Published Books, Essays, Speeches, Memoirs, Diaries, Papers, and Government Documents
Adams, John Quincy. The Diary of John Quincy Adams, 1794–1845. Ed. Allan Nevins. New York, 1951.
Akin, Warren. Letters of Warren Akin, Confederate Congressman. Ed. Bell Irvin Wiley. Athens, Ga., 1959.
Alexander, E. P. Military Memoirs of a Confederate: A Critical Narrative. New York, 1907.
Allston, Robert F. W. The South Carolina Rice Plantation as Revealed in the Papers of Robert F. W. Allston. Ed. J. H. Easterby. Chicago, 1945.
American Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York, 1864.
Ames, Herman V., ed. State Documents on Federal Relations: The States and the United States. Philadelphia, 1906.
Andrews, Eliza Frances. The War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 1864–1865. New York, 1908.
Andrews, Sidney. The South Since the War. 1866; reprint, Boston, 1971.
Avary, Myrta Lockett. Dixie after the War: An Exposition of Social Conditions Existing in the South, during the Twelve Years Succeeding the Fall of Richmond. New York, 1906.
Beatty, John. The Citizen-soldier: Or, Memoirs of a Volunteer. Cincinnati, Ohio, 1879.
Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. The Destruction of Slavery. Cambridge, UK, 1986.
———. The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Lower South. Cambridge, UK, 1990.
———. The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Upper South. Cambridge, UK, 1993.
Berlin, Ira, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie S. Rowland, eds. The Black Military Experience. Cambridge, UK, 1982.
Bettersworth, John K., ed. Mississippi in the Confederacy as They Saw It. 1961; reprint, New York, 1970.
Blaine, James G. Twenty Years of Congress: From Lincoln to Garfield. 2 vols. Norwich, Conn., 1884.
Blassingame, John W., ed. Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies. Baton Rouge, 1977.
Botume, Elizabeth Hyde. First Days amongst the Contrabands. 1893; reprint, New York, 1968.
Brown, William Wells. The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and His Fidelity. Ed. John David Smith. 1867; reprint, Athens, Ohio, 2003.
Bryan, T. Conn, ed. Confederate Georgia. Athens, Ga., 1953.
Burkhead, Rev. L. S. “History of the Difficulties of the Pastorate of the Front Street Methodist Church, Wilmington, N. C., for the Year 1865.” Historical Papers of the Trinity College Historical Society (Durham, N.C., 1900): 35–118.
Butler, Benjamin F. Butler’s Book: Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major Benjamin F. Butler. 2 vols. Boston, 1892.
———. Private and Official Correspondence of Gen. Benjamin F. Butler during the Period of the Civil War. 5 vols. Norwood, Mass., 1917.
Byrne, Frank L., and Jean Powers Soman, eds. Your True Marcus: The Civil War Letters of a Jewish Colonel. Kent, Ohio, 1985.
Cable, George W. “New Orleans before the Capture.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel, 2: 14–21.
Calhoun, John C. The Works of John C. Calhoun. 6 vols. Ed. Richard K. Crallé.
Charleston, S.C., 1851–70.
Candler, Allen D., ed. The Confederate Records of the State of Georgia. Vol. 3, Official Correspondence of Governor Joseph E. Brown, 1860–1865, Inclusive. Atlanta, Ga., 1910.
Castillo, Susan P., ed. The Literatures of Colonial America: An Anthology. Malden, Mass., 2001.
Chase, Salmon P. Inside Lincoln’s Cabinet: The Civil War Diaries of Salmon P. Chase. Ed. David Donald. New York, 1954.
———. The Salmon P. Chase Papers. 5 vols. Ed. John Niven, et al. Kent, Ohio, 1993–98.
Chester, Thomas Morris. Thomas Morris Chester, Black Civil War Correspondent: His Dispatches from the Virginia Front. Ed. R.J.M. Blackett. New York, 1991.
Chesnut, Mary Boykin Miller. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War. Ed. C. Vann Woodward. New Haven, Conn., 1981.
———. The Private Mary Chesnut: The Unpublished Civil War Diaries. Ed. C.
Vann Woodward and Elisabeth Muhlenfeld. New York, 1984.
Clark, Peter H. Black Brigade of Cincinnati: Being a Report of Its Labors and a Muster-Roll of Its Members etc. Cincinnati, 1864.
Clarke, James Freeman. Autobiography, Diary and Correspondence. Ed. Edward Everett Hale. Boston, 1892.
Clemenceau, Georges. American Reconstruction, 1865–1870. New York, 1928.
Cobb, Howell. A Scriptural Examination of the Institution of Slavery in the United States; with its Objects and Purposes. [Perry?] Ga., 1856.
Coffin, C. C. “Late Scenes in Richmond.” Atlantic Monthly 15 (1865): 744–56.
Coleman, Mrs. Chapman, ed. The Life of John J. Crittenden: With Selections from His Correspondence and Speeches. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1871.
Confederate States of America. Congress. House. Select Committee on Increase of Military Force. “Mr. Rogers’ Minority Report.” Richmond, Va., 1865.
Connolly, James Austin. “Major Connolly’s Letters to His Wife, 1862–1865.” Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society 35 (1928): 215–438.
Conyngham, David P. Sherman’s March through the South. New York, 1865. Cooper, Peter. The Death of Slavery. New York, 1863.
[Corsan, W. C.]. Two Months in the Confederate States: Including a Visit to New Orleans under the Domination of General Butler. London, 1863.
Davis, Jefferson. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist: His Letters, Papers and Speeches. 10 vols. Ed. Dunbar F. Rowland. Jackson, Miss., 1923.
———. The Papers of Jefferson Davis. 12 vols. Ed. Linda Lasswell Crist, et al. Baton Rouge, 1971–.
———. The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. 2 vols. 1881; reprint, New York, 1990.
Davis, Varina. Jefferson Davis: A Memoir by His Wife. 2 vols. 1890; reprint, Baltimore, 1990.
Dawson, Sarah Morgan. A Confederate Girl’s Diary. Boston, 1913.
[DeBow, J.D.B.]. “The Non-Slaveholders of the South.” DeBow’s Review 30 (1861): 67–77.
DeBow, J.D.B. The Industrial Resources, Statistics, Etc. of the United States. 3rd ed. 3 vols. New York, 1854.
Dennett, John Richard. The South as It Is: 1865–1866, ed. Henry M. Christman. New York, 1965.
A Digest of the Military Laws of the United States: From 1860 to the Second Session of the Fortieth Congress, 1867, Relating to the Army, Volunteers, Militia, and the Rebellion and Reconstruction of the Southern States. Boston, 1868.
Dinkins, James. 1861 to 1865, by an Old Johnnie: Personal Recollections and Experiences in the Confederate Army. Cincinnati, 1897.
Douglass, Frederick. The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Rev. ed., 1892; reprint, London, 1962.
———. The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. 5 vols. Ed. Philip S. Foner. New York, 1950–75.
Dumond, Dwight Lowell, ed. Southern Editorials on Secession. 1931; reprint, Gloucester, Mass., 1964.
Durden, Robert F. The Gray and the Black: The Confederate Debate on Emancipation. Baton Rouge, 2000.
Early, Jubal Anderson. Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative of the War between the States. Philadelphia, 1912.
Edmonds, S. Emma. The Female Spy of the Union Army. Boston, 1864.
Edmondston, Catherine Devereux. “Journal of a Secesh Lady”: The Diary of Catherine Ann Devereux Edmondston, 1860–1866. Ed. Beth Gilbert Crabtree and James W. Patton. Raleigh, N.C., 1979.
Ellis, John Willis. Papers. 2 vols. Ed. Noble J. Tolbert. Raleigh, N.C., 1964.
Farrand, Max, ed. Records of the Federal Convention. 4 vols. New Haven, 1966.
Faust, Drew Gilpin, ed. The Ideology of Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Antebellum South, 1830–1860. Baton Rouge, 1981.
[Fitzhugh, George]. “The Message, the Constitution, and the Times.” DeBow’s Review 30 (1861): 156–67.
Fleet, Benjamin Robert. Green Mount; a Virginia Plantation Family during the Civil War: Being the Journal of Benjamin Robert Fleet and Letters of His Family. Ed. Betsy Fleet and John D. P. Fuller. Lexington, Ky., 1962.
Foner, Philip S., and George E. Walker, eds. Proceedings of the Black State Conventions. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1979–80.
Forbes, John Murray. Letters and Recollections of John Murray Forbes. Ed. Sarah Forbes Hughes. Boston, 1899.
Forten, Charlotte. “Life on the Sea Islands.” Atlantic Monthly 13 (1864): 587–96.
Freeman, Douglas Southall, ed. A Calendar of Confederate Papers, with a Bibliography of Some Confederate Publications. Richmond, Va., 1908.
Garfield, James A. The Works of James Abram Garfield. 2 vols. Ed. Burke A. Hinsdale. Boston, 1882–83.
“General Cleburne’s Views on Slavery.” Annals of the Army of Tennessee and Early Western History 1 (1978): 50–52.
Gienapp, William, ed. The Civil War and Reconstruction: A Documentary Collection. New York, 2001.
Goode, George Brown. Virginia Cousins: A Study of the Ancestry and Posterity of John Goode of Whitby. Richmond, Va., 1887.
Gorgas, Josiah. The Journals of Josiah Gorgas, 1857–1878. Ed. Sarah Woolfolk Wiggins. Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1995.
Graham, William Alexander. The Papers of William Alexander Graham. 8 vols. Ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton. Raleigh, N.C., 1957–73.
Grant, Ulysses S. Memoirs and Selected Letters: Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Selected Letters 1839–1865. Ed. Mary Drake McFeeley and William S. McFeeley. New York, 1990.
———. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. Two volumes in one. 1885; reprint, New York, n.d.
Greeley, Horace, and John F. Cleveland, eds. Political Text-Book for 1860. ; reprint, New York, 1969.
Hamilton, Alexander. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 27 vols. Ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York, 1961–79.
Hammond, James Henry. Secret and Sacred: The Diaries of James Henry Hammond, a Southern Slaveholder. Ed. Carol Bleser. New York, 1988.
———. Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina. New York, 1866.
Hannaford, Ebenezer. The Story of a Regiment: A History of the Campaigns, and Associations in the Field, of the Sixth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Cincinnati, 1868.
Haviland, Laura S. A Woman’s Life-Work: Labors and Experiences of Laura S. Haviland. Chicago, 1887.
Hay, John. Inside Lincoln’s White House: The Complete Civil War Diary of John Hay. Ed. Michael Burlingame and John Turner Ettlinger. Carbondale, Ill., 1997.
Hay, John, and John G. Nicolay. Abraham Lincoln: The Observations of John G. Nicolay and John Hay. Ed. Michael Burlingame. Carbondale, Ill., 2007.
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Army Life in a Black Regiment. 1869; reprint, Boston, 1970.
Hitchcock, Henry. Marching with Sherman: Passages from the Letters and Campaign Diaries of Henry Hitchcock, Major and Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers, November 1864–May 1865. Ed. M. A. DeWolfe Howe. 1927; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 1995.
Holden, William Woods. The Papers of William Woods Holden. One vol. to date.
Ed. Horace W. Raper and Thornton W. Mitchell. Raleigh, N.C., 2000–.
House, Albert V., Jr., ed. “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation during Four Years of Civil War.” Journal of Southern History 9 (1943): 100–107.
Howard, Oliver Otis. Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard. 2 vols. New York, 1907.
Hughes, Thomas. A Boy’s Experience in the Civil War, 1860–1865. Baltimore, 1904.
Hundley, Daniel R. Social Relations in Our Southern States. Ed. William J. Cooper. 1860; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1979.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Ed. William Peden. 1787; reprint, New York, 1972.
Johnson, Andrew. The Papers of Andrew Johnson. 16 vols. Ed. LeRoy P. Graf, et al. Knoxville, Tenn., 1967–2000.
Johnson, Donald Bruce, comp. National Party Platforms. 2 vols. Rev. ed., Urbana, Ill., 1978.
Johnson, Robert, and Clarence Buel, ed. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: Being for the Most Part Contributions by Union and Confederate Officers. 4 vols. 1884–88; reprint, Edison, N.J., n.d.
Johnston, Joseph E. Narrative of Military Operations. New York, 1874.
Jones, Charles Colcock. The Religious Instruction of the Negroes: An Address Delivered before the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, at Augusta, Ga., December 10, 1861. Richmond, Va., n.d.
———. The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States. 1842; reprint, Manchester, N.H., 1971.
Jones, John B. A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary at the Confederate States Capital. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1866.
Jones, Joseph. Agricultural Resources of Georgia: Address before the Cotton Planters Convention of Georgia at Macon, December 13, 1860. Augusta, Ga., 1861.
Jones, J. William, ed. Personal Reminiscences, Anecdotes, and Letters of Gen. Robert E. Lee. New York, 1875.
Journal of Both Sessions of the Convention of the State of Arkansas. Little Rock, Ark., 1861.
Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861–1865. 7 vols. Washington, D.C., 1905.
Journal of the Senate of the State of Georgia, at the Annual Session of the General Assembly, Begun and Held in Milledgeville, the Seat of Government, in 1861. Milledgeville, Ga., 1861.
Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds. News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home. Ithaca, N.Y., 1991.
Kapp, Friedrich. Geschichte der Sklaverei in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Hamburg, 1861.
Kean, Robert Garlick Hill. Inside the Confederate Government: The Diary of Robert Garlick Hill Kean, Head of the Bureau of War. Ed. Edward Younger. Baton Rouge, 1957.
Kennedy, Joseph C. G. Agriculture of the United States in 1860; Compiled from the Original Returns of the Eighth Census. Washington, D.C., 1864.
Lee, Robert E. The Wartime Papers of R. E. Lee. Ed. Clifford Dowdey. Boston, 1961.
Leyburn, John. “An Interview with Gen. Robert E. Lee.” Century Magazine 30 (1885): 166–67.
Lincoln, Abraham. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. 9 vols. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, N.J., 1953.
Livermore, Mary A. My Story of the War: A Woman’s Narrative of Four Years Personal Experience. Hartford, Conn., 1892.
Lovejoy, Owen. His Brother’s Blood: Speeches and Writings, 1838–64. Ed. William F. Moore and Jane Ann Moore. Urbana, Ill., 2004.
Macrae, David. Americans at Home: Pen-and-Ink Sketches of American Men, Manners, and Institutions. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1870.
Mallory, Stephen R. “Last Days of the Confederate Government.” McClure’s Magazine 16 (1900): 99–107, 239–48.
Marshall, Charles. Lee’s Aide-de-Camp, Being the Papers of Colonel Charles Marshall Sometime Aide-de-Camp, Military Secretary, and Assistant Adjutant General of Robert E. Lee, 1862–1865. Ed. Frederick Maurice. 1927; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 2000.
Marx, Karl, and Frederick Engels. Collected Works. 50 vols. Moscow, 1975–2005.
Mason, Virginia, ed. The Public Life and Diplomatic Correspondence of James M. Mason, with Some Personal History. New York, 1906.
McClellan, George B. The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, 1860–1865. Ed. Stephen W. Sears. New York, 1992.
McDonald, Cornelia Peake. A Woman’s Civil War: A Diary with Reminiscences of the War from March 1862. Madison, Wis., 1992.
McMillan, Malcolm C., ed. The Alabama Confederate Reader. Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1963; reprint, 1992.
McNeilly, James H. “In Winter Quarters at Dalton, Ga.” Confederate Veteran 28 (1920): 130–32, 157.
McPherson, Edward, ed. The Political History of the United States of America during the Great Rebellion. Washington, D.C., 1865.
Message of the President of the United States, Communicating, in Compliance with a Resolution of the Senate of the 12th Instant, Information in Relation to the States of the Union Lately in Rebellion, Accompanied by a Report of Carl Schurz on the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana; also a Report of Lieutenant General Grant, on the Same Subject. Washington, D.C., 1865.
Moore, Frank, ed. The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events, with Documents, Narratives, Illustrative Incidents, Poetry, Etc. 11 vols. New York, 1861–68.
Myers, Robert Manson, ed. The Children of Pride: A True Story of Georgia and the Civil War. New Haven, Conn., 1972.
Newton, James K. A Wisconsin Boy in Dixie: Civil War Letters of James K. Newton. Ed. Stephen E. Ambrose. Madison, Wis., 1995.
Nichols, George Ward. The Story of the Great March from the Diary of a Staff Officer. New York, 1865.
Nisbet, James Cooper. Four Years on the Firing Line. 1914; reprint, Jackson, Tenn., 1963.
North Carolina General Assembly. Resolutions Against the Policy of Arming Slaves. Richmond, Va., 1865.
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. 30 vols. Washington, D.C., 1894–1922.
Oldham, William S. Rise and Fall of the Confederacy: The Memoir of Senator William S. Oldham, C.S.A. Ed. Clayton E. Jewett. Columbia, Mo., 2006.
———. “True Cause and Issues of the Civil War.” DeBow’s Review 6 (1869): 678–79.
Olmsted, Frederick Law. A Journey in the Back Country, 1853–1854. 1860; reprint, New York, 1970.
“Our Women in the War”: The Lives They Lived; the Deaths They Died. Charleston, S.C., 1885.
Palmer, Rev. B. M. “Thanksgiving Sermon, Delivered at the First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans, on Thursday, Nov. 29.” DeBow’s Review 30 (1861): 324–36.
Papers Relating to Foreign Affairs, Accompanying the Annual Message of the President to the Second Session Thirty-Eighth Congress. Part 2. Washington, D.C., 1865.
Pearson, Elizabeth Ware, ed. Letters from Port Royal, 1862–1868. New York, 1969.
Pepper, George W. Personal Recollections of Sherman’s Campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas. Zanesville, Ohio, 1866.
Perdue, Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips, eds. Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves. Charlottesville, Va., 1976.
Pierce, Edward L. “The Contrabands at Fortress Monroe.” Atlantic Monthly 8 (1861): 626–40.
Pollard, Edward A. Life of Jefferson Davis. Philadelphia, .
———. Southern History of the War. 1866; reprint, New York, 1990.
Porcher, Frederick Adolphus. “Southern and Northern Civilization Contrasted.” Russell’s Magazine 1 (1857): 97–107.
Porter, David D. “The Opening of the Lower Mississippi.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel, 2: 22–55.
Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored Men Held in the City of Syracuse, N. Y., October 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1864; with the Bill of Wrongs and Rights, and the Address to the American People. Boston, 1864.
“Progress of Education in Virginia.” Southern Literary Messenger 24 (1857): 241–47.
Pryor, Sara Agnes Rice. Reminiscences of Peace and War. New York, 1904.
Putnam, Sallie A. Brock. Richmond during the War: Four Years of Personal Observation. Lincoln, Neb., 1997.
Rawick, George P., ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography. 19 vols. Westport, Conn., 1972–79.
Reagan, John H. Memoirs: With Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War. Ed. Walter Flavius McCaleb. New York, 1906.
Redkey, Edwin S., ed. A Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African-American Soldiers in the Union Army, 1861–1865. Cambridge, UK, 1992.
Reese, George H., ed. Proceedings of the Virginia State Convention of 1861, February 13–May 1. 4 vols. Richmond, Va., 1965.
Reid, Whitelaw. After the War: A Tour of the Southern States, 1865–66. 1866; reprint, New York, 1965.
Rhett, Robert Barnwell. A Fire-Eater Remembers: The Confederate Memoir of Robert Barnwell Rhett. Ed. William C. Davis. Columbia, S.C., 2000.
Richardson, James D., ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, Including the Diplomatic Correspondence, 1861–1865. Nashville, 1905.
Robertson, James I., ed. “ ‘The Boy Artillerist’: Letters of Colonel William Pegram, C.S.A.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98 (1990): 221–60.
[Ruffin, Edmund]. Anticipations of the Future, to Serve as Lessons for the Present Time. Richmond, Va., 1860.
Ruffin, Edmund. The Diary of Edmund Ruffin. 3 vols. Ed. William Kaufman Scarborough. Baton Rouge, 1972–89.
Ruffin, Thomas. The Papers of Thomas Ruffin. 4 vols. Ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton. Raleigh, N.C., 1920.
Russell, William Howard. My Diary North and South. Ed. Eugene H. Berwanger. New York, 1988.
Selden, John A. The Westover Journal of John A. Selden, Esq., 1858–1862. Ed. John Spencer Bassett and Sidney Bradshaw Fay. Northampton, Mass., 1921.
Sheridan, Philip Henry. Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan. 2 vols. New York, 1888.
Sherman, William T. Memoirs. 2 vols. New York, 1875.
———. Sherman’s Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman. Ed. Brooks D. Simpson and Jean V. Berlin. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1999.
Sitterson, J. Carlyle. “The William J. Minor Plantations: A Study in Ante-Bellum Absentee Ownership.” Journal of Southern History 9 (1943): 59–74.
Slocum, Henry W. “Sherman’s March from Savannah to Bentonville.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel, 4: 688–90.
Smith, James L. Autobiography of James L. Smith, Including, Also, Reminiscences of Slave Life, Recollections of the War, Education of Freedmen, Causes of the Exodus, Etc. Norwich, Conn., 1881.
Stampp, Kenneth M., ed. The Causes of the Civil War. Rev. ed., New York, 1992. Stephens, Alexander. A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1868–70.
Stephens, George E. A Voice of Thunder: The Civil War Letters of George E. Stephens. Ed. Donald Yacavone. Urbana, Ill., 1997.
Sterling, Dorothy, ed. The Trouble They Seen: Black People Tell the Story of Reconstruction. Garden City, N.Y., 1976.
Stone, Kate. Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861–1868. Ed. John Q. Anderson. Baton Rouge, 1995.
Sutcliffe, Andrea, ed. Mighty Rough Times, I Tell You: Personal Accounts of Slavery in Tennessee. Winston-Salem, N.C., 2000.
Taylor, Richard. Destruction and Reconstruction: Personal Experiences of the Late War. 1879; reprint, New York, 1955.
Taylor, Susie King. Reminiscences of My Life: A Black Woman’s Civil War Memoirs. New York, 1998.
Temple, Oliver P. East Tennessee and the Civil War. Johnson City, Tenn., 1899.
Thomas, Ella Gertrude Clanton. The Secret Eye: The Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas, 1848–1889. Ed. Virginia Ingraham Burr. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1990.
Thomasson, Basil Armstrong. North Carolina Yeoman: The Diary of Basil Armstrong Thomasson, 1853–1862. Ed. Paul D. Escott. Athens, Ga., 1996.
Toombs, Robert A. Lecture Delivered in the Tremont Temple, Boston, Massachusetts, on the 26th January, 1856, by Robert Toombs. Washington, D.C., 1856.
Toombs, Robert A., Alexander Hamilton Stephens, and Howell Cobb. The Correspondence of Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, and Howell Cobb. Ed. Ulrich Bonnell Phillips. Washington, D.C., 1913.
Towne, Laura M. Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne; Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862–1864. Ed. Rupert Sargent Holland. Cambridge, Mass., 1912.
Trowbridge, John Townsend. The South: A Tour of Its Battlefields and Ruined Cities, a Journey through the Desolated States, and Talks with the People: Being a Description of the Present State of the Country—Its Agriculture—Railroads—Business and Finance. Hartford, Conn., 1866.
Twain, Mark, and Charles Dudley Warner. The Gilded Age. 1873; reprint, Stillwell, Kans., 2007.
Two Diaries: From Middle St. John’s, Berkeley, South Carolina, February–May, 1865: Journals Kept by Miss Susan R. Jervey and Miss Charlotte St. J. Ravenel, at Northampton and Pooshee Plantations, and Reminiscences of Mrs. (Waring) Henagan with Two Contemporary Reports from Federal Officials. [Pinopolis, S.C.], 1921.
United States Congress. Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. Washington, D.C., 1866.
Upshur, Abel P. “Domestic Slavery, as It Exists in Our Southern States.” Southern Literary Messenger 5 (1839): 677–87.
Vance, Zebulon Baird. The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance. 2 vols. to date. Ed. Frontis W. Johnston and Joe A. Mobley. Raleigh, N.C., 1963–.
Vandiver, Frank, ed. “Proceedings of the Second Confederate Congress.” Southern Historical Society Papers, n.s., 51–52. Richmond, Va., 1958–59.
Victor, Orville J. The Comprehensive History of the Southern Rebellion and the War for the Union. New York, 1862.
Violette, Eugene Morrow. A History of Missouri. Boston, 1918.
Wakelyn, Jon L., ed. Southern Pamphlets on Secession, November 1860–April 1861. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1996.
The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 vols. Washington, D.C., 1880–1901.
Washburn, George H. A Complete Military History and Record of the 108th Regiment N.Y. Volunteers. Rochester, N.Y., 1894.
Waterbury, Maria. Seven Years among the Freedmen. 3rd ed. Chicago, 1893.
Welles, Gideon. Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy under Lincoln and Johnson. 2 vols. Boston, 1911.
Wheeler, John H. Historical Sketches of North Carolina: From 1584 to 1851, Compiled from Original Records, Official Documents and Traditional Statements: With Biographical Sketches of Her Distinguished Statesmen, Jurists, Lawyers, Soldiers, Divines, Etc. Philadelphia, 1851.
Wise, John S. The End of an Era. Boston, 1899.
Wood, George L. The Seventh Regiment: A Record. New York, 1865.
Worley, Ted R. “A Letter Written by General Thomas C. Hindman in Mexico.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 15 (1956): 365–68.
Worsham, W. J. The Old Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment, C.S.A. June, 1861–April, 1865. Knoxville, Tenn., 1902.
Worth, Jonathan. The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 2 vols. Ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton. Raleigh, N.C., 1909.
Yearns, W. Buck, and John G. Barrett, eds. North Carolina Civil War Documentary. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1980.
Yetman, Norman R., ed. When I Was a Slave: Memoirs from the Slave Narrative Collection. New York, 2002.
The Anti-Slavery Reporter
The Charleston Mercury
The Daily Confederate (Raleigh, N.C.)
Galveston Tri-Weekly News
Macon Daily Telegraph and Confederate
Mobile Register and Advertiser
New York Evening Post
The New York Times
New York Tribune
The Sentinel (Richmond, Va.)
Southern Confederacy (Atlanta, Ga.)
The Times-Dispatch (Richmond, Va.)
Unpublished Papers and Manuscripts
Allen, James. Plantation Book, 1860–63. Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Miss. (MDAH).
Army of Northern Virginia Headquarters Papers. Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va. (VHS).
Barlow, Samuel Latham Mitchell. Papers. Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif. (HL).
Brown, George Washington Campbell. Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (LC).
Brown-Ewell Family Papers. Filson Historical Society, Louisville, Ky.
Civil War Collection. HL.
Confederate States of America records. Manuscript Division, LC.
Guess, George W. Letters. Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Special Collections, Louisiana State University Libraries, Baton Rouge, La. (LSU).
Jackson, Hunt Papers, Manuscript Division, LC.
Kenner, Duncan Farrar. Collection. Manuscript Division, LC.
Lee, R. E. Papers. VHS.
Maury, Richard L. Diary. Manuscripts Division, VHS.
Minor, William J., and Family. Papers. Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Special Collections, LSU.
Pettus, John J. Papers. MDAH.
Smith, William. Executive Papers, 1864–65. State Records Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Va.
Stapp, Joseph D. Letters, 1864–65. VHS.
War Department Collection of Confederate Records. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. (NARA).
White, Garland. Compiled Military Service Record, NARA.
Abrahamson, James L. The Men of Secession and Civil War, 1859–1861. Wilmington, Del., 2000.
Alexander, Thomas B. Thomas A. R. Nelson of East Tennessee. Nashville, 1956.
Alexander, Thomas B., and Richard E. Beringer. The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress. Nashville, 1972.
Allen, James S. Reconstruction: The Battle for Democracy, 1865–1876. New York, 1937.
Allmendinger, David F. Ruffin: Family and Reform in the Old South. New York, 1990.
Ash, Stephen V. Firebrand of Liberty: The Story of Two Black Regiments That Changed the Course of the Civil War. New York, 2008.
———. Middle Tennessee Society Transformed, 1860–1870: War and Peace in the Upper South. Baton Rouge, 1988.
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Articles and Book Chapters
Andrew, Rod, Jr. “The Essential Nationalism of the People: Georgia’s Confederate Congressional Elections of 1863.” In Gordon and Inscoe, Inside the Confederate Nation.
Aptheker, Herbert. “Notes on Slave Conspiracies in Confederate Mississippi.” Journal of Negro History 29 (1944): 75–79.
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Beringer, Richard E. “A Profile of the Members of the Confederate Congress.” Journal of Southern History 32 (1967): 518–41.
Blair, William A. “The Seven Days and the Radical Persuasion: Convincing Moderates in the North of the Need for a Hard War.” In The Richmond Campaign of 1862: The Peninsula and the Seven Days, ed. Gary W. Gallagher. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2000.
Cimprich, John. “Slave Behavior during the Federal Occupation of Tennessee, 1862–1865.” The Historian 44 (1982): 335–46.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. “Altars of Sacrifice: Confederate Women and the Narratives of War.” Journal of American History 76 (1990): 1200–1228.
———. “Confederate Women and Narratives of War.” In Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War, ed. Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber. New York, 1992.
Fleming, Walter L. “The Peace Movement in Alabama.” South Atlantic Quarterly 2 (1903): 246–60.
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Freidel, Frank. “The Loyal Publication Society: A Pro-Union Propaganda Agency.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 26 (1939): 359–76.
Gallagher, Gary W. “Disaffection, Persistence, and Nation: Some Directions in Recent Scholarship on the Confederacy.” Civil War History 55 (2009): 329–53.
Hahn, Steven. “Class and State in Postemancipation Societies: Southern Planters in Comparative Perspective.” American Historical Review 95 (1990): 75–98.
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