United States (Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1863), pp. 6, 15.

44. Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, pp. 114–15, 110; order in Christian Recorder, August 1, 1863, p. 1.

45. Alexander quoted in Kent Masterson Brown, Retreat from Gettysburg: Lee, Logistics and the Pennsylvania Campaign (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), p. 50; see also pp. 371–72, 381.

46. Receipt, August 15, 1862, Goodwin Family Papers, MAHS; Alvin F. Harlow, Old Waybills: The Romance of the Express Companies (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1934), p. 299. See also Stillman King Wightman, “In Search of My Son,” American Heritage14 (February 1963), pp. 64–78.

47. Stotelmyer, Bivouacs of the Dead, p. 15.

48. Staunton Transportation Company, “Transportation of the Dead!” (Gettysburg, Pa.: H. J. Stahle, 1863), broadside, LCP.

49. Robert W. Habenstein and William M. Lamers, The History of American Funeral Directing (Milwaukee: Bulfin Printers, 1955), pp. 330–35.

50. On Ellsworth, see Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Magazine, June 1, 1861, pp. 40–41. On embalming, see also Michael Sappol, A Traffic of Dead Bodies: Anatomy and Embodied Social Identity in Nineteenth-Century America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002).

51. Charlotte Elizabeth McKay, Stories of Hospital and Camp (Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger, 1876), p. 47.

52. Richmond Enquirer, June 2, 1863, p. 2; December 4, 1863, p. 3; Charles R. Wilson, “The Southern Funeral Director: Managing Death in the New South,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 67 (Spring 1983): 53.

53. Habenstein and Lamers, History of American Funeral Directing, pp. 330, 334. See also Gary Laderman, The Sacred Remains: American Attitudes Towards Death, 1799–1883 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), and Karen Pomeroy Flood, “Contemplating Corpses: The Dead Body in American Culture, 1870–1920,” Ph.D. diss. (Harvard University, 2001).

54. George A. Townsend, Rustics in Rebellion: A Yankee Reporter on the Road to Richmond, 1861–1865 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1950), pp. 121–22, 153–54.

55. Hardie to Provost Marshal General, City Point, November 23, 1864, M619, 2195, S1864 Roll 309, NARA; Turner and Baker Files, November 8, 1864, 363-B, M797, Roll 130, NARA; R. Burr to Brig. Gen. M. R. Patrick, November 21, 1864, M619 2195 S1864 Roll 309, NARA.

56. War Department, Quartermaster General’s Office, Compilation of Laws, Orders, Opinions, Instructions, Etc. in Regard to National Military Cemeteries (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1878), p. 5. See also Monro MacCloskey, Hallowed Ground: Our National Cemeteries(New York: Richard Rosens Press, 1968), p. 24.

57. Garry Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992).

58. Trumbull, War Memories of a Chaplain, p. 209.59. Bowditch, Brief Plea, p. 15.

CHAPTER 4. NAMING

1. Walt Whitman, Specimen Days (1882; rpt. Boston: David Godine, 1971), p. 60.

2. Caroline Alexander, “Letter from Vietnam: Across the River Styx,” New Yorker, October 25, 2004, p. 44. See also Michael Sledge, Soldier Dead: How We Recover, Identify, Bury, and Honor Our Military Fallen (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).

3. Mark Crawford, Encyclopedia of the Mexican-American War (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, 1999), p. 68, cites 13,768 U.S. deaths out of 104,556 who served. Only one in eight of these deaths was battle-related; the others were from disease.

4. U.S. War Department, General Orders of the War Department (New York: Derby & Miller, 1864), vol. 1, pp. 158, 248; “Return of Deceased Soldiers” and “Field Returns,” paras. 451, 452, 453, in Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States, 1862 (Atlanta: James McPherson & Co., 1862); Samuel P. Moore, August 14, 1862, in Wayside Hospital, Charleston, Order and Letter Book, SCL; Charleston Mercury, January 27, 1864; Edward Steere, The Graves Registration Service in World War II, Quartermaster Historical Studies no. 21, Historical Section, Office of the Quartermaster General (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1951), pp. 4–5. On inadequacies of Confederate casualty reporting in the Peninsula Campaign, see The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1880–1901) ser. 1, vol. 11, pt. 2, pp. 559, 760, 775, 501–2.

5. Sarah J. Palmer to Harriet R. Palmer, September 5, 1862, Palmer Family Papers, SCL; F. S. Gillespie to Mrs. Carson, July 5, 1864, Carson Family Papers, SCL.

6. Elvira J. Powers, Hospital Pencillings: Being a Diary While in Jefferson General Hospital (Boston: Edward L. Mitchel, 1866), p. 19. On chaplains, see Warren B. Armstrong, For Courageous Fighting and Confident Dying: Union Chaplains in the Civil War(Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998), p. 134n98, quoting an 1864 order from the assistant medical director of the Department of the Cumberland. Chaplain figures in Steven E. Woodworth, While God Is Marching On: The Religious World of Civil War Soldiers (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2001), p. 148.

7. Daily South Carolinian, June 16, 1864.

8. Daily South Carolinian, July 22, 1863; F. S. Gillespie to Mrs. Carson; Mathew Jack Davis Narrative, “War Sketches,” CAH; Joseph Willett to Dear Sister, June 6, 1864, Misc. Mss. Cummings, NYHS; Henry W. Raymond, ed., “Extracts from the Journal of Henry J. Raymond II,” Scribner’s Monthly 19 ( January 1880): 419–20; Steven R. Stotelmyer, The Bivouacs of the Dead (Baltimore: Toomey Press, 1992), p. 17.

9. On mail see W. D. Rutherford to Sallie Fair Rutherford, June 5, 1864, William Drayton Rutherford Papers, SCL.

10. J. W. Hoover to Mr. Kuhlman, September 8, 1864, J. W. Hoover Papers, WHS; Reverend Lemuel Moss, Annals of the United States Christian Commission (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1868), pp. 411, 506. On letters after Gettysburg, see Andrew Boyd Cross, “The Battle of Gettysburg and the Christian Commission,” in Daniel J. Hoisington, ed., Gettysburg and the Christian Commission ([Roseville, Minn.]: Edinborough Press, 2002), p. 59. A quire is a set of twenty-four or twenty-five sheets of paper of the same size and stock.

11. Moss, Annals, pp. 512, 487–88, 563, 475. See U.S. Christian Commission, Record of Letters Written for Soldiers, Army of the Potomac, 1865, RG 94 E 746, and U.S. Christian Commission, Abstracts of Letters Written for Sick and Wounded Soldiers, Army of the Potomac, 1864–65, RG 94 E745, NARA.

12. Moss, Annals, pp. 409, 439–40. See U.S. Christian Commission, Letters Received, Individual Relief Department, 1864–65 RG 94 E748, NARA; U.S. Christian Commission, Record of Inquiries, Central Office, 1864–65 RG 94 E743, NARA.

13. U.S. Christian Commission, Death Register, 1864–65, October 6, 1864; October 9, 1864; October 8, 1864; September 19, 1864; October 3, 1864; November 3, 1864; October 18, 1864, RG 94 E797, NARA.

14. Moss, Annals, pp. 508, 439. U.S. Christian Commission, Record of the Federal Dead Buried from Libby, Belle Isle, Danville and Camp Lawton Prisons and at City Point and in the Field Before Petersburg and Richmond (Philadelphia: J. B. Rodgers, 1866). See U.S. Christian Commission, Correspondence Concerning “Record of the Federal Dead,” RG 94 E795, NARA.

15. Charles J. Stillé, History of the United States Sanitary Commission (New York: Hurd & Houghton, 1868), p. 451; George M. Fredrickson, The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), chap. 7; Judith Ann Giesberg, Civil War Sisterhood: The U.S. Sanitary Commission and Women’s Politics in Transition (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000); Jeanie Attie, Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998); William Quentin Maxwell, Lincoln’s Fifth Wheel: The Political History of the United States Sanitary Commission (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1956).

16. Stillé, History of Sanitary Commission, pp. 287, 308.

17. Ibid., p. 309; John Herrick to Frederick Law Olmsted, December 14, 1862, Washington Hospital Directory Archives, Letters of Inquiry, Box 192.2, folder 3, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

18. Sanitary Reporter, January 15, 1864, p. 135.

19. Stillé, History of Sanitary Commission, p. 309; Howard A. Martin to H. A. de France, July 4, 1863, John Bowne to H. A. de France, July 9, 1863, July 16, 1863, and July 21, 1863, Philadelphia Agency, Hospital Directory Correspondence, vol. 1, Box 596, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL; H. A. de France to Jos. P. Holbrook, July 27, 1863 and July 18, 1863, Washington Hospital Directory Archives, Box 195.1, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

20. Richard Deering, June 13, 1864, Louisville Hospital Directory Archives, Chattanooga, Special Inquiries, April 8, 1864, to August 25, 1864, Box 284.2, folder 1, p. 58; Report of Hospital Directory, July 9, 1864, Washington Hospital Directory Archives, Box 192.3, folder 12, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL; “The Hospital Directory,” Sanitary Commission Bulletin 1 (December 15, 1863): 109.

21. Report of Hospital Directory, July 9, 1864, Washington Hospital Directory Archives, Box 192.3, folder 12, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL. For casualty numbers, see James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 742.

22. Peter Williams to Dear Sir, March 28, 1863, Philadelphia Agency, Hospital Directory Correspondence, vol. 1, Box 596, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL. Susannah Hampton to Dear Sir, September 14, 1863, Philadelphia Agency, Hospital Directory Correspondence, vol. 2, Box 597, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

23. Mrs. Biddy Higgins to Sir, December 16, 1863, Philadelphia Agency, Hospital Directory Correspondence, vol. 2, Box 597, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

24. John Bowne to John W. Wilson, December 17, 1863, Philadelphia Agency, Hospital Directory Correspondence, vol. 2, Box 597, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

25. Stillé, History of Sanitary Commission, pp. 310, 309.

26. Louisiana Soldiers’ Relief Association and Hospital in the City of Richmond, Virginia (Richmond, Va.: Enquirer Book and Job Press, 1862), p. 30; Kurt O. Berends, “‘Wholesome Reading Purifies and Elevates the Man’: The Religious Military Press in the Confederacy,” in Randall M. Miller, Harry S. Stout, and Charles Reagan Wilson, eds., Religion and the American Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 147.

27. P. Hunter to Oliver H. Middleton, July 27, 1864; Henry W. Richards to Oliver H. Middleton, December 19, 1864; E. W. Mikell to Colonel B. H. Rutledge, June 21, 1864, all in Middleton-Blake Papers, SCHS.

28. Harper’s Weekly, September 3, 1864, p. 576.

29. W. H. Fowler, Guide for Claimants of Deceased Soldiers (Richmond, Va.: Geo. P. Evans & Co., 1864), pp. 66, 17; Megan McClintock, “Civil War Pensions and the Reconstruction of Union Families,” Journal of American History 83 (September 1996): 456–80; Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge; Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), pp. 106–7.

30. Daily South Carolinian, May 17, 1864; W. D. Rutherford, telegram to Sallie F. Rutherford, July 6, 1862, William Drayton Rutherford Papers, SCL.

31. Gregory Coco, Killed in Action: Eyewitness Accounts of the Last Moments of 100 Union Soldiers Who Died at Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1992), p. 76; Harper’s Weekly, August 1, 1863, p. 495, and September 3, 1864, p. 576. Murphey quoted in Richard F. Miller, and Robert F. Moore, The Civil War: The Nantucket Experience, Including the Memoirs of Josiah Fitch Murphey (Nantucket, Mass.: Wesco Publishing, 1994), p. 80.

32. Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2001), p. 41.

33. Katharine Prescott Wormeley, The Other Side of War: With the Army of the Potomac. Letters from the Headquarters of the United States Sanitary Commission During the Peninsular Campaign in Virginia in 1862 (Boston: Ticknor & Co. 1889), p. 145; Clara Barton, Journal, 1863, Clara Barton Papers, LC; T. J. Weatherly Diary, 1864–65, SCL.

34. Walt Whitman, Memoranda During the War (1875; rpt. Bedford, Mass.: Applewood Books, 1993), p. 5; Edwin Haviland Miller, ed., Walt Whitman: The Correspondence (New York: New York University Press, 1961), vol. 1, p. 59; Walt Whitman, “A Sight in Camp in the Daybreak Gray and Dim,” Civil War Poetry and Prose (New York: Dover, 1995), p. 16; Whitman, Memoranda, p. 36; M. Wynn Thomas, “Fratricide and Brotherly Love: Whitman and the Civil War,” in Ezra Greenspan, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Walt Whitman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 35.

35. Times quoted in Thomas, “Fratricide and Brotherly Love,” pp. 32–33; James Perrin Warren, “Reading Whitman’s Postwar Poetry,” in Greenspan, ed., Cambridge Companion to Whitman, p. 46; Whitman, Memoranda, pp. 65–67; Miller, ed., Whitman: Correspondence, vol. 1, p. 259.

36. Walt Whitman, “Come Up from the Fields Father,” in Civil War Poetry and Prose, pp. 12–14. See also Walt Whitman, The Wound Dresser, ed. Richard Maurice Bucke (Boston: Small Maynard & Co., 1898); John Harmon McElroy, ed., The Sacrificial Years: A Chronicle of Walt Whitman’s Experiences in the Civil War (Boston: David Godine, 1999); Roy Morris Jr., The Better Angel: Walt Whitman in the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

37. O’Neal quoted in Gregory A. Coco, Gettysburg’s Confederate Dead (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 2003), p. 15.

38. Daily South Carolinian, July 21, 1864. These were copied by the Carolinian “from the Richmond papers.” New York Daily News, February 5, 1864, February 4, 1864, January 8, 1864.

39. Oliver Wendell Holmes, “My Hunt After ‘The Captain,’” Atlantic Monthly 10 (December 1862): 764.

40. Robert E. Lee to Joseph Hooker, February 14, 1863; Joseph Hooker to Robert E. Lee, February 16, 1863; Robert E. Lee to Fanny Scott, February 18, 1863; Charles S. Venable to Fanny Scott, April 1, 1863; William Alexander Hammond to Robert E. Lee, March 23, 1863; Thomas M. R. Talcott to Fanny Scott, April 18, 1963; E. A. Hitchcock to Fanny Scott, July 25, 1865, all in Scott Family Papers, VHS. See Mrs. T. B. Hurlbut to Clara Barton, September 26, 1865, Clara Barton Papers, LC, for a description of Confederate general James Longstreet’s comparable aid to a northern woman searching for her son.

41. Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, p. 48; Robert G. Carter, Four Brothers in Blue (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1978), pp. 324–25.

42. On the unifying power of death, see David Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001), and Drew Gilpin Faust, “The Civil War Soldier and the Art of Dying,” Journal of Southern History67 (February 2001): 5.

43. Mrs. R. L. Leach to Clara Barton, March 28, 1874, Clara Barton Papers, LC; Gregory Coco, Wasted Valor: The Confederate Dead at Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1990), p. 141. Sébastien Japrisot’s novel and the film based on it, A Very Long Engagement, explore this fantasy of a lost soldier found with amnesia in the setting of the First World War.

44. Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs to Surgeon General, September 19, 1868, Office of the Quartermaster General, Consolidated Correspondence File, 1794–1915, Portrait of Unknown Soldier, RG 92, Box 1173, NARA, Mrs. Jenny McConkey to Meigs, November 4, 1868; Ellen Hardback to Meigs, October 26, 1868; Mrs. J. P. Coppersmith to Meigs, November 30, 1868; James M. Truitt to Meigs, November 6, 1868, all ibid. See “An Unknown Soldier,” Harper’s Weekly, October 24, 1868, p. 679.

45. Charles H. Morgan to J. M. Taylor, October 2, 1864; J. M. Taylor to Doct. J. F. Walton, October 12, 1864; J. M. Taylor to Lieutenant Colonel W. F. Bennett, October 30, 1864; J. M. Taylor to Captain Vliet, November 17, 1864; J. M. Taylor to Captain R. H. Spencer, November 22, 1864; Captain N. M. Clark to J. M. Taylor, December 27, 1864; J. M. Taylor to Captain H. K. Edwards [December 1864]; J. M. Taylor to L. F. Davis, February 5, 1865; Henry C. Taylor to Alonzo Taylor, August 16, 1863, all in Henry Clay Taylor Papers, WHS.

46. Lonnie R. Speer, Portals to Hell: Military Prisons of the Civil War (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1997), p. 16. For statistics, see James M. McPherson, personal communication to the author, December 27, 2006. See also Narrative of Privations and Sufferings of United States Officers and Soldiers While Prisoners of War in the Hands of Rebel Authorities (Philadelphia: King & Baird, 1864); James Canon, Diary, WHS; William Best Hesseltine, Civil War Prisons: A Study in Psychology (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1930); Charles W. Sanders, While in the Hands of the Enemy: Military Prisons of the Civil War (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2005).

47. Bob to J. M. Taylor, April 3, 1895, Henry Clay Taylor Papers, WHS.

48. “The Sanitary Movement in European Armies,” Sanitary Commission Bulletin 1 (April 15, 1864): 354, 353. On this emerging humanitarianism, see more generally David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975), and David Brion Davis, Slavery and Human Progress (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984).

CHAPTER 5. REALIZING

1. Abraham Lincoln, “Special Session Message, July 4, 1861,” in James D. Richardson, ed., Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (New York: Bureau of National Literature and Art, 1908), vol. 6, p. 30.

2. On Gettysburg, see Margaret Creighton, The Colors of Courage: Gettysburg’s Forgotten History: Immigrants, Women, and African Americans in the Civil War’s Defining Battle (New York: Basic Books, 2005), pp. 121–22. Kathleen Ernst, Too Afraid to Cry: Maryland Civilians in the Antietam Campaign (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1999), p. 186; Albertus McCreary, “Gettysburg: A Boy’s Experience of the Battle,” McClure’s Magazine 33 ( July 1909): 243–53; Gregory A. Coco, A Strange and Blighted Land: Gettysburg: The Aftermath of a Battle (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1995), p. 338 (number of Vicksburg deaths). On Baton Rouge, see Sarah Morgan Dawson, A Confederate Girl’s Diary: Sarah Morgan Dawson (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co, 1913), p. 51. On Natchez see Mel Young, Where They Lie: The Story of the Jewish Soldiers of the North and South (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America), p. 28. For the Vicksburg quote, see John T. Trowbridge, The South: A Tour of Its Battlefields and Ruined Cities (Hartford, Conn.: L. Stebbins, 1866), p. 358. See also Willene Clark, ed., Valleys of the Shadow: The Memoir of Confederate Captain Reuben G. Clark (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994), p. 16. On the shelling of Petersburg, see J. W. McClure to My dearest Kate, J. W. McClure Papers, SCL. On ordnance explosion, see Richmond Enquirer, March 17, 1863. For the Yankee soldier quote, see Oscar O. Winter, ed., With Sherman to the Sea: Civil War Letters, Diaries and Reminiscences of Theodore F. Upson (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1943), p. 144.

3. Petition of Citizens of Danville, Virginia, to the Confederate Secretary of War, February 1, 1864, quoted in Robert E. Denney, Civil War Medicine: Care and Comfort of the Wounded (New York: Sterling, 1994), p. 5; Report of the Board of Health of the City and Port of Philadelphia to the Mayor for 1861 (Philadelphia: James Gibbons, 1862), p. 10; William T. Wragg, “Report on the Yellow Fever Epidemic at Wilmington, N.C., in the Autumn of 1862,” Confederate Medical and Surgical Journal 1 (February 1864): 17–18; Ted Alexander, “Destruction, Disease and Death: The Battle of Antietam and the Sharpsburg Civilians,” Civil War Regiments 6, no. 2 (1998): 158. See also J. Matthew Gallman, Mastering Wartime: A Social History of Philadelphia During the Civil War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), and Frank H. Taylor, Philadelphia in the Civil War 1861–1865 (Philadelphia: The City, 1913).

4. Gaines Foster, “The Limitations of Federal Health Care for Freedmen, 1862–1868,” Journal of Southern History 48 (August 1982), pp. 353 (quote), 356–67 (estimate). See also Thavolia Glymph, “‘This Species of Property’: Female Slave Contrabands in the Civil War,” in Edward D. C. Campbell and Kym S. Rice, eds., A Woman’s War: Southern Women, Civil War, and the Confederate Legacy (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996), pp. 55–71.

5. Jestin Hampton to Thomas B. Hampton, October 8, 1862, Thomas B. Hampton Papers, CAH; Caleb Cope et al., “An appeal in behalf of the Refugee Woman and Children concentrating in and about Nashville, Tennessee, December 23, 1864” (Philadelphia, 1864), printed circular, Civil War Miscellanies (McA 5786.F), McAllister Collection, LCP; Randolph County petition in Ira Berlin et al., eds., Free At Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War (New York: New Press, 1992), p. 150; Mary H. Legge to Harriet Palmer, July 3, 1863, Palmer Family Papers, SCL; Charles Royster, The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), p. 247.

6. Paul E. Steiner, Disease in the Civil War: Natural Biological Warfare in 1861–1865 (Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas, 1968), p. 35; Mary H. Mitchell, Hollywood Cemetery: The History of a Southern Shrine (1985; rpt. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1999), p. 50; Doris Kearns Goodwin, Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), p. 419.

7. “in memoriam,” Sanitary Commission Bulletin 1 (August 15, 1864): 615; Frank Moore, Women of the War: Their Heroism and Self-Sacrifice (Hartford, Conn.: S. S. Scranton, 1867), pp. 390, 53; Mary Denis Maher, To Bind Up the Wounds: Catholic Sister Nurses in the U.S. Civil War (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989).

8. Mary Boykin Chesnut, Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, ed. C. Vann Woodward (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981), pp. 199, 209–11; Daniel E. Sutherland, Seasons of War: The Ordeal of a Confederate Community, 1861–1865 (New York: Free Press, 1995), p. 73; Winthrop D. Jordan,Tumult and Silence at Second Creek: An Inquiry into a Civil War Slave Conspiracy (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1993); Elvira J. Powers, Hospital Pencillings (Boston: Edward L. Mitchell, 1866), p. 71; Kym S. Rice and Edward D. C. Campbell, “Voices from the Tempest: Southern Women’s Wartime Experiences,” in Campbell and Rice, eds., A Woman’s War, pp. 103–6.

9. Leslie M. Harris, In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), pp. 279–88; Iver Bernstein, The New York City Draft Riots (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). Adrian Cook, The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974), lists the dead and wounded on pp. 213–32.

10. Noel C. Fisher, War at Every Door: Partisan Politics and Guerrilla Violence in East Tennessee, 1860–1869 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), pp. 85, 74; Phillip Paludan, Victims: A True Story of the Civil War (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1981); Michael Fellman, Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri During the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); Daniel E. Sutherland, ed., Guerrillas, Unionists, and Violence on the Confederate Homefront(Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1999).

11. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, “Killed at the Ford,” Atlantic 17 (April 1866): 479.

12. Marjorie Ann Rogers, “An Iowa Woman in Wartime,” Annals of Iowa 36 (Summer 1961): 31; Oliver Hering Middleton Family Correspondence, SCHS.

13. Reuben Allen Pierson, August 3, 1862, in Thomas W. Cutrer and Michael Parish, eds., Brothers in Gray: The Civil War Letters of the Pierson Family (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997), p. 110.

14. Sigmund Freud, “Mourning and Melancholia,” in James Strachey, ed., The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (London: Hogarth Press, 1957), vol. 14, pp. 245, 244. See also Martin Jay, Force Fields: Between Intellectual History and Cultural Critique(New York: Routledge, 1993), p. 93. See Mary Louise Kete, Sentimental Collaborations: Mourning and Middle-Class Identity in Nineteenth-Century America (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000). See also contemporary mourning manuals: Daniel C. Eddy, The Angel’s Whispers; or, Echoes of Spirit Voices (Boston: Horace Wentworth, 1866), and Emily Thornwell, The Rainbow Around the Tomb; or, Rays of Hope for Those Who Mourn (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1857).

15. Abbie Brooks Diaries, April 4, 1865, Mss 39f, Keenan Research Center, Atlanta History Center, Atlanta, Ga.; Kate Foster Diary, November 15, 1863, RBMSC; Kate Stone, Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861–1868, ed. John Q. Anderson (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1955), p. 258; Cornelia Hancock, South After Gettysburg: Letters, 1863–1868 (New York: T. Y. Crowell, 1956), pp. 67, 15; Myrta Lockett Avary, ed., A Virginia Girl in the Civil War, 1861–1865 (New York: D. Appleton, 1903), p. 41; Mary Greenhow Lee Diary, July 24, 1863, WFCHS.

16. Louis P. Towles, ed., A World Turned Upside Down: The Palmers of South Santee, 1818–1881 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996), pp. 341, 348, 342, 359.

17. J. Michael Welton, ed., “My Heart Is So Rebellious”: The Caldwell Letters, 1861–1865 (Warrenton, Va.: Fauquier National Bank, 1991); Towles, ed., World Turned Upside Down, p. 404.

18. Towles, ed., World Turned Upside Down, p. 404; Mrs. H. [Anna Morris Ellis Holstein], Three Years in Field Hospitals of the Army of the Potomac (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1867), p. 13.

19. Jean H. Baker, Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography (New York: W. W. Norton, 1987), p. 216; Major General F. H. Smith, Superintendent, Virginia Military Institute, General Orders no. 30, May 13, 1863, VMIA, online at www.vmi.edu/archives/Jackson/cwjacksn.htm.

20. On mourning garb, see “Fashionable Mourning,” Christian Recorder, September 19, 1863; Katherine Basanese, “Victorian Period Mourning,” The Courier: The Official Newsletter of the American Civil War Association 1 (May 1995): 5–7; “The Fashion of Mourning,” Godey’s Lady’s Book54 (March 1857): 286. See also Joan L. Severa, Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840–1900 (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1995).

21. Mary D. Robertson, ed., Lucy Breckinridge of Grove Hill: The Journal of a Virginia Girl, 1862–1864 (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1979), pp. 80–81. Daily South Carolinian, February 26, 1864. Patricia Loughridge and Edward D. C. Campbell Jr.,Women in Mourning(Richmond, Va.: Museum of the Confederacy, 1985), p. 24.

22. Margaret Gwyn Diary, April 22 and 29, 1862, Special Collections, RBMSC; Nannie Haskins Diary, March 3, 1863, Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville.

23. Welton, “My Heart Is So Rebellious,” p. 239.

24. Kate Corbin to Maggie Tucker, April 21, 1863, manuscripts in possession of David Eilenberger, Chapel Hill Rare Books, Chapel Hill, N.C. See also Lila to Willie Chunn, September 21, 1863, William Augustus Chunn Papers, Emory University, Atlanta; Daily South Carolinian, March 10, 1864.

25. Philadelphia Inquirer, July 3, 1863; Richmond Enquirer, April 25, 1861, p. 3; New York Times, May 31, 1863, p. 6.

26. Godey’s Lady’s Book 71 (August 1865): 106; 64 ( June 1862): 617; 68 (May 1864): 498.

27. Mary D. Robertson, ed., Lucy Breckinridge of Grove Hill: The Journal of a Virginia Girl, 1862–1864 (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1979), pp. 80–81; Daily South Carolinian, February 26, 1864; Patricia Loughridge and Edward D. C. Campbell Jr.,Women in Mourning(Richmond, Va.: Museum of the Confederacy, 1985), p. 24.

28. “The Massachusetts Dead Returned from Baltimore,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 11, 1861, p. 410; Christian Recorder, May 11, 1861; John Marszalek, ed., The Diary of Miss Emma Holmes, 1861–1866 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979), pp. 69–70. In early months of the war funerals received attentive press coverage that soon disappeared as they became commonplace. See, for example, “The Funeral Ceremonies in Honor of Addison Whitney and Luther C. Ladd at Lowell, Mass. On Monday, May 6,” New York Illustrated News, May 25, 1861, p. 43; “Funeral of Colonel Vosburgh,” New York Illustrated News, June 8, 1861, p. 75; “The Late Captain Ward,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, July 13, 1861, p. 133.

29. George Skoch, “A Lavish Funeral for a Southern Hero: ‘Stonewall’ Jackson’s Last March,” Civil War Times Illustrated, May 1989, pp. 22–27; Samuel B. Hannah, May 17, 1863, Death of Stonewall Jackson, VMIA; online at www.vmi.edu/archives/jackson/tjjhanna.htm. See also Lexington Gazette, May 20, 1863, Funeral of Stonewall Jackson, VMIA, online at www.vmi.edu/archives/jackson/tjjobit.htm; Daniel Stowell, “Stonewall Jackson and the Providence of God,” in Randall M. Miller, Harry S. Stout, and Charles Reagan Wilson, Religion and the American Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 187–207; Charles Royster, The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), pp. 193–231. See also “Funeral of Gen. Maxcy Gregg,” newspaper clipping, December 22, 1862, Maxcy Gregg Papers, SCL; “Funeral of General Winthrop,” clipping, 1864, Frederick Winthrop Papers, MAHS.

30. Rev. T. H. Stockton, “Hymn for the National Funeral” (Philadelphia: A. W. Auner, [1865]); Swain quoted in David B. Chesebrough, “No Sorrow Like Our Sorrow”: Northern Protestant Ministers and the Assassination of Lincoln (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1994), p. 88.

31. New York Herald, April 20, 1865; Merrill D. Peterson, Lincoln in American Memory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 15–22.

32. New York Herald, April 26, 1865; Jacob Thomas quoted in Chesebrough, “No Sorrow Like Our Sorrow,” p. 187. See also Christian Recorder, April 22, 1865, May 6, 1865.

33. Walt Whitman, “Hush’d Be the Camps To-Day,” in Walt Whitman: Civil War Poetry and Prose (New York: Dover, 1995), pp. 34–35.

34. Helen Vendler, “Poetry and the Mediation of Value: Whitman on Lincoln,” Tanner Lecture on Human Values delivered at the University of Michigan, October 29 and 30, 1999, online at www.tannerlectures.utah.edu/lectures/Vendler_01.pdf, pp. 147–48. I am deeply indebted to Professor Vendler for sharing thoughts about Whitman with me.

35. Whitman, “O Captain! My Captain,” in Civil War Poetry and Prose, p. 34.

36. Whitman, “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d,” in Civil War Poetry and Prose, pp. 27–28.

37. Whitman, “Pensive on Her Dead Gazing,” in Civil War Poetry and Prose, p. 38; Vendler, “Poetry and the Mediation of Value,” pp. 155–56; Whitman, “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d,” pp. 27–28, 33.

38. Whitman, “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d,” p. 28; Whitman, “Ashes of Soldiers,” in Civil War Poetry and Prose, pp. 36, 37.

39. Tyler Resch, Dorset: In the Shadow of the Marble Mountain (Dorset, Vt.: Dorset Historical Society, 1989), pp. 141, 174; Nantucket Weekly Mirror, December 27, 1862, quoted in Richard F. Miller and Robert F. Mooney, The Civil War: The Nantucket Experience(Nantucket, Mass.: Wesco, 1994), p. 137.

40. Reverend Clark B. Stewart, Journal-Diary, 1859–1865, Works Progress Administration typescript, SCL.

41. L. H. Blanton, “Well Done Thou Good and Faithful Servant,” Funeral Sermon on the Death of Rev. John W. Griffin, Chaplain of the 19th Va. Regt., August 1, 1864 (Lynchburg, Va.: Power-Press Book & Job Office, 1865), p. 8.

42. On funeral sermons, see Robert V. Wells, Facing the “King of Terrors”: Death and Society in an American Community, 1750–1990 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 54–56.

43. William J. Hoge, Sketch of Dabney Carr Harrison, Minister of the Gospel and Captain in the Army of the Confederate States of America (Richmond, Va.: Presbyterian Committee of Publication of the Confederate States, 1862), pp. 50, 51–52, 53.

44. Alexander Twombly, The Completed Christian Life: A Sermon Commemorative of Adjutant Richard M. Strong, 177th N.Y.S.V. (Albany, N.Y.: J. Mussell, 1863), p. 7; Philip Slaughter, A Sketch of the Life of Randolph Fairfax, A Private in the Ranks of the Rockbridge Artillery (Richmond, Va.: Tyler, Allegre and McDaniel, 1864), pp. 6, 8, 35, 39; R. L. Dabney, A Memorial of Lieut. Colonel John T. Thornton of the Third Virginia Cavalry, C.S.A. (Richmond, Va.: Presbyterian Committee of Publication of the Confederate States), pp. 6, 8; Robert Lewis Dabney, True Courage: A Discourse Commemorative of Lieutenant General Thomas J. Jackson (Richmond, Va.: Presbyterian Committee of Publication of the Confederate States, 1863), p. 4.

45. Charles Seymour Robinson, A Memorial Discourse: Occasioned by the Death of Lieutenant James M. Green, 4th N.Y.S.V. (Troy, N.Y.: Daily Times Printing, 1864), pp. 14, 15.

46. Joseph Cross, “On Grief: A Funeral Service Oration for General Daniel Donelson,” in Camp and Field: Papers from the Portfolio of an Army Chaplain (Columbia, S.C.: Evans & Cogswell, 1864), pp. 68, 69, 71.

47. Henry I. Bowditch, “Memorial of Lt. Nathaniel Bowditch,” p. 1015, Nathaniel Bowditch Memorial Collection, MAHS.

48. Ibid., pp. 1015, 1048; Henry I. Bowditch to My Own Sweet Wife [Olivia Yardley Bowditch], March 19, 1863, “Manuscripts Relating to Lieutenant Nathaniel Bowditch,” vol. 2, p. 98, Nathaniel Bowditch Memorial Collection, MAHS.

49. Henry I. Bowditch to Darling [Olivia Yardley Bowditch], March 21, 1863, “Manuscripts Relating to Lieutenant Nathaniel Bowditch,” vol. 2, p. 98, Nathaniel Bowditch Memorial Collection, MAHS; Bowditch, “Memorial,” p. 1019. On the unmanliness of grief, see also H. L. Abbott to J. G. Abbott, in Robert Garth Scott, ed., Fallen Leaves: The Civil War Letters of Major Henry Livermore Abbott (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1991), p. 140; W. D. Rutherford to Sallie Fair Rutherford, June 12, 1862, William D. Rutherford Papers, SCL.

50. Henry I. Bowditch to My Darling, March 19, 1863, “Manuscripts,” vol. 2, pp. 98–100; Bowditch, “Memorial,” p. 1015.

51. Bowditch, “Memorial,” p. 1015; Memorials of Lieut. Nathaniel Bowditch A.A.A.G., 1st Cavalry Brigade, Second Division, Army of the Potomac, title page, Nathaniel Bowditch Memorial Collection, MAHS. “My Child” was originally published in Monthly Miscellany 3 (October 1840): 193–94, with the title “He is Not There.” The poem was “addressed by the writer to a clerical friend, on the death of his only son.” See also Louis Harmon Peet, Who’s the Author?: A Guide to the Authorship of Novels, Stories, Speeches, Songs and General Writings of American Literature(New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1901), p. 169, and Henry I. Bowditch, “The Celebration of John Pierpont’s Centennial Birthday,” Reminiscences (Boston: n.p., 1885).

52. Bowditch to My Darling, March 19, 1863; Nat’s Funeral, Rev. James Freeman Clarke’s Remarks, both in “Manuscripts,” vol. 2, pp. 97, 160–64, Nathaniel Bowditch Memorial Collection, MAHS.

53. Bowditch, “Memorial,” p. 1015; Henry I. Bowditch, A Brief Plea for an Ambulance System for the Army of the United States, as Drawn from the Extra Sufferings of the Late Lieutenant Bowditch and a Wounded Comrade (Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1863).

CHAPTER 6. BELIEVING AND DOUBTING

1. John D. Sweet, The Speaking Dead. A Discourse Occasioned by the Death of Serg’t Edward Amos Adams (Boston: Commercial Printing House, 1864), pp. 6, 4, 5.

2. Carwardine quote and church statistics in Mark A. Noll, The Civil War as a Theological Crisis (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006), p. 12.

3. Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology (London: John Murray, 1830–33); Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (London: John Murray, 1859). On biblical criticism, see Jerry Wayne Brown, The Rise of Biblical Criticism in America, 1800–1870: The New England Scholars (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969); Hans W. Frei, The Eclipse of Biblical Narrative: A Study in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Hermeneutics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974); James Turner, Without God, Without Creed: The Origins of Unbelief in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985). Lyell published another devastating work in the midst of the Civil War itself. See The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man, with Remarks on Theories of the Origin of Species by Variation (London: John Murray, 1863).

4. On the argument from design, the classic text was William Paley’s Natural Theology (1802). For two efforts to reconcile the science of Darwin and Lyell with religious belief, published during the Civil War, see Reverend Edward F. Williams, “On the Origin of Species,” Evangelical Quarterly Review 16 ( January 1865): 11–23, and Daniel R. Goodwin, “The Antiquity of Man,” American Presbyterian and Theological Review 6 (April 1864): 233–59.

5. Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2001), p. 18. See also Robert C. Albrecht, “The Theological Response of the Transcendentalists to the Civil War,” New England Quarterly 38 (March 1965): 21–34.

6. Sweet, Speaking Dead, p. 7; A. M. Poindexter, Why Will Ye Die? (Raleigh, N.C.: n.p., 186–); G. A. A. Riggs, Diary, August 14, 1864, CAH.

7. See Mark Schantz, “The American Civil War and the Culture(s) of Death,” unpublished paper; W. H. Christian, The Importance of a Soldier Becoming a Christian (Richmond, Va.: Soldiers’ Track Association, [186–]), p. 3; Mrs. Hancock, in North Carolina Presbyterian, August 4, 1862 p. 149; Drew Gilpin Faust, “Christian Soldiers,” in Faust, Southern Stories: Slaveholders in Peace and War (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1992), pp. 98–99.

8. Jestin Hampton to Thomas B. Hampton, July 7, 1864; Thomas B. Hampton to Jestin Hampton, August 9, 1863, July 17, 1863, May 27, 1863, all in Thomas B. Hampton Papers, CAH.

9. Thomas B. Hampton to Jestin Hampton, October 15, 1863; Jestin Hampton to Thomas B. Hampton, April 24, 1864; both in Thomas B. Hampton Papers, CAH.

10. A. S. Collins and H. Collins to Jestin Hampton, March 21, 1865; Thomas B. Hampton Obituary [March 1865]: both in Thomas B. Hampton Papers, CAH.

11. Philippe Ariès, The Hour of Our Death, trans. Helen Weaver (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981), pp. 557–601; Philippe Ariès, Western Attitudes Toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present, trans. Patricia M. Ranum (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974).

12. “My God! What Is All This For?,” Wolf C116, American Song Sheets Collection, LCP.

13. Captain Edson Gerry, “Battle of Winchester,” Wolf 108, online at musicanet.org/robokopp/usa/harkthem.htm; “Tell Mother, I Die Happy,” words by C. A. Vosburgh, music by Jabez Burns (New York: Charles Magnus, n.d.), Wolf 2290. See also “Shall We Know Each Other There?,” Wolf 2081, “Our Southern Dead,” Wolf C130, E. Walter Lowe, “The Dying Soldier” (New York: Charles Magnus, n.d.), Wolf 5486; L. Katzenburger, “The Dying Confederate’s Last Words,” Wolf C49, “Oh! Bless Me, Mother, Ere I Die,” Wolf 1653, all in American Song Sheet Collection, LCP.

14. J. L. M’Creery, “There Is No Death,” Arthur’s Home Magazine 22 ( July 1863): 41.

15. Swedenborg quoted in Colleen McDannell and Bernhard Lang, Heaven: A History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988), p. 186. See Erland J. Brock, ed., Swedenborg and His Influence (Bryn Athyn, Pa.: Academy of the New Church, 1988). My thanks to James Kloppenberg and Trygve Throntveit for help on Swedenborg. On heaven see also Jeffrey Burton Russell, Paradise Mislaid: How We Lost Heaven and How We Can Regain It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

16. James H. Moorhead, “‘As Though Nothing At All Had Happened’: Death and Afterlife in Protestant Thought, 1840–1955,” Soundings 67, no. 4 (1984): 458–59. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Swedenborg; or, the Mystic,” in Robert E. Spiller, ed., Selected Essays, Lectures and Poems of Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York: Washington Square Press, 1965), p. 155.

17. Emily Dickinson to Fanny Norcross and Loo Norcross, April 1861, in Mabel Todd Loomis, ed., Letters of Emily Dickinson (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1894), vol. 2, p. 237. Dickinson quoted in Shira Wolosky, Emily Dickinson: A Voice of War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984), p. 44; Emily Dickinson, “I never felt at Home—Below—,” #413, in Thomas H. Johnson, The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson (Boston: Little, Brown, 1960); McDannell and Lang, Heaven, p. 228; Daily South Carolinian, April 24, 1864; Phillip Shaw Paludan, A People’s Contest: The Union and Civil War, 1861–1865 (1988; rpt. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996), p. 367; Harper’s Weekly, December 5, 1863, p. 784; poems from Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 26 (February 1863): 384, and 29 (October 1864): 584.

18. Robert Patterson, Visions of Heaven for the Life on Earth (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1877); Harper’s Weekly, December 5, 1863, p. 784; William Branks, Heaven Our Home: We Have No Saviour But Jesus and No Home But Heaven(Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1864). The book has twenty-five total chapters and is divided into three parts; part 2 is “Recognition.” Rebecca Gratz to Ann Boswell Gratz, September 12, 1861, in David Philipson, ed., Letters of Rebecca Gratz (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1929), p.427. On heaven and Jews, see Henry Harbaugh, “Heavenly Recognition Among the Jews,” The Heavenly Recognition; or, An Earnest and Scriptural Discussion of the Question, Will We Know Our Friends in Heaven(Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blackiston, 1865), pp. 85–115.

19. Epes Sargent, The Proof Palpable of Immortality: Being an Account of the Materialization Phenomena of Modern Spiritualism (Boston: Colby and Rich, 1875).

20. Robert S. Cox, Body and Soul: A Sympathetic History of American Spiritualism (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003), p. 169; James Henry Hammond Diary, December 13, 1853, James Henry Hammond Papers, SCL; see Drew Gilpin Faust, A Sacred Circle: The Dilemma of the Intellectual in the Old South, 1840–1860 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977), pp. 66–67. Ann Braude demonstrates the especially close link between spiritualism and feminism in Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women’s Rights in Nineteenth-Century America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989). On numbers of spiritualists, the North American Review estimated at least 2 million in 1855; Harriet Beecher Stowe thought 4 to 5 million in 1869; Emma Hardinge, spiritualist writer, estimated 11 million in 1870. Nina Baym, “Introduction,” in Elizabeth Stuart Phelps,Three Spiritualist Novels (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000), p. ix.

21. Jean H. Baker, Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography (New York: W. W. Norton, 1987), pp. 218–20, 221; “Lincoln’s Attendance at Spiritualist Seances,” Lincoln Lore, no. 1499 ( January 1963): 1–4; no. 1500 (February 1963): 1–2; John Pierpont, “My Child,” online at www.poetry-archive.com/p/pierpont_john.htm; Henry Ingersoll Bowditch, Memorial (Boston: John Wilson & Son, 1865), p. 49; Bret E. Carroll, Spiritualism in Antebellum America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), pp. 16–34.

22. Cox, Body and Soul, p. 176.

23. Epes Sargent, Planchette: or, The Despair of Science (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1869). “Novel amusement” from broadside “The Boston Planchette,” American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass., reproduced in Braude, Radical Spirits, fig. 5, after p. 114.

24. R. Laurence Moore, In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977), p. 38; Epes Sargent, The Scientific Basis of Spiritualism (Boston: Colby & Rich, 1881), p. 346; John W. Edmonds and George T. Dexter,Spiritualism (New York: Partridge & Brittan, 1853), p. 360; Sargent, Planchette, p. 279.

25. “The Second Death,” Banner of Light, October 19, 1861, p. 6; “Message Department,” April 26, 1862, p. 6; May 31, 1862, p. 6; July 2, 1864, p. 1.; December 13, 1862, p. 6.

26. Banner of Light, April 26, 1862, p. 6.

27. Banner of Light, September 19, 1863; July 16, 1864; May 10, 1862; all p. 6.

28. Banner of Light, August 29, 1863, p. 6.

29. Ibid. See S. Weir Mitchell’s fictional rendering of a spiritualist reunion of an amputee and his limbs, “The Case of George Dedlow,” Atlantic Monthly, July 1866, online at www.painonline.org/pdf/dedlow.pdf.

30. National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, Names Index Project, online at www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/info.htm. The data are entered from the General Index Cards of the Compiled Military Service records at the National Archives.

31. Banner of Light, May 31, 1862, p. 5; Sweet, Speaking Dead, pp. 11, 12, 3.

32. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Chapters from a Life (Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1896) pp. 96, 97, 98, 127, 128; Helen Sootin Smith, “Introduction,” Phelps, The Gates Ajar (1868; rpt. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964), p. xxxiv. See Barton Levi St. Armand, “Paradise Deferred: The Image of Heaven in the Work of Emily Dickinson and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps,” American Quarterly 29 (Spring 1977): 55–78; Ann Douglas, “Heaven Our Home: Consolation Literature in the Northern United States, 1830–1880,” American Quarterly 26 (December 1974): 496–515; Lisa Long, “The Corporeity of Heaven: Rehabilitating the Civil War Body in The Gates Ajar,American Literature 69 (December 1997): 781–811; and Carol Farley Kessler, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1982).

33. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, The Gates Ajar, in Three Spiritualist Novels pp. 5, 32. See Mark Twain’s “burlesque” of The Gates Ajar, perhaps the ultimate testimony to its cultural impact, Extract from Captain Stormfield’s Visit to Heaven (1909; rpt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

34. Phelps, Gates, pp. 41, 110, 42.

35. Ibid., p. 50.

36. Ibid., pp. 65, 64.

37. Ibid., pp. 10–11.

38. Catherine Edmondston, Journal of a Secesh Lady: The Diary of Catherine Ann Devereux Edmondston, 1860–1866, ed. Beth G. Crabtree and James W. Patton (Raleigh: North Carolina Division of Archives and History, 1979), p. 461;J. Michael Welton, ed., “My Heart Is So Rebellious”: The Caldwell Letters, 1861–1865 (Warrenton, Va.: Fauquier National Bank, 1991), pp. 240, 241; Clara Solomon Diary, entry for June 7, 1861, Louisiana State University; Anne Darden, Diary, entry for July 20, 1861, North Carolina Department of Archives and History. See Drew Gilpin Faust,Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), pp. 190–95. On both Job and “Though thou slay us,” see Peyton Harrison Hoge, Moses Drury Hoge: Life and Letters (Richmond, Va.: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1899), pp. 235–37.

39. Abraham Lincoln, “Address at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania,” November 19, 1863, in Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings, 1859–1865 (New York: Library of America, 1989), p. 536.

40. Lincoln, “Second Inaugural Address,” in Speeches and Writings, pp. 686–87.

41. Stephen Elliott, Ezra’s Dilemna [sic]: A Sermon (Savannah, Ga.: Power Press of George N. Nichols, 1863), p. 17; Stephen Elliott, Gideon’s Water-Lappers: A Sermon (Macon, Ga.: Burke, Boykin & Co., 1864), p. 20. On providentialism see Mark Noll, The Civil War as a Theological Crisis(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006), pp. 75–94. On religion and nationalism, see Drew Gilpin Faust, The Creation of Confederate Nationalism: Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988), pp. 22–40. With thanks to Katy Park for Latin assistance.

42. Lincoln, “Second Inaugural Address,” p. 687.

43. Horace Bushnell, “Our Obligations to the Dead,” in Building Eras in Religion (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1881), pp. 322, 327.

44. Horace Bushnell, Reverses Needed: A Discourse Delivered on the Sunday After the Disaster of Bull Run, in the North Church, Hartford (Hartford, Conn.: L. E. Hunt, 1861); Bushnell, “Obligations,” pp. 331, 333, 332, 341, 353. See William A. Clebsch, “Christian Interpretations of the Civil War,” Church History 30, no. 2 (1961): 212–22.

45. Bushnell, “Obligations,” p. 350; Elliott, Gideon’s Water-Lappers, p. 20; Bushnell, “Obligations,” p. 355. See also Horace Bushnell, The Vicarious Sacrifice, Grounded in Principles of Universal Obligation (New York: Charles Scribner & Co., 1866).

46. Bushnell, “Obligations,” p. 353.

47. Mary Ann Harris Gay, Life in Dixie During the War (Atlanta: Constitution Job Office, 1892), p. 195; Henry Timrod, “Ethnogenesis,” online at www.poemhunter.com/quotations/famous.asp?people=Henry%20Timrod; also quoted in Malvina Waring, “A Confederate Girl’s Diary, March 9, 1865,” in Mrs. Thomas Taylor et al., eds., South Carolina Women in the Confederacy (Columbia, S.C.: State Co., 1903), vol. 1, p. 280.

48. Presbytery and Ford quoted in Daniel W. Stowell, Rebuilding Zion: The Religious Reconstruction of the South, 1863–1877 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 26–27; Mary Greenhow Lee Diary, April 15, 1865, WFCHS.

49. John Adger, “Northern and Southern Views of the Province of the Church,” Southern Presbyterian Review 16 (March 1866): 410, quoted in Noll, Civil War as a Theological Crisis, p. 78; Hoge, Moses Drury Hoge, pp. 235–37, quoted in Stowell, Rebuilding Zion, p. 40.

50. Grace Brown Elmore, A Heritage of Woe: The Civil War Diary of Grace Brown Elmore, 1861–1868, ed. Marli F. Weiner (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997), pp. 119, 99; Cornelia Peake McDonald, A Woman’s Civil War: A Diary, with Reminiscences of the War, from March 1862, ed. Minrose C. Gwin (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992), p. 241.

51. Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2001), pp. x, 4. See Oliver Wendell Holmes, Touched with Fire: Civil War Letters and Diary of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., 1861–1864, ed. Mark DeWolfe Howe (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946). The pathbreaking study of these issues was George M. Fredrickson, The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union (New York: Harper & Row, 1965).

52. Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 7; “Mother, Come Your Boy Is Dying” [sheet music] (New York: H. DeMarsan, n.d.); “Bless Me, Mother, Ere I Die” (New York: H. DeMarsan, n.d.); “Who Will Care for Mother Now?” (New York: Charles Magnus, n.d.); “Rock Me to Sleep, Mother,” in A Storm in the Land: Music of the 26th North Carolina Regimental Band, C.S.A. (New York: New World Records, 2002).

53. “Mother Would Comfort Me” (New York: H. DeMarsan, n.d.), Wolf 1472, words and music online at freepages.music.rootsweb.com/~edgmon/cwcomfort.htm; “Mother Would Wallop Me” (New York: H. DeMarsan, n.d.), Wolf 1470; John C. Cross, “Mother on the Brain” (New York: H. DeMarsan, n.d.), Wolf 1473, all from the American Song Sheet Collection, LCP. See southern editions: “Who Will Care for Mother Now?” (Macon and Savannah, Ga.: J. C. Schreiner & Son, 186–); “Rock Me to Sleep, Mother” (Richmond, Va.: C. Nordendorf, 1863); “Mother, Is the Battle Over?” (Columbia, S.C.: B. Duncan, 1863).

54. Twain, Stormfield’s Visit to Heaven.

55. Bierce quoted in Roy Morris Jr., Ambrose Bierce: Alone in Bad Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 182; Bierce quoted in Daniel Aaron, The Unwritten War: American Writers and the Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), p. 183; Bierce quoted in Morris, Ambrose Bierce, p. 137. See Lara Cohen, “‘A Supper of Horrors Too Long Drawn Out’: Ambrose Bierce’s Literary Terrorism and the Reinstatement of Death,” B.A. paper (University of Chicago, 1999), courtesy of Lara Cohen; Cathy N. Davidson, The Experimental Fictions of Ambrose Bierce: Structuring the Ineffable (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984); Cathy N. Davidson, ed., Critical Essays on Ambrose Bierce (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982).

56. Bierce quoted in Morris, Ambrose Bierce, p. 205; Ambrose Bierce, Phantoms of a Blood-Stained Period: The Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce, ed. Russell Duncan and David J. Klooster (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002); Ambrose Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 161.

57. Ambrose Bierce, “What I Saw of Shiloh,” in Phantoms of a Blood-Stained Period, p. 103.

58. Ambrose Bierce, “A Tough Tussle,” in Ernest Jerome Hopkins, comp., The Civil War Short Stories of Ambrose Bierce (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970), p. 39.

59. Edmund Wilson, Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), p. 622.

60. Bierce, “Tough Tussle,” pp. 39, 41.

61. Ibid., pp. 41, 43, 44.

62. Bierce quoted in Morris, Ambrose Bierce, p. 205; Bierce, Phantoms of a Blood-Stained Period, p. 21.

63. Ambrose Bierce, “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,” in Civil War Stories of Bierce, pp. 45–52; Robert C. Evans, ed., Ambrose Bierce’s “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” An Annotated Critical Edition (West Cornwall, Conn.: Locust Hill Press, 2003).

64. Bierce quoted in Morris, Ambrose Bierce, p. 205; Bierce, Devil’s Dictionary, p. 34.

65. Ambrose Bierce, The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce (New York: Neale Publishing Co., 1911), vol. 8, p. 347.

66. Herman Melville, “The Armies of the Wilderness,” in Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War: Civil War Poems (1866; rpt. New York: Da Capo Press, 1995), p. 103; Melville quoted in Lee Rust Brown, “Introduction,” ibid., p. viii. See also Robert Penn Warren, “Melville’s Poems,” Southern Review 3 (Autumn 1967): 799–855.

67. Herman Melville, “The March into Virginia,” in Battle-Pieces, p. 23; Melville, “On the Slain Collegians,” ibid., p. 159. See also Stanton Garner, The Civil War World of Herman Melville (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993); Warren, “Melville’s Poems,” p. 809; Joyce Sparer Adler,War in Melville’s Imagination (New York: New York University Press, 1981); Andrew Delbanco, Melville: His World and His Work (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005).

68. Hawthorne quoted in Lee Rust Brown, “Introduction” to Melville, Battle-Pieces, p. iv; Aaron, Unwritten War, p. 88.

69. Melville, “Armies of the Wilderness,” pp. 101, 102; Melville, “A Utilitarian View of the Monitor’s Fight,” in Battle-Pieces, p. 62.

70. Melville, “Shiloh,” in Battle-Pieces, 63; “Armies of the Wilderness,” p. 103; Melville, “Shiloh,” p. 63.

71. Emily Dickinson, “My Triumph lasted till the Drums,” #1227, and “They dropped like Flakes—,” #409 in Thomas H. Johnson, ed., The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1960). See Robert Milder, “The Rhetoric of Melville’s Battle-Pieces,” Nineteenth-Century Literature 44 (September 1989), pp. 173–200; Maurice S. Lee, “Writing Through the War; Melville and Dickinson After the Renaissance,” PMLA 115 (October 2000): pp. 1124–28.

72. David Higgins, Portrait of Emily Dickinson, The Poet and Her Prose (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1967); Thomas W. Ford, “Emily Dickinson and the Civil War,” University Review—Kansas City 31 (Spring 1965): 199. For the most systematic exploration of the importance of war to Dickinson, see Shira Wolosky, Emily Dickinson: A Voice of War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984). Daniel Aaron relegates Dickinson to Supplement 4, a page and a half, in The Unwritten War and emphasizes the personal nature of her experience, although at the same time he shows the impact of war imagery on her poetry, pp. 355–56.

73. Emily Dickinson to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, June 8, 1862, and [n.d.] 1863, in Mabel Todd Loomis, ed., Letters of Emily Dickinson (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1894), vol. 2, pp. 304, 310.

74. Emily Dickinson to Fanny Norcross and Loo Norcross, April 1862, Letters of Dickinson, vol. 2, p. 243; William A. Stearns, Adjutant Stearns (Boston: Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, 1862), p. 106. See also Roger Lundin, Emily Dickinson and the Art of Belief (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1998), pp. 122–23. The death of another Amherst neighbor at Antietam “in Scarlet Maryland” prompted Dickinson’s “When I was small, a Woman died,” later the same year, #596 in Complete Poems of Dickinson.

75. Emily Dickinson to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, [n.d.] 1863, in Letters of Dickinson, vol. 2, p. 309; Emily Dickinson to Fanny Norcross and Loo Norcross, April 1862, ibid., p. 243.

76. Emily Dickinson, “I dwell in Possibility,” #657, Complete Poems of Dickinson; Emily Dickinson to Thomas Wentworth Higginson, April 26, 1862, in Letters of Dickinson, vol. 2, p. 302; “Death is a Dialogue between,” #976; “At least—to pray—is left—is left,” #502; “We pray—to Heaven—” #489; “I felt my life with both my hands,” #351; “Ourselves we do inter with sweet derision,” #1144, all in Complete Poems of Dickinson.

77. “All but Death, can be Adjusted,” #749, in Complete Poems of Dickinson.

78. “Suspense—is Hostiler than Death—,” #705; “Victory comes late—,” #690; “My Portion is Defeat—today—,” #639; “It feels a shame to be Alive,” #444; “The Battle fought between the Soul,” #594, all in Complete Poems of Dickinson. See Maria Magdalena Farland, “‘That Tritest/Brightest Truth’: Emily Dickinson’s Anti-Sentimentality,” Nineteenth-Century Literature 53 (December 1998): 364–89. Barton Levi St. Armand, Emily Dickinson and Her Culture: The Soul’s Society (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984), portrays her as less doubting and more conventional.

79. Helen Vendler, “Melville and the Lyric of History,” in Melville, Battle-Pieces, pp. 262, 265.

80. “I felt a Cleaving in my Mind,” #937, in Complete Poems of Dickinson; Wolosky, Emily Dickinson, p. xv. See also David T. Porter, Dickinson: The Modern Idiom (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), pp. 39, 98, 120. On Amy Lowell’s judgment that Dickinson was a uniquely “modern” voice in nineteenth-century American poetry, see S. Foster Damon, Amy Lowell: A Chronicle (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1935), p. 295. Historian Michael O’Brien has argued that Mary Chesnut’s Civil War diary, refashioned in the 1880s but unpublished during her lifetime, reflects these same modernistic tendencies. A South Carolina aristocrat who survived on wit and irony as she watched her world disintegrate around her, Chesnut has been well known since the appearance of bowdlerized versions of her writings early in the twentieth century. At last in 1981 historian C. Vann Woodward published a carefully edited version of the 1880s manuscript that recognized it as a literary construction—and reconstruction—not a series of daily jottings from the midst of war. Chesnut’s effort might be seen to have much in common with those of Bierce, Melville, and Dickinson. Chesnut eschews narrative for voices and fragments, reflecting in her chosen form the substance of her own disbelief—in God, in science, in her society, in herself. O’Brien connects her with Virginia Woolf, suggesting a continuum of doubt and dislocation from an American war to a European conflagration a half century later. Michael O’Brien, “The Flight Down the Middle Walk: Mary Chesnut and the Forms of Observance,” in Anne Goodwyn Jones and Susan V. Donaldson, eds., Haunted Bodies: Gender and Southern Texts (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1997), pp. 109–31.

81. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Occasional Speeches, comp. Mark DeWolfe Howe (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962), p. 82; Reuben Allen Pierson in Thomas W. Cutrer and T. Michael Parrish, eds., Brothers in Gray: Civil War Letters of the Pierson Family (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997), p. 101; James P. Suiter quoted in Earl Hess, Union Soldier in Battle, p. 20; Daniel M. Holt, A Surgeon’s Civil War: Letters and Diaries of Daniel M. Holt, M.D., ed. James M. Greiner, Janet L. Coryell, and James R. Smither (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1994), p. 100; John O. Casler, Four Years in the Stonewall Brigade (1906; rpt. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2005), p. 37.

82. Cordelia Harvey, letter from Memphis dated December 6, 1862, published in Wisconsin Daily State Journal, December 30, 1862, Cordelia Harvey Papers, WHS, online at www.uwosh.edu/archives/civilwar/women/harvey/harvey6.htm; Kate Cumming, Journal of a Confederate Nurse, ed. Richard Barksdale Harwell (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959), p. 15. See the almost identical remark by northern nurse Cornelia Hancock in Hancock, South After Gettysburg, ed. Henrietta Stratton Jaquette (New York: T. Y. Crowell, 1956), p. 7. On the unspeakability of suffering, see Elaine Scarry, The Body in Pain (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). Paul Fussell writes of the incommunicability of World War I and the failure of language it generated in The Great War and Modern Memory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 139, as does Jay Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 5. Thomas Leonard writes of the Civil War that “in some ways the most important legacy…was silence.” Thomas C. Leonard, Above the Battle: War Making in America from Appomattox to Versailles (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), p. 25. See also Allyson Booth,Postcards from the Trenches: Negotiating the Space Between Modernism and the First World War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 52, 62.

83. David T. Hedrick and Gordon Barry Davis Jr., eds., I’m Surrounded by Methodists: Diary of John H. W. Stuckenberg, Chaplain of the 145th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1995), p. 44.

CHAPTER 7. ACCOUNTING

1. Horace Bushnell, “Our Obligations to the Dead, July 26, 1865,” Building Eras in Religion (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1881), pp. 322, 327, 321, 340. On Bushnell, see Conrad Cherry, “The Structure of Organic Thinking: Horace Bushnell’s Approach to Language, Nature and Nation,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 40 (March 1972): 3–20, and Daniel Walker Howe, “The Social Science of Horace Bushnell,” Journal of American History 70 (September 1983): 305–22.

2. James Russell Lowell, “Ode Recited at the Harvard Commemoration, July 21, 1865,” in Richard Marius, ed., The Columbia Book of Civil War Poetry: From Whitman to Walcott (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), pp. 372, 380.

3. Clara Barton to Brigadier General D. C. McCallum, April 14, 1865; Barton to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, draft letter, October 1865, final version dated November 27, 1865, Clara Barton Papers, LC.

4. “To Returned Soldiers and Others” [1865], Clara Barton Papers, LC; Elizabeth B. Pryor, Clara Barton: Professional Angel (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987), p. 154.

5. On general orders, see Brevet Brigadier General J. J. Dana to Brevet Major General J. L. Donaldson, March 19, 1866, in Whitman, Letters Received, RG 92 E-A-1 397A, and E. B. Whitman, Cemeterial Movement, in Final Report, 1869, RG 92 E646, both in NARA; “Civil War Era National Cemeteries,” online at www.va.gov/facmgt/historic/civilwar.asp. See also U.S. War Department, Quartermaster General’s Office, Compilation of Laws, Orders, Opinions, Instructions, etc. in Regard to National Military Cemeteries (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1878); Roll of Honor: Names of Soldiers Who Died in Defence of the American Union, 27 nos. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1865–71).

6. Special Order no. 132 in “Report of Captain J. M. Moore,” in Executive Documents Printed by Order of the House of Representatives During the First Session of the Thirty-Ninth Congress, 1865–66 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1866), vol. 3, pp. 264–66; James M. Moore to Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs, July 3, 1865, M619 208Q 1865, Roll 401, NARA. See also Requests received by Colonel James Moore, 1863–66, RG 92 E581, Requests for Information Relating to Missing Soldiers 1863–67, RG 92 E582, and Letters Received by Tommy Baker, Clerk of Office of Burial Records, 1862–67, RG 92 E580, all in NARA.

7. On Andersonville see William Marvel, Andersonville: The Last Depot (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994).

8. Clara Barton, Journal, July 8, July 12, August 5, August 6, and August 17, 1865; Clara Barton to Edmund Stanton, n.d.; all in Clara Barton Papers, LC; Pryor, Clara Barton, p. 138.

9. Barton, Journal, August 5–8, and 17, 1865, Clara Barton Papers, LC; see Requests for Information, NARA; Pryor, Clara Barton, pp. 138–42; Monro MacCloskey, Hallowed Ground: Our National Cemeteries (New York: Richards Rosen Press, 1968), p. 32; “Report of Captain J. M. Moore,” in Executive Documents, 1865–66, vol. 3, pp. 264–66. See also John R. Neff, Honoring the Civil War Dead: Commemoration and the Problem of Reconciliation (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), and Edward Steere, “Genesis of American Graves Registration, 1861–1870,” Military Affairs 12 (Autumn 1948): 149–61. See Edmund Whitman Papers, 1830–1876, Schoff Civil War Collection, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Class of 1838 Class Book, call #HUD238.714, Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, Mass.; “1838: Whitman, Edmund Burke,” Biographical File, call #HUG300, Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, Mass.

10. Earnshaw quoted in Monro MacCloskey, Hallowed Ground: Our National Cemeteries (New York: Richard Rosens Press, 1968), p. 34.

11. Meigs quoted in Whitman, “Remarks on National Cemeteries,” in W. T. Sherman et al., The Army Reunion (Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co., 1869), p. 227.

12. E. B. Whitman to Thomas Swords, February 13, 1867, in Whitman, Final Report; Circular, January 24, 1866, in E. B. Whitman, Letter Press Book, vol. 1, RG 92 A-1 397A, NARA; Whitman, Final Report.

13. Whitman, Final Report; A. T. Blackmun to E. B. Whitman, n.d. [1865]; John H. Castle to Whitman, January 24, 1866, both in Letters Received, RG 92 A-1 397A, NARA.

14. E. B. Whitman, Report, May 5, 1866, Cemeterial Reports and Lists, RG 92 A-1 397A, NARA; Whitman, Final Report.

15. Whitman to Donaldson, June 26, 1866, in Whitman, Letter Press Book, vol. 1;E. B. Whitman, Daily Journal, vol. 2, RG 92 E-A1-397A, n.p., both in NARA; Whitman, “Remarks on National Cemeteries,” p. 229.

16. Lieutenant Thomas Albee to Thomas Van Horne, November 28, 1865; Donaldson to Quartermaster General Montgomery Meigs, December 9, 1865; Barger to E. B. Whitman, February 24, 1866; all in Whitman, Letters Received; [Whitman], Journal of a Trip Through Parts of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Georgia Made to Locate the Scattered Graves of Union Soldiers [1866], vol. 1, p. 93, RG 92 E685, NARA.

17. Whitman, Appendix, Final Report; Whitman, Cemeterial Movement; clipping, April 4, 1866, Letters and Reports Received Relating to Cemeteries, RG 92 E569, NARA.

18. Donaldson to Colonel M. D. Wickersham, April 17, 1866, Whitman, Letters Received; Dana, Remarks of the Quartermaster General, May 26, 1866, Cemetery Reports and Lists RG 92 A-1 397A; all in NARA.

19. See Dan T. Carter, When the War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865–1867 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985); George C. Rable, But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction(Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984); Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (New York: Harper & Row, 1988).

20. Whitman, Final Report; U.S. House of Representatives, Select Committee on the Memphis Riots, Memphis Riots and Massacres, 1866 (1866; rpt. Miami: Mnemosyne, 1969).

21. Whitman to Donaldson, March 26, 1866, in Whitman, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; Whitman, Cemeterial Reports and Lists; Whitman to Donaldson, March 26, 1866; Whitman to Donaldson, April 18, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; [Whitman], Journal of a Trip; Whitman to Donaldson, March 26, 1866.

22. Whitman to Donaldson, April 29, 1866, in Whitman, Letter Press Book, vol. 1.

23. Whitman, “Remarks on National Cemeteries,” p. 229; Whitman to Donaldson, April 30, 1866, in Whitman, Letter Press Book, vol. 1.

24. Whitman to Donaldson, May 24, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; Whitman to Brigadier General H. M. Whittlesey, May 15, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; Whitman to Donaldson, May 24, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1.

25. Dana, Remarks of the Quartermaster General.

26. Whitman to Donaldson, June 26, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; [Whitman], Journal of a Trip, vol. 2, p. 26.

27. [Whitman], Journal of a Trip, vol. 1, pp. 218, 240; vol. 2, p. 26.

28. Ibid.; vol. 2, p. 26.

29. On Charleston observances, see David Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001), pp. 68–71.

30. Whitman to Donaldson, June 19, 1866; Whitman to Donaldson, June 26, 1866; both in Letter Press Book, vol. 1.

31. Whitman to Donaldson, June 26, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; E. B. Whitman, Speech Draft, n.d., Miscellaneous Records, RG 92 A-1 397A, NARA.

32. Clara Barton to Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War, October 1865, Clara Barton Papers, LC.

33. On gender and contract in this period, see Amy Dru Stanley, From Bondage to Contract: Wage Labor, Marriage and the Market in the Age of Slave Emancipation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998). See also Drew Gilpin Faust, “‘The Dread Void of Uncertainty’: Naming the Dead in the American Civil War,” Southern Cultures 11 (Summer 2005): 7–32. This emerging sense of national obligation represented a development in the history of human rights. See Lynn Hunt, Inventing Human Rights: A History(New York: W. W. Norton, 2007).

34. James F. Russling, “National Cemeteries,” Harper’s Monthly Magazine 33 (August 1866): 311, 312, 321.

35. Ibid., p. 322.

36. Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est,” online at www.warpoetry.co.uk/owen1.htm.

37. Whitman to Donaldson, October 1, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; Thomas quoted in Whitman, Final Report.

38. Whitman to Donaldson, September 23, 1866, Letter Press Book, vol. 1; Whitman, Final Report.

39. Congressional Globe, 39th Cong., 1st sess., February 15, 1867, p. 1374.

40. Whitman, Final Report; Meigs statement of December 22, 1868, quoted in Congressional Globe, 42nd Cong., 2nd sess., May 8, 1872, p. 3220.

41. See www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/poplargrove/poplargrovehist.htm; New York Times, July 8, 1866, p. 4.

42. “The National Cemeteries,” Chicago Tribune, January 23, 1867, p. 2; Steven R. Stotelmyer, The Bivouacs of the Dead (Baltimore: Toomey Press, 1992), p. 22.

43. “Report of the Quartermaster General,” Executive Documents Printed by Order of the House of Representatives During the Second Session of the Forty-second Congress (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1872), vol. 2, pp. 135–66; “Report of the Quartermaster General, Secretary of War,” Executive Documents Printed by Order of the House of Representatives During the Third Session of the Forty-first Congress (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1871), vol. 2, p. 210; “Civil War Era National Cemeteries,” online at www.va.gov/facmgt/historic/civilwar.asp, total cost from Charles W. Snell and Sharon A. Brown, Antietam National Battlefield and National Cemetery, Sharpsburg, Maryland: An Administrative History (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1986), p. 29; Leslie Perry, “The Confederate Dead,” clipping from New York Sun [1898] in RG 92 585, NARA. See plats of national cemeteries in Whitman, Final Report. Sara Amy Leach, Senior Historian, National Cemetery Administration, Department of Veterans’ Affairs, letter to author, October 5, 2004, gives details of African American burials. She notes that segregated burials seem to have been undertaken by custom rather than by explicit regulation. For forms, see “Weekly Report of the Number of Interments,” July 28, 1866, Letters and Reports Received Relating to Cemeteries, RG 92 E569, NARA.

44. Whitman, “Remarks on National Cemeteries,” p. 225.

45. John Trowbridge, “The Wilderness,” Atlantic Monthly, 17 ( January 1866), 45, 46.

46. “Burial of the Rebel Dead,” New York Times, January 30, 1868, p. 4; Russell F. Weigley, Quartermaster General of the Union Army: A Biography of M. C. Meigs (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959), pp. 308–10.

47. Examiner quoted in Mary H. Mitchell, Hollywood Cemetery: The History of a Southern Shrine (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1985), p. 64.

48. “To the Women of the South,” in Daily Richmond Enquirer, May 31, 1866, clipping in Hollywood Memorial Association Collection, ESBL.

49. Oakwood Ladies Memorial Association, Minutes, April 19, 1866, Oakwood Memorial Association Collection, ESBL.

50. Minute Book, 1867, Hollywood Memorial Association Collection.

51. Henry Timrod, “Ode,” in The Columbia Book of Civil War Poetry, ed. Richard Marius (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), p. 418. On Memorial Day, see Blight, Race and Reunion, pp. 70–73; online at www.usmemorialday.org/order11.htm. See also William Blair, Cities of the Dead: Contesting the Memory of the Civil War in the South, 1865–1914 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), pp. 44–76.

52. Downing cited in Anne Sarah Rubin, A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the

Confederacy, 1861–1868 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), p. 234.

53. Ibid., p. 235; Neff, Honoring the Civil War Dead, pp. 146–48. On women and politics in the Civil War, see Drew Gilpin Faust, Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), pp. 207–19.

54. “Virginia—Dedication of the Stonewall Cemetery—Feeling of the Southern People—Miscellaneous Incidents,” New York Times, October 29, 1866, p. 8. On Ashby, see Confederated Southern Memorial Association, History of the Confederated Memorial Associations of the South (New Orleans: Graham Press, 1904), p. 149.

55. Confederated Southern Memorial Association, History, p. 92; Rubin, Shattered Nation, p. 236. See also Gaines M. Foster, Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause, and the Emergence of the New South, 1865–1913 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), pp. 36–46.

56. Abram J. Ryan, “Lines Respectfully Inscribed to the Ladies Memorial Association of Fredericksburg, Virginia,” December 31, 1866, VHS; Abram J. Ryan, “March of the Deathless Dead,” Poems: Patriotic, Religious (Baltimore: Baltimore Publishing Co., 1885), p. 39. See Robert K. Krick,Roster of the Confederate Dead in the Fredericksburg Confederate Cemetery (Fredericksburg, Va.: published by the author, 1974).

57. Mary J. Dogan to John S. Palmer, July 1, 1869; Dogan to Palmer, June 16, 1870; both in Louis P. Towle, ed., A World Turned Upside Down: The Palmers of South Santee, 1818–1881 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996), pp. 628, 650.

58. Dogan to Palmer, June 16, 1870, February 25, 1871, ibid., p. 686.

59. Gregory A. Coco, A Strange and Blighted Land: Gettysburg; The Aftermath of a Battle (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1995), p. 136. On Confederate dead at Antietam and the 2,240 bodies reinterred in Washington Cemetery in Hagerstown, see Steven R. Stotelmyer, The Bivouacs of the Dead: The Story of Those Who Died at Antietam and South Mountain (Baltimore: Toomey Press, 1992), and Snell and Brown, Antietam National Battlefield and Cemetery. Confederate dead also remained in the North at the site of prisoner-of-war camps. See, for example, “Confederate Dead. Cemeteries. Elmira,” Confederate Dead Collection, ESBL.

60. Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, p. 134.

61. See Confederate Memorial Day at Charleston, S.C. Re-interment of the Carolina Dead from Gettysburg (Charleston, S.C.: William C. Maczyck, 1871); Mary H. Mitchell, Hollywood Cemetery: The History of a Southern Shrine (1985; rpt. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1999), pp. 83–92. See also Correspondence Regarding Gettysburg Dead, 1872–1902, and Correspondence and Memoranda Regarding Weaver’s Claim, 1871–73, Hollywood Memorial Association Collection, ESBL.

62. Coco, Strange and Blighted Land, pp. 143–48; “Ghost of Gettysburg,” Atlanta Journal and Constitution, November 24, 1996, Dixie Living, p. 3.

63. See David Charles Sloane, The Last Great Necessity: Cemeteries in American History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991).

CHAPTER 8. NUMBERING

1. Kate Campbell to Mattie McGaw, May 1, 1863, McGaw Family Papers, SCL.

2. Patricia Cline Cohen, A Calculating People: The Spread of Numeracy in Early America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), p. 205. I. B. Cohen, The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005); Alain DeRosières, The Politics of Large Numbers: A History of Statistical Reasoning (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).

3. Walt Whitman, Specimen Days, in Whitman, Complete Prose Works (New York: Appleton, 1910), pp. 114–15.

4. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Massachusetts in the Army and Navy During the War of 1861–65 (Boston: Wright & Potter, 1896), vol. 1, pp. viii, ix.

5. William Tecumseh Sherman, Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman (New York: Library of America, 1990), p. 607. For a brilliant consideration of Sherman and Civil War casualty figures generally, see James Dawes, “Counting on the Battlefield: Literature and Philosophy After the Civil War,” in The Language of War: Literature and Culture in the U.S. from the Civil War through World War II (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002), quote on p. 29. On McClellan see George B. McClellan, McClellan’s Own Story (New York: C. L. Webster & Co., 1887), and Stephen W. Sears, George B. McClellan: The Young Napoleon (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1988).

6. On Lee see William F. Fox, Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861–1865 (Albany, N.Y.: Albany Publishing Company, 1889; rpt. 2002), p. 559. On Lee’s manipulation of casualty statistics after Gettysburg, see Shelby Foote, The Civil War: A Narrative, Vol. 2: From Fredericksburg to Meridian (New York: Random House, 1963), p. 578.

7. William F. Fox, “The Chances of Being Hit in Battle,” Century Illustrated Magazine 36 (May 1888): 94; Fox, Regimental Losses, p. 7.

8. Fox, Regimental Losses, p. 57.

9. John William De Forest, Miss Ravenel’s Conversion from Secession to Loyalty (New York: Harper, 1867), pp. 482–83. See also John W. De Forest, A Volunteer’s Adventures: A Union Captain’s Record of the Civil War, ed. James H. Croushore (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1946), p. 151. On the unreliability of Confederate rolls, see W. H. Taylor to J. E. Hagood, January 13, 1863, Hagood Papers, SCL. On inaccuracies of casualty statistics, see George C. Rable, Fredericksburg! Fredericksburg! (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), pp. 288–89.

10. J. J. Woodward, The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, Part I, Vol. I: Medical History (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1870), pp. xxx, xxxi; Thomas L. Livermore, Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America, 1861–65, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1901), p. 6; “Notes on the Union and Confederate Armies,” in Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel, eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (New York: Century, 1889), pp. 767–68. On pensions see Megan McClintock, “Civil War Pensions and the Reconstruction of Union Families,” Journal of American History 83 (September 1996): 456–80; Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992); William H. Glasson, Federal Military Pensions in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1918).

11. Mabel E. Deutrich, Struggle for Supremacy: The Career of General Fred C. Ainsworth (Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1962), pp. 46, 91. The Compiled Military Service Records (CMSR) has become an indispensable tool for Civil War researchers and genealogists. A printed index is now available with a useful introduction by Silas Felton that explains the origins of the CMSR and includes a bibliography of all state rosters. See Janet B. Hewett, ed., The Roster of Union Soldiers, 1861–1865 (Wilmington, N.C.: Broadfoot, 1997). Robert Krick introduces Janet B. Hewett, ed., The Roster of Confederate Soldiers, 1861–1865 (Wilmington, N.C.: Broadfoot, 1995), and similarly includes a survey and bibliography of state efforts.

12. Samuel P. Bates, History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861–1865, (Harrisburg, Pa.: B. Singerly, 1869–71), vol. 1, pp. iv–v.

13. Higginson, Massachusetts in the Army and Navy, vol. 1, p. 568; Silas Felton, “Introduction,” in Hewett, ed., Roster of Union Soldiers, vol. 1, p. 29.

14. A recent study by James David Hacker identifies other problems in Confederate records, arguing that southern deaths from diarrhea and dysentery have been seriously undercounted and that total numbers of war deaths should be increased from 258,000 to 282,600. Hacker, “The Human Cost of War: White Population in the United States, 1850–1880,” Ph.D. diss. (University of Minnesota, 1999), pp. 41–43. Hacker seems to me far too sanguine in his acceptance of figures for both Union and Confederate battle deaths as “reasonably accurate”(p. 15). Battles and Leaders of the Civil War concluded in 1889 that “no data exist for a reasonably accurate estimate” of Confederate losses. See “Notes on the Union and Confederate Armies,” in Johnson and Buel, eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol. 4, p. 768). Note too Robert Krick’s comment on the “nonchalant Confederate approach to military record keeping,” in his introduction to Roster of Confederate Soldiers, p. 4.

15. A. S. Salley Jr., comp., South Carolina Troops in Confederate Service (Columbia, S.C.: R. L. Bryan Co., 1913), pp. v, vi, vii, viii. The Roll of the Dead prepared by a Confederate widow from Rives’s notebooks remained unidentified in the National Archives until 1993. It has now been published as Roll of the Dead: South Carolina Troops in Confederate State Service (Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1994).

16. John W. Moore, Roster of North Carolina Troops in the War Between the States, Prepared by Order of the Legislature of 1881, 4 vols. (Raleigh, N.C.: Ash & Gatling, 1882), vol. 1, p. v. See, for Tennessee, John Berrien Lindsley, The Military Annals of Tennessee(Nashville, Tenn.: J. M. Lindsley & Co., 1886).

17. “Editorial Department,” Southern Historical Society Papers 1 ( January–June 1876): 39; “Confederate Losses During the War—Correspondence Between Dr. Joseph Jones and General Samuel Cooper,” Southern Historical Society Papers 7 ( June 1879): 289.

18. Frederick Phisterer, Statistical Record of the Armies of the United States (1883; rpt. New York: Castle, 2002); Fox, Regimental Losses; Thomas Livermore, Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1901); Frederick Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion (1908; rpt. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1959). The 1959 reprint has an excellent introduction by Bell Irvin Wiley. See also the review of Dyer in American Historical Review 15 ( July 1910): 889–91.

19. Fox, Regimental Losses, p. 58.

20. Ibid., p. 1; William F. Fox, “The Chances of Being Hit in Battle,” Century Illustrated Magazine 36 (May 1888): 99.

21. Fox, Regimental Losses, pp. 58–59.

22. Ibid., pp. 58, 59, 61.

23. See www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/j/josephstall1137476.htm; Fox, Regimental Losses, p. 46.

24. Walt Whitman, Memoranda During the War (1875; rpt. Bedford, Mass.: Applewood Books, 1993), pp. 74, 73, 74, 75; Walt Whitman, “Reconciliation,” in Whitman, Civil War Poetry and Prose (New York: Dover, 1995) p. 25; Whitman, “As Toilsome I Wander’d Virginia’s Woods,” in Whitman, Civil War Poetry and Prose, p. 25; Whitman, Memoranda, p. 46. It seems possible that Whitman derived his numbers from a letter from Charles W. Folsom, brevet colonel and assistant quartermaster to Brevet Brigadier General A. J. Perry, U.S. Quartermaster, May 27, 1868, that introduced volume 16 of Roll of Honor: Names of Soldiers Who Died in Defence of the American Union, Interred in the National Cemeteries and Other Burial Places (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1868), p. viii. Folsom’s categories and numbers are very similar to Whitman’s.

25. For contemporary versions of “All Quiet,” see, for example “Editor’s Table,” Southern Literary Messenger 34 (September–October 1862): 589, and “Journal of the War,” DeBow’s Review 2 ( July 1866): 68–69.

26. “Only One Killed,” Harper’s Weekly, May 24, 1862, pp. 330–31; Lewis quoted in Robert V. Wells, Facing the “King of Terrors”: Death and Society in an American Community, 1750–1990 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 127.

27. See H. M. Wharton, War Songs and Poems of the Southern Confederacy (Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1904), pp. 153–54, 131–32; “Only,” Harper’s Weekly, January 3, 1863; “One of Many,” Harper’s Weekly, April 16, 1864. “Only a Private Killed” is a refrain from a poem composed by H. L. Gordon and sent to Mrs. E. H. Ogden, November 12, 1861, GLC6559.01.038, Gilder Lehrman Collection, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, NYHS.

28. On Civil War sentimentality, see Alice Fahs, “The Sentimental Soldier,” in Fahs, The Imagined Civil War: Popular Literature of the North and South, 1861–1865 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), pp. 93–119, and Frances M. Clarke, “Sentimental Bonds: Suffering, Sacrifice and Benevolence in the Civil War North,” Ph.D. diss. ( Johns Hopkins University, 2001). On irony, see Claire Colebrook, Irony (New York: Routledge, 2004).

29. Fox, Regimental Losses, p. 574.

EPILOGUE

1. Walter Lowenfels, ed. and comp., Walt Whitman’s Civil War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960), p. 15; Bierce quoted in Daniel Aaron, The Unwritten War: American Writers and the Civil War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973), p. 183.

2. Bierce quoted in Roy Morris Jr., Ambrose Bierce: Alone in Bad Company (New York: Crown, 1996), p. 205; Sidney Lanier to Bayard Taylor, August 7, 1875, in Charles R. Anderson and Aubrey H. Starke, eds., Letters, 1874–1877, The Centennial Edition of the Works of Sidney Lanier(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1945), vol. 9, p. 230.

3. Susannah Hampton to Dear Sir, September 14, 1863, Philadelphia Agency, Hospital Directory Correspondence, vol. 2, box 597, U.S. Sanitary Commission Records, NYPL.

4. Melville quoted in Lee Rust Brown, “Introduction,” in Herman Melville, Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War: Civil War Poems (1866; rpt. New York: Da Capo Press, 1995), p. viii.

5. Lucy Rebecca Buck, Sad Earth, Sweet Heaven: The Diary of Lucy Rebecca Buck During the War Between the States (Birmingham, Ala.: Cornerstone, 1973), p. 50.

6. Frederick Douglass, “The Mission of the War,” in The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York: International Publishers, 1950), vol. 3, p. 397.

7. E. B. Whitman, “Remarks on National Cemeteries,” in W. T. Sherman et al., The Army Reunion (Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co., 1869), p. 225; Herman Melville, “A Utilitarian View of the Monitor’s Fight,” in Battle-Pieces, p. 62.

8. Walt Whitman, “The Million Dead, Too, Summed Up,” Specimen Days (1882; rpt. Boston: David Godine, 1971), p. 59.

9. William McKinley, “Speech Before the Legislature in Joint Assembly at the State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia, December 14, 1898,” Speeches and Addresses of William McKinley from March 1, 1897 to May 30, 1900 (New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1900), p. 159.

10. Douglass quoted in David W. Blight, Frederick Douglass’ Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), p. 238; Ambrose Bierce, “To E. S. Salomon” [1903], in Bierce, Phantoms of a Blood-Stained Period: The Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce, ed. Russell Duncan and David J. Klooster (Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002), p. 334.

11. Oliver Wendell Holmes, The Soldier’s Faith: An Address Delivered on Memorial Day, May 30, 1895, at a Meeting Called by the Graduating Class of Harvard University (Boston: Little, Brown, & Co., 1895). Holmes had given an earlier version of this speech in Keene, New Hampshire, on Memorial Day 1884. See harvard regiment.org/memorial.htm.

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