Works Cited

Primary Sources

Published Books, Essays, Speeches, Memoirs, Diaries, Papers, and Government Documents

Adams, John Quincy. The Diary of John Quincy Adams, 1794–1845. Ed. Allan Nevins. New York, 1951.

Akin, Warren. Letters of Warren Akin, Confederate Congressman. Ed. Bell Irvin Wiley. Athens, Ga., 1959.

Alexander, E. P. Military Memoirs of a Confederate: A Critical Narrative. New York, 1907.

Allston, Robert F. W. The South Carolina Rice Plantation as Revealed in the Papers of Robert F. W. Allston. Ed. J. H. Easterby. Chicago, 1945.

American Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863. New York, 1864.

Ames, Herman V., ed. State Documents on Federal Relations: The States and the United States. Philadelphia, 1906.

Andrews, Eliza Frances. The War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 1864–1865. New York, 1908.

Andrews, Sidney. The South Since the War. 1866; reprint, Boston, 1971.

Avary, Myrta Lockett. Dixie after the War: An Exposition of Social Conditions Existing in the South, during the Twelve Years Succeeding the Fall of Richmond. New York, 1906.

Beatty, John. The Citizen-soldier: Or, Memoirs of a Volunteer. Cincinnati, Ohio, 1879.

Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. The Destruction of Slavery. Cambridge, UK, 1986.

———. The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Lower South. Cambridge, UK, 1990.

———. The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Upper South. Cambridge, UK, 1993.

Berlin, Ira, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie S. Rowland, eds. The Black Military Experience. Cambridge, UK, 1982.

Bettersworth, John K., ed. Mississippi in the Confederacy as They Saw It. 1961; reprint, New York, 1970.

Blaine, James G. Twenty Years of Congress: From Lincoln to Garfield. 2 vols. Norwich, Conn., 1884.

Blassingame, John W., ed. Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies. Baton Rouge, 1977.

Botume, Elizabeth Hyde. First Days amongst the Contrabands. 1893; reprint, New York, 1968.

Brown, William Wells. The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and His Fidelity. Ed. John David Smith. 1867; reprint, Athens, Ohio, 2003.

Bryan, T. Conn, ed. Confederate Georgia. Athens, Ga., 1953.

Burkhead, Rev. L. S. “History of the Difficulties of the Pastorate of the Front Street Methodist Church, Wilmington, N. C., for the Year 1865.” Historical Papers of the Trinity College Historical Society (Durham, N.C., 1900): 35–118.

Butler, Benjamin F. Butler’s Book: Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major Benjamin F. Butler. 2 vols. Boston, 1892.

———. Private and Official Correspondence of Gen. Benjamin F. Butler during the Period of the Civil War. 5 vols. Norwood, Mass., 1917.

Byrne, Frank L., and Jean Powers Soman, eds. Your True Marcus: The Civil War Letters of a Jewish Colonel. Kent, Ohio, 1985.

Cable, George W. “New Orleans before the Capture.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel, 2: 14–21.

Calhoun, John C. The Works of John C. Calhoun. 6 vols. Ed. Richard K. Crallé.

Charleston, S.C., 1851–70.

Candler, Allen D., ed. The Confederate Records of the State of Georgia. Vol. 3, Official Correspondence of Governor Joseph E. Brown, 1860–1865, Inclusive. Atlanta, Ga., 1910.

Castillo, Susan P., ed. The Literatures of Colonial America: An Anthology. Malden, Mass., 2001.

Chase, Salmon P. Inside Lincoln’s Cabinet: The Civil War Diaries of Salmon P. Chase. Ed. David Donald. New York, 1954.

———. The Salmon P. Chase Papers. 5 vols. Ed. John Niven, et al. Kent, Ohio, 1993–98.

Chester, Thomas Morris. Thomas Morris Chester, Black Civil War Correspondent: His Dispatches from the Virginia Front. Ed. R.J.M. Blackett. New York, 1991.

Chesnut, Mary Boykin Miller. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War. Ed. C. Vann Woodward. New Haven, Conn., 1981.

———. The Private Mary Chesnut: The Unpublished Civil War Diaries. Ed. C.

Vann Woodward and Elisabeth Muhlenfeld. New York, 1984.

Clark, Peter H. Black Brigade of Cincinnati: Being a Report of Its Labors and a Muster-Roll of Its Members etc. Cincinnati, 1864.

Clarke, James Freeman. Autobiography, Diary and Correspondence. Ed. Edward Everett Hale. Boston, 1892.

Clemenceau, Georges. American Reconstruction, 1865–1870. New York, 1928.

Cobb, Howell. A Scriptural Examination of the Institution of Slavery in the United States; with its Objects and Purposes. [Perry?] Ga., 1856.

Coffin, C. C. “Late Scenes in Richmond.” Atlantic Monthly 15 (1865): 744–56.

Coleman, Mrs. Chapman, ed. The Life of John J. Crittenden: With Selections from His Correspondence and Speeches. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1871.

Confederate States of America. Congress. House. Select Committee on Increase of Military Force. “Mr. Rogers’ Minority Report.” Richmond, Va., 1865.

Connolly, James Austin. “Major Connolly’s Letters to His Wife, 1862–1865.” Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society 35 (1928): 215–438.

Conyngham, David P. Sherman’s March through the South. New York, 1865. Cooper, Peter. The Death of Slavery. New York, 1863.

[Corsan, W. C.]. Two Months in the Confederate States: Including a Visit to New Orleans under the Domination of General Butler. London, 1863.

Davis, Jefferson. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist: His Letters, Papers and Speeches. 10 vols. Ed. Dunbar F. Rowland. Jackson, Miss., 1923.

———. The Papers of Jefferson Davis. 12 vols. Ed. Linda Lasswell Crist, et al. Baton Rouge, 1971–.

———. The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. 2 vols. 1881; reprint, New York, 1990.

Davis, Varina. Jefferson Davis: A Memoir by His Wife. 2 vols. 1890; reprint, Baltimore, 1990.

Dawson, Sarah Morgan. A Confederate Girl’s Diary. Boston, 1913.

[DeBow, J.D.B.]. “The Non-Slaveholders of the South.” DeBow’s Review 30 (1861): 67–77.

DeBow, J.D.B. The Industrial Resources, Statistics, Etc. of the United States. 3rd ed. 3 vols. New York, 1854.

Dennett, John Richard. The South as It Is: 1865–1866, ed. Henry M. Christman. New York, 1965.

A Digest of the Military Laws of the United States: From 1860 to the Second Session of the Fortieth Congress, 1867, Relating to the Army, Volunteers, Militia, and the Rebellion and Reconstruction of the Southern States. Boston, 1868.

Dinkins, James. 1861 to 1865, by an Old Johnnie: Personal Recollections and Experiences in the Confederate Army. Cincinnati, 1897.

Douglass, Frederick. The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Rev. ed., 1892; reprint, London, 1962.

———. The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass. 5 vols. Ed. Philip S. Foner. New York, 1950–75.

Dumond, Dwight Lowell, ed. Southern Editorials on Secession. 1931; reprint, Gloucester, Mass., 1964.

Durden, Robert F. The Gray and the Black: The Confederate Debate on Emancipation. Baton Rouge, 2000.

Early, Jubal Anderson. Autobiographical Sketch and Narrative of the War between the States. Philadelphia, 1912.

Edmonds, S. Emma. The Female Spy of the Union Army. Boston, 1864.

Edmondston, Catherine Devereux. “Journal of a Secesh Lady”: The Diary of Catherine Ann Devereux Edmondston, 1860–1866. Ed. Beth Gilbert Crabtree and James W. Patton. Raleigh, N.C., 1979.

Ellis, John Willis. Papers. 2 vols. Ed. Noble J. Tolbert. Raleigh, N.C., 1964.

Farrand, Max, ed. Records of the Federal Convention. 4 vols. New Haven, 1966.

Faust, Drew Gilpin, ed. The Ideology of Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Antebellum South, 1830–1860. Baton Rouge, 1981.

[Fitzhugh, George]. “The Message, the Constitution, and the Times.” DeBow’s Review 30 (1861): 156–67.

Fleet, Benjamin Robert. Green Mount; a Virginia Plantation Family during the Civil War: Being the Journal of Benjamin Robert Fleet and Letters of His Family. Ed. Betsy Fleet and John D. P. Fuller. Lexington, Ky., 1962.

Foner, Philip S., and George E. Walker, eds. Proceedings of the Black State Conventions. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1979–80.

Forbes, John Murray. Letters and Recollections of John Murray Forbes. Ed. Sarah Forbes Hughes. Boston, 1899.

Forten, Charlotte. “Life on the Sea Islands.” Atlantic Monthly 13 (1864): 587–96.

Freeman, Douglas Southall, ed. A Calendar of Confederate Papers, with a Bibliography of Some Confederate Publications. Richmond, Va., 1908.

Garfield, James A. The Works of James Abram Garfield. 2 vols. Ed. Burke A. Hinsdale. Boston, 1882–83.

“General Cleburne’s Views on Slavery.” Annals of the Army of Tennessee and Early Western History 1 (1978): 50–52.

Gienapp, William, ed. The Civil War and Reconstruction: A Documentary Collection. New York, 2001.

Goode, George Brown. Virginia Cousins: A Study of the Ancestry and Posterity of John Goode of Whitby. Richmond, Va., 1887.

Gorgas, Josiah. The Journals of Josiah Gorgas, 1857–1878. Ed. Sarah Woolfolk Wiggins. Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1995.

Graham, William Alexander. The Papers of William Alexander Graham. 8 vols. Ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton. Raleigh, N.C., 1957–73.

Grant, Ulysses S. Memoirs and Selected Letters: Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Selected Letters 1839–1865. Ed. Mary Drake McFeeley and William S. McFeeley. New York, 1990.

———. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. Two volumes in one. 1885; reprint, New York, n.d.

Greeley, Horace, and John F. Cleveland, eds. Political Text-Book for 1860. [1860]; reprint, New York, 1969.

Hamilton, Alexander. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 27 vols. Ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York, 1961–79.

Hammond, James Henry. Secret and Sacred: The Diaries of James Henry Hammond, a Southern Slaveholder. Ed. Carol Bleser. New York, 1988.

———. Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina. New York, 1866.

Hannaford, Ebenezer. The Story of a Regiment: A History of the Campaigns, and Associations in the Field, of the Sixth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Cincinnati, 1868.

Haviland, Laura S. A Woman’s Life-Work: Labors and Experiences of Laura S. Haviland. Chicago, 1887.

Hay, John. Inside Lincoln’s White House: The Complete Civil War Diary of John Hay. Ed. Michael Burlingame and John Turner Ettlinger. Carbondale, Ill., 1997.

Hay, John, and John G. Nicolay. Abraham Lincoln: The Observations of John G. Nicolay and John Hay. Ed. Michael Burlingame. Carbondale, Ill., 2007.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Army Life in a Black Regiment. 1869; reprint, Boston, 1970.

Hitchcock, Henry. Marching with Sherman: Passages from the Letters and Campaign Diaries of Henry Hitchcock, Major and Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers, November 1864–May 1865. Ed. M. A. DeWolfe Howe. 1927; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 1995.

Holden, William Woods. The Papers of William Woods Holden. One vol. to date.

Ed. Horace W. Raper and Thornton W. Mitchell. Raleigh, N.C., 2000–.

House, Albert V., Jr., ed. “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation during Four Years of Civil War.” Journal of Southern History 9 (1943): 100–107.

Howard, Oliver Otis. Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard. 2 vols. New York, 1907.

Hughes, Thomas. A Boy’s Experience in the Civil War, 1860–1865. Baltimore, 1904.

Hundley, Daniel R. Social Relations in Our Southern States. Ed. William J. Cooper. 1860; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1979.

Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Ed. William Peden. 1787; reprint, New York, 1972.

Johnson, Andrew. The Papers of Andrew Johnson. 16 vols. Ed. LeRoy P. Graf, et al. Knoxville, Tenn., 1967–2000.

Johnson, Donald Bruce, comp. National Party Platforms. 2 vols. Rev. ed., Urbana, Ill., 1978.

Johnson, Robert, and Clarence Buel, ed. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: Being for the Most Part Contributions by Union and Confederate Officers. 4 vols. 1884–88; reprint, Edison, N.J., n.d.

Johnston, Joseph E. Narrative of Military Operations. New York, 1874.

Jones, Charles Colcock. The Religious Instruction of the Negroes: An Address Delivered before the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, at Augusta, Ga., December 10, 1861. Richmond, Va., n.d.

———. The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States. 1842; reprint, Manchester, N.H., 1971.

Jones, John B. A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary at the Confederate States Capital. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1866.

Jones, Joseph. Agricultural Resources of Georgia: Address before the Cotton Planters Convention of Georgia at Macon, December 13, 1860. Augusta, Ga., 1861.

Jones, J. William, ed. Personal Reminiscences, Anecdotes, and Letters of Gen. Robert E. Lee. New York, 1875.

Journal of Both Sessions of the Convention of the State of Arkansas. Little Rock, Ark., 1861.

Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861–1865. 7 vols. Washington, D.C., 1905.

Journal of the Senate of the State of Georgia, at the Annual Session of the General Assembly, Begun and Held in Milledgeville, the Seat of Government, in 1861. Milledgeville, Ga., 1861.

Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds. News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home. Ithaca, N.Y., 1991.

Kapp, Friedrich. Geschichte der Sklaverei in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Hamburg, 1861.

Kean, Robert Garlick Hill. Inside the Confederate Government: The Diary of Robert Garlick Hill Kean, Head of the Bureau of War. Ed. Edward Younger. Baton Rouge, 1957.

Kennedy, Joseph C. G. Agriculture of the United States in 1860; Compiled from the Original Returns of the Eighth Census. Washington, D.C., 1864.

Lee, Robert E. The Wartime Papers of R. E. Lee. Ed. Clifford Dowdey. Boston, 1961.

Leyburn, John. “An Interview with Gen. Robert E. Lee.” Century Magazine 30 (1885): 166–67.

Lincoln, Abraham. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. 9 vols. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, N.J., 1953.

Livermore, Mary A. My Story of the War: A Woman’s Narrative of Four Years Personal Experience. Hartford, Conn., 1892.

Lovejoy, Owen. His Brother’s Blood: Speeches and Writings, 1838–64. Ed. William F. Moore and Jane Ann Moore. Urbana, Ill., 2004.

Macrae, David. Americans at Home: Pen-and-Ink Sketches of American Men, Manners, and Institutions. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1870.

Mallory, Stephen R. “Last Days of the Confederate Government.” McClure’s Magazine 16 (1900): 99–107, 239–48.

Marshall, Charles. Lee’s Aide-de-Camp, Being the Papers of Colonel Charles Marshall Sometime Aide-de-Camp, Military Secretary, and Assistant Adjutant General of Robert E. Lee, 1862–1865. Ed. Frederick Maurice. 1927; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 2000.

Marx, Karl, and Frederick Engels. Collected Works. 50 vols. Moscow, 1975–2005.

Mason, Virginia, ed. The Public Life and Diplomatic Correspondence of James M. Mason, with Some Personal History. New York, 1906.

McClellan, George B. The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, 1860–1865. Ed. Stephen W. Sears. New York, 1992.

McDonald, Cornelia Peake. A Woman’s Civil War: A Diary with Reminiscences of the War from March 1862. Madison, Wis., 1992.

McMillan, Malcolm C., ed. The Alabama Confederate Reader. Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1963; reprint, 1992.

McNeilly, James H. “In Winter Quarters at Dalton, Ga.” Confederate Veteran 28 (1920): 130–32, 157.

McPherson, Edward, ed. The Political History of the United States of America during the Great Rebellion. Washington, D.C., 1865.

Message of the President of the United States, Communicating, in Compliance with a Resolution of the Senate of the 12th Instant, Information in Relation to the States of the Union Lately in Rebellion, Accompanied by a Report of Carl Schurz on the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana; also a Report of Lieutenant General Grant, on the Same Subject. Washington, D.C., 1865.

Moore, Frank, ed. The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events, with Documents, Narratives, Illustrative Incidents, Poetry, Etc. 11 vols. New York, 1861–68.

Myers, Robert Manson, ed. The Children of Pride: A True Story of Georgia and the Civil War. New Haven, Conn., 1972.

Newton, James K. A Wisconsin Boy in Dixie: Civil War Letters of James K. Newton. Ed. Stephen E. Ambrose. Madison, Wis., 1995.

Nichols, George Ward. The Story of the Great March from the Diary of a Staff Officer. New York, 1865.

Nisbet, James Cooper. Four Years on the Firing Line. 1914; reprint, Jackson, Tenn., 1963.

North Carolina General Assembly. Resolutions Against the Policy of Arming Slaves. Richmond, Va., 1865.

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. 30 vols. Washington, D.C., 1894–1922.

Oldham, William S. Rise and Fall of the Confederacy: The Memoir of Senator William S. Oldham, C.S.A. Ed. Clayton E. Jewett. Columbia, Mo., 2006.

———. “True Cause and Issues of the Civil War.” DeBow’s Review 6 (1869): 678–79.

Olmsted, Frederick Law. A Journey in the Back Country, 1853–1854. 1860; reprint, New York, 1970.

“Our Women in the War”: The Lives They Lived; the Deaths They Died. Charleston, S.C., 1885.

Palmer, Rev. B. M. “Thanksgiving Sermon, Delivered at the First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans, on Thursday, Nov. 29.” DeBow’s Review 30 (1861): 324–36.

Papers Relating to Foreign Affairs, Accompanying the Annual Message of the President to the Second Session Thirty-Eighth Congress. Part 2. Washington, D.C., 1865.

Pearson, Elizabeth Ware, ed. Letters from Port Royal, 1862–1868. New York, 1969.

Pepper, George W. Personal Recollections of Sherman’s Campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas. Zanesville, Ohio, 1866.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips, eds. Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves. Charlottesville, Va., 1976.

Pierce, Edward L. “The Contrabands at Fortress Monroe.” Atlantic Monthly 8 (1861): 626–40.

Pollard, Edward A. Life of Jefferson Davis. Philadelphia, [1869].

———. Southern History of the War. 1866; reprint, New York, 1990.

Porcher, Frederick Adolphus. “Southern and Northern Civilization Contrasted.” Russell’s Magazine 1 (1857): 97–107.

Porter, David D. “The Opening of the Lower Mississippi.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel, 2: 22–55.

Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored Men Held in the City of Syracuse, N. Y., October 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1864; with the Bill of Wrongs and Rights, and the Address to the American People. Boston, 1864.

“Progress of Education in Virginia.” Southern Literary Messenger 24 (1857): 241–47.

Pryor, Sara Agnes Rice. Reminiscences of Peace and War. New York, 1904.

Putnam, Sallie A. Brock. Richmond during the War: Four Years of Personal Observation. Lincoln, Neb., 1997.

Rawick, George P., ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography. 19 vols. Westport, Conn., 1972–79.

Reagan, John H. Memoirs: With Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War. Ed. Walter Flavius McCaleb. New York, 1906.

Redkey, Edwin S., ed. A Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African-American Soldiers in the Union Army, 1861–1865. Cambridge, UK, 1992.

Reese, George H., ed. Proceedings of the Virginia State Convention of 1861, February 13–May 1. 4 vols. Richmond, Va., 1965.

Reid, Whitelaw. After the War: A Tour of the Southern States, 1865–66. 1866; reprint, New York, 1965.

Rhett, Robert Barnwell. A Fire-Eater Remembers: The Confederate Memoir of Robert Barnwell Rhett. Ed. William C. Davis. Columbia, S.C., 2000.

Richardson, James D., ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, Including the Diplomatic Correspondence, 1861–1865. Nashville, 1905.

Robertson, James I., ed. “ ‘The Boy Artillerist’: Letters of Colonel William Pegram, C.S.A.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98 (1990): 221–60.

[Ruffin, Edmund]. Anticipations of the Future, to Serve as Lessons for the Present Time. Richmond, Va., 1860.

Ruffin, Edmund. The Diary of Edmund Ruffin. 3 vols. Ed. William Kaufman Scarborough. Baton Rouge, 1972–89.

Ruffin, Thomas. The Papers of Thomas Ruffin. 4 vols. Ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton. Raleigh, N.C., 1920.

Russell, William Howard. My Diary North and South. Ed. Eugene H. Berwanger. New York, 1988.

Selden, John A. The Westover Journal of John A. Selden, Esq., 1858–1862. Ed. John Spencer Bassett and Sidney Bradshaw Fay. Northampton, Mass., 1921.

Sheridan, Philip Henry. Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan. 2 vols. New York, 1888.

Sherman, William T. Memoirs. 2 vols. New York, 1875.

———. Sherman’s Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman. Ed. Brooks D. Simpson and Jean V. Berlin. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1999.

Sitterson, J. Carlyle. “The William J. Minor Plantations: A Study in Ante-Bellum Absentee Ownership.” Journal of Southern History 9 (1943): 59–74.

Slocum, Henry W. “Sherman’s March from Savannah to Bentonville.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel, 4: 688–90.

Smith, James L. Autobiography of James L. Smith, Including, Also, Reminiscences of Slave Life, Recollections of the War, Education of Freedmen, Causes of the Exodus, Etc. Norwich, Conn., 1881.

Stampp, Kenneth M., ed. The Causes of the Civil War. Rev. ed., New York, 1992. Stephens, Alexander. A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1868–70.

Stephens, George E. A Voice of Thunder: The Civil War Letters of George E. Stephens. Ed. Donald Yacavone. Urbana, Ill., 1997.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. The Trouble They Seen: Black People Tell the Story of Reconstruction. Garden City, N.Y., 1976.

Stone, Kate. Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861–1868. Ed. John Q. Anderson. Baton Rouge, 1995.

Sutcliffe, Andrea, ed. Mighty Rough Times, I Tell You: Personal Accounts of Slavery in Tennessee. Winston-Salem, N.C., 2000.

Taylor, Richard. Destruction and Reconstruction: Personal Experiences of the Late War. 1879; reprint, New York, 1955.

Taylor, Susie King. Reminiscences of My Life: A Black Woman’s Civil War Memoirs. New York, 1998.

Temple, Oliver P. East Tennessee and the Civil War. Johnson City, Tenn., 1899.

Thomas, Ella Gertrude Clanton. The Secret Eye: The Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas, 1848–1889. Ed. Virginia Ingraham Burr. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1990.

Thomasson, Basil Armstrong. North Carolina Yeoman: The Diary of Basil Armstrong Thomasson, 1853–1862. Ed. Paul D. Escott. Athens, Ga., 1996.

Toombs, Robert A. Lecture Delivered in the Tremont Temple, Boston, Massachusetts, on the 26th January, 1856, by Robert Toombs. Washington, D.C., 1856.

Toombs, Robert A., Alexander Hamilton Stephens, and Howell Cobb. The Correspondence of Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, and Howell Cobb. Ed. Ulrich Bonnell Phillips. Washington, D.C., 1913.

Towne, Laura M. Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne; Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862–1864. Ed. Rupert Sargent Holland. Cambridge, Mass., 1912.

Trowbridge, John Townsend. The South: A Tour of Its Battlefields and Ruined Cities, a Journey through the Desolated States, and Talks with the People: Being a Description of the Present State of the Country—Its Agriculture—Railroads—Business and Finance. Hartford, Conn., 1866.

Twain, Mark, and Charles Dudley Warner. The Gilded Age. 1873; reprint, Stillwell, Kans., 2007.

Two Diaries: From Middle St. John’s, Berkeley, South Carolina, February–May, 1865: Journals Kept by Miss Susan R. Jervey and Miss Charlotte St. J. Ravenel, at Northampton and Pooshee Plantations, and Reminiscences of Mrs. (Waring) Henagan with Two Contemporary Reports from Federal Officials. [Pinopolis, S.C.], 1921.

United States Congress. Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. Washington, D.C., 1866.

Upshur, Abel P. “Domestic Slavery, as It Exists in Our Southern States.” Southern Literary Messenger 5 (1839): 677–87.

Vance, Zebulon Baird. The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance. 2 vols. to date. Ed. Frontis W. Johnston and Joe A. Mobley. Raleigh, N.C., 1963–.

Vandiver, Frank, ed. “Proceedings of the Second Confederate Congress.” Southern Historical Society Papers, n.s., 51–52. Richmond, Va., 1958–59.

Victor, Orville J. The Comprehensive History of the Southern Rebellion and the War for the Union. New York, 1862.

Violette, Eugene Morrow. A History of Missouri. Boston, 1918.

Wakelyn, Jon L., ed. Southern Pamphlets on Secession, November 1860–April 1861. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1996.

The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 vols. Washington, D.C., 1880–1901.

Washburn, George H. A Complete Military History and Record of the 108th Regiment N.Y. Volunteers. Rochester, N.Y., 1894.

Waterbury, Maria. Seven Years among the Freedmen. 3rd ed. Chicago, 1893.

Welles, Gideon. Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy under Lincoln and Johnson. 2 vols. Boston, 1911.

Wheeler, John H. Historical Sketches of North Carolina: From 1584 to 1851, Compiled from Original Records, Official Documents and Traditional Statements: With Biographical Sketches of Her Distinguished Statesmen, Jurists, Lawyers, Soldiers, Divines, Etc. Philadelphia, 1851.

Wise, John S. The End of an Era. Boston, 1899.

Wood, George L. The Seventh Regiment: A Record. New York, 1865.

Worley, Ted R. “A Letter Written by General Thomas C. Hindman in Mexico.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 15 (1956): 365–68.

Worsham, W. J. The Old Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment, C.S.A. June, 1861–April, 1865. Knoxville, Tenn., 1902.

Worth, Jonathan. The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth. 2 vols. Ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton. Raleigh, N.C., 1909.

Yearns, W. Buck, and John G. Barrett, eds. North Carolina Civil War Documentary. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1980.

Yetman, Norman R., ed. When I Was a Slave: Memoirs from the Slave Narrative Collection. New York, 2002.

Newspapers

The Anti-Slavery Reporter

Congressional Globe

The Charleston Mercury

The Daily Confederate (Raleigh, N.C.)

Friends’ Intelligencer

Galveston Tri-Weekly News

Harper’s Weekly

Lynchburg Virginian

Macon Daily Telegraph and Confederate

Mobile Register and Advertiser

Montgomery Mail

New York Evening Post

The New York Times

New York Tribune

Richmond Dispatch

Richmond Enquirer

Richmond Examiner

Richmond Whig

The Sentinel (Richmond, Va.)

Southern Confederacy (Atlanta, Ga.)

The Times-Dispatch (Richmond, Va.)

Unpublished Papers and Manuscripts

Allen, James. Plantation Book, 1860–63. Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Miss. (MDAH).

Army of Northern Virginia Headquarters Papers. Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va. (VHS).

Barlow, Samuel Latham Mitchell. Papers. Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif. (HL).

Brown, George Washington Campbell. Papers. Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (LC).

Brown-Ewell Family Papers. Filson Historical Society, Louisville, Ky.

Civil War Collection. HL.

Confederate States of America records. Manuscript Division, LC.

Guess, George W. Letters. Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Special Collections, Louisiana State University Libraries, Baton Rouge, La. (LSU).

Jackson, Hunt Papers, Manuscript Division, LC.

Kenner, Duncan Farrar. Collection. Manuscript Division, LC.

Lee, R. E. Papers. VHS.

Maury, Richard L. Diary. Manuscripts Division, VHS.

Minor, William J., and Family. Papers. Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Special Collections, LSU.

Pettus, John J. Papers. MDAH.

Smith, William. Executive Papers, 1864–65. State Records Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Va.

Stapp, Joseph D. Letters, 1864–65. VHS.

War Department Collection of Confederate Records. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. (NARA).

White, Garland. Compiled Military Service Record, NARA.

Secondary Works

Books

Abrahamson, James L. The Men of Secession and Civil War, 1859–1861. Wilmington, Del., 2000.

Alexander, Thomas B. Thomas A. R. Nelson of East Tennessee. Nashville, 1956.

Alexander, Thomas B., and Richard E. Beringer. The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress. Nashville, 1972.

Allen, James S. Reconstruction: The Battle for Democracy, 1865–1876. New York, 1937.

Allmendinger, David F. Ruffin: Family and Reform in the Old South. New York, 1990.

Ash, Stephen V. Firebrand of Liberty: The Story of Two Black Regiments That Changed the Course of the Civil War. New York, 2008.

———. Middle Tennessee Society Transformed, 1860–1870: War and Peace in the Upper South. Baton Rouge, 1988.

———. When the Yankees Came: Conflict and Chaos in the Occupied South, 1861–1865. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1995.

Atkins, Jonathan. Parties, Politics, and Sectional Conflict: Tennessee 1832–1861. Memphis, Tenn., 1997.

Auman, William Thomas. “Neighbor against Neighbor: The Inner Civil War in the Central Counties of Confederate North Carolina.” PhD diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1988.

Ayers, Edward L. Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the 19th-Century American South. New York, 1984.

Bagwell, James. Rice Gold: James Hamilton Couper and Plantation Life on the Georgia Coast. Macon, Ga., 2000.

Bailey, Hugh C. “Disaffection in the Alabama Hill Country, 1861.” Civil War History 4 (1958): 183–94.

———. “Disloyalty in Early Confederate Alabama.” Journal of Southern History 23 (1957): 522–28.

Bancroft, Frederic. The Life of William H. Seward. 2 vols. New York, 1900.

Bardaglio, Peter Winthrop. Reconstructing the Household: Families, Sex, and the Law in the Nineteenth-Century South. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1995.

Barrett, John G. The Civil War in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1963.

———. Sherman’s March through the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1996.

Bauer, Craig A. A Leader among Peers: The Life and Times of Duncan Farrar Kenner. Lafayette, La., 1993.

Benton, Josiah Henry. Voting in the Field: A Forgotten Chapter of the Civil War. Boston, 1915.

Bergeron, Arthur W. Confederate Mobile. Baton Rouge, 1991.

Berlin, Ira. Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York, 1974.

Blackburn, Robin. The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848. London, 1988. Blair, William. Virginia’s Private War: Feeding Body and Soul in the Confederacy, 1861–1865. Oxford, UK, 1998.

Blanchard, Peter. Under the Flags of Freedom: Slave Soldiers and the Wars of Independence in Spanish South America. Pittsburgh, 2008.

Brazy, Martha Jane. An American Planter: Stephen Duncan of Antebellum Natchez and New York. Baton Rouge, 2006.

Brewer, James H. The Confederate Negro: Virginia’s Craftsmen and Military Laborers, 1861–1865. Durham, N.C., 1969.

Brewer, Willis. Alabama, Her History, Resources, War Record, and Public Men: From 1540 to 1872. Montgomery, Ala., 1872.

Brooks, Noah. Abraham Lincoln. New York, 1894.

Brown, Christopher Leslie, and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Arming Slaves: From Classical Time to the Modern Age. New Haven, Conn., 2006.

Burkhardt, George S. Confederate Rage, Yankee Wrath: No Quarter in the Civil War. Carbondale, Ill., 2007.

Burlingame, Michael. Abraham Lincoln: A Life. 2 vols. Baltimore, 2008.

Bynum, Victoria. The Free State of Jones: Mississippi’s Longest Civil War. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2001.

Campbell, Jacqueline Glass. When Sherman Marched North from the Sea: Resistance on the Confederate Home Front. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2003.

Carmichael, Peter S. The Last Generation: Young Virginians in Peace, War, and Reunion. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2005.

Carter, Dan T. When the War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865–1867. Baton Rouge, 1985.

Cash, W. J. The Mind of the South. 1941; reprint, New York, 1991.

Castel, Albert. Decision in the West: The Atlanta Campaign of 1864. Lawrence, Kans., 1995.

Catton, Bruce. Grant Takes Command. Boston, 1969.

Cauthen, Charles Edward. South Carolina Goes to War, 1860–1865. 1950; reprint, Columbia, S.C., 2005.

Channing, Steven A. Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina. New York, 1970.

Cheathem, Mark Renfred. Old Hickory’s Nephew: The Political and Private Struggles of Andrew Jackson Donelson. Baton Rouge, 2007.

Christian, Frances Archer, and Susanne Massie, eds. Homes and Gardens in Old Virginia. Richmond, Va., 1931.

Cimprich, John. Fort Pillow, a Civil War Massacre, and Public Memory. Baton Rouge, 2005.

———. Slavery’s End in Tennessee, 1861–1865. University, Ala., 1985.

Clarke, Erskine. Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic. New Haven, Conn., 2005.

Cole, Arthur Charles. The Era of the Civil War. 1919; reprint, Urbana, Ill., 1987.

Connelly, Thomas Lawrence. Autumn of Glory: The Army of Tennessee, 1862–1865.

Baton Rouge, 1971.

Connor, R.D.W. North Carolina: Rebuilding an Ancient Commonwealth, 1584–1925. 2 vols. Spartanburg, S.C., 1973.

Cooper, William J. Jefferson Davis, American. New York, 2000.

Cooper, William J., and Thomas E. Terrill, The American South: A History. Lanham, Md., 2009.

Cornelius, Janet Duitsman. When I Can Read My Title Clear: Literacy, Slavery, and Religion in the Antebellum South. Columbia, S.C., 1992.

Cornish, Dudley Taylor. The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the Union Army, 1861–1865. 1956; reprint, Lawrence, Kans., 1987.

Coulter, E. Merton. The Confederate States of America. Baton Rouge, 1950.

Cox, LaWanda. Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership. Columbia, S.C., 1981.

Crawford, Martin. Ashe County’s Civil War: Community and Society in the Appalachian South. Charlottesville, Va., 2001.

Creighton, Margaret. The Colors of Courage: Gettysburg’s Forgotten History: Immigrants, Women, and African Americans in the Civil War’s Defining Battle. New York, 2005.

Crofts, Daniel W. Reluctant Confederates: Upper South Unionists in the Secession Crisis. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1989.

Current, Richard Nelson. Lincoln’s Loyalists: Union Soldiers from the Confederacy. Boston, 1992.

Currie, James T. Enclave: Vicksburg and Her Plantations, 1863–1870. Jackson, Miss., 1980.

Curry, Richard Orr. A House Divided: A Study of Statehood Politics and the Copperhead Movement in West Virginia. Pittsburgh, 1964.

Daniel, Larry J. Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee: A Portrait of Life in a Confederate Army. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1991.

David, Paul, et al. Reckoning with Slavery. New York, 1976.

Davis, William C. An Honorable Defeat: The Last Days of the Confederate Government. New York, 2001.

———. Jefferson Davis: The Man and His Hour. Baton Rouge, 1991.

Dawsey, Cyrus B., and James M. Dawsey, eds. The Confederados: Old South Immigrants in Brazil. Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1995.

Dew, Charles B. Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War. Baton Rouge, 2001.

Dillon, Merton L. Slavery Attacked: Southern Slaves and Their Allies, 1619–1865. Baton Rouge, 1990.

Dowd, Clement. Life of Zebulon B. Vance. Charlotte, N.C., 1897.

Du Bois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880. 1935; reprint, Cleveland, 1968.

Dusinberre, William. Them Dark Days: Slavery in the American Rice Swamps. Athens, Ga., 1996.

Emilio, Luis F. A Brave Black Regiment: The History of the 54th Massachusetts, 1863–1865. 1891; reprint, New York, 1995.

Epstein, Dena J. Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War. Urbana, Ill., 2003.

Escott, Paul D. After Secession: Jefferson Davis and the Failure of Confederate Nationalism. Baton Rouge, 1978.

Faust, Drew Gilpin. James Henry Hammond: A Design for Mastery. Baton Rouge, 1982.

———. Mothers of Invention: Women in the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. New York, 1996.

Fisher, Noel C. War at Every Door: Partisan Politics and Guerrilla Violence in East Tennessee, 1860–1869. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1997.

Fleming, Walter L. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama. New York, 1905.

Fogel, Robert W. Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery. New York, 1989.

Follett, Richard. The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana’s Cane World, 1820–1860. Baton Rouge, 2005.

Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery. New York, 2010.

———. Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. New York, 1988.

Foote, Shelby. Civil War, a Narrative. 3 vols. 1958; reprint, New York, 1986.

Forbes, Robert Pierce. The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath: Slavery and the Meaning of America. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2007.

Freehling, William W. The Reintegration of American History: Slavery and the Civil War. New York, 1994.

———. The Road to Disunion: Secessionists Triumphant, 1854–1861. Oxford, UK, 2007.

———. The South vs. the South: How Anti-Confederate Southerners Shaped the Course of the Civil War. New York, 2001.

Freeman, Douglas Southall. R. E. Lee. 4 vols. New York, 1934–35.

Furguson, Ernest B. Ashes of Glory: Richmond at War. New York, 1996.

Gallagher, Gary W. The Confederate War. Cambridge, Mass., 1997.

———, ed. The Wilderness Campaign. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2006.

Genovese, Eugene D. A Consuming Fire: The Fall of the Confederacy in the Mind of the Christian South. Athens, Ga., 1998.

———. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York, 1974.

Gerteis, Louis S. From Contraband to Freedman: Federal Policy toward Southern Blacks, 1861–1865. Westport, Conn., 1973.

Glatthaar, Joseph T. Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers. New York, 1991.

———. General Lee’s Army: From Victory to Collapse. New York, 2008.

———. The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman’s Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns. New York, 1985.

Gordon, Lesley J., and John C. Insco, eds. Inside the Confederate Nation: Essays in Honor of Emory M. Thomas. Baton Rouge, 2005.

Gray, Lewis Cecil. History of Agriculture in the United States to 1860. 2 vols. Gloucester, Mass., 1958.

Greene, A. Wilson. The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion. Knoxville, Tenn., 2008.

Grimsley, Mark. And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June 1864. Lincoln, Neb., 2002.

———. The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy toward Southern Civilians, 1861–1865. Cambridge, UK, 1995.

Grimsley, Mark, and Brooks D. Simpson, eds. The Collapse of the Confederacy. Lincoln, Neb., 2001.

Groce, W. Todd. Mountain Rebels: East Tennessee Confederates and the Civil War, 1860–1870. Knoxville, Tenn., 1999.

Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York, 2004.

Hadden, Sally E. Slave Patrols: Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas. Cambridge, Mass., 2001.

Hahn, Steven. A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggle in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge, Mass., 2003.

———. The Roots of Southern Populism: Yeoman Farmers and the Transformation of the Georgia Upcountry, 1850–1890. New York, 1983.

Hamilton, Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac. Reconstruction in North Carolina. New York, 1914.

Harris, J. William. The Making of the American South: A Short History, 1500–1877. Malden, Mass., 2006.

Hattaway, Herman, and Archer Jones. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Urbana, Ill., 1991.

Hearn, Chester G. The Capture of New Orleans, 1862. Baton Rouge, 1995.

Heidler, David Stephen, Jeanne T. Heidler, and David J. Coles, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. New York, 2002.

Hermann, Janet Sharp. The Pursuit of a Dream. New York, 1981. Hess, Earl J. Liberty, Virtue, and Progress: Northerners and Their War for the Union. New York, 1997.

Hill, Louise Biles. Joseph E. Brown and the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1939.

Hollandsworth, James G., Jr. The Louisiana Native Guards: The Black Military Experience during the Civil War. Baton Rouge, 1995.

Holton, Woody. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1999.

Howard, Victor B. Black Liberation in Kentucky: Emancipation and Freedom, 1862–1884. Lexington, Ky., 1983.

Hughes, Nathaniel Cheairs, Jr., and Gordon D. Whitney. Jefferson Davis in Blue: The Life of Sherman’s Relentless Warrior. Baton Rouge, 2006.

Huston, James L. Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights, and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2003.

Inscoe, John C. Mountain Masters, Slavery, and the Sectional Crisis in Western North Carolina. Knoxville, Tenn., 1989.

Inscoe, John C., and Gordon B. McKinney. The Heart of Confederate Appalachia: Western North Carolina in the Civil War. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2000.

Jenkins, Wilbert L. Climbing Up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Wilmington, Del., 2002.

———. Seizing the New Day: African Americans in Post–Civil War Charleston. Bloomington, Ind., 2003.

Jennings, Thelma. The Nashville Convention: Southern Movement for Unity, 1848–1850. Memphis, Tenn., 1980.

Johnson, Ludwell H. Red River Campaign: Politics and Cotton in the Civil War. Kent, Ohio, 1993.

Johnson, Michael P., and James L. Roark. Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South. New York, 1984.

Johnston, William Preston. The Life of Albert Sidney Johnston. New York, 1878. Jones, Archer. Civil War Command and Strategy: The Process of Victory and Defeat. New York, 1992.

Jones, Howard. Blue and Gray Diplomacy: A History of Union and Confederate Foreign Relations. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2010.

Jones, Jacqueline. Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War. New York, 2008.

Jones, Katherine M. Heroines of Dixie: Confederate Women Tell Their Story of the War. Indianapolis, 1955.

Jordan, Winthrop. Tumult and Silence at Second Creek: An Inquiry into a Civil War Slave Conspiracy. Baton Rouge, 1993.

Kerby, Robert L. Kirby Smith’s Confederacy: The Trans-Mississippi South, 1863–1865. Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1972.

Lankford, Nelson. Richmond Burning: The Last Days of the Confederate Capital. New York, 2002.

Lause, Mark A. Race and Radicalism in the Union Army. Urbana, Ill., 2009.

———. Young America: Land, Labor, and the Republican Community. Urbana, Ill., 2005.

Levine, Bruce. Confederate Emancipation: Southern Plans to Free and Arm Slaves during the Civil War. New York, 2005.

———. Half Slave and Half Free: The Roots of Civil War. Rev. ed., New York, 2005.

———. The Spirit of 1848: German Immigrants, Labor Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War. Urbana, Ill., 1992.

Levine, Lawrence W. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom. New York, 1977.

Litwack, Leon F. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York, 1979.

Long, E. B., with Barbara Long. The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865. Garden City, N.Y., 1971.

Lonn, Ella. Desertion during the Civil War. 1928; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 1998. Manning, Chandra. What This Cruel War Was Over: Soldiers, Slavery, and the Civil War. New York, 2007.

Marszalek, John E. Sherman: A Soldier’s Passion for Order. New York, 1993.

Martin, Bessie. A Rich Man’s War, a Poor Man’s Fight: Desertion of Alabama Troops from the Confederate Army. 1932; reprint, Tuscaloosa, Ala., 2003.

Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Ersatz in the Confederacy: Shortages and Substitutes on the Southern Homefront. 1952; reprint, Columbia, S.C., 1993.

McClintock, Russell. Lincoln and the Decision for War: The Northern Response to Secession. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2008.

McCrary, Peyton. Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction: The Louisiana Experiment. Princeton, N.J., 1978.

McInnis, Maurice D. The Politics of Taste in Antebellum Charleston. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2005.

McKinney, Gordon B. Zeb Vance: North Carolina’s Civil War Governor and Gilded Age Political Leader. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2004.

McMillan, Malcolm Cook. Disintegration of a Confederate State: Three Governors and Alabama’s Wartime Home Front, 1861–1865. Macon, Ga., 1986.

McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. New York, 1990.

———. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York, 1988.

———. For Causes and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War. New York, 1997.

———. Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam. New York, 2002.

———. The Negro’s Civil War: How the American Negroes Felt and Acted during the War for the Union. New York, 1965.

———. The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction. Princeton, N.J., 1964.

———. Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. New York, 2008.

———. What They Fought For. New York, 1995.

McPherson, James M., and James K. Hogue. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. 4th ed. New York, 2009.

Meade, Robert Douthat. Judah P. Benjamin: Confederate Statesman. New York, 1943.

Mohr, Clarence L. On the Threshold of Freedom: Masters and Slaves in Civil War Georgia. Athens, Ga., 1986.

Moneyhon, Carl H. The Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Arkansas: Persistence in the Midst of Ruin. Baton Rouge, 1994.

Moore, Albert Burton. Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy. 1924; reprint, Columbia, S.C., 1996.

Morris, Christopher. Becoming Southern: The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770–1860. New York, 1995.

Neal, Diane, and Thomas W. Kremm. Lion of the South: General Thomas C. Hindman. Macon, Ga., 1993.

Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union. 2 vols. New York, 1947.

———. The War for the Union. 4 vols. New York, 1959–71.

———. Salmon P. Chase: A Biography. New York, 1995.

Nolan, Alan T. Lee Considered: General Robert E. Lee and Civil War History. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1991.

Oakes, James. The Ruling Race: A History of American Slaveholders. New York, 1982.

Owsley, Frank Lawrence. King Cotton Diplomacy: Foreign Relations of the Confederate States of America. [Chicago], 1959.

Paludan, Phillip Shaw. “A People’s Contest”: The Union and the Civil War, 1861–1865. New York, 1988.

Parks, Joseph H. Joseph E. Brown of Georgia. Baton Rouge, 1911.

Phillips, Jason. Diehard Rebels: The Confederate Culture of Invincibility. Athens, Ga., 2007.

Phillips, Ulrich B. American Negro Slavery. 1918; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1966.

———. Life and Labor in the Old South. 1929; reprint, Boston, 1963.

Power, J. Tracy. Lee’s Miserables: Life in the Army of Northern Virginia from the Wilderness to Appomattox. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1998.

Pryor, Elizabeth Brown. Reading the Man: A Portrait of Robert E. Lee through His Private Letters. New York, 2007.

Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the American Revolution. 1961; reprint, New York, 1973.

———. The Negro in the Civil War. 1953; reprint, New York, 1968.

Rable, George C. The Confederate Republic: A Revolution against Politics. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1994.

Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: The “Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South. New York, 1978.

Randall, James Garfield. The Confiscation of Property during the Civil War. Indianapolis, 1913.

Ransom, Roger L. Conflict and Compromise: The Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation, and the American Civil War. New York, 1989.

Ransom, Roger L., and Richard Sutch. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. Cambridge, UK, 1977.

Reidy, Joseph P. From Slavery to Agrarian Capitalism in the Cotton Plantation South: Central Georgia, 1800–1880. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1992.

Reynolds, Donald E. Editors Make War: Southern Newspapers in the Secession Crisis. 1970; reprint, Carbondale, Ill., 2006.

Richards, Leonard L. Slave Power: The Free North and Southern Domination, 1780–1860. Baton Rouge, 2000.

Roark, James L. Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction. New York, 1977.

Rolle, Andrew. The Lost Cause: The Confederate Exodus to Mexico. Norman, Okla., 1965.

Rose, Willie Lee. Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment. New York, 1964.

Royce, Edward. The Origins of Southern Sharecropping. Philadelphia, 1993.

Rubin, Anne Sarah. A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, 1861–1868. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2005.

Salcedo-Bastardo, J. L. Bolívar: A Continent and Its Destiny. Richmond, Va., 1977. Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and the War Years. New York, 1954.

Scarborough, William Kauffman. Masters of the Big House: Elite Slaveholders of the Mid-Nineteenth-Century South. Baton Rouge, 2003.

Schott, Thomas E. Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia: A Biography. Baton Rouge, 1988.

Schwab, John Christopher. The Confederate States of America, 1861–1865. New York, 1901.

Schwalm, Leslie A. Emancipation’s Diaspora: Race and Reconstruction in the Upper Midwest. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2009.

Sears, Stephen W. To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign. Boston, 1992.

Seton-Watson, Hugh. The Russian Empire, 1801–1917. New York, 1988.

Sewell, Richard H. Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States, 1837–1860. New York, 1976.

Shanks, Henry T. The Secession Movement in Virginia. 1934; reprint, New York, 1970.

Sheehan-Dean, Aaron. Why Confederates Fought: Family and Nation in Civil War Virginia. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2007.

Shore, Laurence. Southern Capitalists: The Ideological Leadership of an Elite, 1832–1885. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1986.

Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War & Reconstruction, 1861–1868. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1991.

Simpson, Craig M. A Good Southerner: The Life of Henry A. Wise of Virginia. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1985.

Sitterson, Joseph Carlyle. The Secession Movement in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1939.

———. Sugar Country: The Cane Sugar Industry in the South, 1753–1950. [Lexington, Ky.], 1953.

Smith, Adam J. P. No Party Now: Politics in the Civil War North. New York, 2006. Soltow, Lee. Men and Wealth in the United States, 1850–1870. New Haven, Conn., 1975.

Stampp, Kenneth M. And the War Came: The North and the Secession Crisis, 1860–1861. 1950; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1970.

———. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South. New York, 1956.

Stewart, James Brewer. Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. Rev. ed., New York, 1977.

Stovall, Pleasant A. Robert Toombs: Statesman, Speaker, Soldier, Sage. New York, 1892.

Stowe, Steven M. Intimacy and Power in the Old South: Ritual in the Lives of the Planters. Baltimore, 1987.

Sword, Wiley. Southern Invincibility: A History of the Confederate Heart. New York, 2000.

Symonds, Craig L. Lincoln and His Admirals: Abraham Lincoln, the U.S. Navy, and the Civil War. New York, 2008.

Tadman, Michael. Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South. Madison, Wis., 1989.

Tarle, Eugene. Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia, 1812. New York, 1942.

Tatum, Georgia Lee. Disloyalty in the Confederacy. 1934; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 2000.

Thomas, Benjamin P., and Harold Hyman. Stanton: The Life and Times of Lincoln’s Secretary of War. New York, 1962.

Thomas, Emory M. The Confederate Nation: 1861–1865. New York, 1979.

———. The Confederate State of Richmond: A Biography of the Capital. 1971; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1998.

———. Robert E. Lee: A Biography. New York, 1995.

Thompson, William Y. Robert Toombs of Georgia. Baton Rouge, 1966.

Thornton, Mark, and Robert B. Ekelund, Jr. Tariffs, Blockades, and Inflation: The Economics of the Civil War. Wilmington, Del., 2004.

Trefousse, Hans L. The Radical Republicans: Lincoln’s Vanguard for Racial Justice. New York, 1968.

Trexler, Harrison Anthony. Slavery in Missouri, 1804–1865. Baltimore, 1914. Trudeau, Noah Andre. Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War, 1862–1865. Boston, 1998.

Urwin, Gregory J. W., ed. Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War. Carbondale, Ill., 2004.

Van Deusen, Glyndon. William Henry Seward. New York, 1967. Verna, Paul. Petion y Bolívar. Caracas, 1980.

Vorenberg, Michael. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment. Cambridge, UK, 2001.

Waddell, James D. Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens. Atlanta, Ga., 1877.

Ward, Andrew. Dark Midnight When I Rise: The Story of the Jubilee Singers Who Introduced the World to the Music of Black America. New York, 2000.

———. The Slaves’ War: The Civil War in the Words of Former Slaves. Boston, 2008.

Wayne, Michael. The Reshaping of Plantation Society: The Natchez District, 1860–80. Urbana, Ill., 1990.

Wiggins, Sarah Woolfolk. The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 1865–1881. Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1977.

Wiley, Bell Irvin. Confederate Women. Westport, Conn., 1975.

———. The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union. 1952; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1981.

———. The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy. 1943; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1978.

———. The Plain People of the Confederacy. Columbia, S.C., 2000.

———. Southern Negroes, 1861–1865. 1938; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1965.

Woodman, Harold D. King Cotton and His Retainers: Financing and Marketing the Cotton Crop of the South, 1800–1925. Lexington, Ky., 1968.

Woods, James M. Rebellion and Realignment: Arkansas’s Road to Secession. Fayetteville, Ark., 1987.

Woodworth, Steven E. While God Is Marching On: The Religious World of Civil War Soldiers. Lawrence, Kans., 2001.

Wooster, Ralph A. The People in Power: Courthouse and Statehouse in the Lower South, 1850–1860. Knoxville, Tenn., 1969.

———. Politicians, Planters, and Plain Folk: Courthouse and Statehouse in the Upper South, 1850–1860. Knoxville, Tenn., 1975.

Wright, Gavin. The Political Economy of the Cotton South: Households, Markets, and Wealth in the Nineteenth Century. New York, 1978.

Yearns, Wilfred Buck. The Confederate Congress. Athens, Ga., 1960.

Zahler, Helene Sarah. Eastern Workingmen and National Land Policy, 1829–1862. New York, 1941.

Articles and Book Chapters

Andrew, Rod, Jr. “The Essential Nationalism of the People: Georgia’s Confederate Congressional Elections of 1863.” In Gordon and Inscoe, Inside the Confederate Nation.

Aptheker, Herbert. “Notes on Slave Conspiracies in Confederate Mississippi.” Journal of Negro History 29 (1944): 75–79.

Auman, William T., and David D. Scarboro. “The Heroes of America in Civil War North Carolina.” North Carolina Historical Review 58 (1981): 327–63.

Bergeron, Arthur W. “Free Men of Color in Grey.” Civil War History 32 (1986): 247–55.

Beringer, Richard E. “A Profile of the Members of the Confederate Congress.” Journal of Southern History 32 (1967): 518–41.

Blair, William A. “The Seven Days and the Radical Persuasion: Convincing Moderates in the North of the Need for a Hard War.” In The Richmond Campaign of 1862: The Peninsula and the Seven Days, ed. Gary W. Gallagher. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2000.

Cimprich, John. “Slave Behavior during the Federal Occupation of Tennessee, 1862–1865.” The Historian 44 (1982): 335–46.

Faust, Drew Gilpin. “Altars of Sacrifice: Confederate Women and the Narratives of War.” Journal of American History 76 (1990): 1200–1228.

———. “Confederate Women and Narratives of War.” In Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War, ed. Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber. New York, 1992.

Fleming, Walter L. “The Peace Movement in Alabama.” South Atlantic Quarterly 2 (1903): 246–60.

Foner, Eric. “Thaddeus Stevens, Confiscation, and Reconstruction.” In Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War, by Eric Foner. New York, 1980.

Freidel, Frank. “The Loyal Publication Society: A Pro-Union Propaganda Agency.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 26 (1939): 359–76.

Gallagher, Gary W. “Disaffection, Persistence, and Nation: Some Directions in Recent Scholarship on the Confederacy.” Civil War History 55 (2009): 329–53.

Hahn, Steven. “Class and State in Postemancipation Societies: Southern Planters in Comparative Perspective.” American Historical Review 95 (1990): 75–98.

Henry, William Wirt. “Kenner’s Mission to Europe.” William and Mary Quarterly 25 (1916): 9–12.

James, Josef C. “Sherman at Savannah.” Journal of Negro History 39 (1954): 127–37.

Laskin, Lisa. “ ‘The Army Is Not Near So Much Demoralized as the Country Is’: Soldiers in the Army of Northern Virginia and the Confederate Home Front.” In The View from the Ground: Experiences of Civil War Soldiers, ed. Aaron Sheehan-Dean. Lexington, Ky., 2007.

Lebergott, Stanley. “Labor Force and Employment, 1800–1960.” In Output, Employment, and Productivity in the United States after 1800, ed. Dorothy Brady. New York, 1966.

Lowe, Richard. “Battle on the Levee: The Fight at Milliken’s Bend.” In Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era, ed. John David Smith. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2002.

Manning, Chandra. “The Order of Nature Would Be Reversed: Soldiers, Slavery, and the North Carolina Gubernatorial Election of 1864.” In North Carolinians in the Era of Civil War and Reconstruction, ed. Paul D. Escott. Chapel Hill, N.C., 2008.

Martinez, Jaime Amanda. “The Slave Market in Civil War Virginia.” In Crucible of the Civil War: Virginia from Secession to Commemoration, ed. Edward L. Ayers, Gary W. Gallagher, and Andrew J. Torget. Charlottesville, Va., 2006.

McKinney, Gordon B. “Layers of Loyalty: Confederate Nationalism and Amnesty Letters from Western North Carolina.” Civil War History 51 (2005): 5–22.

Messner, William F. “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862.” Journal of Southern History 41 (1975): 19–38.

Miller, Edward A., Jr. “Garland H. White, Black Army Chaplain.” Civil War History 43 (1997): 201–18.

Mohr, Clarence L. “The Atlanta Campaign and the African American Experience in Civil War Georgia.” In Gordon and Inscoe, Inside the Confederate Nation.

Nelson, Bernard. “Confederate Slave Impressment Legislation, 1861–1865.” Journal of Negro History 31 (1946): 394–400.

Phillips, Christopher. “ ‘The Chrysalis State’: Slavery, Confederate Identity, and the Creation of the Border South.” In Gordon and Inscoe, Inside the Confederate Nation.

Ross, Steven Joseph. “Freed Soil, Freed Labor, Freed Men: John Eaton and the Davis Bend Experiment.” Journal of Southern History 44 (1978): 213–32.

Simpson, Brooks D. “Facilitating Defeat: The Union High Command and the Collapse of the Confederacy.” In Grimsley and Simpson, Collapse of the Confederacy.

Soltow, Lee. “Economic Inequality in the United States in the Period from 1790 to 1860.” Journal of Economic History 31 (1971): 822–39.

Stampp, Kenneth M. “Comment on ‘Why the Republicans Rejected Both Compromise and Secession.’ ” In The Crisis of the Union, 1860–61, ed. George Harmon Knoles. Baton Rouge, 1965.

Steckel, Richard H. “Birth Weights and Infant Mortality among American Slaves.” Explorations in Economic History 23 (1986): 173–98.

———. “A Dreadful Childhood: The Excess Mortality of American Slaves.” Social Science History 10 (1986): 427–65.

Suderow, Bryce A. “The Battle of the Crater.” In Urwin, Black Flag over Dixie.

Torget, Andrew. “Unions of Slavery: Slavery, Politics and Secession in the Valley of Virginia.” In Ayers, Gallagher, and Torget, Crucible of the Civil War.

Trexler, Harrison A. “The Opposition of Planters to the Employment of Slaves as Laborers by the Confederacy.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 27 (1940): 211–24.

Whittington, G. P., ed. “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana in 1863.” Louisiana Historical Quarterly 14 (1931): 467–502.

Winther, Oscar Osburn. “The Soldier Vote in the Election of 1864.” New York History 25 (1944): 440–48.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
Previous
Page
Next
Page