Notes

Introduction

   1. The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, ed. Philip S. Foner (New York, 1950–75), 4:369–70.

   2. Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner, The Gilded Age (1873; reprint, Stillwell, Kans., 2007), 77.

   3. The Memphis Argus, quoted in Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1974), 110.

   4. Richard Taylor to Samuel L. M. Barlow, December 13, 1865, in the Samuel Latham Mitchell Barlow Papers, Huntington Library. Barlow was a wealthy New York City attorney influential in the Democratic Party.

   5. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, ed. Roy P. Basler (New Brunswick, N.J., 1953), 7:51, 23. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as ALCW.

   6. Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions 1840–1865 (Philadelphia, 1980), 2:302.

   7. Elizabeth Hyde Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands (1893; reprint, New York, 1968), 1.

   8. Quoted in Allan Nevins, The War for the Union, vol. 2, War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863 (New York, 1960), 241.

Chapter One. The House of Dixie

   1. Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond, of South Carolina (New York, 1866), 311.

   2. The census of 1860 reported that the total population of the slave states was just over 12.2 million. Of those, about 8 million were whites, about a quarter million were free blacks, and more than 3.9 million were slaves.

   3. James L. Huston, Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights, and the Economic Origins of the Civil War (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2003), 26–29.

   4. James M. McPherson and James K. Hogue, Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction, 4th ed. (New York, 2009), 35; Roger L. Ransom, Conflict and Compromise: The Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation, and the American Civil War (New York, 1989), 67.

   5. Lee Soltow, “Economic Inequality in the United States in the Period from 1790 to 1860,” Journal of Economic History 31 (1971): 838; Soltow, Men and Wealth in the United States, 1850–1870 (New Haven, Conn., 1975), 157.

   6. Lewis Cecil Gray, History of Agriculture in the United States to 1860 (Gloucester, Mass., 1958), 1:482. In 1860, the South’s 8 million white people lived in about 1.5 million family units. About a quarter of those families, or just under 400,000 of them, owned slaves. Stanley Lebergott, “Labor Force and Employment, 1800–1960,” inOutput, Employment, and Productivity in the United States after 1800, ed. Dorothy Brady (New York, 1966), 131; Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-bellum South (New York, 1966), 30; James Oakes, The Ruling Race: A History of American Slaveholders (New York, 1982), 39.

   7. Oakes, Ruling Race, 39.

   8. Ransom, Conflict and Compromise, 228.

   9. Joseph C. G. Kennedy, Agriculture of the United States in 1860 (Washington, D.C., 1864), 247; Oakes, Ruling Race, 38, 52; Gray, History of Agriculture, 1:530; Ransom, Conflict and Compromise, 63.

  10. Stampp, Peculiar Institution, 30; Oakes, Ruling Race, 65.

  11. Andrew Ward, The Slaves’ War: The Civil War in the Words of Former Slaves (Boston, 2008), 12.

  12. The Edmondstons owned eighty-eight slaves. “Journal of a Secesh Lady”: The Diary of Catherine Ann Devereux Edmondston, 1860–1866, ed. Beth Gilbert Crabtree and James W. Patton (Raleigh, N.C., 1979), xxxvi, 7n. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Edmondston Diary.

  13. The Secret Eye: The Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas, 1848–1889 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1990) 3, 5, 232n, 276. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Thomas Diary.

  14. Douglas Southall Freeman, R. E. Lee (New York, 1934–35), 1:390. See also Emory M. Thomas, Robert E. Lee: A Biography (New York, 1995), 173–78, 273.

  15. 1860 Census of Agriculture, 247; Stampp, Peculiar Institution, 30–31; Gray, History of Agriculture, 1:530.

  16. Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone 1861–1868, ed. John Q. Anderson (Baton Rouge, 1995), xvii, 6.

  17. Janet Sharp Hermann, The Pursuit of a Dream (New York, 1981), 6–11; William J. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American (New York, 2000), 82, 243; The Papers of Jefferson Davis, ed. Lynda Lasswell Crist, et al. (Baton Rouge, 1971–), 6:666n. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as PJD.

  18. Robert Manson Myers, ed., The Children of Pride: A True Story of Georgia and the Civil War (New Haven, Conn., 1972), 17–18.

  19. In 1860, Toombs owned 16 slaves in Wilkes County plus 160 slaves on two plantations in Stewart County, for a total of 176. Thanks to Professor William K. Scarborough for this data.

  20. William Kauffman Scarborough, Masters of the Big House: Elite Slaveholders of the Mid-Nineteenth-Century South (Baton Rouge, 2003), 6, 476.

  21. A Fire-Eater Remembers: The Confederate Memoir of Robert Barnwell Rhett, ed. William C. Davis (Columbia, S.C., 2000), 140n32; Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 452.

  22. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 3.

  23. Ibid., 304.

  24. James Bagwell, Rice Gold: James Hamilton Couper and Plantation Life on the Georgia Coast (Macon, Ga., 2000), 120.

  25. Thomas Diary, 184.

  26. Ulrich B. Phillips, Life and Labor in the Old South (1929; reprint, Boston, 1963), 232–33; Robert A. Lancaster, Jr., “Westover,” in Homes and Gardens in Old Virginia, ed. Frances Archer Christian and Susanne Massie (Richmond, Va., 1931).

  27. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 153.

  28. Stone, Brokenburn, 4.

  29. Bagwell, Rice Gold, 146; Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, ed. C. Vann Woodward (New Haven, Conn., 1981), xxiv.

  30. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 29–44.

  31. Lee’s Aide-de-Camp, Being the Papers of Colonel Charles Marshall, Sometime Aide-de-Camp, Military Secretary, and Assistant Adjutant General of Robert E. Lee, 1862–1865, ed. Frederick Maurice (1927; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 2000), 41.

  32. Ralph A. Wooster, Politicians, Planters, and Plain Folk: Courthouse and Statehouse in the Upper South, 1850–1860 (Knoxville, Tenn., 1975), 163–69; Wooster, The People in Power: Courthouse and Statehouse in the Lower South, 1850–1860 (Knoxville, Tenn., 1969), 125, 128, 133, 138, 143, 148, 153.

  33. Steven Hahn, “Class and State in Postemancipation Societies: Southern Planters in Comparative Perspective,” American Historical Review 95 (1990): 81–83.

  34. Charles Colcock Jones, The Religious Instruction of the Negroes: An Address Delivered before the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, At Augusta, Ga., December 10, 1861 (Richmond, Va., n.d.), 7–8.

  35. Ibid.

  36. Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond of South Carolina (New York, 1866), 140–41.

  37. Stone, Brokenburn, 4–5.

  38. Ibid.

  39. A modern historian not inclined to exaggerate such things notes that it was “the enormous, almost unconstrained degree of force available to masters” that caused the slaves to work as hard as they did. Robert W. Fogel, Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery (New York, 1989), 34, 162.

  40. Willie Lee Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment (New York, 1964), 126.

  41. Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey in the Back Country, 1853–1854 (1860; reprint, New York, 1970), 84–87.

  42. William Harper, “Memoir on Slavery,” in The Ideology of Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Antebellum South, 1830–1860, ed. Drew Gilpin Faust (Baton Rouge, 1981), 100.

  43. Daniel R. Hundley, Social Relations in Our Southern States, ed. William J. Cooper (1860; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1979), 132.

  44. Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Reading the Man: A Portrait of Robert E. Lee through His Private Letters (New York, 2007), 260–61.

  45. Harper, “Memoir on Slavery,” 127.

  46. Ibid., 128.

  47. Stone, Brokenburn, 8; Paul David, et al., Reckoning with Slavery (New York, 1976), 356.

  48. Edmondston Diary, 242.

  49. Stampp, Peculiar Institution, 202.

  50. Richard H. Steckel, “Birth Weights and Infant Mortality among American Slaves,” Explorations in Economic History (1986): 174; Steckel, “A Dreadful Childhood: The Excess Mortality of American Slaves,” Social Science History 10 (1986): 449–52.

  51. Richard Follett, The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana’s Cane World, 1820–1860 (Baton Rouge, 2005), 78.

  52. William Dusinberre, Them Dark Days: Slavery in the American Rice Swamps (Athens, Ga., 1996), 237–38, 414–16.

  53. Stone, Brokenburn, 86.

  54. Michael Tadman, Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South (Madison, Wis., 1989), 5.

  55. Ibid., 45, 71–77.

  56. John W. Blassingame, ed., Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies (Baton Rouge, 1977), 616.

  57. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 163–64.

  58. Thomas Diary, 216–17.

  59. Letters and Speeches of Hammond, 137.

  60. Drew Gilpin Faust, James Henry Hammond: A Design for Mastery (Baton Rouge, 1982), 86–87.

  61. Thomas Diary, 59.

  62. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 29–31.

  63. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 213–16.

  64. Robert A. Toombs, Lecture Delivered in the Tremont Temple, Boston, Massachusetts, on the 26th January, 1856 (Washington, D.C., 1856), 18–19.

  65. The Diary of Edmund Ruffin, ed. William Kauffman Scarborough (Baton Rouge, 1972–89), 2:477. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Ruffin Diary.

  66. Toombs, Lecture Delivered in the Tremont Temple, 18–19.

  67. Edward A. Miller, Jr., “Garland H. White, Black Army Chaplain,” Civil War History 43 (1997): 201–18; Garland White, Compiled Military Service Record, National Archives (NA), Washington, D.C. These are the sources used to chart Garland White’s experiences during the war, along with his letters published in the African Methodist Episcopal Church’s Christian Recorder, many of which are reprinted in A Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African-American Soldiers in the Union Army, 1861–1865, ed. Edwin S. Redkey (Cambridge, UK, 1992).

  68. Ulrich B. Phillips, American Negro Slavery (1918; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1966), 401.

  69. Montgomery Mail, December 3, 1864.

  70. Abel P. Upshur, “Domestic Slavery, as It Exists in Our Southern States,” Southern Literary Messenger 5 (1839): 677.

  71. Rev. B. M. Palmer, “Thanksgiving Sermon,” DeBow’s Review 30, no. 2 (February 1861): 327–28.

  72. The Works of John C. Calhoun, ed. Richard K. Crallé (Charleston, S.C., 1851–70), 2:631.

  73. Harper, “Memoir on Slavery,” 81.

  74. Upshur, “Domestic Slavery,” 677, 685.

  75. Harper, “Memoir on Slavery,” 101.

  76. Letters and Speeches of Hammond, 318.

  77. Ibid., 127.

  78. Ibid.

  79. Thomas Diary, 195; Edmondston Diary, 652.

  80. Joseph Jones, Agricultural Resources of Georgia: Address before the Cotton Planters Convention of Georgia at Macon, December 13, 1860 (Augusta, Ga., 1861), 6.

  81. Myers, Children of Pride, 1244.

  82. Robert E. Lee to Andrew Hunter, January 11, 1865, in The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D.C., 1880–1901), ser. 4, 3:1012–13. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as OR.

  83. Jefferson Davis, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (1881; reprint, New York, 1990), 2:161–62.

  84. Harper, “Memoir on Slavery,” 130.

  85. Breeden, Advice among Masters, 58.

  86. Maurice D. McInnis, The Politics of Taste in Antebellum Charleston (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2005), 29.

  87. Stone, Brokenburn, 110.

  88. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, ed. William Peden (1787; reprint, New York, 1972), 162–63.

  89. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, xxxiv–xxxv.

  90. McInnis, Politics of Taste, 29.

  91. Steven M. Stowe, Intimacy and Power in the Old South: Rituals in the Lives of the Planters (Baltimore, 1987), 6; Edward L. Ayers, Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the 19th-Century American South (New York, 1984), 11–21.

  92. Thomas Roderick Dew, “Abolition of Slavery,” in Faust, Ideology of Slavery, 65.

  93. Frederick Adolphus Porcher, “Southern and Northern Civilization Contrasted,” Russell’s Magazine, 1 (1857): 100.

  94. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 234.

  95. Edmondston Diary, 653.

  96. Harper, “Memoir on Slavery,” 128.

  97. Letters and Speeches of Hammond, 31–32.

  98. Ibid., 145.

  99. Porcher, “Southern and Northern Civilization Contrasted,” 106.

100. Howell Cobb, A Scriptural Examination of the Institution of Slavery in the United States; with Its Objects and Purposes ([Perry?] Ga., 1856), 24.

101. In Freeman, R. E. Lee, 1:371–73.

102. Ira Berlin, Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (New York, 1974), 270–73; Michael P. Johnson and James L. Roark, Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South (New York, 1984), 37.

103. Gavin Wright, The Political Economy of the Cotton South: Households, Markets, and Wealth in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1978), 35.

104. Sally E. Hadden, Slave Patrols: Law and Violence in Virginia and the Carolinas (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), 99–104.

105. Martin Crawford, Ashe County’s Civil War: Community and Society in the Appalachian South (Charlottesville, Va., 2001), 65.

106. North Carolina Yeoman: The Diary of Basil Armstrong Thomasson, 1853–1862, ed. Paul D. Escott (Athens, Ga., 1996), 29.

107. Olmsted, Journey in the Back Country, 202–3, 239.

108. PJD, 6:280–81.

109. Joseph H. Parks, Joseph E. Brown of Georgia (Baton Rouge, 1911), 1–11; Journal of the Senate of the State of Georgia, at the Annual Session of the General Assembly, Begun and Held in Milledgeville, the Seat of Government, in 1861 (Milledgeville, Ga., 1861), 37, 39.

110. John C. Inscoe and Gordon B. McKinney, The Heart of Confederate Appalachia: Western North Carolina in the Civil War (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2000), 49–50.

111. J. William Harris, The Making of the American South: A Short History, 1500–1877 (Malden, Mass., 2006), 137; Inscoe and McKinney, Heart of Confederate Appalachia, 49.

112. Siler was a nephew of the state’s quondam governor, David L. Swain. Inscoe and McKinney, Heart of Confederate Appalachia, 223; John C. Inscoe, Mountain Masters, Slavery, and the Sectional Crisis in Western North Carolina (Knoxville, Tenn., 1989), 292n30; The Papers of Zebulon Baird Vance, ed. Frontis W. Johnston and Joe A. Mobley (Raleigh, N.C., 1963–), 2:301n38 (in subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Vance Papers); John H. Wheeler, Historical Sketches of North Carolina: From 1584 to 1851, Compiled from Original Records, Official Documents and Traditional Statements: With Biographical Sketches of Her Distinguished Statesmen, Jurists, Lawyers, Soldiers, Divines, Etc. (Philadelphia, 1851), 250.

113. The Papers of Andrew Johnson, ed. LeRoy P. Graf, et al. (Knoxville, Tenn., 1967–2000), 2:354–55, 477. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Johnson Papers.

114. Toombs, Lecture Delivered in the Tremont Temple, 16.

115. J.D.B. DeBow, The Industrial Resources, Statistics, Etc. of the United States, 3rd. ed. (New York, 1854), 1:151.

Chapter Two. Securing the Mansion: The Slaveholder Revolt and Its Origins

   1. J. H. Hammond, Speech on the Admission of Kansas, U.S. Senate, March 4, 1858, in Letters and Speeches of Hammond, 320.

   2. Frank Moore, ed., The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events, with Documents, Narratives, Illustrative Incidents, Poetry, Etc. (New York, 1861–68), 1:418.

   3. James L. Huston, Calculating the Value of the Union (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2003), 45.

   4. Frederick Douglass, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, rev. ed. (1892; reprint, London, 1962), 327.

   5. Oliver P. Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War (Johnson City, Tenn., 1899), 120n.

   6. Steven A. Channing, Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina (New York, 1970), 93.

   7. Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 (London, 1988), chap. 9.

   8. Channing, Crisis of Fear, 266.

   9. Robert Pierce Forbes, The Missouri Compromise and Its Aftermath: Slavery and the Meaning of America (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2007); Bruce Levine, Half Slave and Half Free: The Roots of Civil War, rev. ed. (New York, 2005), 136–38.

  10. The Diary of John Quincy Adams, 1794–1845, ed. Allan Nevins (New York, 1951), 231–32.

  11. Letters and Speeches of Hammond, 145.

  12. Douglass, Life and Times, 292–93.

  13. Leonard L. Richards, Slave Power: The Free North and Southern Domination, 1780–1860 (Baton Rouge, 2000), 153.

  14. The leaders of both political parties in Virginia (Democratic and Whig) stood behind that threat for the next decade and a half—right down to the Civil War’s actual outbreak. Herman V. Ames, ed., State Documents on Federal Relations: The States and the United States (Philadelphia, 1906), 246; Henry T. Shanks, The Secession Movement in Virginia (1934; reprint, New York, 1970), 23.

  15. James Brewer Stewart, Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery, rev. ed. (New York, 1977), 122.

  16. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 211.

  17. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist: His Letters, Papers, and Speeches, ed. Dunbar F. Rowland (Jackson, Miss., 1923), 1:484–85.

  18. Thelma Jennings, The Nashville Convention: Southern Movement for Unity, 1848–1850 (Memphis, Tenn., 1980), 192–95, 231; Mark Renfred Cheathem, Old Hickory’s Nephew: The Political and Private Struggles of Andrew Jackson Donelson (Baton Rouge, 2007), 256.

  19. These included Charleston Mercury publisher Robert Barnwell Rhett, Sr.; Alabama politician and renowned orator William L. Yancey; Virginia jurist and prolific writer Nathaniel Beverley Tucker; and Mississippi governor John A. Quitman. See Richard H. Sewell, Ballots for Freedom: Antislavery Politics in the United States, 1837–1860(New York, 1976), 231.

  20. Pleasant A. Stovall, Robert Toombs: Statesman, Speaker, Soldier, Sage (New York, 1892), 84.

  21. Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union (New York, 1947), 1:366, 374–77.

  22. Ibid., 440–46.

  23. Horace Greeley and John F. Cleveland, eds., Political Text-Book for 1860 ([1860]; reprint, New York, 1969), 26–27.

  24. ALCW, 2:453.

  25. Ibid., 3:16, 4:160, 263.

  26. Dwight Lowell Dumond, Southern Editorials on Secession (1931; reprint, Gloucester, Mass., 1964), 204.

  27. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 3–4; The Private Mary Chesnut: The Unpublished Civil War Diaries, ed. C. Vann Woodward and Elisabeth Muhlenfeld (New York, 1984), 3–4.

  28. Channing, Crisis of Fear, 284–85; Charles Edward Cauthen, South Carolina Goes to War, 1860–1865 (1950; reprint, Columbia, S.C., 2005), 70–71.

  29. Joseph Carlyle Sitterson, The Secession Movement in North Carolina (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1939), 224.

  30. Channing, Crisis of Fear, 222.

  31. Those who saw things similarly included John Bell and John H. Bills of Tennessee; Jonathan Worth, William A. Graham, Congressman Zebulon B. Vance, and Thomas P. and Catherine Ann Devereux of North Carolina; James Lusk Alcorn, William J. Minor, and Stephen Duncan of Mississippi; and Sam Houston of Texas.

  32. North Carolina’s Jonathan Worth, for example, was a textile manufacturer. Tennessean John Bell worked many of his slaves in his coal mine and ironworks, selling much of what they produced to northern manufacturers. Mississippi’s Stephen Duncan boasted a portfolio that included shares in railroads and banks as well as U.S. bonds. Duncan’s fellow planter William Newton Mercer also owned stock in northern railroads, steamships, and mining companies. Michael Wayne, The Reshaping of Plantation Society: The Natchez District (Urbana, Ill., 1990), 36–38.

  33. Dumond, Southern Editorials, 388.

  34. Dumond, Southern Editorials, 227, 254.

  35. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 241.

  36. The Correspondence of Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, and Howell Cobb, ed. Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (Washington, D.C., 1913), 487.

  37. The Papers of William Alexander Graham, ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton (Raleigh, N.C.: 1957–92), 5:219. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Graham Papers.

  38. Roark, Masters without Slaves, 3. Original emphasis.

  39. Jonathan Atkins, Parties, Politics, and Sectional Conflict: Tennessee 1832–1861 (Memphis, Tenn., 1997), 241–42.

  40. Vance Papers, 1:87.

  41. Alexander Stephens, A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States (Philadelphia, 1868–70), 2:676–77.

  42. Channing, Crisis of Fear, 161.

  43. Ibid., 257.

  44. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 520.

  45. Ibid., 521.

  46. Ibid., 450.

  47. Erskine Clarke, Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic (New Haven, Conn., 2005), 397–99.

  48. Jones, Agricultural Resources of Georgia, 10.

  49. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 282.

  50. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 317.

  51. PJD, 6:364–66.

  52. Ibid., 6:369; William C. Davis, Jefferson Davis: The Man and His Hour (Baton Rouge, 1991), 285.

  53. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 342–43.

  54. PJD, 6:377. Against his better judgment, Davis was then persuaded to participate in further compromise negotiations, which collapsed by the end of the month. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 342–43.

  55. Richard E. Beringer, “A Profile of the Members of the Confederate Congress,” Journal of Southern History 32 (1967): 518–41.

  56. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 5:47–48; Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 352–53.

  57. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 5:48.

  58. PJD, 7:47–49. He returned to the theme in a major address the following February. “To save ourselves from a revolution,” he and his supporters had left the Union “to make a new association, composed of States homogeneous in interest, in policy, and in feeling.” Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 5:200.

  59. Charles B. Dew, Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War (Baton Rouge, 2001), 15.

  60. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion (Washington, D.C., 1894–1922), ser. 2, 3:257. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as OR/Navies.

  61. OR, ser. 2, 2:1208.

  62. Emory M. Thomas, The Confederate Nation: 1861–1865 (New York, 1979), 313.

  63. Andrew Torget, “Unions of Slavery: Slavery, Politics, and Secession in the Valley of Virginia,” in Crucible of the Civil War: Virginia from Secession to Commemoration, ed. Edward L. Ayers, Gary W. Gallagher, and Andrew J. Torget (Charlottesville, Va., 2006), 9–34.

  64. Sitterson, Secession Movement in North Carolina, 222–23; Atkins, Parties, Politics, and Sectional Conflict, 241.

  65. Dumond, Southern Editorials, 254.

  66. Ibid., 286. See also Atkins, Parties, Politics, and Sectional Conflict, 231–32.

  67. Inscoe and McKinney, Heart of Confederate Appalachia, 44.

  68. The Civil War aborted the ratification process, and Corwin’s proposed amendment became a dead letter.

  69. ALCW, 4:150, 172.

  70. James M. Woods, Rebellion and Realignment: Arkansas’s Road to Secession (Fayetteville, Ark., 1987), 139, 143–44; Journal of Both Sessions of the Convention of the State of Arkansas (Little Rock, Ark., 1861), 51–54.

  71. Orville J. Victor, The Comprehensive History of the Southern Rebellion and the War for the Union (New York, 1862), 1:250; Atkins, Parties, Politics, and Sectional Conflict, 238.

  72. Shanks, Secession Movement in Virginia, 252n; OR, ser. 4, 1:77.

  73. Shanks, Secession Movement in Virginia, 263n3; George H. Reese, ed., Proceedings of the Virginia State Convention of 1861, February 13–May 1 (Richmond, Va., 1965), 2:35–37.

  74. Proceedings of the Virginia State Convention, 1:228.

  75. Ibid., 3:63, 72–76.

  76. Douglass, Life and Writings, 3:127.

  77. Kenneth M. Stampp, “Comment on ‘Why the Republicans Rejected Both Compromise and Secession,’ ” in The Crisis of the Union, 1860–61, ed. George Harmon Knoles (Baton Rouge, 1965), 107–113.

  78. Myers, Children of Pride, 666–67.

  79. Proceedings of the Virginia State Convention, 3:61–62.

  80. The letter is appended to Frederic Bancroft, The Life of William H. Seward, 2 vols. (New York, 1900), 2:546–47.

  81. Channing, Crisis of Fear, 263–64.

  82. Ruffin, Roger Pryor, and others called on South Carolina and the lower-South Confederacy to do just this. See Shanks, Secession Movement in Virginia, 266n5, 198; OR, ser. 1, 1:264.

  83. Letters and Speeches of Hammond, 313.

  84. [George Fitzhugh], “The Message, the Constitution, and the Times,” DeBow’s Review 30 (February 1861): 162, 164.

  85. Edmondston Diary, 72.

  86. Andrew Ward, The Slaves’ War: The Civil War in the Words of Former Slaves (Boston, 2008), 4.

  87. Bell Irvin Wiley, The Plain People of the Confederacy (Columbia, S.C., 2000), 56–57.

  88. Jon L. Wakelyn, ed., Southern Pamphlets on Secession, November 1860–April 1861 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1996), 276.

  89. John H. Reagan, Memoirs: With Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War, ed. Walter Flavius McCaleb (New York, 1906), 117.

  90. [Fitzhugh], “The Message, the Constitution, and the Times,” 166.

  91. Sitterson, Secession Movement in North Carolina, 218.

  92. Nevins, War for the Union, 1:95–96.

  93. Stone, Brokenburn, 13.

  94. Varina Davis, Jefferson Davis: A Memoir by His Wife (1890; reprint, Baltimore, 1990), 2:5, 8.

  95. Stone, Brokenburn, 79.

  96. Roark, Masters without Slaves, 27.

  97. Edmondston Diary, 30.

  98. Beringer, “Profile of Members of the Confederate Congress” (November 1967): 528, 535.

  99. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 317–19.

100. Ibid., 330–33.

101. Drew Gilpin Faust, Mothers of Invention: Women in the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (New York, 1996), 24–26.

102. Drew Gilpin Faust, “Confederate Women and Narratives of War,” in Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War, ed. Catherine Clinton and Nina Silber (New York, 1992), 182.

103. Bell Irvin Wiley, Southern Negroes, 1861–1865 (1938; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1965), 130–33; James H. Brewer, The Confederate Negro: Virginia’s Craftsmen and Military Laborers, 1861–1865 (Durham, N.C., 1969).

104. Joseph T. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army: From Victory to Collapse (New York, 2008), 17–21.

105. OR, ser. 4, 1:318.

106. W. Todd Groce, Mountain Rebels: East Tennessee Confederates and the Civil War, 1860–1870 (Knoxville, Tenn., 1999), 68–76; Inscoe and McKinney, Heart of Confederate Appalachia, 73–74.

107. [J.D.B. DeBow], “The Non-Slaveholders of the South,” DeBow’s Review 30 (1861): 69.

108. W. S. Oldham, “True Cause and Issues of the Civil War,” DeBow’s Review 6 (1869): 678–79.

109. OR, ser. 4, 1:318.

110. Cauthen, South Carolina Goes to War, 72.

111. James M. McPherson, For Causes and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (New York, 1997), 33.

112. Shelby Foote, Civil War, a Narrative (1958; reprint, New York, 1986), 1:65.

113. J. D. Stapp to Dear Mother, March 6, 1864, Jos. D. Stapp Letters, 1864–1865, Virginia Historical Society (VHS).

114. Sitterson, Secession Movement in North Carolina, 221.

115. Donald E. Reynolds, Editors Make War: Southern Newspapers in the Secession Crisis (1970; reprint, Carbondale, Ill., 2006), 125–26; Channing, Crisis of Fear, 287.

116. David W. Siler to Governor Vance, November 3, 1862, Adjutant and Inspector General’s Office, Letters Received, entry 12, N-525 (1862), War Department Collection of Confederate Records, Record Group (RG) 109, NA.

117. John Cimprich, Slavery’s End in Tennessee, 1861–1865 (University, Ala., 1985), 13–14.

118. Clarke, Dwelling Place, 305, 309.

119. Edmondston Diary, 23.

120. Ibid., 115.

121. Stone, Brokenburn, 18; Thomas Diary, 190.

122. Davis, Jefferson Davis: A Memoir by His Wife, 2:18–19.

123. Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy (1943; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1978), 327–28.

124. James Dinkins, 1861 to 1865, by an Old Johnnie: Personal Recollections and Experiences in the Confederate Army (Cincinnati, 1897), 62–63.

125. [Fitzhugh], “Message, the Constitution, and the Times,” 162.

126. Edward McPherson, ed., The Political History of the United States of America during the Great Rebellion (Washington, D.C., 1865), 281.

127. Ash, Middle Tennessee Society Transformed, 81.

128. Johnson and Roark, Black Masters, 293.

129. McPherson, Political History, 281.

130. OR, ser. 1, 15:556–57; James G. Hollandsworth, Jr., The Louisiana Native Guards: The Black Military Experience during the Civil War (Baton Rouge, 1995), 2–9.

131. OR, ser. 4, 1:1020.

132. Arthur W. Bergeron, Confederate Mobile (Baton Rouge, 1991), 105.

133. Wiley Sword, Southern Invincibility: A History of the Confederate Heart (New York, 2000), 29.

134. Stone, Brokenburn, 14.

135. Anne Sarah Rubin, A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, 1861–1868 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2005), 40.

136. Clarke, Dwelling Place, 409.

137. Edmondston Diary, 56.

138. C. C. Coffin, “Late Scenes in Richmond,” Atlantic Monthly (1865): 745; Nevins, War for the Union, 1:93.

139. New York Evening Post, April 23, 1861.

Chapter Three. Early Portents: The First Phases of War

   1. Archer Jones, Civil War Command and Strategy: The Process of Victory and Defeat (New York, 1992), chap. 3.

   2. PJD, 7:260–62.

   3. Stephen W. Sears, To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign (Boston, 1992), 338, 342–43.

   4. The Journals of Josiah Gorgas, 1857–1858, ed. Sarah Woolfolk Williams (Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1995), 52. In subsequent notes, this appears as Gorgas Journals.

   5. OR, ser. 1, 16:753.

   6. James H. McPherson, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam (New York, 2002), 91.

   7. Ibid., 89.

   8. Stone, Brokenburn, 142.

   9. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 561.

  10. The New York Times, April 15, 1861.

  11. Russell McClintock, Lincoln and the Decision for War: The Northern Response to Secession (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2008), 256–73.

  12. Phillip Shaw Paludan, “A People’s Contest”: The Union and the Civil War, 1861–1865 (New York, 1988), 18.

  13. Kenneth M. Stampp, And the War Came: The North and the Secession Crisis, 1860–61 (1950; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1970).

  14. Chandra Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over: Soldiers, Slavery, and the Civil War (New York, 2007), 44.

  15. Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1981), 41.

  16. Kenneth M. Stampp, ed. The Causes of the Civil War, rev. ed. (New York, 1992), 193.

  17. ALCW, 4:426.

  18. Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over, 40.

  19. James M. McPherson, What They Fought For (New York, 1995), 33.

  20. The New York Times, September 16, 1861.

  21. Friedrich Kapp, Geschichte der Sklaverei in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (Hamburg, 1861), xi–xii.

  22. Walter D. Kamphoefner, Wolfgang Helbich, and Ulrike Sommer, eds., News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home (Ithaca, N.Y., 1991), 402.

  23. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 39.

  24. Reagan, Memoirs, 116–17.

  25. Wiley, Life of Johnny Reb, 313.

  26. Congressional Globe, 37th Cong., 1st sess., July 26, 1861, 258–65.

  27. See, for example, the March 26, 1861, speech of Kentucky’s senator John J. Crittenden before his state’s legislature in (Mrs.) Chapman Coleman, ed., The Life of John J. Crittenden: With Selections from His Correspondence and Speeches (Philadelphia, 1871), 2:299–316.

  28. Eugene Morrow Violette, A History of Missouri (Boston, 1918), 369.

  29. James L. Abrahamson, The Men of Secession and Civil War, 1859–1861 (Wilmington, Del., 2000), 160.

  30. Stone, Brokenburn, 90.

  31. Davis to Braxton Bragg, October 17, 1862, in PJD, 8:48.

  32. Edmondston Diary, 72.

  33. Ibid., 286.

  34. Robert E. Lee, The Wartime Papers of R. E. Lee, ed. Clifford Dowdey (Boston, 1961), 298.

  35. Stone, Brokenburn, 146.

  36. James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York, 2008), 284, 293.

  37. Craig L. Symonds, Lincoln and His Admirals: Abraham Lincoln, the U.S. Navy, and the Civil War (New York, 2008), 117–20; Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 588.

  38. William Freehling, The South vs. the South: How Anti-Confederate Southerners Shaped the Course of the Civil War (New York, 2001), 79–80.

  39. Ira Berlin, et al., The Destruction of Slavery (Cambridge, UK, 1986), 259; OR, ser. 1, 13:524–25; Carl H. Moneyhon, The Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Arkansas: Persistence in the Midst of Ruin (Baton Rouge, 1994), 138.

  40. James M. McPherson, Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief (New York, 2008), 70–71, 268–69.

  41. George W. Cable, “New Orleans before the Capture,” in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, ed. Robert Johnson and Clarence Buel (1887–1888; reprint, Edison, N.J., n.d.), 2:15.

  42. See Chester G. Hearn, The Capture of New Orleans, 1862 (Baton Rouge, 1995).

  43. David D. Porter, “The Opening of the Lower Mississippi,” in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, 2:47.

  44. OR, ser. 1, 6:531–32.

  45. Stone, Brokenburn, 100.

  46. OR, ser. 4, 1:1101–2.

  47. Edmondston Diary, 164.

  48. T. Conn Bryan, ed., Confederate Georgia (Athens, Ga., 1953), 139.

  49. Paul D. Escott, After Secession: Jefferson Davis and the Failure of Confederate Nationalism (Baton Rouge, 1978), 95.

  50. Hugh C. Bailey, “Disloyalty in Early Confederate Alabama,” Journal of Southern History 23 (1957): 525. See also Bailey, “Disaffection in the Alabama Hill Country, 1861,” Civil War History 4 (1958): 183–94.

  51. OR, ser. 4, 1:318.

  52. Laurence Shore, Southern Capitalists: The Ideological Leadership of an Elite, 1832–1885 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1986), 78.

  53. The Papers of Thomas Ruffin, ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton (Raleigh, N.C., 1920), 3:109.

  54. Thomas Goode Tucker to Ellis, May 7, 1961, in John Willis Ellis, Papers, ed. Noble J. Tolbert (Raleigh, N.C., 1964), 2:728; George Brown Goode, Virginia Cousins: A Study of the Ancestry and Posterity of John Goode of Whitby (Richmond, Va., 1887), 125.

  55. Escott, North Carolina Yeoman, 351.

  56. Ellis, Papers, 2:766. Emphasis added.

  57. Inscoe and McKinney, Heart of Confederate Appalachia, 76.

  58. Sitterson, Secession Movement in North Carolina, 5, 11–12.

  59. On slaveholding, see the map in Sitterson, Secession Movement in North Carolina, 2.

  60. Ellis, Papers, 2:867–68.

  61. William Thomas Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor: The Inner Civil War in the Central Counties of Confederate North Carolina” (PhD diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1988), 90.

  62. Vance Papers, 1:374–75. Coltrane was from Randolph County.

  63. Nevins, War for the Union, 1:139.

  64. Those counties opposed secession by more than three to one. Richard Orr Curry, A House Divided: A Study of Statehood Politics and the Copperhead Movement in West Virginia (Pittsburgh, 1964), 143; Crofts, Reluctant Confederates, 341.

  65. OR, ser. 1, 2:630.

  66. Ibid.

  67. Ibid., 2:827.

  68. Ibid., 2:239.

  69. Ibid., 2:291.

  70. Ibid., 2:112–13.

  71. Ibid., 2:630.

  72. Ibid., 2:827, 855, 239, 863.

  73. Ibid., 2:1012. Emphasis added.

  74. Ibid., 2:158.

  75. Richard Nelson Current, Lincoln’s Loyalists: Union Soldiers from the Confederacy (Boston, 1992), 6–8.

  76. OR, ser. 1, 2:1012.

  77. Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones, How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War (Urbana, Ill., 1991), 36–39.

  78. OR, ser. 1, 2:70–71.

  79. Groce, Mountain Rebels, 27–34, 54; Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War, 195.

  80. Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War, 548.

  81. Noel C. Fisher, War at Every Door: Partisan Politics and Guerrilla Violence in East Tennessee, 1860–1869 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1997), 32.

  82. Ibid., 35; Atkins, Parties, Politics, and Sectional Conflict, 240–41, 247–49.

  83. Fisher, War at Every Door, 39.

  84. Ibid., 42.

  85. Ibid., 50–51.

  86. Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War, 381–87.

  87. OR, ser. 1, 4:239. Quotes on 237, 239.

  88. Fisher, War at Every Door, 53, 56–57.

  89. Ibid., 58; Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War, 408.

  90. Fisher, War at Every Door, 71.

  91. Groce, Mountain Rebels, 88, 95.

  92. OR, ser. 1, 4:239.

  93. Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War, 203; Fisher, War at Every Door, 92–93.

  94. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 45; Wilfred Buck Years, The Confederate Congress (Athens, Ga., 1960), 131.

  95. Judah P. Benjamin, until then attorney general, replaced Toombs as secretary of state.

  96. William Y. Thompson, Robert Toombs of Georgia (Baton Rouge, 1966), 185–87.

  97. Stone, Brokenburn, 100–101.

  98. OR, ser. 1, vol. 10, pt. 2, 451.

  99. Harold D. Woodman, King Cotton and His Retainers: Financing and Marketing the Cotton Crop of the South (Lexington, Ky., 1968), 219–22.

100. Jefferson Davis subsequently lodged a claim with the Confederate Treasury for the loss of those cotton bales. James Garfield Randall, The Confiscation of Property during the Civil War (Indianapolis, 1913), 41n; Christopher Morris, Becoming Southern: The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770–1860(New York, 1995), 184; James Allen plantation book, typescript, entries from May 6 through June 21, 1862, 77–82, Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Thanks to Professor Morris for generously sending me copies of these plantation records kept by Allen, who was a neighbor of Joseph Davis.

101. Woodman, King Cotton and His Retainers, 223.

102. John K. Bettersworth, ed., Mississippi in the Confederacy as They Saw It (1961; reprint, New York, 1970), 227–28.

103. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 667, 688.

104. OR, ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 456.

105. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 691.

106. Harrison A. Trexler, “The Opposition of Planters to the Employment of Slaves as Laborers by the Confederacy,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 27 (1940): 211–12.

107. William Preston Johnston, The Life of Albert Sidney Johnston (New York, 1878), 410, 416; Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 696.

108. Johnston, Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, 552–53.

109. Thompson, Robert Toombs of Georgia, 185–87.

110. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 591.

111. Faust, James Henry Hammond, 369.

112. Edmondston Diary, 233.

113. Ibid., 351.

114. McPherson, Political History, 282.

115. Stone, Brokenburn, 95.

116. Hattaway and Jones, How the North Won, 114.; E. B. Long, with Barbara Long, The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865 (Garden City, N.Y., 1971), 706.

117. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 352.

118. Thomas E. Schott, Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia: A Biography (Baton Rouge, 1988), 354–55.

119. Allen D. Candler, ed., The Confederate Records of the State of Georgia, vol. 3, Official Correspondence of Governor Joseph E. Brown, 1860–1865 (Atlanta, 1910), 301; Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 598.

120. Joseph H. Parks, Joseph E. Brown of Georgia (Baton Rouge, 1977), 213.

121. Albert Burton Moore, Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy (1924; reprint, Columbia, S.C., 1996), 27.

122. OR, ser. 4, 2:162, 553, 3:179. William Blair found that in Virginia the law of February 1864 was implemented in a way that extended exemptions to many masters who owned considerably fewer than fifteen slaves, while “in the Deep South, large slave-holders benefited the most from this same law.” Blair, Virginia’s Private War: Feeding Body and Soul in the Confederacy, 1861–1865 (Oxford, UK, 1998), 105.

123. OR, ser. 1, vol. 19, pt. 2, 790.

124. Stephen V. Ash, When the Yankees Came: Conflict and Chaos in the Occupied South, 1861–1865 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1995), 178.

125. Ira Berlin, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie Rowland, eds., The Black Military Experience (Cambridge, UK, 1982), 290.

126. Marshall, Lee’s Aide-de-Camp, 42.

127. W. Buck Yearns and John G. Barrett, eds., North Carolina Civil War Documentary (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1980), 98.

128. Clement Dowd, Life of Zebulon B. Vance (Charlotte, N.C., 1897), 447.

129. OR, ser. 1, 21:776.

130. See William W. Freehling, The Reintegration of American History: Slavery and the Civil War (New York, 1994), 5; Freehling, South vs. the South, xii–xiii; Christopher Leslie Brown and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Arming Slaves: From Classical Time to the Modern Age (New Haven, Conn., 2006).

131. Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution (1961; reprint, New York, 1973); Woody Holton, Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1999), 133–63.

132. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 256.

133. Tasker Gantt to Henry Hunt, May 19, 1886, Hunt Jackson Papers, Library of Congress (LC); Jefferson Davis to Campbell Brown, June 14, 1886, George Washington Campbell Brown Papers, LC.

134. James A. Seddon to Hon. E. S. Dargan, December 18, 1863, RG 109, NA.

135. Judah P. Benjamin to Benjamin H. Micou, August 18, 1863, Letter-book, Confederate States of America records, LC.

136. William R. Blair, et al., to Major P. H. Nelson, n.d., and accompanying notations, copy in Eleanor S. Brockenbrough Library, the Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Va. See also Arthur W. Bergeron, Jr., “Free Men of Color in Grey,” Civil War History 32 (1996): 250–53.

137. Thomas Diary, 190, 166.

138. Charles Colcock Jones, Religious Instruction of the Negroes: An Address … December 10, 1861, 5.

139. Myers, Children of Pride, 805.

140. Davis, Jefferson Davis: A Memoir by His Wife, 2:11.

141. Ash, When the Yankees Came, 11, 15, 22.

142. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 11, 33–35; J. M. Beasley, et al., to Secretary of War, August 18, 1862, WD-1113–1862, RG 109, NA.

143. William Howard Russell, My Diary North and South, ed. Eugene H. Berwanger (New York, 1988), 98.

144. OR, ser. 4, 1:998–1000.

145. Marshall served as Lee’s military secretary from March 1862 to the war’s end. He argued in his memoirs that concerns about maintaining control over slaves “contributed as much as any single cause to the unfortunate dispersion of the Confederate troops during the first year of the war,” a dispersion that “permanently impaired” the Confederate war effort. Marshall, Lee’s Aide-de-Camp, 63–65.

146. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 82–83.

147. Ibid., 83–84.

148. Charles Colcock Jones, The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States (1842; reprint, Manchester, N.H., 1971), 110.

149. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 48.

150. W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880 (1935; reprint, Cleveland, 1968), 30.

151. Frederick Douglass pointed to this fact in addressing black men later in the war: “You have to some extent rated your value by the estimate of your enemies and hence have counted yourself less than you are.” Douglass, Life and Writings, 3:342–43.

152. Norman R. Yetman, ed., When I Was a Slave: Memoirs from the Slave Narrative Collection (New York, 2002), 70.

153. Dinkins, 1861 to 1865, 62–63.

154. Robert F. Durden, The Gray and the Black: The Confederate Debate on Emancipation (Baton Rouge, 2000), 32.

155. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 313.

156. Andrea Sutcliffe, ed., Mighty Rough Times, I Tell You: Personal Accounts of Slavery in Tennessee (Winston-Salem, 2000), 30.

157. Douglass, Life and Times, 39.

158. Steven Hahn, A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge, Mass., 2003), 65.

159. Merton L. Dillon, Slavery Attacked: Southern Slaves and Their Allies, 1619–1865 (Baton Rouge, 1990), 240.

160. Morris, Becoming Southern, 174–75.

161. A Voice of Thunder: The Civil War Letters of George E. Stephens, ed. Donald Yacavone (Urbana, Ill., 1997), 15, 151.

162. Susie King Taylor, Reminiscences of My Life: A Black Woman’s Civil War Memoirs (New York, 1998), 32.

163. Charlotte Forten, “Life on the Sea Islands,” Atlantic Monthly 13 (1864): 593.

164. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 234.

165. OR, ser. 2, 1:750; Leon F. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery (New York, 1979), 54.

166. Andrew Ward, Dark Midnight When I Rise: The Story of the Jubilee Singers Who Introduced the World to the Music of Black America (New York, 2000), 24.

167. Winthrop Jordan, Tumult and Silence at Second Creek: An Inquiry into a Civil War Slave Conspiracy (Baton Rouge, 1993), 14–15.

168. John J. Cheatham to L. P. Walker, May 4, 1861, War Department, Letters Received (WD/LR) C-605-1861, Record Group (RG) 109, NA.

169. Stone, Brokenburn, 37.

170. Ibid., 39, 53.

171. Edmondston Diary, 173.

172. Jordan, Tumult and Silence, 18, 315.

173. Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The “Invisible Institution” in the Antebellum South (New York, 1978), 248; Susan King Taylor, Reminiscences of My Life: A Black Woman’s Civil War Memoirs (New York, 1998), 32; Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment (1869; reprint, Boston, 1970), 34.

174. Harper’s Weekly, October 18, 1862, 658.

175. Cimprich, Slavery’s End in Tennessee, 20.

176. Ira Berlin, et al., eds., The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Lower South (Cambridge, UK, 1986), 723.

177. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 19.

178. Johnson and Roark, Black Masters, 293; Bergeron, “Free Men of Color in Grey,” 247–55.

179. Hollandsworth, Louisiana Native Guards, 16.

180. OR, ser. 2, 1:750; Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 54.

181. Edward L. Pierce, “The Contrabands at Fortress Monroe,” Atlantic Monthly 8 (1861): 626–40; Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 67.

182. Edward L. Pierce to Salmon P. Chase, February 8, 1862, in Moore, Rebellion Record, 3:308.

183. OR, ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 279.

184. Ibid., 9:477.

185. Edmondston Diary, 273.

186. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 9–10.

187. Ibid., 11–12; OR, ser. 1, 6:3–13.

188. Ibid., 12; George P. Rawick, ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography vol. 3 (Westport, Conn., 1973), 200, 202–4.

189. OR/Navies, ser. 1, 12:773.

190. Symonds, Lincoln and His Admirals, 160.

191. The South Carolina Rice Plantation as Revealed in the Papers of Robert F. W. Allston, ed. J. H. Easterby (Chicago, 1945), 190.

192. Myers, Children of Pride, 925.

193. Clarke, Dwelling Place, 415.

194. Albert V. House, Jr., “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation during Four Years of Civil War,” Journal of Southern History 9 (1943): 100–107.

195. Ash, When the Yankees Came, 223.

196. George L. Wood, The Seventh Regiment: A Record (New York, 1865), 77.

197. Katherine M. Jones, Heroines of Dixie: Confederate Women Tell Their Story of the War (Indianapolis, 1955), 118–19.

198. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 24.

199. David F. Allmendinger, Ruffin: Family and Reform in the Old South (New York, 1990), 165; The Diary of Edmund Ruffin, ed. William Kauffman Scarborough (Baton Rouge, 1972–89), 2:317, 350. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Ruffin Diary.

200. Ruffin Diary, 2:307, 317, 409–10.

201. The Westover Journal of John A. Selden, Esq., 1858–1862, ed. John Spencer Bassett and Sidney Bradshaw Fay (Northampton, Mass., 1921), 322, 325, 329.

202. Brooks D. Simpson, Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War & Reconstruction, 1861–1868 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1991), 27.

203. Ebenezer Hannaford, The Story of a Regiment: A History of the Campaigns, and Associations in the Field, of the Sixth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Cincinnati, 1868), 227.

204. John Beatty, The Citizen-soldier: Or, Memoirs of a Volunteer (Cincinnati, 1879), 119.

205. Simpson, Let Us Have Peace, 27.

206. John Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen: Reminiscences of the Civil War (1907; reprint, New York, 1969), 1–2.

207. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 254.

208. John Cimprich, “Slave Behavior during the Federal Occupation of Tennessee, 1862–1865,” The Historian 44, no. 3 (1982): 340.

209. James T. Currie, Enclave: Vicksburg and Her Plantations, 1863–1870 (Jackson, Miss., 1980), 88.

210. Hermann, Pursuit of a Dream, 38–39; William C. Davis, Jefferson Davis: The Man and His Hour, 409, 505; Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 243–56.

211. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 74–75.

212. Joseph Carlyle Sitterson, Sugar Country: The Cane Sugar Industry in the South, 1753–1950 ([Lexington, Ky.], 1953), 209.

213. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 66.

214. William F. Messner, “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862,” Journal of Southern History 41 (1975): 20–21.

215. OR, ser. 1, 15:164–66, 170–72; Benjamin F. Butler, Butler’s Book: Autobiography and Personal Reminiscences of Major Benjamin F. Butler (Boston, 1892), 1:496–500.

216. Stone, Brokenburn, 125.

217. Ibid., 127.

218. Ibid., 134–35.

219. [Ruffin], Anticipations of the Future, 130, 149–50, 220, 234–35, 242.

220. Clarke, Dwelling Place, 415.

221. Myers, Children of Pride, 929–30.

222. Ruffin Diary, 351–53.

223. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 10–11; Cimprich, Slavery’s End in Tennessee, 29–30.

224. A. K. Farrar to Governor Pettus, July 17, 1862, quoted in Herbert Aptheker, “Notes on Slave Conspiracies in Confederate Mississippi,” Journal of Negro History 29 (1944): 76.

225. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 362.

226. Edmondston Diary, 220.

227. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 13.

Chapter Four. Recognizing the “Logic of Events”: Union War Policy Evolves, 1861–63

   1. Stephens, Voice of Thunder, 150.

   2. ALCW, 4:160.

   3. Ibid., 4:332.

   4. He went on record with that view almost a quarter of a century before he entered the White House (1837). Abraham Lincoln, Protest in Illinois Legislature on Slavery, March 3, 1837, in ALCW, 1:75.

   5. Abraham Lincoln, annual message to Congress, December 3, 1861, in ALCW, 5:48.

   6. McPherson, Tried by War, 34.

   7. ALCW, 4:532.

   8. McPherson, Political History, 286.

   9. Johnson at this point shared his constituents’ hostility to emancipation. See, for example, The Papers of Andrew Johnson, ed. LeRoy P. Graf and Ralph W. Haskins (Knoxville, Tenn., 1972), 3:495–96.

  10. Congressional Globe, 37th Cong., 1st sess., July 22, 1861, 222–23; ibid., July 25, 1861, 258–65.

  11. Douglass, Life and Writings, 3:113, 114–15, 123.

  12. James M. McPherson, The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction (Princeton, N.J., 1964), 63.

  13. Douglass, Life and Writings, 3:99.

  14. Owen Lovejoy, His Brother’s Blood: Speeches and Writings, 1838–64, ed. William F. Moore and Jane Ann Moore (Urbana, Ill., 2004), 193.

  15. Hans L. Trefousse, The Radical Republicans: Lincoln’s Vanguard for Racial Justice (New York, 1968), 204; McPherson, Struggle for Equality, chap. 3.

  16. McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 90–91.

  17. Ibid., 82–84.

  18. Ibid., 93, 95.

  19. Ibid., 114–15.

  20. Ibid., 111.

  21. McPherson, Political History, 244; OR, ser. 1, 2:48–48, 593, 661–62, 750.

  22. Butler, Butler’s Book, 1:256–58; Private and Official Correspondence of Gen. Benjamin F. Butler during the Period of the Civil War (Norwood, Mass., 1917), 1:116; McPherson, Political History, 244; OR, ser. 1, 2:648–52; ibid., ser. 3, 1:243.

  23. Butler, Private and Official Correspondence, 1:185–88.

  24. Bruce Levine, The Spirit of 1848: German Immigrants, Labor Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War (Urbana, Ill., 1992).

  25. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 253.

  26. McPherson, Political History, 246–47, 250–51.

  27. ALCW, 5:532.

  28. Ibid., 5:506.

  29. McPherson, Political History, 246–47, 250–51.

  30. Ibid., 245–51; Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 256–57.

  31. Stephens, Voice of Thunder, 138.

  32. After the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson, for example, Ulysses S. Grant’s headquarters declared both “the great necessity of keeping out fugitives” and that “such slaves as were within the lines at the time of the capture of Fort Donelson and such as have been used by the enemy in building the fortifications or in any way hostile to the Government will not be released or permitted to return to their masters but will be employed in the quartermaster’s department for the benefit of Government.” OR, ser. 2, 1:808.

  33. McPherson, Tried by War, 58.

  34. ALCW, 5:318.

  35. Michael Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln: A Life (Baltimore, 2008), 2:229.

  36. Abraham Lincoln, Appeal to Border State Representatives to Favor Compensated Emancipation, July 12, 1862, in ALCW, 5:317.

  37. See, for example, LaWanda Cox, Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership (Urbana, Ill., 1985), 9.

  38. McPherson, Political History, 210.

  39. New York Tribune, July 19, 1862.

  40. William A. Blair, “The Seven Days and the Radical Persuasion: Convincing Moderates in the North of the Need for a Hard War,” in The Richmond Campaign of 1862: The Peninsula and the Seven Days, ed. Gary W. Gallagher (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2000), 153–80.

  41. Quoted in chap. 3.

  42. Mark Grimsley, The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy toward Southern Civilians, 1861–1865 (Cambridge, UK, 1995), 112–19; Simpson, Let Us Have Peace, 23–34.

  43. Blair, “Seven Days and the Radical Persuasion,” 153–80.

  44. James M. McPherson, The Negro’s Civil War: How the American Negroes Felt and Acted during the War for the Union (New York, 1965), 237–38, 195, 286–87, 44; James G. Blaine, Twenty Years of Congress: From Lincoln to Garfield (Norwich, Conn., 1884), 1:354.

  45. It offered up to $300 per lost slave.

  46. McPherson, Political History, 196, 211–12, 239, 254.

  47. OR, ser. 3, 2:275–76.

  48. Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln: A Life, 2:357.

  49. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 193, 208–21.

  50. ALCW, 5:343n1.

  51. Ibid., 5:342–46.

  52. Ibid.

  53. Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy under Lincoln and Johnson (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1911), 1:70–71. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Welles Diary.

  54. The Adjutant General’s Office sent the order out (as General Orders No. 109) on August 16, 1862. OR, ser. 3, 2:397.

  55. Inside Lincoln’s Cabinet: The Civil War Diaries of Salmon P. Chase, ed. David Donald (New York, 1954), 95–99. In subsequent notes, this is abbreviated as Chase Diary.

  56. ALCW, 5:434.

  57. Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America (New York, 2004), 207–9.

  58. Ibid., 211.

  59. Ibid., 180, 187, 213.

  60. Quoted in Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine 92 (November 1862): 644.

  61. McPherson, Tried by War, 128.

  62. Guelzo, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, 213.

  63. Victor B. Howard, Black Liberation in Kentucky: Emancipation and Freedom, 1862–1884 (Lexington, Ky., 1983), 32–34; Christopher Phillips, “ ‘The Chrysalis State’: Slavery, Confederate Identity, and the Creation of the Border South,” in Inside the Confederate Nation, ed. Lesley J. Gordon and John C. Inscoe (Baton Rouge, 2005), 147–55.

  64. John G. Barrett, The Civil War in North Carolina (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1963), 173.

  65. The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, 1860–1865, ed. Stephen W. Sears (New York, 1992), 344–45. This was not the first time McClellan had expressed such views to the government. In the fall of 1861, as Salmon P. Chase later learned, the general told an assistant secretary of war that “we should conduct the war so as to avoid offence as far as possible” and that if McClellan thought that an appreciably harder kind of war was necessary to save the Union “he should feel obliged to lay down his arms.” Chase Diary, 101–2.

  66. McClellan, Civil War Papers, 481–82.

  67. Jacob Dolson Cox, Military Reminiscences of the Civil War (New York, 1900), 1:209.

  68. McClellan, Civil War Papers, 351.

  69. Nevins, War for the Union, 2:231n.

  70. Ibid., 375; Inside Lincoln’s White House: The Complete Civil War Diary of John Hay, ed. Michael Burlingame and John R. Turner Ettlinger (Carbondale, Ill., 1997), 41; McPherson, Tried by War, 133–34.

  71. Abraham Lincoln: The Observations of John G. Nicolay and John Hay, ed. Michael Burlingame (Carbondale, Ill., 2007), 108.

  72. Guelzo, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation, 182–86, 190–91; McPherson, Tried by War, 115, 137.

  73. OR, ser. 1, vol. 16, pt. 2, 421.

  74. Adam J. P. Smith, No Party Now: Politics in the Civil War North (New York, 2006), 57.

  75. Ibid., 56; Josiah Henry Benton, Voting in the Field: A Forgotten Chapter of the Civil War (Boston, 1915), 26, 306–8; and Oscar Osburn Winther, “The Soldier Vote in the Election of 1864,” New York History 25 (1944): 440–48.

  76. McPherson, For Causes and Comrades, 121.

  77. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 42.

  78. McPherson, Tried by War, 127.

  79. Ruffin Diary, 2:609.

  80. McPherson, For Causes and Comrades, 118.

  81. Frank L. Byrne and Jean Powers Soman, eds., Your True Marcus: The Civil War Letters of a Jewish Colonel (Kent, Ohio, 1985), 316.

  82. Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over, 118–19, 268n33.

  83. Earl J. Hess, Liberty, Virtue, and Progress: Northerners and Their War for the Union (New York, 1997), 97.

  84. McPherson, What They Fought For, 59.

  85. Stephens, Voice of Thunder, 161, 170.

  86. A Wisconsin Boy in Dixie: Civil War Letters of James K. Newton, ed. Stephen E. Ambrose (Madison, Wis., 1995), 28.

  87. William E. Gienapp, ed., The Civil War and Reconstruction: A Documentary Collection (New York, 2001), 242–45.

  88. Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over, 89, 93.

  89. Allan Nevins, The War for the Union, vol. 3, The Organized War, 1863–1864 (New York, 1971), 154–58, 167–72, 177–79.

  90. The Works of James Abram Garfield, ed. Burke A. Hinsdale (Boston, 1882–83), 13.

  91. Georges Clemenceau, American Reconstruction, 1865–1870 (New York, 1928), 165; Congressional Globe, 37th Cong., 1st sess., August 2, 1861, 415.

  92. Frederick Douglass, “How to End the War” (May 1861), in Douglass, Life and Writings, 3:94–95.

  93. McPherson, The Negro’s Civil War, 19–22.

  94. Berlin, Black Military Experience, 82–83.

  95. OR, ser. 3, 1:133; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 22; Peter H. Clark, Black Brigade of Cincinnati: Being a Report of Its Labors and a Muster-Roll of Its Members etc. (Cincinnati, 1864), 6. The government seems simply to have ignored Garland White’s offer.

  96. Dudley Taylor Cornish, The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the Union Army, 1861–1865 (1956; reprint, Lawrence, Kans., 1987), 21–22; McPherson, Political History, 249.

  97. ALCW, 5:356–57.

  98. OR, ser. 1, vol. 10, pt. 2, 162.

  99. Ibid., 14:375.

100. Ibid., ser. 3, 2:198.

101. Cornish, Sable Arm, 52–53.

102. Ibid., 58–64.

103. Chase Diary, 96–100, 105.

104. Stephen V. Ash, Firebrand of Liberty: The Story of Two Black Regiments That Changed the Course of the Civil War (New York, 2008), 52–53.

105. OR, ser. 1, 14:374.

106. Salmon P. Chase to General Butler, July 31, 1862, in Butler, Private and Official Correspondence, 2:131–38.

107. OR, ser. 1, 14: 377–78.

108. Cornish, Sable Arm, 88.

109. Ash, Firebrand of Liberty, 33.

110. Ibid., 38.

111. OR, ser. 1, 14:377.

112. OR, ser. 1, 15:556–57; Hollandsworth, Louisiana Native Guards, 2–9.

113. They had first made this offer to Phelps, who then referred them to Butler. Berlin, Black Military Experience, 64.

114. Butler, Butler’s Book, 1:492–93.

115. Salmon P. Chase to General Butler, July 31, 1862, in Butler, Private and Official Correspondence, 2:131–38. In fact, Chase had entrusted to Butler the sharply worded letters from Lincoln to Reverdy Johnson and Cuthbert Bullitt for delivery to those two southern unionists.

116. OR, ser. 3, 2:437–38.

117. Cornish, Sable Arm, 67.

118. George S. Denison to Salmon P. Chase, September 9, 1862, in Diary and Correspondence of Salmon P. Chase (Washington, D.C., 1903), 313; Hollandsworth, Louisiana Native Guards, 18, 21.

119. [W. C. Corsan], Two Months in the Confederate States: Including a Visit to New Orleans under the Domination of General Butler (London, 1863), 40.

120. Cornish, Sable Arm, 70–78.

121. Ibid., 105–11.

122. Frank Freidel, “The Loyal Publication Society: A Pro-Union Propaganda Agency,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 26 (1939): 366.

123. Lee to Seddon, January 10, 1863, in OR, ser. 1, 21:1086.

124. Thomas Diary, 195–96.

125. Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 26, 1863.

126. The Confederate Congress thought this story of Napoléon’s enlightened self-restraint compelling enough to repeat it a year later. OR, ser. 1, vol. 28, pt. 2, 11–13; ser. 4, 3:133.

127. Eugene Tarle, Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia, 1812 (New York, 1942), 256–67; Hugh Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire, 1801–1917 (New York, 1988), 129.

128. ALCW, 6:29–30; 5:537.

129. Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 (London, 1988), 340–59. See also Paul Verna, Petion y Bolívar (Caracas, 1980), 150–72; J. L. Salcedo-Bastardo, Bolívar: A Continent and Its Destiny (Richmond, UK, 1977), 103–12; and especially Peter Blanchard, Under the Flags of Freedom: Slave Soldiers and the Wars of Independence in Spanish South America (Pittsburgh, 2008).

130. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Collected Works (Moscow, 1975–2005), 19:178, 248, 41:364.

Chapter Five. “The Clouds Are Dark over Us”: The Convulsions of 1863

   1. Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and the War Years (New York, 1954), 346.

   2. McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 122.

   3. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 31–32; Grimsley, Hard Hand of War, 78.

   4. Jaime Amanda Martinez, “The Slave Market in Civil War Virginia,” in Crucible of the Civil War: Virginia from Secession to Commemoration, ed. Edward L. Ayers, Gary W. Gallagher, and Andrew J. Torget (Charlottesville, Va., 2006), 116.

   5. Richmond Dispatch, reprinted in the New York Tribune, January 12, 1863.

   6. Stone, Brokenburn, 146.

   7. John B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary at the Confederate States Capital (Philadelphia, 1866), 1:233. This is abbreviated in subsequent notes as Jones Diary.

   8. James D. Richardson, ed., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, Including Diplomatic Correspondence, 1861–1865 (Nashville, Tenn., 1905), 1:277.

   9. George H. Washburn, A Complete Military History and Record of the 108th Regiment N.Y. Volunteers (Rochester, N.Y., 1894), 36.

  10. Noah Brooks, Abraham Lincoln (New York, 1894), 358.

  11. OR, ser. 1, vol. 24, pt. 1, 22.

  12. OR, ser. 1, vol. 17, pt. 1, 613.

  13. McPherson, Tried by War, 167–69.

  14. Levine, Spirit of 1848, 258.

  15. Paludan, People’s Contest, 113.

  16. Edmondston Diary, 440.

  17. Gordon B. McKinney, Zeb Vance: North Carolina’s Civil War Governor and Gilded Age Political Leader (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2004), 168.

  18. David G. Smith, “Race and Retaliation: The Capture of African-Americans during the Gettysburg Campaign,” in Virginia’s Civil War, ed. Peter Wallenstein and Bertram Wyatt-Brown (Charlottesville, Va., 2005), 137–51; Margaret Creighton, The Colors of Courage: Gettysburg’s Forgotten History: Immigrants, Women, and African Americans in the Civil War’s Defining Battle (New York, 2005), 50–51.

  19. Stone, Brokenburn, 215, 227.

  20. OR, ser. 1, vol. 24, pt. 2, 680.

  21. Thomas B. Alexander, Thomas A. R. Nelson of East Tennessee (Nashville, Tenn., 1956), 98–103; OR, ser. 1, vol. 16, pt. 2, 909–10.

  22. Fisher, War at Every Door, 113–14; Inscoe and McKinney, Heart of Confederate Appalachia, 222.

  23. John Watson Foster, War Stories for My Grandchildren (Washington, D.C, 1918), 123–25. The quotations come from Foster’s contemporaneous letter to his wife, reproduced in this volume.

  24. Groce, Mountain Rebels, 121–26.

  25. OR, ser. 1, vol. 23, pt. 2, 55.

  26. Larry J. Daniel, Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee: A Portrait of Life in a Confederate Army (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1991), 136.

  27. OR, ser. 4, 2:993–94.

  28. Thomas Lawrence Connelly, Autumn of Glory: The Army of Tennessee, 1862–1865 (Baton Rouge, 1971), 274–77; Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant (1885; reprint, New York, n.d.), 383–84; James Cooper Nisbet, Four Years on the Firing Line (1914; reprint, Jackson, Tenn., 1963), 158–59.

  29. Many accounts of subsequent combat in Georgia between Sherman’s army group and the Army of Tennessee continue to speak of it as occurring in the western theater of war.

  30. Mobile Register and Advertiser, December 1, 1863.

  31. Connelly, Autumn of Glory, 273.

  32. Daniel, Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee, 155–56.

  33. OR, ser. 4, 2:991.

  34. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 283, 412–14; Inside the Confederate Government: The Diary of Robert Garlick Hill Kean, Head of the Bureau of War, ed. Edward Younger (New York, 1957), 86, abbreviated in subsequent notes as Kean Diary; Gorgas Journals, 136.

  35. Ibid.; Gorgas Journals, 136.

  36. Jefferson Davis to Lieutenant General T. H. Holmes, July 15, 1863, and Davis to Hon. R. W. Johnson, July 14, 1863, in PJD, 9:276, 281.

  37. Jones Diary, 1:374, 378, 2:16; see also Kean Diary, 119.

  38. Richard Taylor, Destruction and Reconstruction: Personal Experiences of the Late War (1879; reprint, New York, 1955), 281.

  39. Reagan, Memoirs, 161.

  40. Ibid., 86.

  41. Connelly, Autumn of Glory, 276–77; Daniel, Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee, 137–38, 155–56; Diane Neal and Thomas W. Kremm, Lion of the South: General Thomas C. Hindman (Macon, Ga., 1993), 184.

  42. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 551.

  43. Jones Diary, 1:374, 378, 2:16.

  44. Daniel, Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee, 137; Connelly, Autumn of Glory, 291.

  45. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 621.

  46. PJD, 9:339.

  47. Eugene D. Genovese, A Consuming Fire: The Fall of the Confederacy in the Mind of the Christian South (Athens, Ga., 1998), 47–51.

  48. Rubin, Shattered Nation, 37.

  49. Steven E. Woodworth, While God Is Marching On: The Religious World of Civil War Soldiers (Lawrence, Kans., 2001), 271.

  50. W. J. Worsham, The Old Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment, C.S.A. June, 1861–April, l865 (Knoxville, Tenn., 1902), 104, 108–9.

  51. Quoted in Genovese, Consuming Fire, 48.

  52. Cimprich, Slavery’s End in Tennessee, 27.

  53. Bettersworth, Mississippi in the Confederacy, 241.

  54. James Freeman Clarke, Autobiography, Diary and Correspondence, ed. Edward Everett Hale (Boston, 1892), 286.

  55. Peter Cooper, The Death of Slavery (New York, 1863), 4.

  56. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 21.

  57. Wilbert L. Jenkins, Climbing Up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans During the Civil War and Reconstruction (Wilmington, Del., 2002), 18.

  58. Captain C. B. Wilder before the American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission, in David Stephen Heidler, Jeanne T. Heidler, and David J. Coles, eds., Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (New York, 2002), 2429.

  59. Davis, Jefferson Davis: A Memoir by His Wife, 2:217.

  60. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 535; Emory M. Thomas, The Confederate State of Richmond: A Biography of the Capital (1971; reprint, Baton Rouge, 1998), 155.

  61. Stone, Brokenburn, 178.

  62. Ibid., 184.

  63. Ibid.

  64. Telegram from Colonel J. Thompson to Lieutenant General Pemberton, January 18, 1863, Records of Military Commands, Papers of Various Confederate Notables, Gen. John C. Pemberton, Telegrams Received, January–February 1863, entry 131, RG 109, NA.

  65. Stone, Brokenburn, 171, 175.

  66. Ibid., 185.

  67. Ibid., 184.

  68. Ibid., 198.

  69. Ibid.

  70. Ibid., 191.

  71. Robert L. Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy: The Trans-Mississippi South, 1863–1865 (Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1972), 255.

  72. Stone, Brokenburn, 198–99.

  73. Bettersworth, Mississippi in the Confederacy, 241.

  74. Ruffin Diary, 2:661.

  75. Currie, Enclave, 33.

  76. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 629.

  77. OR, ser. 1, vol. 24, pt. 2, 681.

  78. Currie, Enclave, 73.

  79. Ibid., 74.

  80. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 676.

  81. William J. Minor, Plantation Diary 35, entry for January 3, 1863, William J. Minor and Family Papers, Ms. 519, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Special Collections, Louisiana State University Libraries, abbreviated in subsequent notes as Minor Papers; J. Carlyle Sitterson, “The William J. Minor Plantations: A Study in Ante-Bellum Absentee Ownership,” Journal of Southern History 9 (February 1943): 61.

  82. Minor, Plantation Diary 35, entry for February 26, 1863, Minor Papers.

  83. Ibid., entry for June 8, 1863. There were innumerable stories like this one. See, for example, Wiley, Plain People of the Confederacy, 74–82.

  84. Ludwell H. Johnson, Red River Campaign: Politics and Cotton in the Civil War (Kent, Ohio, 1993), 112.

  85. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 362.

  86. Edmondston Diary, 463–64.

  87. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 19.

  88. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 263; Nevins, War for the Union, 3:430.

  89. Sherman’s Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman, 1860–1865, ed. Brooks D. Simpson and Jean V. Berlin (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1999), 591.

  90. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 40.

  91. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 355.

  92. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 778–79; OR, ser. 4, 3:41–42.

  93. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 671–73; Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 327, 674, 679–80.

  94. Edmondston Diary, 463–64.

  95. Ibid.

  96. Ash, When the Yankees Came, 187.

  97. Stone, Brokenburn, 173.

  98. Memoirs and Selected Letters: Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Selected Letters 1839–1865, ed. Mary Drake McFeeley and William McFeeley (New York, 1990), 1033.

  99. Graham Papers, 5:530. This is a summary of Graham’s views recorded by a colleague following a meeting with him.

100. Wiley, Confederate Women, 154.

101. Smith to Stephens, August 20, 1863, in Schott, Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, 384.

102. James D. Waddell, Biographical Sketch of Linton Stephens (Atlanta, 1877), 263.

103. Ash, Firebrand of Liberty, 200–204.

104. See, for example, Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 146–47, 192, 267–69, 329.

105. Douglass’s Monthly, March 21, 1863, quoted in Douglass, Life and Times, 340.

106. Berlin, Black Military Experience, 117; OR, ser. 3, 3:1189–90.

107. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 96–97.

108. Stephens, Voice of Thunder, 31–34.

109. Ibid., 31.

110. Edmondston Diary, 270.

111. Ibid., 328.

112. Jones Diary, 1:213.

113. Hollandsworth, Louisiana Native Guards, 30.

114. Even decades later, ex–Confederate general Edward Porter Alexander sniffed that although the Union’s raising of black units “was supposed to be a war measure,” in fact “nothing could have been more [de]void of effect.” See E. P. Alexander, Military Memoirs of a Confederate: A Critical Narrative (New York, 1907), 276.

115. Richard Lowe, “Battle on the Levee: The Fight at Milliken’s Bend,” in Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era, ed. John David Smith (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2002), 107–35; OR, ser. 1, vol. 24, pt. 2, 467.

116. Stone, Brokenburn, 218.

117. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 185.

118. OR, ser. 1, vol. 26, pt. 1, 45.

119. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 185.

120. Stephens, Voice of Thunder, 39–40.

121. This assault climaxed the film Glory (1989).

122. Union forces drove Confederate troops out of Battery Wagner in September 1863.

123. Stephens, Voice of Thunder, 45.

124. Luis F. Emilio, A Brave Black Regiment: The History of the 54th Massachusetts, 1863–1865 (1891; reprint, New York, 1995), 67–104.

125. Cornish, Sable Arm, 146, 152–56; Joseph T. Glatthaar, Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers (New York, 1991), 136–42; Mark A. Lause, Race and Radicalism in the Union Army (Urbana, Ill., 2009), 97–102.

126. Moore, Rebellion Record, 7:381.

127. See, for example, Lincoln to General John A. Schofield, October 1, 1863, in ALCW, 6:492–93.

128. Such loyal masters were to be compensated for their resulting losses, but the compensation offered was nominal ($300 per slave). OR, ser. 3, 3:860–61.

129. Berlin, Black Military Experience, chap. 4.

130. OR, ser. 3, 3:1034–36, 4:733–34; Berlin, Black Military Experience, 183–93.

131. Glatthaar, Forged in Battle, 79.

132. William Wells Brown, The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and His Fidelity, ed. John David Smith (1867; reprint, Athens, Ohio, 2003), 162.

133. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 206–7.

134. OR, ser. 1, vol. 52, pt. 2, 586–90.

135. James H. McNeilly, “In Winter Quarters at Dalton, Ga.,” Confederate Veteran 28 (1920): 130–31; Nisbet, Four Years on the Firing Line, 171.

136. William B. Bate to W. H. T. Walker, January 9, 1864, Civil War Collection, Huntington Library.

137. OR, ser. 1, 15:907.

138. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 37, 40; OR, ser. 1, vol. 17, pt. 2, 740.

139. Carrington Examinations, Entry 445, PI-101, misfiled with Records Concerning Prisoners of War, RG 109, NA; Marching with Sherman: Passages from the Letters and Campaign Diaries of Henry Hitchcock, Major and Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers, November 1864–May 1865, ed. M. A. DeWolfe Howe (1927; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 1995), 84. See also Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 55; Two Diaries From Middle St. John’s, Berkeley, South Carolina, February–May, 1865: Journals Kept by Miss Susan R. Jervey and Miss Charlotte St. J. Ravenel, at Northampton and Pooshee Plantations, and Reminiscences of Mrs. (Waring) Henagan with Two Contemporary Reports from Federal Officials ([Pinopolis, S.C.], 1921), 18.

140. Graham Papers, 6:43.

141. John Cimprich, Fort Pillow, a Civil War Massacre, and Public Memory (Baton Rouge, 2005), 81.

142. Jason Phillips, Diehard Rebels: The Confederate Culture of Invincibility (Athens, Ga., 2007), 67.

143. OR, ser. 1, vol. 39, pt. 1, 229.

144. Cimprich, Fort Pillow, 73, 81–85; Albert Castel, “The Fort Pillow Massacre: An Examination of the Evidence,” originally published in 1958, reprinted in Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War, ed. Gregory J. W. Urwin (Carbondale, Ill., 2004), 89–103.

145. Cimprich, Fort Pillow, 95–96; Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 312.

146. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 263.

147. David J. Coles, “ ‘Shooting Niggers Sir’: Confederate Mistreatment of Union Black Soldiers at the Battle of Olustee,” in Urwin, Black Flag over Dixie, 64–88.

Chapter Six. Bound for “A Land They Knew Not”: After Slavery, What?

   1. Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the Civil War (1953; reprint, New York, 1968), 176; S. Emma Edmonds, The Female Spy of the Union Army (Boston, 1864), 340; Dena J. Epstein, Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War (Urbana, Ill., 2003), 257–58.

   2. Mary A. Livermore, My Story of the War: A Woman’s Narrative of Four Years Personal Experience (Hartford, Conn., 1892), 341–45.

   3. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 31.

   4. Philip S. Foner and George E. Walker, eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions (Philadelphia, 1979–80).

   5. Peter Winthrop Bardaglio, Reconstructing the Household: Families, Sex, and the Law in the Nineteenth-Century South (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1995), 116.

   6. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 156.

   7. Ibid., 143.

   8. Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 289.

   9. James A. Evans to William Smith, December 14, 1864, Virginia Governor’s Office, William Smith Executive Papers, 1864–1865, RG 3, Accession 36916, State Records Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond. For a similar encounter in North Carolina in January 1863, see Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 87–88.

  10. Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 289.

  11. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 158.

  12. Raboteau, Slave Religion, 154.

  13. Ibid., 151.

  14. Blassingame, Slave Testimony, 642.

  15. Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1997), 45.

  16. Blassingame, Slave Testimony, 642.

  17. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 108f.

  18. Janet Duitsman Cornelius, When I Can Read My Title Clear: Literacy, Slavery, and Religion in the Antebellum South (Columbia, S.C., 1992), 86.

  19. Rawick, American Slave: Composite Autobiography, 2:284.

  20. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 108–9.

  21. David Macrae, Americans at Home: Pen-and-Ink Sketches of American Men, Manners, and Institutions (Edinburgh, 1870), 2:100.

  22. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 100.

  23. A Woman’s Life-Work: Labors and Experiences of Laura S. Haviland (Chicago, 1887), 321.

  24. Friends’ Intelligencer 9, no. 22 (August 9, 1862): 350.

  25. Maria Waterbury, Seven Years among the Freedmen, 3rd ed. (Chicago, 1893), 81.

  26. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 86, 88.

  27. Blassingame, Slave Testimony, 598. Original emphasis.

  28. John Richard Dennett, The South as It Is: 1865–1866, ed. Henry M. Christman (New York, 1965), 322. These were originally dispatches published in The Nation magazine.

  29. Cornelius, When I Can Read My Title Clear, 144–47.

  30. Ira Berlin, et al., eds., The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Upper South (Cambridge, UK, 1993), 212.

  31. Ibid., 217.

  32. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 112.

  33. Blassingame, Slave Testimony, 174.

  34. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Upper South, 152.

  35. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 87.

  36. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Upper South, 211.

  37. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 92.

  38. Cornelius, When I Can Read My Title Clear, 142.

  39. Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 208.

  40. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 151.

  41. Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 105.

  42. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 294.

  43. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 233n.

  44. Stanton appointed to it three ardent opponents of slavery—its chairman, James McKaye, a self-made millionaire in telegraphy; physician, educator, and internationalist Samuel Gridley Howe; and utopian socialist, women’s rights advocate, and sometime congressman and diplomat Robert Dale Owen—all three of whom served from the creation of the committee in 1863 until their submission of its final report in May 1864.

  45. OR, ser. 3, 3:437.

  46. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 282. Emphasis added.

  47. John Townsend Trowbridge, The South: A Tour of Its Battlefields and Ruined Cities, a Journey through the Desolated States, and Talks with the People, Being a Description of the Present State of the Country—Its Agriculture—Railroads—Business and Finance (Hartford, Conn., 1866), 151.

  48. The New York Times, quoted in Eric Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War (New York, 1974), 144.

  49. Helene Sarah Zahler, Eastern Workingmen and National Land Policy, 1829–1862 (New York, 1941); Mark A. Lause, Young America: Land, Labor, and the Republican Community (Urbana, Ill., 2005).

  50. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, ed. Harold C. Syrett (New York, 1961–79), 1:106; Max Farrand, ed., Records of the Federal Convention (New Haven, Conn., 1966), 2:203–4; Susan P. Castillo, ed., The Literatures of Colonial America: An Anthology (Malden, Mass., 2001), 488.

  51. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (1787; reprint New York, 1972), 165.

  52. Whitelaw Reid, After the War: A Tour of the Southern States, 1865–66 (1866; reprint, New York, 1965), 59.

  53. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 295.

  54. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 195; James S. Allen, Reconstruction: The Battle for Democracy, 1865–1876 (New York, 1937), 44.

  55. Sidney Andrews, The South since the War (1866; reprint, 1971), 233.

  56. Sitterson, Sugar Country, 210; Hahn, Nation under Our Feet, 81–82; Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 438; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 438–39, 460.

  57. Hermann, Pursuit of a Dream, 42–43; Currie, Enclave, 90–91.

  58. Stone, Brokenburn, 209–10.

  59. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 221n.

  60. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 409.

  61. Ibid., 50, 187, 406, 808–9.

  62. These “insurgent Negroes” were later recaptured by the Confederate army and marched into Jackson. Allen, Reconstruction, 43.

  63. Charles L. Perdue, Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips, eds., Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves (Charlottesville, Va., 1976), 291.

  64. Garfield, Works, 1:11.

  65. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 532–34.

  66. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 239.

  67. McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 252.

  68. Louis S. Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman: Federal Policy toward Southern Blacks, 1861–1865 (Westport, Conn., 1973), 169.

  69. OR, ser. 3, 2:276–77.

  70. ALCW, 5:329–31.

  71. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 225.

  72. Ibid., 211; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 37.

  73. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 217–18.

  74. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 15, 290.

  75. Ibid., 726.

  76. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 214.

  77. Ibid., 215.

  78. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 300.

  79. Ibid., 37, 306; Elizabeth Ware Pearson, Letters from Port Royal 1862–1868 (New York, 1969), 220. Emphasis added.

  80. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 274–75; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 60; A Digest of the Military Laws of the United States: From 1860 to the Second Session of the Fortieth Congress, 1867, Relating to the Army, Volunteers, Militia, and the Rebellion and Reconstruction of the Southern States (Boston, 1868), 84; ALCW, 6:457.

  81. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 273–74; ALCW, 7:98–99.

  82. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 286–87; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 282–83.

  83. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 276–77; OR, ser. 3, 4:119.

  84. The Salmon P. Chase Papers, ed. John Niven (Kent, Ohio, 1993–98), 4:293.

  85. Eric Foner, “Thaddeus Stevens, Confiscation, and Reconstruction,” in Foner, Politics and Ideology, 131–32.

  86. ALCW, 5:329–31.

  87. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 36.

  88. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 287–90.

  89. Edward Royce, The Origins of Southern Sharecropping (Philadelphia, 1993), 89; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 310. Chase’s biographer, who is also the editor of his papers, concludes that Lincoln’s Treasury secretary had “finally capitulated to what he saw as the political imperatives of private enterprise.” John Niven, Salmon P. Chase: A Biography (New York, 1995), 329.

  90. Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne; Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina 1862–1864, ed. Rupert Sargent Holland (Cambridge, Mass., 1912), 101; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 297–98, 302.

  91. Pearson, Letters from Port Royal, 276–77.

  92. Ibid.

  93. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 291.

  94. Ibid., 298–99.

  95. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 298.

  96. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 307.

  97. Steven Joseph Ross, “Freed Soil, Freed Labor, Freed Men: John Eaton and the Davis Bend Experiment,” Journal of Southern History 44 (1978): 218; Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, 175.

  98. Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 86.

  99. Hermann, Pursuit of a Dream, 42–43; Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 163–64; Currie, Enclave, 94.

100. Ross, “Freed Soil,” 219.

101. Ibid., 222.

102. Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 165; Hermann, Pursuit of a Dream, 48–62.

103. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 497.

104. Ibid., 47.

105. OR, ser. 1, 15:667.

106. Peyton McCrary, Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction: The Louisiana Experiment (Princeton, N.J., 1978), 115–19, 154–55.

107. Ibid., 119–21, 154–55; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 364–66.

108. Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 134; OR, ser. 3, 4:166–70; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 643.

109. Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, 171; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Upper South, 120–21, 208–9, 214; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 24–25, 39, 70–71, 660–64.

110. Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 163; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 645f.

111. Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, 170.

112. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 632.

113. Ibid., 683. Original emphasis.

114. Ibid., 632.

115. Ibid., 147–48, 633.

116. Ibid., 743–44.

117. ALCW, 7:54.

118. McPherson, Political History, 148.

119. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 66.

120. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 298.

121. Ibid., 313.

122. Botume, First Days with the Contrabands, 169.

123. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 455.

124. Ibid., 426–27.

125. Ibid., 455.

126. Ibid., 356–58, 367.

127. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Upper South, 68.

128. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 69.

129. Pearson, Letters from Port Royal, 275.

130. Sitterson, Sugar Country, 221.

131. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 52, 353.

132. Ash, When the Yankees Came, 167; Martha Jane Brazy, An American Planter: Stephen Duncan of Antebellum Natchez and New York (Baton Rouge, 2006).

133. Sitterson, Sugar Country, 221.

134. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 423.

135. Ibid., 761.

136. ALCW, 7:54–55.

137. Ibid., 7:1–2.

138. Chase, Papers, 4:203–4.

139. ALCW, 7:145, 51.

140. OR, ser. 3, 4:169.

141. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 638.

142. Ibid., 779. Original emphasis.

143. Ibid., 58.

Chapter Seven. Cracks in the Walls Widen

   1. Gary W. Gallagher, The Confederate War (Cambridge, Mass., 1997), 56–57.

   2. See especially Aaron Sheehan-Dean, Why Confederates Fought: Family and Nation in Civil War Virginia (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2007); Rubin, Shattered Nation; and Gary W. Gallagher, “Disaffection, Persistence, and Nation: Some Directions in Recent Scholarship on the Confederacy,” Civil War History 55 (2009): 329–53.

   3. Bernard Nelson, “Confederate Slave Impressment Legislation, 1861–1865,” Journal of Negro History 31 (1946): 394–400; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 116.

   4. Thomas, Confederate Nation, 196; Thomas B. Alexander and Richard E. Beringer, The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress (Nashville, 1972), 139.

   5. Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 6, 1863; Blair, Virginia’s Private War, 121–22.

   6. Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 11, 1863.

   7. Secret and Sacred: The Diaries of James Henry Hammond, a Southern Slaveholder, ed. Carol Bleser (New York, 1988), 296–97.

   8. The Alabama Department of Archives and History, in Montgomery, holds the original diary of Sarah Espy. Its text can be found online at http://files.usgwarchives.org/al/cherokee/history/espy_diary_4.txt.

   9. General W. L. Walker to General Thomas Jordan, November 18, 1862, Records of Military Commands, Department of Ga., S.C., and Fla., series 12, Letters Received, W-86, RG 109, NA.

  10. OR, ser. 4, 2:999.

  11. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 778–79; OR, ser. 4, 3:41–42.

  12. OR, ser. 1, vol. 331, pt. 3, 707, 712, 746. That the Richmond regime never enforced a policy of removing slaves from the path of Union armies is reflected in the urgent call by a group of Confederate governors in October 1864 to do just that. See OR, ser. 4, 3:735–36.

  13. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 710–11; OR, ser. 1, vol. 28, pt. 2, 533.

  14. OR, ser. 4, 2:421.

  15. Ibid., 998.

  16. Edmondston Diary, 529.

  17. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 125.

  18. OR, ser. 1, 14:915.

  19. Ibid., vol. 28, pt. 2, 532.

  20. Berlin, Destruction of Slavery, 705.

  21. Letters of Warren Akin, Confederate Congressman, ed. Bell Irvin Wiley (Athens, Ga., 1959), 33.

  22. Gary W. Gallagher, ed., The Wilderness Campaign (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2006), 37.

  23. Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 6, 1863.

  24. Memphis Appeal, November 18, 1863.

  25. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 629.

  26. Ibid., 618–19.

  27. Thomas, Confederate Nation, 198.

  28. Escott, After Secession, 153; Confederate States of America, Department of the Treasury, Documents Accompanying Report of Secretary of the Treasury, http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/confederate-states-of-america-dept-of-the-treasu/documents-accompanying-report-of-secretary-of-the-treasury-fno/page-2-documents-accompanying-report-of-secretary-of-the-treasury-fno.shtml.

  29. Manning, What This Cruel War Was Over, 133.

  30. Chandra Manning, “The Order of Nature Would be Reversed: Soldiers, Slavery, and the North Carolina Gubernatorial Election of 1864,” in North Carolinians in the Era of Civil War and Reconstruction, ed. Paul D. Escott (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2008), 108.

  31. John Christopher Schwab, The Confederate States of America, 1861–1865 (New York, 1901), 295–96. The Confederate Congress later amended the law to allow payment in cash to substitute for payment in kind.

  32. Blair, Virginia’s Private War, 121.

  33. Mark Thornton and Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., Tariffs, Blockades, and Inflation: The Economics of the Civil War (Wilmington, Del., 2004), 72–73.

  34. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, 482; William C. Davis, Jefferson Davis: The Man and His Hour, 496.

  35. Sara Agnes Rice Pryor, Reminiscences of Peace and War (New York, 1904), 238.

  36. Thomas, Confederate Nation, 202–4; E. Merton Coulter, The Confederate States of America (Baton Rouge, 1950), 422–23; Jones Diary, 1:284–86; Mary Elizabeth Massey, Ersatz in the Confederacy: Shortages and Substitutes on the Southern Homefront (1952; reprint, Columbia, S.C., 1993), 165–66; Davis, Jefferson Davis: A Memoir by His Wife, 2:373–76; The quoted words come from Jefferson Davis’s unfinished draft autobiography, which Varina cited frequently in her own volumes.

  37. Thomas, Confederate Nation, 204–5; Coulter, Confederate States of America, 423; Jones Diary, 2:101.

  38. Edmondston Diary, 378.

  39. Barrett, Civil War in North Carolina, 166; Edmondston Diary, 378n; McKinney, Zeb Vance, 163.

  40. Blair, Virginia’s Private War, 100.

  41. Jones Diary, 1:381, 2:48, 66–68, 90; Thomas, Confederate Nation, 234–35.

  42. Ash, When the Yankees Came, 191.

  43. Blair, Virginia’s Private War, 100.

  44. Bessie Martin, A Rich Man’s War, A Poor Man’s Fight: Desertion of Alabama Troops from the Confederate Army (1932; reprint, Tuscaloosa, Ala., 2003), 128, 163–65, 185; Joe A. Mobley, Weary of War: Life on the Confederate Home Front (Westport, Conn., 2008), 43–48; Blair, Virginia’s Private War, 70–76, 93–104; Escott, After Secession, 128–29.

  45. Thomas Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 200; Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 255–56, 302.

  46. Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 307–8.

  47. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 174–77.

  48. Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 302–4.

  49. Vance Papers, 2:181.

  50. Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 206.

  51. Ibid., 213.

  52. Ibid., 223.

  53. Ibid., 270–71.

  54. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 170.

  55. The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth, ed. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton (Raleigh, N.C., 1909), 1:247.

  56. McPherson, Tried by War, 171–72.

  57. Rubin, Shattered Nation, 83.

  58. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 295.

  59. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 176.

  60. OR, ser. 1, vol. 29, pt. 2, 710; ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 763–65, 777–78; The Papers of William Woods Holden, ed. Horace W. Raper and Thornton W. Mitchell (Raleigh, N.C., 2000–), 1:140–44; Barrett, Civil War in North Carolina, 195.

  61. OR, ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 765.

  62. Ibid., vol. 29, pt. 2, 710; vol. 51, pt. 2, 763–65, 777–78; Holden, Papers, 1:140–44; Barrett, Civil War in North Carolina, 195.

  63. OR, ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 765.

  64. Ibid., vol. 51, pt. 2, 740.

  65. Vance Papers, 2:318–19.

  66. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 200.

  67. OR, ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 807.

  68. Gordon B. McKinney, “Layers of Loyalty: Confederate Nationalism and Amnesty Letters from Western North Carolina,” Civil War History (2005): 5; also McKinney, Zeb Vance, 261–62.

  69. OR, ser. 1, vol. 24, pt. 3, 549.

  70. The words come from a summary of that letter in Jones Diary, 2:16.

  71. Once a Stephen Douglas supporter, he had later become an active secessionist. Eventually judging the war to be lost, however, Humphreys changed his allegiance once again. Fleming, “The Peace Movement in Alabama,” South Atlantic Quarterly 2 (1903): 122.

  72. The New York Times, March 24, 1864.

  73. OR, ser. 4, 3:393–98; Georgia Lee Tatum, Disloyalty in the Confederacy (1934; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 2000), 26–32, 43–44, 66–67; Walter L. Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (New York, 1905), 15, 143, 146–47, 342–43; Fleming, “Peace Movement,” 259.

  74. Such was evidently the case in Georgia. See Rod Andrew, Jr., “The Essential Nationalism of the People: Georgia’s Confederate Congressional Elections of 1863,” in Gordon and Inscoe, Inside the Confederate Nation, 128–46.

  75. George C. Rable, The Confederate Republic: A Revolution against Politics (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1994), 219.

  76. James Graham Ramsey (a former Whig-unionist who owned five slaves) opposed the tax in kind, impressment, the draft, the “twenty negro” draft exemption, and the suspension of habeas corpus. Josiah Turner had resisted secession even after the firing on Fort Sumter. George W. Logan was a consistent opponent of secession who declared in 1863 that peace was “the only practical issue now before the people” and the one “upon which the election must turn.” Planter James T. Leach had also opposed disunion in 1860–61 and later rejected the tax in kind, impressment, and the planter exemption. Just a few months before his election, he publicly called for peace through reunion, provided that the southern states could retain slavery. As a Confederate congressman, he called on North Carolina to seek a separate peace with the Union on the best terms possible. Samuel H. Christian was a textile manufacturer and planter who owned more than forty slaves. Declaring the southern war effort to be hopeless, he called on the seceded states to meet in convention to consider seeking an armistice and a negotiated peace with the Union. Christian’s opponent was the incumbent, Thomas S. Ashe, another onetime unionist who had metamorphosed into a firm Confederate. In the election, Christian swamped Ashe, winning almost two-thirds of all the ballots cast. See Rable,Confederate Republic, 97, 227, 230, 233; McKinney, Zeb Vance, 192; Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 205, 229–31; and Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina (New York, 1914), 55.

  77. Parks, Joseph E. Brown, 257, 269.

  78. Rable, Confederate Republic, 216.

  79. Ibid., 216–18; Steven Hahn, The Roots of Southern Populism: Yeoman Farmers and the Transformation of the Georgia Upcountry (New York, 1983), 130; Louise Biles Hill, Joseph E. Brown and the Confederacy (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1939), 137.

  80. Benjamin H. Micou to Judah P. Benjamin, August 10, 1863, Confederate States of America records, Manuscript Division, LC; Robert Douthat Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, Confederate Statesman (New York, 1943), 66, 289.

  81. Watts received three times as many votes as Shorter. Malcolm Cook McMillan, Disintegration of a Confederate State: Three Governors and Alabama’s Wartime Home Front, 1861–1865 (Macon, Ga., 1986), 55.

  82. Ibid., 68–70.

  83. Rable, Confederate Republic, 220–21; McMillan, Disintegration of a Confederate State, 52–55, 67–70; Malcolm C. McMillan, Alabama Confederate Reader (1963; reprint, Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1992), 236–37.

  84. McMillan, Disintegration of a Confederate State, 65. Thanks to Professor Mills Thornton for information about the process by which the 1861 legislature made its decisions concerning the Confederate Senate.

  85. Curry lost the election by a margin of two to one. Rable, Confederate Republic, 228–29; Rise and Fall of the Confederacy: The Memoir of Senator William S. Oldham, C.S.A., ed. Clayton E. Jewett (Columbia, Mo., 2006), 57.

  86. OR, ser. 4, 2:726–27.

  87. Rable, Confederate Republic, 348n33; McMillan, Alabama Confederate Reader, 236, 239.

  88. Fleming, “Peace Movement in Alabama,” 246n. Sarah Woolfolk Wiggins, The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 1865–1881 (Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1977), 6; Willis Brewer, Alabama, Her History, Resources, War Record, and Public Men: From 1540 to 1872 (Montgomery, Ala., 1872), 286–87; Wilfred Buck Yearns, The Confederate Congress(Athens, Ga., 1960), 251n.

  89. Benjamin H. Micou to Judah P. Benjamin, August 10, 1863, Confederate States of America records, Manuscript Division, LC; Meade, Judah P. Benjamin, 66, 289.

  90. Kean Diary, 177; Alexander and Beringer, Anatomy of the Confederate Congress, 133, 163, 336–37.

  91. Ella Lonn, Desertion during the Civil War (1928; reprint, Lincoln, Neb., 1998), 29; American Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1863 (New York, 1864), 18–19.

  92. Drew Faust, “Altars of Sacrifice: Confederate Women and the Narratives of War,” Journal of American History 76 (1990): 1200–28.

  93. Mobile Register and Advertiser, November 21, 1963.

  94. Peter S. Carmichael, The Last Generation: Young Virginians in Peace, War, and Reunion (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2005), 154–61; Gallagher, Confederate War, 31–32; Lonn, Desertion during the Civil War, 232.

  95. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 412.

  96. Martin, Rich Man’s War, 126–27.

  97. OR, ser. 1, vol. 25, pt. 2, 814; Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 196.

  98. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 49.

  99. The quoted words are a paraphrase of Caperton’s message that War Department clerk John B. Jones confided to his diary. Jones Diary, 2:30.

100. Blair, Virginia’s Private War, 59.

101. OR, ser. 4, 2:786.

102. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 144–46.

103. Martin, Rich Man’s War, 114.

104. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 147.

105. Hahn, Roots of Southern Populism, 131.

106. Martin, Rich Man’s War, 114.

107. Victoria Bynum, The Free State of Jones: Mississippi’s Longest Civil War (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2001), 100, 103.

108. Ibid., 84, 98–99, 104.

109. Ibid., 106–8.

110. OR, ser. 1, vol. 32, pt. 3, 711–14.

111. Ibid., vol. 32, pt. 3, 662–63.

112. Bynum, Free State of Jones, 124.

113. William T. Auman and David D. Scarboro, “The Heroes of America in Civil War North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review 58 (1981): 327, 350–51; OR, ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 840, 881; 33:1303.

114. Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 125–27, 151, 154–56, 163, 168–69; Vance Papers, 1:386, 393, 398–99, 445.

115. OR, ser. 4, 2:783–85.

116. Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 238.

117. OR, ser. 4, 2:674, 731–34; Vance Papers, 2:249–55.

118. Barrett, Civil War in North Carolina, 192–94.

119. Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 290–91.

120. Lisa Laskin, “ ‘The Army Is Not Near So Much Demoralized as the Country Is’: Soldiers in the Army of Northern Virginia and the Confederate Home Front,” in The View from the Ground: Experiences of Civil War Soldiers, ed. Aaron Sheehan-Dean (Lexington, Ky., 2007), 91–120.

121. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 149–50.

122. Daniel, Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee, 137.

123. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 176–77.

124. Manning, “Order of Nature Would Be Reversed,” 108.

125. OR, ser. 1, vol. 26, pt. 2, 550.

126. Ibid.

127. Ibid., 548–58.

128. Martin, Rich Man’s War, 117.

129. Vance Papers, 2:318–19.

130. Ash, When the Yankees Came, 128; Current, Lincoln’s Loyalists, 213–18.

131. Edmondston Diary, 242–43. Edmondston seemed quite unaware that her words implicitly conceded the existence of big pockets of poverty in the Confederacy.

Chapter Eight. A Ray of Light Shines Briefly through the Rafters

   1. Donald Bruce Johnson, comp., National Party Platforms, rev. ed. (Urbana, Ill., 1978), 1:35–36.

   2. Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (New York, 2010), 293.

   3. Ibid., 290–94; Michael Vorenberg, Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment (Cambridge, UK, 2001), 94–102, 137–38; McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 125–27.

   4. Foner, Fiery Trial, 274–79.

   5. ALCW, 7:380, 435, 440–42, 451; McPherson, Tried by War, 234–35.

   6. ALCW, 7:410.

   7. Proceedings of the National Convention of Colored Men Held in the City of Syracuse, N. Y., October 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1864; with the Bill of Wrongs and Rights, and the Address to the American People (Boston, 1864).

   8. ALCW, 7:243. Lincoln’s recommendation was ignored.

   9. Albert Castel, Decision in the West: The Atlanta Campaign of 1864 (Lawrence, Kans., 1995), 26.

  10. OR, ser. 1, vol. 38, pt. 1, 1–2.

  11. McPherson, Tried by War, 209–14.

  12. Castel, Decision in the West, 111, 350; McPherson, Tried by War, 213–14.

  13. McPherson, Tried by War, 219.

  14. OR, ser. 1, vol. 29, pt. 2, 859.

  15. Gallagher, Confederate War, 39.

  16. Castel, Decision in the West, 365, 453.

  17. Ibid., 479.

  18. Ibid., 321.

  19. Ibid., 327.

  20. Mark Grimsley, And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May–June 1864 (Lincoln, Neb., 2002), 224.

  21. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 215, 229; Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 334–35.

  22. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 217–22; Manning, “Order of Nature Would Be Reversed,” 101–28.

  23. Rubin, Shattered Nation, 34.

  24. Castel, Decision in the West, 479.

  25. Redkey, A Grand Army of Black Men, 111.

  26. John S. Wise, The End of an Era (Boston, 1899), 366.

  27. Confederate artillery officer Edward Porter Alexander confirmed all this in his memoirs: “Some of the Negro prisoners who were originally allowed to surrender by some soldiers, were afterward shot by others, & there was, without doubt, a great deal of unnecessary killing of them.” Alexander, Military Memoirs, 462; James I. Robertson, ed., “ ‘The Boy Artillerist’: Letters of Colonel William Pegram, C.S.A.,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 98 (1990): 243; Bryce A. Suderow, “The Battle of the Crater,” in Urwin, Black Flag over Dixie, 203–9. An officer in the Ninth Alabama regiment was embarrassed to admit that his men “took some of the negroes prisoner.” But he firmly denied this proved his men too easygoing, considering “the numbers we had already slain.” George S. Burkhardt, Confederate Rage, Yankee Wrath: No Quarter in the Civil War (Carbondale, Ill., 2007), 159–74.

  28. Castel, Decision in the West, 476.

  29. Ibid., 444–45.

  30. Johnson, National Party Platforms, 1:34–35.

  31. Schott, Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, 425. Robert E. Lee had expressed a similar view a year earlier. Lee to Davis, June 10, 1863, in Dowdey, Wartime Papers of R. E. Lee, 507–9.

  32. ALCW, 7:514.

  33. Glyndon Van Deusen, William Henry Seward (New York, 1967), 306.

  34. ALCW, 7:500.

  35. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 159.

  36. Castel, Decision in the West, 483.

  37. Ibid., 389, 527.

  38. Myers, Children of Pride, 1203.

  39. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 645.

  40. PJD, 11:58–60.

  41. William C. Davis, Jefferson Davis: The Man and His Hour, 565–67; Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 6:341–42.

  42. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 525–26.

  43. Faust, Mothers of Invention, 244.

  44. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 694.

  45. Sallie A. Brock Putnam, Richmond during the War: Four Years of Personal Observation (Lincoln, Neb., 1997), 345.

  46. Sara Agnes Rice Pryor, Reminiscences of Peace and War, rev. ed. (New York, 1905), 325.

  47. Faust, Mothers of Invention, 244.

  48. Pryor, Reminiscences of Peace and War, 326.

  49. Stone, Brokenburn, 293.

  50. Castel, Decision in the West, 543.

  51. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 429–33.

  52. According to Michael Vorenberg, by this point even Democratic Party leaders recognized that taking “a proslavery position meant political suicide” for them. Vorenberg, Final Freedom, 165.

  53. Papers Relating to Foreign Affairs, Accompanying the Annual Message of the President to the Second Session Thirty-Eighth Congress, pt. 2 (Washington, 1865), 368.

  54. Gorgas Journals, 139; J. Tracy Power, Lee’s Miserables: Life in the Army of Northern Virginia from the Wilderness to Appomattox (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1998), 218–19.

  55. William T. Sherman, Memoirs (New York, 1875), 2:152.

  56. Ibid., 179.

  57. According to one estimate, only a third of Georgia’s military-age white men were under arms by October. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 150.

  58. F. Kendall to Jefferson Davis, September 16, 1864, K-73-1864, WD/LR, RG 109, NA. Original emphasis.

  59. OR, ser. 1, vol. 38, pt. 5, 299.

  60. Governor Joseph E. Brown, message to the General Assembly of Ga., March 10, 1864, in The Confederate Records of the State of Georgia, ed. Allen D. Candler (Athens, Ga., 1909), 2:594–95.

  61. Joseph P. Reidy, From Slavery to Agrarian Capitalism in the Cotton Plantation South: Central Georgia, 1800–1880 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1992), 128–35.

  62. Sherman, Sherman’s Civil War, 794; Clarence L. Mohr, On the Threshold of Freedom: Masters and Slaves in Civil War Georgia (Athens, Ga., 1986), 95.

  63. John E. Marszalek, Sherman: A Soldier’s Passion for Order (New York, 1993), 45–46.

  64. Sherman, Sherman’s Civil War, 293.

  65. Clarence L. Mohr, “The Atlanta Campaign and the African American Experience in Civil War Georgia,” in Gordon and Inscoe, Inside the Confederate Nation, 280–81.

  66. Joseph T. Glatthaar, The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman’s Troops in the Savannah and Carolina Campaigns (New York, 1985), 63.

  67. OR, ser. 1, vol. 38, pt. 5, 136–37, 210; ser. 3, 4:433–34, 454–55; ALCW, 7:448–49.

  68. Sherman, Sherman’s Civil War, 454.

  69. Ibid., 700.

  70. Ibid., 454.

  71. Sherman “like[d] niggers well enough as niggers,” but to make them equal to whites would encourage intermarriage, the doleful results of which he thought were on display for all to see in “the Mixed race in Mexico and South America.” If truth be told, for that matter, blacks were not even “qualified for utter and complete freedom.” Before they would be, they should first “pass through a probationary state.” Sherman evidently had in mind the kind of subordinate caste status imposed upon technically free blacks in the prewar South as well as many parts of the North. But if the Union were to arm black men now, Sherman fretted, they would afterward reject the probationary stage. “If negroes are to fight,” he told the secretary of war, they will “not be content with sliding back into the status of slave or free negro.” OR, ser. 1, vol. 39, pt. 2, 132; Sherman, Sherman’s Civil War, 727–28, 740.

  72. Nathaniel Cheairs Hughes, Jr., and Gordon D. Whitney, Jefferson Davis in Blue: The Life of Sherman’s Relentless Warrior (Baton Rouge, 2006), 308–14; Glatthaar, March to the Sea and Beyond, 64.

  73. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 128; Jacqueline Jones, Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War (New York, 2008), 202.

  74. Glatthaar, March to the Sea and Beyond, 54–58.

  75. Clarke, Dwelling Place, 440.

  76. Mohr, “Atlanta Campaign,” 283.

  77. Mohr, On the Threshold of Freedom, 111.

  78. Castel, Decision in the West, 549.

  79. George W. Pepper, Personal Recollections of Sherman’s Campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas (Zanesville, Ohio, 1866), 248.

  80. Thomas Diary, 247.

  81. Ibid., 249.

  82. Pepper, Personal Recollections, 172.

  83. Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 122–23.

  84. Harry W. Slocum, “Sherman’s March from Savannah to Bentonville,” Battles and Leaders, 4:688–690.

  85. Botume, First Days amongst the Contrabands, 169.

  86. Glatthaar, March to the Sea and Beyond, 61.

  87. Sherman, Memoirs, 2:180–81.

  88. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 2:331–38.

  89. Marszalek, Sherman, 313; Benjamin P. Thomas and Harold Hyman, Stanton: The Life and Times of Lincoln’s Secretary of War (New York, 1962), 343; OR, ser. 1, vol. 39, pt. 3, 428.

  90. OR, ser. 1, 44:836–37.

  91. Thomas and Hyman, Stanton, 343–44.

  92. Josef C. James, “Sherman at Savannah,” Journal of Negro History 39 (1954): 127–37; Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard (New York, 1907), 189; Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, vol. 2, 331–38.

  93. George Ward Nichols, The Story of the Great March from the Diary of a Staff Officer (New York, 1865), 102.

  94. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 331–38.

  95. Marszalek, Sherman, 314–15.

  96. The testimony of General Rufus Saxton, in Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Washington, D.C., 1866), pt. 2, 221; ALCW, 7:54–55.

  97. Allston, South Carolina Rice Plantation, 199–200, 291–92, 292–93.

  98. Ibid., 310.

  99. Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 255.

100. Ibid., 168, 371.

101. Galveston Tri-Weekly News, December 30, 1864.

102. Ruffin Diary, 3:692.

103. Myers, Children of Pride, 1244.

104. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 694.

105. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 6:341–43.

106. PJD, 11:66n.

107. Power, Lee’s Miserables, 228.

108. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 415, 440; Power, Lee’s Miserables, 212, 227.

109. Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 398–99.

110. Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 325–27.

111. Ibid., 347, 377–79.

112. Ibid., 372.

113. Ibid., 375–80.

114. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 236; Auman, “Neighbor against Neighbor,” 385–409.

115. OR, ser. 1, 53:391.

116. Wiley, Plain People of the Confederacy, 67.

117. Macon Telegraph and Confederate, November 5, December 13, 1864; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 171.

118. Thomas Diary, 252.

119. OR, ser. 4, 3:707, 710.

120. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 409.

121. Anonymous to Jefferson Davis, September 16, 1864, A-198-1864, WD/LR, RG 109, NA. See also Anonymous to Secretary of War, November 17, 1865 [misfiled: probably 1864], A-7-1865, WD/LR, RG 109, NA.

122. Anonymous to Secretary of War, November 17, 1865, A-7-1865, WD/LR, RG 109, NA.

123. W. A. Chrica, Kingston, S.C., to Seddon, n.d., but marked received October 18, 1864, WD/LR, C-534, RG 109, NA.

124. Cornelia Peake McDonald, A Woman’s Civil War: A Diary with Reminiscences of the War from March 1862 (Madison, Wis., 1992), 224.

125. OR, ser. 4, 3:354.

Chapter Nine. Feeling the Timbers Shudder

   1. Harrison Anthony Trexler, Slavery in Missouri, 1804–1865 (Baltimore, 1914), 208–33; Cimprich, Slavery’s End in Tennessee, 116; Foner, Fiery Trial, 278–80; Vorenberg, Final Freedom, 171–72.

   2. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 6:384–87.

   3. Richmond Examiner, January 28, 1865.

   4. Ibid., February 1, 1865.

   5. OR, ser. 4, 3:707, 710.

   6. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 661.

   7. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 645.

   8. OR, ser. 1, 53:392.

   9. Colonel Geo. W. Guess to Mrs. Sarah H. Cockrell, January 5, 1865, George W. Guess Letters, Mss. 793, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Special Collections, Louisiana State University Libraries.

  10. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 126.

  11. Green Mount, A Virginia Plantation Family during the Civil War: Being the Journal of Benjamin Robert Fleet and Letters of His Family, ed. Betsy Fleet and John D. P. Fuller (Lexington, Ky., 1962), 349; Craig M. Simpson, A Good Southerner: The Life of Henry A. Wise of Virginia (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1985), 281.

  12. Macon Telegraph and Confederate, January 5, 1865.

  13. Akin, Letters, 117.

  14. Galveston Tri-Weekly News, February 5, 1865.

  15. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 11:394–97.

  16. See chapter 2, 44.

  17. OR, ser. 2, 3:653.

  18. Ibid., ser. 4, 3:1160.

  19. Thomas Donaldson, Notes of a Conversation with Duncan Farrar Kenner, New York City, October 19, 1882, Duncan Farrar Kenner Collection, Manuscript Division, LC; Craig A. Bauer, A Leader among Peers: The Life and Times of Duncan Farrar Kenner (Lafayette, La., 1993), 216–35; Frank Lawrence Owsley, King Cotton Diplomacy: Foreign Relations of the Confederate States of America ([Chicago], 1959), 532–34.

  20. Richardson, Compilation of the Messages and Papers, 2:694–97; William Wirt Henry, “Kenner’s Mission to Europe,” William and Mary Quarterly 25 (1916), 9–12.

  21. For the same reason, Kenner’s mission began in strict secrecy. But word of its existence soon leaked out. And when John Forsyth, the editor of the Mobile Register and Advertiser, wrote Davis to urge such a diplomatic overture, the president tipped his hand. “You will appreciate the obligation of reticence imposed upon me in these matters,” he replied in late February, but he could “perceive no discordance” between them about the suggestion and even asked the editor’s help in preparing public opinion for it. Richmond Dispatch, December 30, 1864; Howard Jones, Blue and Gray Diplomacy: A History of Union and Confederate Foreign Relations (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2010), 318; PJD, 11:266, 413.

  22. Richardson, Compilation of the Messages and Papers, 233–37; Owsley, King Cotton Diplomacy, 536–41.

  23. Richmond Dispatch, February 6, 1865.

  24. If the Confederate leader had really expected Lincoln to modify that stance at the forthcoming meeting, he would surely have sent to it men he agreed with and trusted, not three who were all by then identified with Richmond’s own peace faction.

  25. Allen C. Guelzo, Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1999), 400–401; Foner, Fiery Trial, 310–14.

  26. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 550–51; McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, 822–23; ALCW, 8:279; Grant, Personal Memoirs, 2:591.

  27. McPherson, Political History, 571.

  28. Richmond Enquirer, February 9, 1865.

  29. Ernest B. Furguson, Ashes of Glory: Richmond at War (New York, 1996), 292.

  30. Richmond Sentinel, February 22, 1865.

  31. Sheehan-Dean, Why Confederates Fought, 184.

  32. Edward A. Pollard, Life of Jefferson Davis (Philadelphia, [1869]), 473.

  33. Putnam, Richmond during the War, 350.

  34. North Carolina General Assembly, Resolutions against the Policy of Arming Slaves (Richmond, Va., 1865). The resolutions were ratified on February 3, 1865.

  35. Furguson, Ashes of Glory, 308.

  36. The Charleston Mercury, January 26, 1865.

  37. Macon Telegraph and Confederate, October 29, 1864.

  38. Richmond Whig, November 12, 1864.

  39. The Charleston Mercury, November 19, 1864.

  40. Macon Telegraph and Confederate, January 6, 1865.

  41. McKinney, Zeb Vance, 237–38.

  42. Richmond Sentinel, November 24, 1864.

  43. Richmond Enquirer, January 12, 1865.

  44. Macon Daily Telegraph and Confederate, January 6, 1865.

  45. Letter, signed “H.,” Galveston Tri-Weekly News, February 13, 1865.

  46. Richmond Sentinel, December 28, 1864.

  47. OR, ser. 1, vol. 52, pt. 2, 591.

  48. A. S. Colyar to Colonel A. S. Marks, January 30, 1864, in “General Cleburne’s Views on Slavery,” The Annals of the Army of Tennessee and Early Western History 1 (1978): 50–52.

  49. OR ser. 4, 3:959–60. Emphasis added.

  50. Richmond Examiner, February 25, 1865.

  51. Lynchburg Virginian, February 18, March 24, 1865.

  52. Jones Diary, 2:353–54.

  53. The Daily Confederate, April 5, 1865.

  54. Richmond Sentinel, January 4, 1865.

  55. Jones Diary, 2:353–54.

  56. Confederate States of America, House of Representatives, Select Committee on Increase of Military Force, Mr. Rogers’ Minority Report (Richmond, Va., 1865).

  57. The Charleston Mercury, January 13, 1865.

  58. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 696.

  59. Richmond Whig, November 8, 1864.

  60. OR, ser. 4, 3:798.

  61. Robert E. Lee to John C. Breckinridge, March 14, 1865, Army of Northern Virginia Headquarters Papers, Robert E. Lee Papers, VHS.

  62. Lee to Barksdale, February 18, 1865, as published in the Richmond Sentinel, February 23, 1865.

  63. Richmond Enquirer, November 12, 1864.

  64. Frank Vandiver, “Proceedings of the Second Confederate Congress,” Southern Historical Society Papers (SHSP), n.s., 52:329.

  65. Ibid., 52:330.

  66. The Virginia legislature also overrode state laws that forbade black people to bear arms. OR, ser. 1, vol. 51, pt. 2, 1068; vol. 46, pt. 3, 1315.

  67. Vandiver, “Proceedings of the Second Confederate Congress,” SHSP, 52:464–65.

  68. Ibid., 52:470; PJD, 11:460.

  69. OR, ser. 4, 3:1161–62.

  70. Ibid., 3:1193–94, 1144; Lynchburg Virginian, March 18, 1865. Evidently no recruiters were sent to North Carolina, perhaps because its legislature had so firmly rejected the whole idea.

  71. Richmond Examiner, March 9, 1865.

  72. OR, ser. 1, vol. 46, pt. 2, 1237–38.

  73. Richmond Examiner, March 21, 1865; Richmond Dispatch, March 22 and 24, 1865; Lynchburg Virginian, March 23, 1865.

  74. Richmond Examiner, March 22, 1865; Lynchburg Virginian, March 24, 1865.

  75. Richmond Examiner, March 27, 1865; Richmond Whig, April 29, 1865; Richmond Times-Dispatch, April 30, 1910; OR, ser. 2, 6:852–53.

  76. Richard L. Maury Diary, entry for March 23, 1865, Manuscript Division, VHS; Nelson Lankford, Richmond Burning: The Last Days of the Confederate Capital (New York, 2002), 34; Pollard, Life of Jefferson Davis, 456; Richard S. Ewell to L. C. [Lizinka Campbell Brown] Ewell, May 12, 1865, Brown-Ewell Family Papers, Filson Historical Society.

  77. Thomas Hughes, A Boy’s Experience in the Civil War, 1860–1865 (Baltimore, 1904), 12–13.

  78. Pollard, Life of Jefferson Davis, 456.

  79. Macon Telegraph and Confederate, November 2, 1864.

  80. Graham Papers, 6:274.

  81. Ibid., 6:284.

  82. North Carolina General Assembly, Resolutions Against the Policy of Arming Slaves (Richmond, Va. 1865).

  83. Edmondston Diary, 653.

  84. Lynchburg Virginian, March 16, 1865.

  85. Richmond Enquirer, January 28, 1865.

  86. Jones Diary, 2:416.

  87. Kean Diary, 183.

  88. Graham Papers, 6:216.

  89. Putnam, Richmond during the War, 350; Kean Diary, 202–3.

  90. Graham Papers, 6:46.

  91. Ibid., 6:224–25.

  92. Ibid.

  93. Kean Diary, 194–98.

  94. As Hunter detailed in 1870, he had heard the same things at Hampton Roads that Campbell and Stephens did. Even if surrender and abolition were “inevitable,” he had therefore wondered, wasn’t it “worth the effort to save as much as possible from the wreck?” He believed that the South should explore further the terms of reunion. Surely the North, for its own reasons, would strive “to make them as tolerable as possible.” But when Hunter expressed this opinion to Jefferson Davis following the Hampton Roads conference, Davis stonewalled him. Hunter then (unlike Campbell and Stephens) agreed to help the Confederate president prepare the public to continue the war. See Hunter’s 1870 letter to James M. Mason, published in Virginia Mason, ed., The Public Life and Diplomatic Correspondence of James M. Mason, with Some Personal History (New York, 1906), 596. The former jurist John A. Campbell appended his own opinion that the U.S. Constitution gave its president the power to grant amnesties, and such amnesties would likely secure those who received them in their landed property and even nullify the sales of confiscated real estate that had already taken place. Graham Papers, 6:255.

  95. Graham Papers, 6:232.

  96. Worth, Correspondence, 1:373.

  97. Richmond Enquirer, February 25, 1865.

  98. Ibid.

  99. James Austin Connolly, “Major Connolly’s Letters to His Wife, 1862–1865,” Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society 35 (1928): 379.

100. Nichols, Story of the Great March, 161.

101. OR, ser. 1, 14:523–24.

102. Wilbert L. Jenkins, Seizing the New Day: African Americans in Post–Civil War Charleston (Bloomington, Ind., 2003), 31.

103. Dorothy Sterling, ed., The Trouble They Seen: Black People Tell the Story of Reconstruction (Garden City, N.Y., 1976), 2–3.

104. Dusinberre, Them Dark Days, 375.

105. Allston, South Carolina Rice Plantation, 206–7.

106. Ibid., 210.

107. Rev. L. S. Burkhead, “History of the Difficulties of the Pastorate of the Front Street Methodist Church, Wilmington, N. C., for the Year 1865,” in Historical Papers of the Trinity College Historical Society (Durham, N.C., 1900): 41–43.

108. John G. Barrett, Sherman’s March through the Carolinas (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1996), 137n; Jacqueline Glass Campbell, When Sherman Marched North from the Sea: Resistance on the Confederate Home Front (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2003), 85–86.

109. David P. Conyngham, Sherman’s March through the South (New York, 1865), 355.

110. Campbell, When Sherman Marched North from the Sea, 86.

111. Rawick, American Slave: Composite Autobiography, vol. 14, parts 1 and 2, 270–71.

112. Ibid., 96–97.

113. Campbell, When Sherman Marched North, 86.

114. Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 128.

115. Nichols, The Story of the Great March, 237–38.

116. Southern Confederacy, January 20, 1865.

117. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 678–79.

118. Glatthaar, March to the Sea and Beyond, 12–13, 169, 172.

119. Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 451.

120. Martin, Rich Man’s War, 233.

121. Power, Lee’s Miserables, 261.

122. Lee, Wartime Papers, 938–39.

123. OR, ser. 1, vol. 46, pt. 2, 1254.

Chapter Ten. And the Walls Gave Way: Richmond, Appomattox, and After

   1. Grant, Personal Memoirs, 592.

   2. Furguson, Ashes of Glory, 286.

   3. Bruce Catton, Grant Takes Command (Boston, 1969), 296–301.

   4. Wilson Greene, The Final Battles of the Petersburg Campaign: Breaking the Backbone of the Rebellion (Knoxville, Tenn., 2008), 106.

   5. Lee, Wartime Papers, 912.

   6. Greene, Final Battles, 125.

   7. Furguson, Ashes of Glory, 312.

   8. Brooks D. Simpson, “Facilitating Defeat: The Union High Command and the Collapse of the Confederacy,” in The Collapse of the Confederacy, ed. Mark Grimsley and Brooks D. Simpson (Lincoln, Neb., 2001), 93–95; Greene, Final Battles, 112–141.

   9. Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan (New York, 1888), 2:165.

  10. Greene, Final Battles, 348.

  11. Lee, Wartime Papers, 938–39.

  12. Kean Diary, 205.

  13. William C. Davis, An Honorable Defeat: The Last Days of the Confederate Government (New York, 2001), 57.

  14. Putnam, Richmond during the War, 366.

  15. Ibid., 364.

  16. “Our Women in the War”: The Lives They Lived; The Deaths They Died (Charleston, S.C., 1885), 100.

  17. Stephen R. Mallory, “Last Days of the Confederate Government,” McClure’s Magazine 16 (1900): 101–2.

  18. Thomas Morris Chester Black Civil War Correspondent: His Dispatches from the Virginia Front, ed. R.J.M. Blackett (New York, 1991), 292.

  19. Ibid., 314.

  20. Greene, Final Battles, 344.

  21. Furguson, Ashes of Glory, 325.

  22. Putnam, Richmond during the War, 363.

  23. C. C. Coffin, “Late Scenes in Richmond,” Atlantic Monthly 15 (1865): 751–52.

  24. Blackett, Thomas Morris Chester, 289.

  25. Putnam, Richmond during the War, 367.

  26. Greene, Final Battles, 355.

  27. Noah Andre Trudeau, Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War, 1862–1865 (Boston, 1998), 428.

  28. Blackett, Thomas Morris Chester, 290.

  29. Greene, Final Battles, 355–56.

  30. Furguson, Ashes of Glory, 338.

  31. Ibid., 336.

  32. Douglas Southall Freeman, ed., A Calendar of Confederate Papers, with a Bibliography of Some Confederate Publications (Richmond, Va., 1908), 251–52.

  33. Redkey, Grand Army of Black Men, 175. Emphasis added.

  34. Ibid., 175–78. Emphasis added.

  35. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 183.

  36. McPherson, Tried by War, 261.

  37. Coffin, “Late Scenes in Richmond,” 753–55.

  38. ALCW, 8:389.

  39. OR, ser. 1, vol. 46, pt. 3, 656.

  40. To impress General Weitzel with the importance of permitting this to happen, Campbell warned him—contrary to what he knew to be true—that while “the armies of the Confederacy are diminished in point of numbers … the spirit of the people is not broken and the resources of the country allow of a prolonged and embarrassing resistance.”OR, ser. 1, vol. 46, pt. 3, 656–57.

  41. ALCW, 8:406–7.

  42. Chester, Thomas Morris Chester, 300.

  43. Edward A. Pollard, Southern History of the War (1866; reprint, New York, 1990), 2:507–8.

  44. Thomas, Robert E. Lee, 358–59; Sheridan, Memoirs, 2:180–84.

  45. Thomas, Robert E. Lee, 358.

  46. OR, ser. 1, vol. 34, pt. 1, 54–55; Davis, Honorable Defeat, 108.

  47. Over the next few days, a total of some twenty-six thousand Confederate soldiers straggled into Appomattox to accept the parole. Lee, Wartime Papers, 937–38; Glatthaar, General Lee’s Army, 470.

  48. OR, ser. 1, vol. 34, pt. 1, 56.

  49. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 6:530.

  50. Mallory, “Last Days,” 106–7.

  51. Ibid., 240.

  52. Lee, Wartime Papers, 936.

  53. Jefferson Davis, Constitutionalist, 8:535–39.

  54. Joseph E. Johnston, Narrative of Military Operations (New York, 1874), 400.

  55. OR, ser. 1, vol. 47, pt. 3, 178; Barrett, Civil War in North Carolina, 373.

  56. Johnston, Narrative of Military Operations, 401.

  57. Ibid., 405–7.

  58. Ibid.

  59. Simpson and Berlin, Sherman’s Civil War, 864.

  60. OR, ser. 1, vol. 47, pt. 3, 266.

  61. Ibid., 832–33.

  62. Ibid., 823–24.

  63. Ibid., 828.

  64. Ibid., 294; Welles Diary, 2:294–96.

  65. OR, ser. 1, vol. 47, pt. 3, 835–38.

  66. Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 398–400, 410, 414.

  67. Davis, Honorable Defeat, 221.

  68. PJD, 11:580.

  69. Davis, Honorable Defeat, 214, 248–54, 278.

  70. OR, ser. 1, vol. 48, pt. 1, 190–91. Unable to attend the letter’s signing, the governor of Texas expressed his endorsement through a representative.

  71. Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 418.

  72. Ibid., 421.

  73. Ibid., 419–26.

Conclusion: “We Should Rejoice”

   1. William J. Cooper and Thomas E. Terrill, The American South: A History (Lanham, Md., 2009), 411; J. David Hacker, “A Census-Based Count of the Civil War Dead,” Civil War History 57 (2011): 306–47.

   2. ALCW, 8:332–33.

   3. Lincoln, speech in Peoria, Ill., October 16, 1854, ALCW, 2:276.

   4. Douglass, Life and Times, 373.

   5. Douglass, Life and Writings, 4:200.

   6. Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 71. Original emphasis.

   7. ALCW, 8:332–33.

   8. McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 227–30; Leslie A. Schwalm, Emancipation’s Diaspora: Race and Reconstruction in the Upper Midwest (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2009), 104; Arthur Charles Cole, The Era of the Civil War (1919; reprint, Urbana, Ill., 1987), 388; Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution (New York, 1988), 28.

   9. Richmond Whig, November 26, 1864.

  10. Letter in the Galveston Tri-Weekly News, February 22, 1865.

  11. Eliza Frances Andrews, The War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 1864–1865 (New York, 1908), 198.

  12. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, 735.

  13. Wayne, Reshaping of Plantation Society, 39.

  14. Edmondston Diary, 712–13.

  15. John Leyburn, “An Interview with Gen. Robert E. Lee,” Century Magazine, May 1885, 166–67; Alan T. Nolan, Lee Considered: General Robert E. Lee and Civil War History (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1991), 24–25; and Myrta Lockett Avary, Dixie after the War: An Exposition of Social Conditions Existing in the South, during the Twelve Years Succeeding the Fall of Richmond (New York, 1906), 72.

  16. Kean Diary, 208, 210.

  17. Thomas Diary, 275.

  18. Davis, Jefferson Davis: A Memoir, 2:215.

  19. Stone, Brokenburn, 8, 340–41.

  20. Ruffin Diary, 3:895, 950.

  21. Richmond Dispatch, March 21, 1865.

  22. PJD, 11:229.

  23. Edmondston Diary, 712.

  24. Rhett, Fire-Eater Remembers, 88.

  25. Putnam, Richmond during the War, 344.

  26. Graham Papers, 6:289–91.

  27. Macon Telegraph and Confederate, March 22, 1865.

  28. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 344.

  29. Thomas Diary, 268–69.

  30. ALCW, 8:403.

  31. Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln, 2:803.

  32. Putnam, Richmond during the War, 381.

  33. Stone, Brokenburn, 333, 341.

  34. Edmondston Diary, 702–3.

  35. Ruffin Diary, 3:852–53.

  36. Phillips, Diehard Rebels, 174; Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, 372.

  37. Sarah Morgan Dawson, A Confederate Girl’s Diary (Boston, 1913), 436.

  38. Roark, Masters without Slaves, 121.

  39. Furguson, Ashes of Glory, 364.

  40. Toombs, Stephens, and Cobb, Correspondence, 675; Roark, Masters without Slaves, 123.

  41. Reid, After the War, 195–96.

  42. Cyrus B. Dawsey and James M. Dawsey, eds., The Confederados: Old South Immigrants in Brazil (Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1995), 86, 161.

  43. Ibid., 69, 241n.

  44. Furguson, Ashes of Glory, 363.

  45. Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 415.

  46. Ibid., 428.

  47. Andrew Rolle, The Lost Cause: The Confederate Exodus to Mexico (Norman, Okla., 1965), 94–95, 120, 174–75, 184.

  48. Ted R. Worley, ed., “A Letter Written by General Thomas C. Hindman in Mexico,” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 15, no. 4 (1956): 366–67.

  49. Rolle, Lost Cause, 184.

  50. Scarborough, Masters of the Big House, chap. 10.

  51. Ibid., 372.

  52. Stone, Brokenburn, 364.

  53. Faust, Mothers of Invention, 248.

  54. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 77–78, 78n.

  55. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 199–200.

  56. Rawick, American Slave: Composite Autobiography, 14:60–61.

  57. Dan T. Carter, When the War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865–1867 (Baton Rouge, 1985), 82–83.

  58. Trowbridge, South, 392.

  59. Berlin, Wartime Genesis: Lower South, 603.

  60. Message of the President of the United States, Communicating, in Compliance with a Resolution of the Senate of the 12th Instant, Information in Relation to the States of the Union Lately in Rebellion, Accompanied by a Report of Carl Schurz on the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana; also a Report of Lieutenant General Grant, on the Same Subject (Washington, D.C., 1865), 82.

  61. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 47.

  62. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America, 30.

  63. Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long, 249.

  64. Fogel, Without Consent or Contract, 100; Roger L. Ransom and Richard Sutch, One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation (Cambridge, UK, 1977), 4–5; James M. McPherson, Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (New York, 1990), 16–19.

  65. Douglass, Life and Writings, 3:390.

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