Notes

 

ABBREVIATIONS

ALAB

Papers of Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke at the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College, London

BRGS

Laurence Burgis Papers at Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge

Cunningham

Papers of Admiral Lord Cunningham at the British Library

Ian Sayer Archive

Private collection of Mr Ian Sayer

KENN

Papers of Major-General Sir John Kennedy at the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College, London

LH

Papers of Captain Basil Liddell Hart at the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King’s College, London

MARS

George C. Marshall Papers at the George C. Marshall Foundation, Lexington, Virginia

MHI

US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle, Pennsylvania

NA

British National Archives at Kew, of which CAB denotes Cabinet Papers, FO Foreign Office papers and PREM premiers’ papers

Portal

Papers of Sir Charles Portal at Christ Church, Oxford

TLS

Times Literary Supplement

Wyllie Archive

Papers of the late Mr Bruce Wyllie, in private hands

PRELUDE

1. Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 500

2. Ian Sayer Archive

3. Wheeler-Bennett, Nemesis of Power, p. 339

4. Stackelberg and Winkle, Nazi Germany Sourcebook, p. 176

5. Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, pp. 547–8

6. Domarus, Essential Hitler, p. 604

7. Ibid., pp. 605–14

8. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, pp. 52–4

9. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 13

10. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 158

11. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 58

12. ed. Self, Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters, p. 348

13. Cowling, The Impact of Hitler, p. 197

14. Hansard, vol. 339

15. Liddell Hart, Other Side, pp. 11–12

16. Ibid., p. 14

I: FOUR INVASIONS

1. Manvell and Fraenkel, Göring, p. 228

2. Jablonsky, Churchill and Hitler, p. 131

3. Heitmann, ‘Incident at Mosty’, pp. 47–54; Whiting, ‘Man Who Invaded Poland’, pp. 2–8

4. Heitmann, ‘Incident at Mosty’, p. 52

5. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 4

6. Michel, Second World War, p. 32

7. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 100

8. Letter from Allan Mallinson, 18/12/2008

9. Keitel’s Nuremberg Papers in Ian Sayer Archive

10. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 100

11. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 3; Michel, Second World War, p. 33

12. Howard, Captain Professor, p. 89

13. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 101

14. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 49

15. ed. Cameron Watt, Mein Kampf, p. 603

16. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 30

17. Ibid., p. 2

18. Nicholas Stargardt, TLS, 10/10/2008, p. 9

19. ed. Sayer, Allgemeine SS, p. 1

20. Ibid., pp. 1–47

21. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 103

22. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 374

23. Willmott, Great Crusade, p. 67

24. Edwards, White Death, p. 157

25. Ibid., p. 161

26. Ibid., p. 185

27. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 60; Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 49

28. Overy, Russia’s War, p. 49

29. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 43

30. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 375

31. ed. Nicolson, Harold Nicolson, p. 32

32. Spears, Prelude to Dunkirk, p. 32

33. Liddell Hart, Second World War, p. 56

34. Moulton, Norwegian Campaign, p. 123

35. Michel, Second World War, p. 76

36. Liddell Hart, Second World War, p. 59

37. Michel, Second World War, p. 75

38. Ibid., p. 72

39. Ash, Norway, p. 133

40. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 109

41. Ash, Norway, p. 113

42. Dahl, Quisling, passim

43. Adams, Doomed Expedition, p. 168

44. Ibid., p. 171

45. Willmott, Great Crusade, p. 80; Adams, Doomed Expedition, p. 176

46. ed. Smith, Hostage to Fortune, p. 476

47. ed. Langworth, Churchill by Himself, p. 56

2: FÜHRER IMPERATOR

1. Bond, France and Belgium, pp. 63ff.

2. Sebag Montefiore, Dunkirk, p. 32

3. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 98

4. Clark, Barbarossa, p. xx

5. Ryback, Hitler’s Private Library, pp. 169–72

6. Ibid., Appendix A, p. 235

7. Ibid., p. 179

8. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, pp. 39, 86, 89–90, 109, 137–8, 151, 189, 305, 317, 320, 818 nn. 298 and 299

9. BRGS 2/21

10. Allan Mallinson, Literary Review, 7/2008, pp. 16–17

11. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 22

12. Beaufre, 1940, p. 214

13. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 11

14. Willmott, Great Crusade, p. 82

15. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 202

16. Sebag Montefiore, Dunkirk, p. 59

17. Kaufmann and Kaufmann, Hitler’s Blitzkrieg, p. 173

18. Bond, France and Belgium, p. 97

19. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 24

20. Holmes, World at War, p. 110

21. Beaufre, 1940, p. 183

22. McCarthy and Syron, Panzerkrieg, p. 83

23. Liddell Hart, Second World War, p. 66

24. Howard, Captain Professor, p. 43

25. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 202

26. Beaufre, 1940, p. 215

27. Max Hastings, Night and Day, 18/1/2004, p. 14

28. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 18

29. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, pp. 295–6

30. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 139

31. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 342

32. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 140

33. Finest Hour, No. 136, Autumn 2006, p. 51

34. Holmes, World at War, pp. 107–8

35. ed. Barnett, Hitler’s Generals, p. 191

36. Below, At Hitler’s Side, p. 61

37. Ian Sayer Archive; Sayer and Botting, Hitler’s Last General, pp. 22–3

38. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 342

39. Atkin, Pillar of Fire, pp. 152–3; Sebag Montefiore, Dunkirk, pp. 292–302, 345–61

40. Sayer and Botting, Hitler’s Last General, passim

41. Barker, Dunkirk, p. 108

42. Bridgeman, Memoirs, p. 183

43. Kaufmann and Kaufmann, Hitler’s Blitzkrieg, p. 259

44. Lombard-Hobson, Sailor’s War, pp. 86–7

45. Barker, Dunkirk, p. 108

46. Atkin, Pillar of Fire, p. 87

47. Levine, Forgotten Voices, p. 27

48. Longden, Dunkirk, p. 10

49. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 376

50. KENN 4/2/4, p. 266

51. Roberts, Holy Fox, pp. 221–4

52. Chapman, Why France Collapsed, p. 237

53. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 126

54. Davidson and Manning, Chronology, p. 38

55. David Pryce-Jones in eds Hirschfield and Marsh, Collaboration in France, p. 12

56. Spears, Fall of France, p. 139

57. Holmes, World at War, p. 97

58. Willmott, Great Crusade, p. 102; Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 232

59. Looseley, ‘Paradise after Hell’, pp. 33–8

60. Alan Judd, Sunday Times, 12/10/1997, books section, p. 5

61. Holmes, World at War, p. 102

62. eds Hirschfield and Marsh, Collaboration in France, p. 17

63. Ian Sayer Archive

64. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 158

65. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 15

66. Holmes, World at War, p. 97

67. Beaufre, 1940, p. 214; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1083

68. Holmes, World at War, p. 97

69. Ibid., p. 98

70. KENN 4/2/4, 1/6/1942

71. Kitson, Hunt for Nazi Spies, passim

72. eds Hirschfield and Marsh, Collaboration in France, p. 12

73. David Pryce-Jones, Literary Review, 4/2001, p. 22

74. ed. Hirschfield and Marsh, Collaboration in France, p. 13

75. Alan Judd, Sunday Times, 12/10/1997, books section, p. 5

76. Ousby, Occupation, p. 109

77. TLS, 31/8/2001, p. 9

78. eds Hirschfield and Marsh, Collaboration in France, p. 13

79. Williams, Pétain, pp. 441–2

80. eds Hirschfield and Marsh, Collaboration in France, p. 14

81. Alan Judd, Sunday Times, 12/10/1997, p. 5

82. Marnham, The Death of Jean Moulin, passim

83. Sunday Times, 18/1/1999

84. Robert O. Paxton, TLS, 1/5/1998, p. 11

85. The Economist, 15/4/2006, p. 91

86. Conway, Collaboration in Belgium, p. 287

87. Ibid., p. 286

88. David Cesarani, Guardian, 13/1/2008

3: LAST HOPE ISLAND

1. Bess, Choices under Fire, p. 323

2. Hudson, Soldier, Poet, Rebel, pp. 178–80

3. Colville, Fringes of Power, p. 141

4. Leighton and Coakley, Global Logistics, pp. 33–4

5. ed. Cameron Watt, Mein Kampf, p. 601

6. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 41

7. Ibid., pp. 142, 160

8. Holmes, World at War, p. 133

9. Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 41

10. Ibid., p. 40

11. Deighton, Fighter, p. xix

12. Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 43

13. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1166; ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 81

14. Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 29

15. Domarus, Speeches and Proclamations, p. 2072

16. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, pp. 57–9

17. Holmes, World at War, p. 134

18. Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 29

19. Kershaw, The Few, p. 65

20. Bridgeman, Memoirs, p. 184

21. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 290

22. Richard Overy, Literary Review, 11/2006, p.46; McKinstry, Spitfire, passim

23. Kershaw, The Few, pp. 67, 253 n. 57

24. Townsend, Duel of Eagles, pp. 361–2

25. Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 46

26. Price, Spitfire Story, pp. 192–3

27. Ibid., pp. 192–3; Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 105

28. Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 82

29. McKinstry, Spitfire, p. 195

30. Ian Sayer Archive

31. Ray, Battle of Britain, p. 93

32. Nigel Jones, Sunday Telegraph, 23/9/2007, books section, p. 53

33. Holmes, World at War, pp. 133–4

34. ed. Leutze, London Observer, p. 51

35. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 256

36. Ray, Blitz, p. 264

37. Allan Mallinson, The Times, 7/2/2004, books section, p. 13

38. Holmes, World at War, p. 132

39. Harrison, Living through the Blitz

40. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 284

41. Holmes, World at War, p. 11

42. Ibid.

43. Bradford, King George VI, p. 320

44. Overy, Why the Allies Won, p. 109

45. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1166

46. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 61

47. London Gazette, 15/11/1940

48. Kershaw, The Few, p. 76

49. Ibid.

50. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1167

51. Churchill, Into Battle, p. 259

52. Ministry of Information, What Britain Has Done, p. 110

53. Ibid., p. 113

54. Ibid., p. 110

55. Holmes, World War II, p. 92

56. Barnett, Audit of War, p. 260

57. Roberts, Holy Fox, pp. 296–7

58. Preston, Franco, p. 399

59. Schwarz, Eye of the Hurricane, p. 125

60. Ibid., p. 127

61. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 260

62. BRGS 1/2

63. Monsarrat, Cruel Sea, pp. 160–61

64. Cookridge, Inside SOE, p. 3

65. Dalton, Fateful Years, p. 366

66. ed. Laqueur, Second World War, pp. 250–51

67. Foot, SOE, pp. 219–20

68. Dalton, Fateful Years, passim

69. Howard, Captain Professor, p. 45

4: CONTESTING THE LITTORAL

1. Ranfurly, To War with Whittaker, p. 91

2. Schofield, Wavell, p. 150

3. Holmes, World at War, p. 150

4. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1168

5. Carver, Dilemmas, p. 16

6. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1173

7. Carver, Dilemmas, p. 13

8. Holmes, World at War, p. 153

9. Ibid., p. 155

10. BRGS 1/2

11. Willmott, Great Crusade, p. 114

12. Ibid., p. 116

13. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 47

14. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 7

15. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1176

16. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 28

17. Mazower, Hitler’s Greece, passim

18. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1173

19. Michel, Second World War, p. 193

20. Winton, Cunningham, p. 211

21. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1173

22. Mazower, Hitler’s Greece, p. xiii

23. Carver, Dilemmas, p. 19

24. Holmes, World at War, p. 162

25. Porch, Hitler’s Mediterranean Gamble, p. 662

26. Carver, Dilemmas, p. 24

27. Schofield, Wavell, p. 152

28. Aldrich, Intelligence, p. 59

29. Lyman, First Victory, p. 2

30. Roberts, Masters and Commanders, p. 9

31. Carver, Dilemmas, p. 28

32. Ibid., p. 32

33. ALAB 6/2/12/7A

34. NA CAB 69/4/38

35. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1185

36. Daily Telegraph, 12/6/2007, p. 23

37. Carver, Dilemmas, p. 132

38. Ibid., p. 144

39. ed. Cameron Watt, Mein Kampf, p. 598

5: KICKING IN THE DOOR

1. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 319

2. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 31

3. Ryback, Hitler’s Private Library, pp. 164–5

4. Ibid., p. 180

5. Ibid., pp. 183–4

6. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 681

7. Ibid., p. 68

8. Ibid., p. 170

9. Kershaw, Hitler, the Germans, p. 90

10. ed. Gerbet, Von Bock War Diary, pp. 197–8

11. ed. Wright, World at Arms, p. 174

12. Ryback, Hitler’s Private Library, p. 179

13. Black, Roosevelt, p. 645

14. Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 368

15. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 384

16. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 48

17. ed. Young, Atlas, p. 82

18. Ian Sayer Archive

19. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 360

20. Ibid., p. 111

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid., p. 160

23. Ibid., p. 159

24. Ibid., p. 164

25. Ibid., p. 165

26. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 15

27. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 20

28. Antony Beevor, Literary Review, 8/1998, p. 7

29. ed. Cameron Watt, Mein Kampf, p. 596

30. Ibid., p. 597

31. Guderian, Panzer Leader, Appendix XXII, p. 513

32. Stone, Hitler, pp. 86–7

33. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, 13/7/1940

34. Ibid., 31/7/1940

35. Kershaw, Fateful Choices, p. 70

36. Ibid., p. 66

37. Domarus, Speeches and Proclamations, p. 2157

38. Rees, World War Two, pp. 66–9, 74–7

39. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 385

40. ed. Taylor, Goebbels Diaries, pp. 414–15

41. Domarus, Speeches and Proclamations, p. 2157

42. ed. Gerbet, Von Bock War Diary, pp. 197–8

43. Domarus, Speeches and Proclamations, pp. 2157–9

44. ed. Young, Atlas, p. 190

45. John Erickson preface to ed. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties, p. ix

46. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 45

47. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 67

48. Ibid., p. 57

49. Beevor, Stalingrad, p. 3; Murphy, What Stalin Knew, passim; Pleshakov, Stalin’s Folly, passim

50. Read and Fisher, Deadly Embrace, pp. 608–9

51. Erickson, Soviet High Command, p. 587

52. Beevor, Stalingrad, pp. 12–13

53. Glantz and House, Titans, p. 51

54. Bullock, Hitler and Stalin, p. 797

55. Service, Stalin, p. 411

56. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 119

57. Sebag Montefiore, Stalin, pp. 330–34

58. Glantz, Barbarossa, p. 40

59. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 86

60. Ibid.

61. Service, Stalin, p. 417; Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 94

62. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 248

63. Ibid.

64. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 265

65. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, p. 280

66. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, pp. 453, 470

67. ed. Taylor, Goebbels Diaries, p. 286

68. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 8

69. John Erickson preface to ed. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties, p. xii

70. Volkogonov, Stalin, p. 430; Overy, Russia’s War, p. 106

71. Overy, Russia’s War, p. 108

72. Service, Stalin, p. 418

73. ed. Gerbet, Von Bock War Diary, pp. 197–8

74. Ibid., pp. 272–3

75. Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, pp. 588–9

76. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, p. 158

77. Samuel J. Newland in eds Deutsch and Showalter, What If?, p. 64

78. Nuremberg Trial Files, Ian Sayer Archive

79. Aly and Heim, Architects of Annihilation, p. 242

80. Rees, Auschwitz, pp. 53–4

81. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 506

82. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p. 488

83. ed. Gerbet, Von Bock War Diary, pp. 265–6

84. Ibid., p. 272

85. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 203

86. eds Howard and Paret, Clausewitz: On War, p. 582

87. TLS, Essays and Reviews 1963, p. 203

88. ed. Gerbet, Von Bock War Diary, pp. 289–90; ed. Young, Atlas, p. 83

89. ed. Gerbet, Von Bock War Diary, p. 289

90. Ibid., p. 292

91. ed. Gorlitz, Keitel Memoirs, p. 165

92. ed. Gerbet, Von Bock War Diary, p. 293

93. Stolfi, Hitler’s Panzers, p. 201

94. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p. 490

95. ed. Young, Atlas, p. 90

96. Salisbury, Unknown War, p. 93

97. Ibid., p. 94

98. Jones, Leningrad, p. 194

99. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 184

100. Information from Oleg Alexandrov, 10/6/2008

101. Shirer, Rise and Fall, p. 861

102. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 971

103. ed. Gorlitz, Keitel Memoirs, p. 166

104. Ibid., p. 168

105. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 10

106. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 62

107. Ibid., p. 629

108. Malaparte, Kaputt, p. 215

109. Churchill, End of the Beginning, p. 102

110. Ryback, Hitler’s Private Library, Appendix A, p. 235

111. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, p. 459

112. ed. Taylor, Goebbels Diaries, p. 207

113. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, pp. 383, 402, 482, 706

114. Ibid., p. 583

115. Chandler, Campaigns of Napoleon, p. 770

116. Le Tissier, Zhukov at the Oder, p. 20

117. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 453

118. Glantz and House, Titans, p. 60

119. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 53

120. Information from Oleg Alexandrov, 10/6/2008

121. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 151

122. Roberts, Eminent Churchillians, pp. 256–8

123. Colville, Fringes of Power, p. 344

6: TOKYO TYPHOON

1. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, pp. 738–9

2. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 871

3. Black, Roosevelt, pp. 646–7

4. Jenkins, Roosevelt, p. 128

5. Maney, Roosevelt Presence, p. 139

6. Weinberg, World at Arms, p. 261

7. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1232

8. Weinberg, World at Arms, p. 259

9. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1233

10. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 487

11. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 870

12. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1233

13. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 487

14. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 870

15. Willmott, Great Crusade, p. 169

16. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1233; ed Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 872

17. Agawa, Reluctant Admiral, p. 285

18. Jenkins, Roosevelt, p. 128

19. Ibid., p. 129

20. Black, Roosevelt, pp. 691–2

21. Raeder testimony, Ian Sayer Archive

22. Willmott, Great Crusade, p. 169

23. Kershaw, Fateful Choices, pp. 382ff.

24. Ryback, Hitler’s Private Library, p. 169–72

25. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1309

26. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, pp. 345–6

27. ed. Weinberg, Second Book, p. 107

28. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, pp. 506–8, 668–9

29. Bloch, Ribbentrop, p. 346

30. Ibid., p. 345

31. Ibid.

32. Donald Cameron Watt, Sunday Telegraph, 11/10/1992

33. Black, Roosevelt, pp. 728–9

34. Ibid., p. 729

35. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 7

36. Hanson, ‘In War: Resolution’, passim

37. Lindbergh, Wartime Journals, p. 232

38. Churchill, Grand Alliance, Chapter 12

39. Michel, Second World War, p. 336

40. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 720

41. Ministry of Information, What Britain Has Done, p.xv

42. Michel, Second World War, p. 339

43. Warren, Singapore 1942, p. 292

44. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 723

45. Weinberg, World at War, p. 316

46. Ibid.

47. ed. Mercer, Chronicle, p. 252

48. Gough, ‘Prince of Wales and Repulse’, p. 40

49. Farrell, Defence and Fall, p. 358

50. Ibid., pp. 360–61

51. Ibid., p. 356

52. Warren, Singapore 1942, p. 243; Farrell, Defence and Fall, p. 355

53. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 724

54. Gary Sheffield, TLS, 12/4/2002, p. 27

55. Farrell, Defence and Fall, p. 312

56. Warren, Singapore 1942, p. 291

57. BRGS 2/11

58. Weinberg, World at Arms, p. 498

59. Ibid., p. 313

60. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1237; ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 129

61. Calvocoressi and Wint, Total War, p. 717

62. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 10

63. Weinberg, World at Arms, p. 322

64. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1251

65. Weinberg, World at Arms, p. 317

66. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1242

67. Fraser, Quartered Safe, p. 106

68. Ibid., p. 232

69. ed. Soames, Speaking for Themselves, p. 459

70. Michel, Second World War, p. 345

71. Harvey, American Shogun, p. 240

72. Royle, Patton, p. 75

73. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 9

74. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, pp. 1182–3

7: THE EVERLASTING SHAME OF MANKIND

1. Levi, If This Is a Man, p. 22

2. Kershaw, Hitler, the Germans, p. 104

3. ed. Cameron Watt, Mein Kampf, p. 620

4. Evans, Coming of the Third Reich, pp. 22–7

5. Ibid., p. 164

6. Black, Holocaust, p. 24

7. Ibid.

8. Burleigh, Third Reich, p. 593

9. Rees, Auschwitz, p. 36

10. eds Gutman and Berenbaum, Anatomy, p. 302

11. Rhodes, Masters of Death, pp. 12–13

12. Rees, Auschwitz, p. 62

13. Black, Holocaust, p. 44

14. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, p. 48

15. Peter Longerich, BBC History, 2/2002, p. 36

16. David Cesarani, Literary Review, 8/2001, p. 40

17. Browning, Ordinary Men, passim

18. Ibid., p. 64

19. Black, Holocaust, pp. 43–4

20. Ibid., p. 40

21. Ryback, Hitler’s Private Library, p. xiv

22. Rees, Auschwitz, p. 22

23. Ibid., p. 72

24. Manvell and Fraenkel, Heinrich Himmler, p. 252

25. Gilbert, Holocaust, p. 678

26. Levi, If This Is a Man, p. 35

27. Greif, Wept without Tears, pp. 11–16, 110, 113–17; Friedländer, Years of Extermination, pp. 503–4

28. Greif, Wept without Tears, p. 97

29. Ibid.

30. Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz, pp. 222–3

31. Greif, Wept without Tears, p. 97

32. Ibid., pp. 11–16

33. Overy, Interrogations, p. 397

34. Greif, Wept without Tears, pp. 60–1, 11–16

35. Steinbacher, Auschwitz, pp. 120–21

36. ed. Mark, Scrolls of Auschwitz; Greif, Wept without Tears, p. 341 n. 108

37. Greif, Wept without Tears, p. 34

38. Ibid., pp. 66–8

39. Ibid., p. 108

40. Ibid., p. 106

41. Gilbert, Holocaust, p. 326

42. Greif, Wept without Tears, p. 109

43. Ibid.

44. Levi, If This Is a Man, p. 131

45. Ibid., p. 35

46. Ibid., p. 136

47. Rees, Auschwitz, p. 18

48. Friedländer, Years of Extermination, p. 500

49. Manvell and Fraenkel, Heinrich Himmler, p. 251

50. Friedländer, Years of Extermination, p. 502

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid., p. 616

53. Gilbert, Righteous, for examples of, as the subtitle puts it, ‘unsung heroes of the Holocaust’

54. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, p. 41

55. Ibid., p. 19

56. Levi, If This Is a Man, p. 95

57. Ibid., p. 175

58. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, p. 33

59. Greif, Wept without Tears, p. vii

60. Roseman, Villa, p. 2

61. Ibid., pp. 116–17

62. Roger Moorhouse, BBC History, 9/2003, p. 53

63. ed. Taylor, Goebbels Diaries, p. 77

64. Dederichs, Heydrich, p. 144

65. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 512

66. Dederichs, Heydrich, p. 154

67. eds Bartoszewski and Polonsky, Jews in Warsaw, p. 338

68. Ibid., p. 342

69. David Cesarani, BBC History, 2/2002, p. 38

70. Eichmann diary, 6 September 1961, Guardian, 6/3/2000

71. Rubinstein, Myth of Rescue, pp. 160–61, 163

72. Ibid., p. 161

73. Ibid., p. 163

74. Kitchens, ‘Bombing of Auschwitz’, pp. 259–61

75. Rubinstein, Myth of Rescue, p. 177

76. Stanley, World War II Photo Intelligence, p. 348

77. Gilbert, Auschwitz and the Allies, p. 305

78. NA FO371/42817 WR 993, 1/9/1944

79. Gilbert, Auschwitz and the Allies, p. 303

80. Ibid., p. 308

81. Friedlander, Years of Extermination, p. 472

82. Ibid.

8: FIVE MINUTES AT MIDWAY

1. Fuchida and Okumiya, Midway, p. 177

2. ed. Wright, World at Arms, pp. 162–3

3. Prange, Miracle at Midway, p. 145

4. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 152

5. Ibid., p. 153

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., p. 156

8. Fuchida and Okumiya, Midway, p. 177

9. Ibid., p. 181

10. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 156

11. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1256

12. Ibid., p. 1255

13. Hastings, Nemesis, p. 26

14. Prange, Miracle at Midway, p. 395

15. BRGS 2/12

16. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 515

17. ed. Wright, World at Arms, p. 346

18. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 251

19. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1250

20. ed. Wright, World at Arms, p. 350

21. Hastings, Nemesis, p. xviii

22. See the TLS debate following John Keegan’s review of Trevor Royle’s biography of Wingate, 16/6/1995 and subsequent weeks

23. KENN 4/2/5

24. Calvert, Prisoners of Hope, p. 12

25. Allen, Burma, p. 127

26. Ibid., p. 138 n. 3

27. Ibid., p. 143

28. Fergusson, Beyond the Chindwin, p. 240

29. Sykes, Wingate, p. 522

30. Such as Calvert, Prisoners of Hope and Chindits; Fergusson, Beyond the Chindwin; Masters, Road Past Mandalay; James, Chindit

31. Fraser, Quartered Safe, p. 130

32. Masters, Road Past Mandalay, p. 278

33. Hastings, Nemesis, p. 440

34. Allen, Burma, p. 662

35. Mackenzie, All Over the Place, p. 77

36. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 176

37. Allen, Burma, p. 228

38. The numbers vary: see Allen, Burma, p. 234 n. 1, and ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, pp. 653–4 for other estimations

39. Allen, Burma, p. 232

40. Ibid., p. 237

41. Campbell, Siege, p. 81

42. Allen, Burma, p. 236

43. Swinson, Kohima, p. 151

44. ed. Prasad, Reconquest of Burma, p. 279

45. Allen, Burma, p. 238

46. Brett-James, Ball of Fire, p. 320

47. Swinson, Kohima, p. 151

48. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 654

49. Allen, Burma, p. 74

50. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1278; ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 177

51. Allen, Burma, p. 74

52. ed. Cameron Watt, Mein Kampf, p. 601

53. Figures vary, but see Chang, Rape of Nanking, passim

54. Ferguson, War of the World, p. 497

55. Harvey, American Shogun, p. 236

56. See in particular Rees, Horror in the East; Williams and Wallace, Unit 731; MacArthur, Surviving the Sword; Ferguson, War of the World; Rawlings, And the Dawn

57. Felton, Slaughter at Sea, pp. 124–36, 145

58. Ibid., p. 132

59. Ibid., pp. 124–36

60. Ibid., pp. 140–44

61. Ibid., p. 148

62. Ibid., p. 151

63. Ibid., p. 172

64. Ibid., pp. 173–4

65. Ibid., p. 174

66. Ibid., p. 176

9: MIDNIGHT IN THE DEVIL’S GARDENS

1. Richardson, From Churchill’s Secret Circle, p. 123

2. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 165

3. Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 223n

4. Hamilton, Monty: The Making of a General, p. 48

5. Hew Strachan, TLS, 12/10/2001, p. 26

6. Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 232

7. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 261

8. M. R. D. Foot, Spectator, 5/4/2003, p. 40

9. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 260

10. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, pp. 139–40

11. Schulman, Defeat in the West, p. 115

12. John Keegan, Sunday Telegraph, 5/10/2002, p. A4; Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 339

13. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 260

14. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 141n

15. Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 232

16. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, pp. 376–7

17. Chant, Code Names, p. 4

18. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 326; ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 167

19. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 326; Ellis, Brute Force, pp. 260–64; Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 256

20. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 262

21. Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 265

22. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 142

23. Churchill, Grand Alliance, pp. 176–7

24. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 326

25. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 266

26. Ibid., p. 267

27. ed. Liddell Hart, Rommel Papers, pp. 285–6

28. Carver, El Alamein, p. 201

29. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 166

30. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 326

31. Keegan, Second World War, p. 336

32. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 264

33. Schmidt, With Rommel, p. 175

34. Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p.282

35. Ibid., p. 312

36. ed. Liddell Hart, Rommel Papers, p. 312

37. eds Danchev and Todman, War Diaries, p. 336

38. Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 311

39. Alistair Horne in ed. Roberts, Art of War, p. 340

40. Montgomery, Memoirs, pp. 138–9

41. Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 311

42. Ibid., p. 325

43. ed. Tsouras, Greenhill Dictionary, p. 246

44. Irving, Hitler’s War, p. 328

45. Carver, El Alamein, p. 204

46. ed. Liddell Hart, Rommel Papers, p. 315

47. Allan Mallinson, Spectator, 3/8/2002, p. 36

48. Carver, El Alamein, p. 195

49. Keegan, Second World War, p. 337

50. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 182

51. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 264

52. Montgomery, Memoirs, p. 139

53. Hew Strachan, Daily Telegraph, 5/4/2003

54. eds Danchev and Todman, War Diaries, p. 250

55. Roberts, Masters and Commanders, passim

56. eds Danchev and Todman, War Diaries, p. 407

57. Royle, Patton, p. 95

58. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 36

59. Royle, Patton, p. 34

60. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, pp. 33–4

61. D’Este, Eisenhower, p. 468

62. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 59

63. Royle, Patton, p. 29

64. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 44

65. Sainsbury, North African Landings, p. 149

66. Ibid., p. 150

67. Ibid., p. 154

68. Ian Sayer Archive

69. Max Hastings, Sunday Telegraph, 2/2/2003, p. 14

70. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 57

71. ed. Kimball, Complete Correspondence, 1, p. 584

72. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 28

73. Sainsbury, North African Landings, p. 158

74. Royle, Patton, p. 83

75. BRGS 2/13

76. ed. Langworth, Churchill by Himself, p. 347

77. Sainsbury, North African Landings, p. 162

78. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, pp. 368–9

79. Ibid., p. 368

80. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 329; Max Hastings, Sunday Telegraph, 2/2/2003, p. 14; Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 389; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1197; Sainsbury, North African Landings, p. 164

81. Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 383

82. Ibid., p. 384

83. Ibid., p. 385

84. Butcher, Three Years, p. 231

85. Bradley, Soldier’s Story, p. 43

86. Blumenson, Patton Papers, pp. 187–90

87. D’Este, Genius for War, p. 484

88. M. R. D. Foot, Spectator, 5/4/2003, p. 40

89. Hew Strachan, Daily Telegraph, 5/4/2003; Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 3

90. Churchill, Onwards to Victory, p. 99

10: THE MOTHERLAND OVERWHELMS THE FATHERLAND

1. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 526

2. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 316

3. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 99

4. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 645

5. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 51

6. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 649

7. Paulus Museum, Volgograd

8. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 123

9. Grossman, Life and Fate, p. 23

10. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 154

11. Grossman, Life and Fate, p. 19

12. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 514

13. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 145

14. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 173

15. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 139

16. Grossman, Life and Fate, p. 39

17. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 135

18. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 515; M. R. D. Foot, The Times, 16/4/1998

19. Axell, Zhukov

20. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 664

21. Ibid., p. 667

22. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 1057

23. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 515

24. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 139

25. Bellamy, Absolute War, pp. 523–4

26. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 141

27. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 175

28. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 163

29. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 152

30. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 670

31. Ibid., p. 671

32. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 294

33. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, pp. 167–9

34. Ibid., p. 165

35. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 177

36. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, pp. 171–2, 240

37. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 175

38. John Erickson preface to ed. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties, p. ix; Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, pp. 111–13

39. Braithwaite, Moscow 1941, pp. 111–13

40. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 159

41. Beevor, Stalingrad, p. 198

42. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 158

43. Ibid.

44. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 517

45. Ibid., pp. 511–12

46. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 211

47. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 345

48. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 533

49. Ibid.

50. Thames TV, The World at War, Part Two, Disc 1

51. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 1059

52. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 321

53. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 536

54. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 355

55. eds Freidin and Richardson, Fatal Decisions, p. 165

56. Ian Sayer Archive

57. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 183

58. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, pp. 207, 236

59. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 198

60. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, pp. 27–8

61. Manstein, Lost Victories, Appendix I, p. 554

62. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 321; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1192; see Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 184 for slightly larger estimates

63. Thames TV, The World at War, Part Two, Disc 1

64. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 185

65. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 321

66. Ibid., pp. 321–2

67. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 254

68. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 194

69. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 323

70. Beevor, Stalingrad, p. 354

71. ed. Tsouras, Greenhill Dictionary, p. 464

72. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, p. 59

73. Historians dispute the exact figures: see Beevor, Stalingrad, Appendix B; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1202; Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 550; Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 183; ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 600

74. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 550

75. Chuikov, Beginning of the Road, p. 359

76. John Erickson preface to ed. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties, p. ix

77. Beevor, Stalingrad, pp. 184, 384–5

78. eds Freidin and Richardson, Fatal Decisions, p. 165

79. Nigel Nicolson, Spectator, 2/5/1998, p. 34

80. Domarus, Essential Hitler, pp. 767–8

81. Lacouture, De Gaulle: The Ruler, p. 47

11: THE WAVES OF AIR AND SEA

1. ed. Langworth, Churchill by Himself, p. 304

2. BBC, Desert Island Discs, 28/3/1988

3. Bennett, Behind the Battle, pp. 75, 241–2

4. The Times, 24/10/2008, p. 47

5. For a full explanation for how these worked, read Budiansky, Battle of Wits and Sebag Montefiore, Enigma

6. Lewin, ULTRA Goes to War, p. 14

7. Sebag Montefiore, Enigma, pp. 296–7

8. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. xix n. 1

9. Budiansky, Battle of Wits, p. 207

10. Sebag Montefiore, Enigma, p. 297

11. Budiansky, Battle of Wits, p. 207; Hinsley, British Intelligence, 11, p. 174

12. Sebag Montefiore, Enigma, p. 359

13. Bennett, Behind the Battle, pp. 75, 241–2

14. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 133

15. Churchill, Their Finest Hour, p. 529

16. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 133

17. Ibid., p. 134; ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 223

18. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, p. 107

19. ed. Showell, Fuehrer Conferences, p. viii

20. Padfield, War beneath the Sea, p. 10

21. Kennedy, Pursuit, p. 22

22. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 905

23. Evans, Third Reich at War, p. 480

24. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s War Directives, pp. 102–3

25. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 143

26. Kennedy, Pursuit, p. 54

27. Holmes, World at War, pp. 88–9

28. Monsarrat, Cruel Sea, p. 259

29. Ibid., p. 277

30. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 223

31. Evans, Third Reich at War, p. 481; see ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 223 for larger figures

32. Ellis, Brute Force, pp. 146–7

33. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 180

34. Kennedy, Pursuit, p. 24

35. Holmes, World at War, pp. 88–9

36. Monsarrat, Cruel Sea, pp. 139–40

37. Ministry of Information, What Britain Has Done, p. 51

38. Churchill, Grand Alliance, p. 107

39. Kennedy, Pursuit, pp. 24–5

40. Ibid., p. 85

41. Wheal and Pope, Dictionary, p. 58

42. Kennedy, Pursuit, p. 86

43. Wheal and Pope, Dictionary, p. 58

44. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 66

45. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 708

46. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 66

47. Ibid., p. 181

48. Monsarrat, Cruel Sea, p. 369

49. Ibid.

50. NA War Cabinet Minutes WM (42) 124th Meeting, p. 148

51. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 174

52. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 147n

53. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 184

54. Holmes, World at War, pp. 168, 229

55. Evans, Third Reich at War, p. 481

56. Budiansky, Battle of Wits, pp. 284–6

57. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 194

58. Budiansky, Battle of Wits, pp. 285–6

59. Holmes, World at War, pp. 168, 229

60. BRGS 2/15

61. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 238

62. Ibid., p. 239

63. ed. Showell, Fuehrer Conferences, p. 331 ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 224

64. ed. Showell, Fuehrer Conferences, p. 334

65. Evans, Third Reich at War, pp. 327–8

66. Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 197

67. Monsarrat, Cruel Sea, p. 259

68. Padfield, War beneath the Sea, p. 374

69. Donald Michie, Spectator, 25/2/2006, p. 39

70. Watkins, Cracking the Luftwaffe Codes, p. 19

71. Holmes, World at War, pp. 167, 229–30; Ellis, Brute Force, p. 144; Bennett, Behind the Battle, p. 182

72. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 224

73. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 157, table 6

74. Ibid., p. 158

12: UP THE WASP-WAIST PENINSULA

1. Churchill, Dawn of Liberation, p. 86

2. Clark, Anzio, p. 13

3. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1199

4. Bryant, Turn of the Tide, p. 26

5. Clark, Anzio, p. 26

6. D’Este, Genius for War, pp. 532–5

7. MHI Hull Papers SOOHP, pp. 58–9

8. Clark, Anzio, p. 23

9. ed. Lochner, Goebbels Diaries, p. 371

10. Kesselring, A Soldier’s Record, pp. 229–30; Porch, Hitler’s Mediterranean Gamble, p. 507

11. Moseley, Mussolini, p. 131

12. Winton, Cunningham, pp. 328–9

13. Clark, Anzio, p. 24

14. Ibid.

15. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1200

16. Clark, Anzio, p. 230

17. Porch, Hitler’s Mediterranean Gamble, p. 518

18. Holmes, World at War, p. 442

19. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 574

20. Clark, Anzio, p. 41

21. Harris, Swordpoint, p. 15

22. Porch, Hitler’s Mediterranean Gamble, p. 507

23. Holmes, World at War, p. 457

24. Harris, Swordpoint, p. 12

25. Phillips, Sangro to Cassino

26. Clark, Calculated Risk

27. Majdalany, Cassino

28. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 254

29. Holmes, World at War, p. 448

30. Clark, Anzio, p. 212

31. Ibid., p. 50

32. NA FO 371/43869/21

33. Noel, Pius XII, passim

34. ed. Young, Decisive Battles, p. 250

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid., pp. 261–3

37. Ibid., p. 250

38. Clark, Anzio, p. 96

39. Ibid., p. 76

40. Churchill, Closing the Ring, p. 426

41. Clark, Anzio, p. 76

42. Ibid., p. 70

43. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1207; Clark, Anzio, pp. xxiii, 18

44. Ross, Memoirs, p. 209

45. BRGS 2/19

46. Clark, Anzio, p. 183

47. Ibid., p. 219

48. Trevelyan, Fortress, p. 65

49. Clark, Anzio, p. 208

50. Churchill, Closing the Ring, p. 432

51. Barker, Seven Steps Down, p. 72

52. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, pp. 310–11; Clark, Anzio, p. 274

53. Clark, Anzio, p. 281

54. Ibid., p. 287

55. D’Este, Fatal Decision, p. 371

56. Truscott, Command Missions, p. 375

57. Trevelyan, Rome ’44, p. 303

58. Holmes, World at War, p. 457

59. Clark, Anzio, p. 317; Trevelyan, Rome ’44, p. 316

60. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 578

61. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1223

62. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, pp. 579–80

63. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 313

64. Howard, Captain Professor, p. 155

65. ed. Lochner, Goebbels Diaries, p. 361

66. Stafford, Endgame 1945, pp. 189–91

67. London Gazette, 8/8/1944

13: A SALIENT REVERSAL

1. Cornish, Images of Kursk, p. 7 d

2. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopeia, p. 1202

3. ed. Barnett, Hitler’s Generals, p. 222

4. Ibid., p. 221

5. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1202

6. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 444

7. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 338

8. Keegan, Second World War, p. 458

9. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 362

10. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 212

11. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 309

12. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 364

13. Glantz and House, Battle of Kursk, p. 362

14. Chaney, Zhukov, p. 252

15. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 365

16. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 137

17. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 365

18. Hart, German Soldier, p. 138

19. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 226

20. Ibid., p. 213

21. Ibid., p. 214

22. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 367

23. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 213

24. BRGS 2/17

25. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 370

26. Ibid., p. 367

27. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 226

28. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 350; eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 228

29. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 660

30. Simonov, Days and Nights, p. 5

31. Cross, Citadel, p. 193

32. Hart, German Soldier, p. 138

33. Ibid., p. 139

34. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 368

35. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 311

36. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 660

37. Cross, Citadel, p. 204

38. Ibid., p. 195

39. Ibid., p. 205; ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 660. See also Glantz and House, Battle of Kursk, Appendix D; Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 583

40. Keegan, Second World War, p. 469, quoting John Erickson

41. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 135

42. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 376

43. eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 231

44. Keegan, Second World War, p. 469, quoting John Erickson

45. ed. Young, Atlas, p. 204

46. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 442 for eight; Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 581 for nine

47. Bellamy, Absolute War, pp. 554–95

48. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 660; eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 231

49. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 583; Keegan, Second World War, p. 469, quoting John Erickson; Gilbert, Second World War, p. 442

50. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 471

51. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 229

52. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 74

53. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 225

54. Keegan, Second World War, p. 454; eds Beevor and Vinogradova, Writer at War, p. 242

55. Glantz and House, Battle of Kursk, p. 252

56. Overy, Russia’s War, p. 257

57. Glantz and House, Battle of Kursk, p. 280

58. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1203; Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 594

59. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 225

60. Bellamy, Absolute War, p. 587

61. Keegan, Second World War, p. 466

14: THE CRUEL REALITY

1. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 288

2. For criticisms of the policy see Hastings, Bomber Command; Friedrich, Fire; Grayling, Among the Dead Cities. For the defence see Bishop, Bomber Boys; Miller, Eighth Air Force; Webster and Frankland, Strategic Air Offensive

3. Hansard, 10/11/1932

4. Lewis, Aircrew, p. 14

5. Overy, Why the Allies Won, p. 107

6. Roberts, Holy Fox, p. 177

7. Donald Cameron Watt, Literary Review, 12/2001, p. 34

8. Neil Gregor, BBC History, 4/2001, p. 7, and Historical Journal, XLIII, no. 4

9. Overy, Why the Allies Won, p. 133

10. Bishop, Bomber Boys, p. 385

11. LH 15/15/26

12. Alex Danchev, TLS, 28/12/2001, p. 7

13. Probert, Bomber Harris, p. 291

14. History Today, 3/2005, p. 51

15. Portal Box A File II

16. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 74

17. Bishop, Bomber Boys, p. 169

18. Ibid., p. 167

19. Miller, Eighth Air Force, illustration no. 29

20. Wyllie Archive

21. BRGS 2/12

22. KENN 4/2/4

23. History Today, 3/2005, p. 50

24. BRGS 2/12

25. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 279

26. Overy, Why the Allies Won, pp. 117–18

27. Webster and Frankland, Strategic Air Offensive, IV, pp. 273–83

28. Chant, Codenames, p. 191

29. Arthur, Dambusters, p. xi

30. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p. 600

31. Ibid., p. 671

32. Bishop, Bomber Boys, p. 371

33. Overy, Why the Allies Won, p. 131

34. Ibid., p. 121

35. Lowe, Inferno, passim; Wheal and Pope, Dictionary, p. 448; ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 606; Holmes, World at War

36. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 284

37. ed. Lochner, Goebbels Diaries, p. 320

38. Miller, Eighth Air Force, pp. 192–208

39. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 290

40. Gerhard L. Weinberg in eds Deutsch and Showalter, What If?, p. 206

41. Below, At Hitler’s Side, passim

42. Gerhard L. Weinberg in eds Deutsch and Showalter, What If?, p. 207

43. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, pp. 288–9

44. Overy, Why the Allies Won, p. 5; Wheal and Pope, Dictionary, p. 448

45. Gregor, Haunted City, passim

46. Feast, Master Bombers, passim

47. MARS Pentagon Papers Box 81/2

48. Portal Box A File IV

49. Ibid.

50. Cunningham Add Mss 52577/20

51. Probert, Bomber Harris, p. 291

52. Cunningham Add Mss 52577/2

53. Cunningham Add Mss 52577/6

54. BRGS 2/21

55. BRGS 2/22

56. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 440

57. Wheal and Pope, Dictionary, p. 448

58. Interview with Hugh Lunghi

59. Ibid., p. 14

60. Taylor, Dresden, passim

61. The Times, 7/2/2004, books section, p. 13

62. Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse Five, p. 109

63. Ibid., p. 157

64. Daily Telegraph, 3/10/2008, p. 17

65. Simon Heffer, Literary Review, 2/2004, p. 28

66. Robin Neillands, BBC History, 2/2003, p. 45

67. Taylor, Dresden, p. 4

68. Portal File 6 Box 14

69. Probert, Bomber Harris, p. 322

70. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 74

71. Norman Stone, Literary Review, 10/2008, p. 18

72. Overy, Why the Allies Won, pp. 117–18

73. Ibid., p. 131

74. Ibid., p. 129

75. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 278

76. Ibid., p. 279

15: NORMAN CONQUEST

1. ed. Kimball, Complete Correspondence, II, p. 557

2. Alistair Horne, History Today, 1/2002, p. 57

3. eds Love and Major, Bertram Ramsay, p. 83

4. Below, At Hitler’s Side, p. 184

5. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, p. 139

6. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 246

7. Ibid.

8. Hesketh, Fortitude, p. x

9. Overy, How the Allies Won, p. 151

10. Gilbert, D-Day, p. 81

11. Stafford, Ten Days to D-Day, pp. 332–3

12. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 360

13. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 297

14. For the gestation of the plans, see Roberts, Masters and Commanders, passim

15. eds Danchev and Todman, War Diaries, p. 554

16. Gilbert, Churchill: A Life, p. 776

17. Maggs Brothers catalogue, Autograph Letters, No. 1427 Item 124

18. Arthur, Forgotten Voices, p. 115

19. Ibid., p. 116

20. Ellis, Brute Force, p. 360

21. Holmes, World at War, p. 463

22. D’Este, Eisenhower, p. 527

23. Hesketh, Fortitude, pp. 186-8

24. Nicholas Rankin, TLS, 23/1/2004, p. 12

25. Howard and Bates, Pegasus Diaries, p. 119

26. Ibid., p. 136

27. ed. Penrose, D-Day Companion, p. 225

28. ed. Liddell Hart, Rommel Papers, pp. 476–7

29. MHI German Report series, Foreign Military Studies, MSS B-720

30. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, pp. 639–40

31. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 248

32. Hastings, Overlord, p. 88

33. Ibid., p. 89

34. ed. Penrose, D-Day Companion, p. 223

35. Gilbert, D-Day, p. 85

36. Arthur, Forgotten Voices, p. 117

37. Gilbert, D-Day, p. 145

38. Hastings, Overlord, p. 95

39. Gilbert, D-Day, pp. 146–7

40. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 303; Gilbert, D-Day, p. 148

41. Weinberg, World at Arms, p. 688

42. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 304

43. Ibid.

44. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1211

45. Liddell Hart, Second World War, p. 568

46. Ian Sayer Archive

47. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 536

48. Hastings, Das Reich section in On the Offensive, p. 247

49. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 639

50. Ibid., pp. 451–5

51. Ibid., p. 340

52. Holmes, World at War, pp. 167, 241

53. TLS, Essays and Reviews 1963, p. 197

54. Irving, Hitler’s War, pp. 662–4

55. Ian Sayer Archive

56. The 2009 movie Valkyrie, starring Tom Cruise, was a classic recent manifestation of this

57. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 201

58. Roger Moorhouse, History Today, 1/2009, p. 3

59. Roberts, Dealing with Dictators, p. 51

60. ed. Dilks, Cadogan Diary, p. 129

61. For an opposing view, see Joachim Fest’s Plotting Hitler’s Death, which has taken the argument even further than the earlier works of Patricia Meehan (The Unnecessary War, 1992) and Klemens von Klemperer (German Resistance against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1993)

62. BRGS 2/21

63. Cunningham Add Mss 52577/50

64. Royle, Patton, p. 136

65. Williams, D-Day to Berlin, p. 200

66. Royle, Patton, pp. 139–41; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1212

67. Gilbert, D-Day, p. 180

68. Tobias Gray, History Today, 8/2008, p. 6

69. ed. Langhorne, Churchill by Himself, p. 572

70. Egremont, Under Two Flags, p. 180

71. Lacouture, De Gaulle: The Rebel, p. 578

16: WESTERN APPROACHES

1. Churchill, Dawn of Liberation, p. 189

2. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 200

3. Ian Kershaw’s Foreword to ed. Neitzel, Tapping Hitler’s Generals, pp. 7–11

4. ed. Neitzel, Tapping Hitler’s Generals, passim

5. Ibid., p. 169

6. Ibid., p. 205

7. Ibid., p. 207

8. Ibid., p. 219

9. Ibid., p. 222

10. Ibid., p. 228

11. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 347

12. Royle, Patton, p. 151

13. Ian Sayer Archive

14. Royle, Patton, p. 150

15. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, pp. 225–9

16. D’Este, Genius for War, pp. 602–3

17. Ian Sayer Archive

18. White, With the Jocks, p. viii

19. BRGS 2/22

20. NA War Cabinet Meeting WM (45) 29

21. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 585

22. Churchill, Dawn of Liberation, pp. 188–9

23. Middlebrook, Arnhem, p. 443

24. Ibid., p. 444

25. Ibid., p. 439; ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 680; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1215

26. Grant, World War II: Europe, p. 44

27. Hamilton, Monty: The Field Marshal, p. 181

28. General Strong’s personal copy from the Ian Sayer Archive

29. eds Freidin and Richardson, Fatal Decisions, p. 225

30. Sayer and Botting, Hitler’s Last General, p. 347

31. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, pp. 88–9

32. Weintraub, Eleven Days, p. xiii

33. Royle, Patton, p. 166

34. Bradley, General’s Life, p. 367

35. Royle, Patton, p. 169

36. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1218

37. Delaforce, Battle of the Bulge

38. Jablonsky, Churchill and Hitler, p. 194

39. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 167

40. Whiting, Field Marshal’s Revenge, p. ix

41. Ibid., p. 222

42. Andrew Taylor, TLS 2005; Royle, Patton, p. 196

43. Weintraub, Eleven Days, p. 177; ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 91; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1218

44. Weintraub, Eleven Days, p. 177; ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 91; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1218

45. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 263

46. Davidson, Trial of the Germans

47. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 131

48. Wheeler-Bennett, Nemesis of Power, pp. 429–30

49. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 386

50. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 334

51. Ibid., p. 166

52. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, pp. 615–16

53. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, p. 426

54. Ibid.

55. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 421

56. Weintraub, Eleven Days, p. 178

57. BRGS 2/23

58. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, p. 188

59. eds Deutsch and Showalter, What If?, pp. 204–6

17: EASTERN APPROACHES

1. Beevor, Berlin, p. 11

2. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 111

3. Below, At Hitler’s Side, p. 184

4. Gerhard L. Weinberg in eds Deutsch and Showalter, What If?, p. 215

5. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 151

6. Beevor, Berlin, pp. 94–5

7. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 151

8. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1204

9. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 372

10. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 236

11. Bullock, Hitler, p. 657

12. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, pp. 345–6

13. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 374

14. Roberts, Stalin’s Wars, p. 165

15. Information from Lieutenant-Colonel Alexandr Kulikov, 8/6/2008

16. eds Burdick and Jacobsen, Halder War Diary, p. 309

17. Information from Lieutenant-Colonel Alexandr Kulikov, 8/6/2008

18. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 266n

19. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1220

20. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 111

21. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 130

22. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 356

23. Ibid., pp. 346–7

24. Ibid., p. 347

25. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, pp. 158–9

26. Edward Harrison, Spectator, 29/11/2008, p. 52

27. Hastings, Das Reich section in On the Offensive, p. 23

28. Overy, Russia’s War, p. 292

29. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 158

30. Hastings, Das Reich section in On the Offensive, p. 23

31. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1220

32. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 156

33. Churchill, Dawn of Liberation, pp. 155–6

34. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 283

35. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 755

36. Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 281

37. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 1261

38. Ibid.

39. Rees, World War Two, pp. 295–6

40. Bor-Komorowski, Secret Army, pp. 316–17

41. Ibid.

42. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 1261

43. Haupt, Army Group Center, p. 212

44. Davies, ‘Warsaw Uprising’, p. 21

45. Butler, My Dear Mr Stalin, p. 280

46. Overy, Why the Allies Won, p. 3

47. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 160

48. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 133

49. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 171

50. Duffy, Red Storm, p. 252

51. Ibid., p. 261

52. Guderian, Panzer Leader, p. 377

53. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 276

54. Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 277, 305–6

55. Speer, Inside the Third Reich, pp. 420–21

56. Le Tissier, Zhukov at the Oder, p. 21

57. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, pp. 618–67

58. Ibid., p. 651

59. Ibid., p. 140

60. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 277

61. Gilbert, Churchill: A Life, p. 796

62. Butler, My Dear Mr Stalin, p. 314

63. NA War Cabinet Meeting WM (45) 43

64. Domarus, Essential Hitler, p. 369

65. Ibid.

66. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 98

67. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 359

68. Sereny, Speer, passim

69. Douglas Porch, TLS, 14/1/2005, p. 23

70. Toland, Last 100 Days, p. 5

71. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, pp. 174–5

72. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1228

73. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, pp. 399–402; Wilmot, Struggle for Europe, pp. 689–95

74. Beevor, Berlin, p. 324; Max Egremont, Literary Review, 5/2002, p. 4; Alan Judd, Sunday Telegraph, 27/4/2002, p. A3

75. Antony Beevor, Sunday Telegraph Review, 10/10/2004, p. 11

76. Beevor, Berlin, pp. 139, 324–5

77. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 681

78. Le Tissier, Zhukov at the Oder, p. 19

79. Guderian, Panzer Leader, pp. 323–6

80. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 178

81. Ian Sayer Archive

82. ed. Sayer, Allgemeine SS, p. 43

83. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 180

84. Le Tissier, Battle of Berlin, p. 107

85. Alan Judd, Sunday Telegraph, 27/4/2002, p. A3

86. Max Egremont, Literary Review, 5/2002, p. 4

87. Beevor, Berlin, p. 410

88. Carruthers and Erickson, Russian Front, p. 181

89. Simon Sebag Montefiore, Spectator, 20/4/2002, p. 34

90. Roberts, Stalin’s Wars, p. 264

91. Chris Bunting, letter to TLS, 10/2/2006, p. 17; Kuramoto, Manchurian Legacy, passim

92. Lilley, Taken by Force, passim; John Latimer, TLS, 18/4/2008

93. John Erickson preface to ed. Krivosheev, Soviet Casualties, p. vii

94. Ibid., p. ix

95. Ibid.

96. NA War Cabinet Minutes WM (45) 43

97. Ibid.

98. See Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis; Trevor-Roper, Last Days of Hitler; Beevor, Berlin; Stone, Hitler; Toland, Last 100 Days; Boldt, Hitler’s Last Days; O’Donnell, Berlin Bunker

99. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 246

100. Domarus, Speeches and Proclamations, p. 1388

101. Norman Stone, Literary Review, 10/2008, p. 18

102. Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 821

103. Junge, Until the Final Hour, p. 184

104. Norman Stone, Literary Review, 10/2008, p. 18

105. Colville, Fringes of Power, p. 596

106. Chuikov, End of the Third Reich, p. 217

107. Ibid., p. 241

108. Sunday Times, 19/3/1995, p. 21

109. Tooze, Wages of Destruction, p. 672

110. Ibid.

111. eds Vinogradov and others, Hitler’s Death, Introduction

112. Bernard Besserglick, letter to TLS, 28/10/2005, p. 17

18: THE LAND OF THE SETTING SUN

1. Fraser, Quartered Safe, p. 201

2. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1291

3. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 380

4. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1291

5. Fraser, Quartered Safe, pp. 283–5

6. Victor Davis Hanson’s introduction to Sledge, With the Old Breed, p. xxiii

7. Fraser, Quartered Safe, pp. 52–3

8. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1303

9. Sledge, With the Old Breed, p. 233

10. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1305

11. ed. Parrish, Simon & Schuster, p. 380

12. Fraser, Quartered Safe, p. 141

13. Hastings, Nemesis, p. 11

14. Davidson and Manning, Chronology, p. 249

15. De Groot, Bomb, p. 71; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1306

16. Victor Davis Hanson’s introduction to Sledge, With the Old Breed, p. xxi

17. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1306

18. Ibid., p. 1307

19. Hastings, Nemesis, p. 291

20. Ibid., pp. 514–19

21. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 531 608

22. Hersey, Hiroshima, pp. 65–6

23. Hastings, Nemesis, p. 518

24. Hersey, Hiroshima. p. 70

25. Penney and others, ‘Nuclear Explosive Yields’, pp. 357–424

26. Fraser, Quartered Safe, p. 323

27. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, passim

28. De Groot, Bomb, p. 101; ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, p. 773

29. Chinnock, Nagasaki, pp. 9–10

30. Hastings, Nemesis, p. 560

31. Warren I. Cohen, TLS, 19/8/2005, p. 30

CONCLUSION

1. Monsarrat, Cruel Sea, p. 156

2. Fraser, Quartered Safe, p. xiii

3. ed. Tsouras, Greenhill Dictionary, p. 518

4. Gilbert, Second World War, p. 1; Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1309

5. For similar figures see, Atkinson, Army at Dawn, p. 5

6. Nuremberg Papers in the Ian Sayer Archive

7. ed. Dear, Oxford Companion, pp. 189–90

8. Ian Sayer Archive

9. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, passim; Nuremberg Papers in the Ian Sayer Archive

10. Goldensohn, Nuremberg Interviews, p. 1

11. Ibid., p. 253

12. Max Egremont, Literary Review, 5/2002, p. 4

13. Ian Sayer Archive

14. Hastings, Armageddon, p. 130

15. Nicholas Stargardt, TLS, 10/10/2008, p. 9; TLS, Essays and Reviews 1963, pp. 197–205

16. David Cesarani, Literary Review, 10/2000, p. 33

17. Niall Ferguson, Financial Times, 13/9/2008, arts section, p. 17

18. Liddell Hart, Other Side, p. 168

19. Nichol and Rennell, Tail-End Charlies, pp. 401–2

20. Norman Stone, Literary Review, 10/2008, p. 18

21. eds Deutsch and Showalter, What If?, p. 214

22. Liddell Hart, Other Side, pp. 228–30; Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, pp. 256–7

23. Davidson and Manning, Chronology, p. 238

24. Nichol and Rennell, Tail-End Charlies, 204

25. John Keegan, Daily Telegraph, 18/11/2000

26. ed. Wright, World at Arms, p. 174

27. Dupuy, Genius for War, pp. 253–5

28. Clark, Barbarossa, p. 41

29. Roberts, Masters and Commanders, passim

30. Dupuy and Dupuy, Encyclopedia, p. 1309

31. Ibid.

32. Tooze, TLS, 16/11/2007, p. 12

33. NA War Cabinet Minutes WM (43) 49th Meeting, p. 141

34. Jon Latimer, Sunday Telegraph, 21/6/2008, books section, p. 30

35. Grigg, 1943, p. 232

36. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 291

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