Military history

Part 2

CHAPTER 13

p. 208 Munich Oktoberfest, BA-MA, N395/9

p. 208 ‘It’s not an…’, Sold. K. H., 113th I.D., 27 Oct. 1942, BZG-S

p. 208 ‘We really need…’, Uffz. H. D., 295th I.D., 6 Nov. 1942, BZG-S

p. 209 ‘a highly active defence’, 14 Oct. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/220

p. 209 How to Construct…, BA-MA, RH20-6/238, p. 197

p. 209 ‘The Führer has…’, 7 Nov. 1942, Groscurth, p. 529

p. 209 ‘rises and falls…’, Uffz. W. B. 371st I.D., 26 Oct. 1942, BZG-S

p. 209 ‘Here one must…’, Uffz. A. R., 60th I.D. (mot.), 19 Nov. 1942, BZG-S

p. 209 ‘most beautiful festival…’, Uffz. H. B., 371st I.D., 28 Oct. 1942, BZG-S

p. 209 ‘requirements for…’, 3 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, RH27-24/3

p. 210 ‘who have been in the…’, AOK 6, 29 Oct. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/220

p. 210 ‘It’s a typically German affair…’, Pabst, p. 121

p. 210 ‘For the time being…’, Uffz. A. R., 60th I.D. (mot.), 19 Nov. 1942, BZG-S

p. 210 ‘Jaundice especially…’, Klaus, p. 21

p. 211 ‘Fieberkurve’ and ‘the troops’ reduced…’, Dr Dormanns, 28 Jan. 1943, quoted in Schneider-Janessen, p. 132

p. 211 ‘fearless commander…’, Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, 4 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 61–2

p. 211 ‘The effect of massed…’, KTB AOK 6, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 212 ‘In the last two days…’, 6 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25,

p. 69 p. 212 ‘to install…’, 7 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 101

p. 212 ‘heavy enemy night bombing…’, Sixth Army war diary, 1 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 212 ‘Along the whole…’, 7 Nov. 1942, Groscurth, p. 529

p. 212 ‘exceeding…’, 6 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 70

p. 212 ‘out of 1,697 Komsomol…’, TsAMO 48/486/10, p. 275

p. 212 ‘got drunk’, report of 11 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 142

p. 213 ‘anti-chemical liquids’, 23 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 291–3

p. 213 ‘I wanted to reach…’, quoted in Domarus, vol. ii, pp. 1937–8

p. 214 ‘Hitler refused outright…’, Below, p. 322

p. 214 ‘The ice floes collide…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 214 Volga steamers, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/12/21

p. 215 347th Rifle Regt, 7 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 101

p. 215 signal flares, 10 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 122

p. 215 ‘Rus! Don’t shoot!’, 7 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 115

p. 215 ‘it was noticed…’, 10 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 122

p. 216 ‘army conventionality’, Richthofen diary, 1 Nov. 1942, Paulus, p. 190

p. 217 ‘hurricane of fire’, and ‘Begin shelling…’, 15 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 197–8

p.217 ‘If they can’t…’, Richthofen diary, 16 Nov. 1942, in Paulus, p. 191

p. 218 ‘Hitler was obsessed…’, Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 218 ‘42 percent of his battalions…’, Philippi and Heim, p. 177

p. 218 ‘all the trials…’, Seydlitz, p. 164

p. 218 ‘These were different…’, Glichov, conversation, 6 Nov. 1995

p. 219 ‘not in the air, but at the Germans’, 13 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 155

CHAPTER 14

p. 220 ‘And what…’, Zhukov, p. 140; Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad, p. 389

p. 221 ‘shift the strategic…’, Zhukov, p. 140

p. 221 ‘deep operations’, Erickson, ‘The development of Soviet military doctrine’, p. 5

p. 222 ‘a regime of the strictest secrecy’, Vasilevsky, p. 189

p. 223 ‘but Zhukov was Zhukov’, Glichov, conversation, 6 Nov. 1995

p. 223 Soviet tank production figures, Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad,Ρ 375

p. 224 ‘fighters in overalls’, quoted in John Erickson, ‘Soviet women at war’, in Garrard and Garrard, p. 50

p. 224 ‘What was Your Help to the Front?’, TsMVS

p. 224 ‘For the death of enemies…’ and ‘4,363…’, Ehrenburg papers, RGALI 1204/2/3453

p. 225 ‘within fifteen miles…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1773

p. 227 ‘greatest feat was…’, Glantz, Soviet Military Deception in the Second World War,p. 113

p. 227 ‘My dear friend…’, Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 230 ‘the Third Romanian…’, Sixth Army war diary, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 230 ‘On the Don…’, Richthofen diary, 12 Nov. 1942, Paulus, p. 191

p. 230 ‘Weather…’, Richthofen diary, 14 Nov. 1942, Paulus, p. 191

p. 230 Khrushchev and Yeremenko at Svetly-Yar, 18 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p.230

p. 231 ‘on a wild-goose chase’, Metelmann, conversation, 12 Apr. 1996

p. 231 ‘Hitler was misinformed…’, Below, p. 322

p. 232 On receiving…’, Sixth Army war diary, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 232 81st Cavalry Division, 10 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 123, and 21 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 279

p. 232 ‘In the next few days…’, 10 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 129

p. 233 ‘We could tell…’, Zhukov, p. 169

p. 233 ‘defeatism and…’, Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, 28 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 355–6

p. 234 ‘knew something was…’, Glichov, 6 Nov. 1995

p. 234 I am well aware of the…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/96

p. 235 119 field hospitals, Schneider-Janessen, p. 135

p. 235 ‘as a physician would…’, Lt-Gen. A. Rodin, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 109

p. 235 ‘Along the whole…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 235 ‘2,053 miles from the German…’, Golovchanski, p. 133

CHAPTER 15

p. 239 ‘According to the statement…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 239 ‘as thick as milk’, Lt-Gen. A. Rodin, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 110

p. 240 ‘I have the impression…’, Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 240 ‘because the ground…’, Dr Hans Heinz Schrömbgens, quoted in Schneider-Janessen, p. 135

p. 240 ‘I don’t know’, Glichov, conversation, 6 Nov. 1995

p. 240 ‘there will be a holiday…’, quoted in Chuikov, p. 235

p. 241 ‘The attack…’, Hptm. Krauss, BA-MA, RH19 VI/11, p. 251

p. 241 ‘Sappers, jump off!’, Smirnov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 244 ‘Once again…’, Richthofen diary, 19 Nov. 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 192

p. 244 ‘up to now…’, Sixth Army war diary, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 244 ‘an enemy…’, 11.30, 19 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 244 ‘boxes of files’, Krauss, report, BA-MA, RH19 VI/11, p. 251

p. 246 ‘It is not even possible…’, Richthofen diary, 19 Nov. 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 192

p. 247 ‘Hopefully…’, General von Richthofen diary, 19 Nov. 1942, Paulus, p. 192

p. 247 ‘Change of situation…’, 22.00, 19 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 247 ‘in whose ranks…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 247 ‘move out’, Gefr. Joachim Grunow, Pz. Regt 2, report, 1 Aug. 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 248 ‘no particular…’, quoted in Beck, pp. 169–70

p. 248 ‘masses of…’, Gebele, quoted in Beck, p. 170

p. 249 13th Tank Brigade, 64th Army, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 303

p. 249 ‘The Romanians…’, Gebele, quoted in Beck, p. 170

p. 249 157th Rifle Division, 23 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 290

p. 249 64th Army wounded, 25 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 303

p.249 ‘that the long-awaited…’, 20 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/28, p. 275

p. 249 ‘happiest day of the whole war’, Lazarev, conversation, 7 Nov. 1995

p. 249 ‘panzer-fright’, quoted in Kehrig, p. 148

p. 250 ‘Antonescu kaputt!’ 23 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 287

p. 250 ‘cases of chaos…’, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 287

p. 251 ‘fleeing wildly…’, report of Hptm. Gürtler, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 85

p. 251 ‘much material…’, report, Lt Graf Stolberg, 17 Feb. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 157

p. 251 ‘The catastrophic…’, 22 Nov. 1942, 24th Pz. Div., RH27-24/5

p. 252 ‘the road is strewn…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 252 ‘staff papers scattered…’, USSR, Stalingrad,p. 112

p. 253 ‘a not unfavourable…’, Kehrig, p. 160

p. 253 ‘Paulus and Schmidt had…’, Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 254 ‘for him an…’, Richthofen diary, 23 Nov. 1942, Paulus, p. 225

p. 254 ‘Sixth Army stand…’, 15.25, 21 Nov. 1942, Kehrig, p. 163

p. 255 ‘The first news…’, report of Hptm. Wassermann, 16th Pz. Div., 2 Aug. 1943, RH27-16/43

p. 256 ‘We’re surrounded!’ Grams, p. 58

p. 256 ‘A sombre Totensonntag…’, letter, 3 Dec. 1942, Bàhr and Bähr, p. 189

p.256 ‘We became very much…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 256 ‘We will continue to fight…’, quoted in Axworthy, p. 96

p. 257 ‘… is the offensive…’, (original German), Ehrenburg papers, RGALI 1207/2/3477

p. 257 ‘as if it were 1870’, Stolberg, 17 Feb. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 157

p. 257 ‘When the retreat started…’, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 147

p. 257 ‘Only two out of…’, Werth, The Year of Stalingrad,p. 369

p. 258 ‘extraordinarily rapid’, BA-MA, N395/11

p. 259 ‘The numerous Romanians’, Dohna-Schlobitten, p. 256

p. 259 ‘especially the frantic…’, Lt Walter Öhme, Pz. Regt 2, report, 28 July 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 260 ‘Here everything’s…’, Uffz. Römer, report, 23 May 1943, BA-MA,

RH27-16/43

p. 261 ‘Right on towards the Don’ (original German), Ehrenburg papers,

RGALI 1207/2/3477

p. 261 ‘A number of tanks…’, Gefr. Joachim Grunow, Panzer Regt 2, report, I Aug. 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 261 ‘last resort’, Dohna-Schlobitten, p. 253

p.262 ‘Everyone was running…’, Uffz. Römer, report, 23 May 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 262 ‘all items…’, Dohna-Schlobitten, p. 255

p. 262 ‘the very same bridge…’, II./Pz. Gren. Rgt 64, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 262 ‘very proud’, report, Oberfeldwebel Wallrawe, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 262 ‘I feel much better…’, Dmitry Venkutov, 26 Nov. 1942, AMPSB 11480

p. 263 ‘The battles are strong…’, AMPSB 602/10343

p. 263 ‘old women’s kerchiefs…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 263 450 collaborators, VOTsDNI 113/14/306, p. 94, quoted in Epifanov, p. 142

p. 264 ‘in a serious condition…’, 25 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 304

p. 264 ‘owing to…’, Dohna-Schlobitten, p. 258

CHAPTER 16

p. 266 ‘I’ve got them!’ Albert Speer, quoted in Sereny, p. 207

p. 266 ‘alarming news…’, 19 Nov. 1942, KTB-OKW, vol. ii, 1942, p. 988

p. 267 ‘alterations to…’, Bradley and Schulze-Kossens (eds.), p. 22

p. 267 ‘temporary encirclement’, BA-MA, RH20-6/241

p. 267 ‘It’s impossible…’, General von Richthofen diary, Paulus, p. 224

p. 267 ‘We have nothing…’, BA-MA, N601/v. 4, p. 3

p. 268 ‘Decision with reasons, please!’ BA-MA, N6oI/v. 3, pp. 12, 13. This conversation was reconstructed and agreed by both Schmidt and Pickert, working together on 7 Jan. 1963, after they had consulted all the available documents to refresh their memories.

p. 269 wine and champagne, conversation, Behr, and BA-MA, N395/12

p. 269 ‘They all shared…’, Schmidt, BA-MA, N601/v. 4, p. 7

p. 269 ‘Army surrounded’, quoted in Kehrig, pp. 559–60

p. 269 ‘The Sixth Army is…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/238

p. 270 ‘We’ve found…’, Zeitzler, Kehrig, p. 196

p. 270 ‘whatever the circumstances’, Kehrig, p. 562

p. 270 ‘highly paid NCOs’, 25 Nov. 1942, Paulus, p. 227

p. 271 ‘completely unthinkable’, Seydlitz, p. 193

p. 271 ‘Already the minor…’, 25 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, N372/12, p. 2

p. 271 ‘In thousands of…’, Toepke, p. 44

p. 272 ‘Now that you have…’, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 272 ‘According to a Führer decree…’, Sixth Army, 6 Dec. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/239, p. 135

p. 272 propaganda leaflets, 23 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 277

p. 272 ‘The Führer ordered…’, Bradley and Schulze-Kossens, p. 26

p. 272 ‘the grateful army…’, letter, 15 Nov. 1942, Groscurth, p. 530

p. 274 ‘And be warned…’, Stahlberg, p. 212 p. 274 ‘When we entered…’, Stahlberg, p. 217

p. 275 ‘the troops in the area…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 275 ‘The whole Sixth Army…’, Henry Holze, in Kruse, p. 14

p. 275 ‘Yesterday and today…’, 26 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 275 ‘the most difficult question…’, Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 96

p. 276 ‘Such an action…’, BA-MA, N601/v. 4, p. 13

p. 276 ‘I know that…’, Paulus, p. 83

p. 276 ‘Prussian field marshals…’, Rudolph-Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff, Soldat im Untergang: Lebensbilder,p. 134

p. 276 ‘march out…’, Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 276 ‘Hold on…’, Paulus, order, 27 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/238

p. 276 Schmidt denial, BA-MA N601/v. 10, p. 12

p. 277 ‘We’re never going…’, Klaus, p. 35

CHAPTER 17

p. 278 ‘A systematic withdrawal…’, Wallrawe, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 278 ‘artillery and infantry…’, TsAMO 48/486/13, p. 472

p. 279 ‘The bolsheviks…’, Stolberg, report, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 159

p. 279 ‘It is said…’, TsAMO 206/294/47, Ρ·108

p. 279 ‘doubts about…’, Oblt. v.d. Sode, 16th Panzer Division, report, 12 Aug. 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 280 ‘Since the…’, Sold. K. P., 376th I.D., 14 Dec. 1942, BZG-S

p. 280 ‘Rations cut…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/237

p. 280 ‘It was defeatism…’, anonymous conversation

p. 281 ‘But surely it doesn’t matter…’, anonymous conversation

p. 281 forty-two air raids, Romer, report, 23 May 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 283 ‘The commanding officer…’, Kurt Reuber, letter, 18 Dec. 1942, Bähr and Bähr, p. 192

p. 284 ‘Miserably frozen…’ (original German), Ehrenburg papers, RGALI, 1207/2/3477

p. 284 ‘We squat…’, Reuber, letter, 3 Dec. 1942, quoted in Bähr and Bähr, p. 190

p. 284 ‘The plague of lice…’, report, OGefr. Heinrich, Pz. Regt 2, 28 July 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 284 ‘Underneath the lantern…’ (original German), TsAMO 206/294/48, Ρ. 452

p. 285 ‘Because of bad communications…’, TsAMO 48/486/13, p. 472

p. 285 ‘The failure of officers and commissars…’, TsAMO 48/486/13, p. 472

p. 286 ‘These Russians…’, Einsiedel, Tagebuch der Versuchung,p. 110

p. 286 ‘a tremendous education for victory…’, Zhukov, p. 151

p. 286 ‘The morale of…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 287 ‘We were like gypsies…’, Glichov, conversation, 6 Nov. 1995

p. 287 spotted ‘a white mug with a rose’, Glichov, conversation, 14 Nov. 1995

p. 288 ‘When I killed…’, Lazarev, conversation, 13 Nov. 1995

p. 288 ‘A soldier felt…’, Lazarev, conversation, 13 Nov. 1995

p. 289 ‘very difficult’, Lazarev, conversation, 13 Nov. 1995

p. 290 ‘Listen, Herr General…’, Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 97

p. 290 ‘Things seem…’, Groscurth, 3 Dec. 1942, p. 530

CHAPTER 18

p. 291 ‘I can’t remain…’, 11 Dec. 1942, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 212

p. 292 captured pilot, Obergefreiter Paul German (sic), TsAMO 48/453/13, p. 261

p. 293 ‘The trapped German forces…’, Zhukov, 29 Nov. 1942, p. 178

p. 296 ‘cornerstone’, quoted Paulus, p. 235

p. 296 ‘He described…’, Raus bequest, ÖStA-KA B/186: III

p. 297 ‘Intention: Fourth…’, BA-MA, RH19 VI, p. 60

p. 297 ‘Order for…’, General Raus, ÖStA-KA B/186: III

p. 298 ‘Once a unit…’, Gilbert (ed.), p. 17

p. 298 ‘a gigantic…’, Raus, ÖStA-KA B/186: III

p. 300 ‘Around the runway…’, Rohden, p. 46

p. 301 ‘Right down to…’, General Raus, ÖStA-KA B/186: III

p. 302 ‘Yesterday and today…’, Kolya Batyuk, 18 Dec. 1942, AMPSB 488/7955(5)

p. 303 ‘a steadily increasing…’, Wolfgang Eckart, ‘Von der Agonie einer missbrauchten Armee’, in Wette and Ueberschär (eds.), p. 109

p. 304 ‘without having received…’, Professor Dr Hans Girgensohn, ‘Der Hungertod in Stalingrad: Die Geschichte seiner Entdeckung’, privately published, 1992

p. 304 ‘The suspected causes…’, Girgensohn, ibid.

p. 304 ‘a large-scale experiment…’, 6 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RH20-6/796

p. 304 ‘luxurious’, Prof. Dr Hans Girgensohn, conversation, 22 Apr. 1996

p. 306 ‘stress illness’, Girgensohn, conversation, 22 Apr. 1996

p. 306 rats deprived of sleep, Dr Susan Greenfield in the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture, 28 Dec. 1994

p. 306 ‘There’s little new…’, Lt W. M., 22 Dec. 1942, BZG-S

p. 306 ‘Slowly, our brave…’, 30 Dec. 1942, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 307 ‘There stands a soldier…’, Sepp Wirrer, ‘Das Wolgalied’, Kamerad-schaft Stalingrad, Aug./Sept. 1983

p. 307 German Communists, Korfes, undated ms. in MGFA-P; and Dyatlenko ms.

p. 308 ‘crackling sound of the propaganda voice’, Hans Schmieder ms.

p. 308 ‘the ones with the…’, 6 Dec. 1942, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 102

p. 308 ‘Soldiers eagerly…’, 16 Sept. 1942, TsAMO 48/453/13, p. 36

p. 308 ‘“If German soldiers…”’, TsAMO 48/486/13, p. 488

p. 308 ‘Can one serve two masters?’ Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 97

p. 309 ‘the chances of a…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 309 ‘We survivors…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 309 ‘a break-out…’, Beck, ÖStA-AdR 522

p. 309 ‘Every step was exhausting,’ Behr conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

CHAPTER 19

p. 311 ‘just like at home’, Kurt Reuber, letter, 25 Dec. 1942, quoted in Bähr and Bähr, p. 195

p. 312 ‘in the German way…’, 24 Dec. 1942, BA-MA, N395/12

p. 313 ‘Odu fröhliche’, Kurt Reuber, letter, 25 Dec. 1942, Bähr and Bähr, Ρ· 195

p. 313 ‘with husky voices’, Walter Kuber, ‘Von Weihnachten 1942 bis zumeiner Gefangennahme am 31.1.1943’, in Beck, p. 193

p. 313 ‘It is a…’, Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 102

p. 313 ‘the divisional commander…’, Heinrich Simonmeier, Uffz., report, 29 July 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 313 ‘No supply flights…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/236

p. 313 ‘If we do not receive…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/240

p. 314 ‘In our hearts…’, Oberstabarzt Dr Carl Otto Marckstadt, quoted in Schneider-Janessen, p. 146

p. 314 ‘Christmas naturally…’, letter, 28 Dec. 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 89

p. 314 ‘Darling!…’, Dmitry Venkutov to his wife, 24 Dec. 1942, AMPSB 11480

p. 314 ‘Hello Mariya’, 24 Dec. 1942, AMPSB 739/13529

p. 315 ‘After reflecting…’, Toepke, p. 83

p. 315 ‘Thus a dozen…’, Hptm. d.R. Czygan, 8 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/v. 264, p. 205

p. 315 ‘Bloody losses…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/237

p. 316 ‘all the necessary…’, Adam, Der schwere Entschluss,p. 264

p. 316 ‘that Hitler…’, Dohna-Schlobitten, conversation, 16 Oct. 1995

p. 316 ‘372 tanks…’, BA-MA, RH19 VI/7, p. 59, and RH19 VI/8, p. 38

p. 316 ‘The enemy used…’, Uffz. Hans Urban, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, pp. 88–91

p. 317 ‘Our will for victory…’, 31 Dec. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/240, p. 119

p. 317 ‘a powerful…’, Daniels to wife, 1 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, N395/12

p. 318 ‘Celebrating the New Year…’, letter, 9 Jan. 1943, Shindel’, p. 45

p. 318 ‘Dear Parents, I’m all right…’, AMPSB N45079A

p. 318 ‘In the name of…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/236

p.318 ‘Mein Führer! 1 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RH20-6/236

p. 318 ‘We’re not…’; ‘We are maintaining…’; ‘The Führer knows…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 319 ‘New hope arises…’, Strecker, Haller, p. 102

p. 319 ‘following radio…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/240, pp. 77, 86

p. 319 ‘with Luftwaffe…’, Wallrawe, RH27-16/43

p. 320 ‘I don’t like the…’, V. Barsov, letter of 9 Jan. 1943, Shindel’, p. 45

p. 320 ‘The Russians began…’, Max Plakolb, ÖStA-KA B/1540

p. 320 ‘Army starving and frozen…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/244D

p. 320 ‘From the command post…’, Opolchentsy ν boyakh za Rodinu…,p. 15

p. 321 ‘Whom shall we…’, Zhukov, Kakim my ego pomnim,p. 245

p. 322 ‘You’ll be sitting…’, Marshal N. N. Voronov, ‘Operation “Ring” ‘, Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal, 5 & 6, 1962

p. 322 ‘Why don’t the Russians…’, Martin Fiebig, 1 Jan. 1943, quoted in Kempowski (ed.), Das Echolot…, vol. i, p. 24

p. 322 ‘German anti-fascists…’, Dyatlenko ms.

p. 324 ‘Everyone knew about…’, TsAMO 226/335/7, p. 233

p. 324 ‘for all the trousers…’, Dyatlenko ms.

CHAPTER 20

p. 333 ‘The misty cloud…’, Dibold, p. 9

p. 334 ‘widely strewn…’, Wieder, p. 45

p. 334 ‘Young and inexperienced…’, Morzik, p. 188

p. 334 ‘Which ass…’, Toepke, p. 69

p. 335 ‘My trust in…’, 12 Dec. 1942, Paulus, p. 259, 19 Dec. 1942, p. 260

p. 335 ‘in honour of the heroes…’, quoted in Sereny, p. 364

p. 335 ‘I hope that you’ll break…’, AMPSB, N677

p. 336 ‘very soon…’, BA-MA, N395/13

p. 336 ‘who like everybody else…’, Speer, quoted in Sereny, pp. 364–5

p. 337 ‘the Russians have…’, Uffz. Hans Urban, 389th I.D., BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 89

p. 337 ‘eaten two of his…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 93

p. 338 ‘I received a quarter litre…’, AMPSB, uncatalogued

p. 338 ‘We can only count…’, 26 Dec. 1942, AMPSB N677

p. 339 ‘The only thing left…’, 27 Dec. 1942, AMPSB N45079A

p. 339 ‘a light wound…’, Kuber, in Beck, p. 195

p. 339 ‘I request permission…’, Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 104

p. 339 ‘steering-wheel heroes’, Beck, p. 158

p. 340 ‘One day…’, Plakolb, ÖStA-KA B/1540

p. 340 ‘Every half-hour…’, Gefr. Joachim Grunow, Panzer Regt 2, report, 1 Aug. 1943, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 340 ‘Only the…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 341 ‘deafening sound’, Hans Schmieder ms.

p. 341 ‘could not gain…’, Siegfried Mühler, 44th I.D., ÖStA-KA B/1582

p. 342 ‘I was a soldier…’, Gottfried von Bismarck, ms.

p. 342 ‘I was deeply…’, Dohna-Schlobitten, p. 263

p. 342 ‘to advise…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 343 ‘Give Hitler exactly…’, Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 345 ‘in a coded manner’, letter from Winrich Behr to the author, 26 Feb. 1996

p. 347 ‘Discussions about the…’, Manstein, 25 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RH19 VI/12

p. 348 ‘Taking leave…’, Max Plakolb, ÖStA-KA B/1540

p. 348 ‘Scarcely an earthly hope…’, Reuber, 7 Jan. 1943, Bähr and Bähr, p. 205

p. 348 ‘to scribble…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 95

p. 348 ‘The mood here…’, 13 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 121

p. 348 ‘Perhaps this will…’, 13 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 119

p. 348 ‘You are always…’, 13 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 100

p. 349 ‘Fate has…’, Gefreiter, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 96

p. 349 ‘fateful battle…’, 13 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 118

p. 349 ‘This is a heroic struggle…’, 13 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 99

p. 349 ‘we heard in…’, Voronov, p. 18

p. 350 376th Infantry Division, Dyatlenko ms., and Voronov, p. 44

p. 350 ‘Enemy No. 1 is…’ and ‘My dear parents…’, BA-MA, RW4/v. 264

p. 350 Cannibalism, Oberstleutnant a.D. Pfeifer, conversation, 20 Oct. 1995, and anonymous

p. 350 ‘In a gully…’, Weinert, p. 122

p. 351 ‘left him completely…’, Girgensohn, conversation, 22 Apr. 1996

CHAPTER 21

p. 352 ‘the usual melody…’, Lt W. M., 15 Dec. 1942, BZG-S

p. 352 ‘Just a little…’, 10 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 212

p. 352 ‘one spoke about death…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 352 Ordinary soldiers, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 352 ‘that the relief force…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 63

p. 353 ‘Help is close’, interrogation, 16 Jan. 1943, TsAMO 226/335/7, P.202

p. 353 ‘Especially brave were…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 353 ‘who conducted themselves…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 61

p. 353 ‘an incessant rolling…’, Voronov, p. 27

p. 353 ‘There are only two…’, Eugene Dolmatowsky, 27 Jan. 1943, ‘The Ring closes in’, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 142

p. 353 ‘very unpeaceful Sunday’, letter/diary to wife, 10 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, N395/12

p. 354 ‘The enemy munition…’, Zank, p. 60

p. 354 ‘Nobody came out’, Siegfried Mühler, ÖStA-KA B/1582

p. 354 ‘For an hour…’, Stolberg, report, 17 Feb. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/v. 264, p. 160

p. 354 ‘Some of them…’, Stalingradbund Österreich, August 1989

p. 355 ‘From this day on…’, Wallrawe report, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 355 ‘If the enemy…’, TsAMO 206/294/18, p. 432

p. 355 ‘Those pigs of Romanians…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 61

p. 356 ‘Karpovka looks…’, Weinert, p. 34

p. 357 ‘instead of digging…’, Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 104

p. 357 ‘resisted bitterly…’, Grams, p. 61

p. 357 ‘Munitions coming…’, 13 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 357 ‘open fire only…’, Wallrawe, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 357 ‘soldiers with…’, Klaus, p. 66

p. 358 ‘left to their fate’, Wallrawe, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 358 ‘Here was the greatest…’, Alois Dorner, ‘Meine Rettung aus dem Kessel von Stalingrad’, Kameradschaft Stalingrad, Aug./Sept. 1989

p. 359 ‘376 Infantry Division…’, 14 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 359 ‘Hitler’s excuse…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 360 ‘missing presumed dead’, Speer, quoted in Sereny, p. 366

p. 360 ‘one look at the actual…’, Morzik, p. 191

p. 360 ‘It was senseless to run away’, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 109

p. 361 ‘unbearable conditions…’, interrogation, 2 Feb. 1943, TsAMO 226/335/7, p. 233

p. 361 ‘Heavy one-way traffic…’, BA-MA, RL30/4

p. 361 ‘It is severely cold’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 362 ‘Several commanders…’, Dr Günther Diez, Schneider-Janessen, Ρ·145

p. 362 ‘Faced with so much…’, Schmieder MS.

p. 363 ‘Cases of post-operative…’, Dr Günther Diez, Schneider-Janessen, Ρ·144

p. 363 ‘the so-called hospital’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 363 ‘It was a form of hell’, Stolberg, report, 17 Feb. 1943, BA-MA, RW4/v. 264, p. 160

p. 363 ‘Death king of Gumrak’, Seydlitz, p. 254

p. 364 ‘I am proud…’, Hans Schmieder, ‘Ein Überlebender aus dem Kessel

von Stalingrad berichtet’, Deutsches Soldatenjahrbuch, 1987

p. 364 ‘an attack by twenty-eight…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 364 ‘I am thinking about…’, letter from unknown German soldier, AMPSB, quoted in Volgograd University history department project

p. 364 ‘Why were no…’, BA-MA, RL30/5

p. 364 ‘completely apathetic’, BA-MA, RL30/6

p. 365 ‘the Army is no longer…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/796

p. 365 ‘fed his dog with…’, Dr Günther Diez, Schneider-Janessen, p. 143

p. 365 ‘On the codeword “Lion”…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 365 ‘consider ways…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 366 ‘trusted and energetic…’, BA-MA, RH19 VI/11, p. 50

p. 366 ‘flown out of the…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 86

p. 366 ‘The Führer decreed…’, Bradley and Schulze-Kossens, p. 42

p. 367 ‘seemed absolutely bent…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 368 ‘Is it possible…’, BA-MA, RL30/6

p. 369 ‘Those in the Fortress…’, 12.48, 18 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RL30/6

p. 369 ‘The Stalingrad Kessel…’, quoted in Boelcke, p. 369

p. 369 ‘only an immediate strike’, Waldersee, quoted in Groscurth, p. 95

p. 369 ‘who soon will have no…’, Groscurth, p. 553

p. 370 ‘There is not a single…’, BA-MA, RL30/6, p. 73

p. 370 ‘Gumrak airfield…’, BA-MA, RL30/6, p. 80

p. 370 ‘Whatever help…’, Maj. Maes, 22 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RL30/6, p. 83

p. 370 ‘as if on a hare shoot’, and (p. 371) ‘Leave me!’, anonymous conversation

p. 371 ‘abandoned cripples’, Weinert, p. 33

p. 371 ‘water from snow…’, Böhme, p. 237

p. 371 ‘As far as the eye…’, Hans Schmieder MS.

p. 372 ‘Herr Major, sie kommen!’ Gebele, in Beck, p. 183

p. 372 ‘It was bitterly cold…’, Kuber, in Beck, p. 194

p. 372 ‘Surrender out of…’, 22 Jan. 1943, BA-MA, RH19 VI/12, p. 324

CHAPTER 22

p. 374 ‘With heavy hearts…’, Kuber, in Beck, p. 196

p. 374 red parachutes, Winrich Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 374 ‘German soldiers here’, BA-MA, RH19 VI/12, p. 451

p. 375 ‘Exhausted wounded men…’, BA-MA, RW4/v. 264

p. 375 ‘Moans, calls for help…’, Dr Hubert Haidinger, in Bund ehemaliger Stalingradkämpfer, Weihnachts Rundbrief, 1992, p. 9

p. 375 ‘Abandon hope…’, Dr Hermann Achleitner, ‘Als Arzt in Stalingrad’, in Beck, p. 199

p. 376 ‘Two Stalingrad women…’, Gebele, in Beck, p. 186

p. 377 ‘Where are your regiments?’ Theodor Plievier broadcast, BA-MA, RW4/v. 264, p. 227

p. 377 ‘The eyes of the hardened…’, Chuikov, p. 279

p. 378 ‘more interesting’, Dyatlenko MS.

p. 378 ‘Kessel-baby’, Dyatlenko MS.; see also ‘Das “Kesselkind” des Generals’ in Freiheit, 7 Apr. 1965, and BA-MA, N395/12

p. 379 ‘the eyes and hand…’, Dyatlenko MS.

p. 379 ‘To the Führer!…’, BA-MA, RL30/5

p. 380 ‘Paulus is in a…’, 20 Jan. 1943, Groscurth, p. 533

p. 380 ‘our own funeral speech’, Wieder, Stalingrad und die Verantwortung des Soldaten,p. 100

p. 380 ‘macabre’, Gottfried von Bismarck MS.

p. 380 ‘Turn it up!’ Dr Hubert Haidinger, op. cit., p. 7

p. 380 ‘suicide of the Jews’, anonymous conversation

p. 380 ‘The heroic…’, quoted in Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1979

p. 381 ‘I have no intention…’, quoted in Beck, p. 207

p. 381 ‘It looks like an invitation…’, Dyatlenko MS.

p. 381 ‘What’s going on here?’ Dibold, pp. 24–5

p. 382 ‘apocalyptic order’, Seydlitz, p. 250

p. 382 ‘We fight to the last bullet…’, anonymous conversation

p. 382 ‘The swastika…’, 30 Jan. 1943 at 19.50 hrs, BA-MA, RL30/5

p. 382 ‘listening to the…’, BA-MA, RL30/5

p. 382 ‘During that night…’, Schmieder MS.

p. 383 ‘Russians at the…’, Sonderstab Milch, BA-MA, RL30/6, p. 83

p. 383 ‘In Stalingrad the situation…’, BA-MA, RW4/v. 264

p. 383 ‘like the ears…’, Grossman, Life and Fate, p. 801

p. 384 ‘Kameraden, Krieg kaputt!’ Fritz Ecker, ‘Ein weiter Weg’, Stalin-gradbund Österreich, Jan. 1991

p. 384 ‘Whoever’s capable…’, Dr Hubert Haidinger, op. cit., p. 8

p. 384 ‘Fascist dogs’, Klavdia Sveridovna Ribaltshenko (sic), interrogation by Gruppe Geheime Feldpolizei 626, 21 July 1943, BZG-S

p. 385 ‘Soviet soldiers…’, Beck, p. 189

p. 385 ‘What shall we do with…’, anonymous conversation

p. 387 ‘That’s how Berlin…’, Beck, p. 197

p. 387 ‘rather good command of Russian’, C. M. Bogomolov MS.

p. 388 ‘A German Field Marshal…’, Lev Bezyminsky, conversation, 10 Nov. 1995

p. 388 ‘there is no doubt that…’, Winrich Behr, letter to the author, 26 Feb. 1996

p. 390 ‘round and round in circles’, Bezyminsky, conversation, 10 Nov. 1995

p. 391 ‘I must inform you…’, Dyatlenko MS.

p. 391 ‘They have surrendered…’, 1 Feb. 1943, quoted in Gilbert (ed.), pp. 17–22; and Warlimont, pp. 319–23

p. 392 ‘Troops are fighting…’, and ‘I expect…’, BA-MA, RL30/5

p. 392 ‘XI Army Corps…’, war diary Sonderstab Milch, BA-MA, RL30/6, p. 151

p. 392 ‘When the time comes…’, Strecker, Haller, p. 105

p. 393 ‘XI Army Corps…’, BA-MA, RL30/5

p. 393 ‘Long live Germany!’ Haller, p. 107

p. 393 ‘What the normal…’, Werth, The Year of Stalingrad,p. 463

p. 394 1.1 million casualties, of which 485,751, quoted by Erickson, in Erickson and Dilks, p. 264

p. 394 ‘I thought of the…’, Grossman papers, RGALI, 1710/1/101

CHAPTER 23

p. 396 ‘No more…’, BA-MA, RL30/6

p. 396 ‘the Corporal uneducated…’, Dyatlenko MS.

p. 396 ‘We have our own rules’, Bezyminsky, conversation, 10 Nov. 1995

p. 397 ‘They looked healthy…’, Werth, The Year of Stalingrad,p. 446

p. 397 ‘It was rather like…’, Werth, The Year of Stalingrad,p. 444

p. 397 ‘When I opened…’, Bogomolov MS.

p. 398 ‘our troops…’, Boelcke, p. 408

p. 399 ‘which will move…’, Boelcke, p. 430

p. 399 ‘From Führer headquarters…’, Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1985

p. 400 ‘The farewell letters…’, 18 Feb. 1943, Heinz Boberach (ed.), Meldungen aus dem Reich 19381945, vol. xii, p. 4822, quoted in Wette and Ueberschär, p. 63

p. 400 ‘in future…’, Boelcke, p. 411

p. 400 ‘Stop dancing!’ Leopold Graf von Bismarck, conversation, 4 May 1996

p. 402 ‘If we are paid back…’, Bielenberg, p. 135

p. 403 ‘We will end the war…’, quoted Rohden, p. 127

p. 404 ‘You cannot stop…’, ‘I wonder how it feels…’, Wettlin, pp. 86, 88

p. 404 ‘After Stalingrad…’, Smirnov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 404 ‘needed to believe’, Ehrenburg, pp. 10–11

p. 405 ‘They’re starting these gold…’, Ulko, conversation, 21 Nov. 1995

CHAPTER 24

p. 406 ‘railway tracks, where…’, Grossman papers, RGALI, 1710/1/101

p. 406 ‘Almost all members…’, Beck, p. 191

p. 406 ‘dozens each day’, Lt Medvedev to Maj. Demchenko, 9 March 1943, quoted in Epifanov, p. 241

p. 407 ‘liberated from fascist…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/8/226

p. 407 ‘Most of the children…’, Wettlin, p. 119

p. 407 ‘Soviet authorities…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/8/226

p. 407 ‘special safe paths’, Goncharov, conversation, 23 Nov. 1995

p. 407 ‘Mama, we are all right’, quoted in Agapov, p. 11

p. 410 ‘limping and shuffling…’, Weinert, p. 37

p. 411 ‘The Russians had very simple methods…’, anonymous conversation

p. 411 ‘We set out with 1,200 men’, Josef Farber, conversation, 16 Apr. 1996

p. 412 ‘like herrings…’, Böhme, p. 237

p. 412 ‘extremely critical’, TsAMO 62/355/1, p. 226, quoted in Epifanov, p. 235

p. 412 ‘nothing to eat…’, Dr Hubert Haidinger, Bund ehemaliger Stalingradkämpfer, Weihnachts Rundbrief, 1992, p. 9

p. 413 ‘Then came another shock…’, Schmieder MS.

p. 413 ‘The dead each…’, Willi Lotz, ‘Die Gefangenlager der Stalingrader: Erinnerungen an Beketowka’, in Kameradschaft Stalingrad, Aug.–Sept. 1981

p. 413 ‘mountain of bodies’, Dr Hubert Haidinger, in Bund ehemaliger Stalingradkämpfer, Weihnachts Rundbrief, 1992, p. 10

p. 413 ‘We had no tears left’, Schmieder MS.

p. 413 ‘death register’, Böhme, p. 237

p. 413 55,228 prisoners, TsKhIDK, 1e/1/9, p. 34, report by Capt. Kruglov, quoted in Epifanov, p. 47

p. 413 ‘Hunger…’, Dibold, address to Bund ehemaliger Stalingradkämpfer, 18 Sept. 1976, Limburg

p. 413 ‘camel-meat’, anonymous conversation

p. 413 ‘only at gunpoint…’, A. Chuyanov, Na Stremnina Veka, Moscow, 1976, p. 264, quoted in Epifanov, p. 33

p. 414 ‘And who are you…’, anonymous conversation

p.415 ‘It is the duty of a general…’, anonymous conversation

p. 416 ‘Only be compared to sheep-shearing’, Schmieder MS.

CHAPTER 25

p. 418 ‘We pressed to…’, Berezhkov, History in the Making,p. 242

p. 418 ‘I propose a salute…’, Berezhkov, op. cit., pp. 289–91

p. 420 ‘Doctor, the miracle…’, Dibold, p. 170

p. 421 ‘thrusting a long thin shard…’, anonymous conversation

p. 422 ‘man was just…’, anonymous conversation

p. 423 ‘According to Seydlitz’s idea…’, 17 Sept. 1943, TsKhIDK, 451p/2/6

p. 425 ‘the contemptible…’, quoted Seydlitz, p. 341

p. 425 ‘the absence of significant success’, Melnikov, TsKhIDK, 451p/3/7

p. 425 ‘recognize officially’, APRF 3/58/498

p. 425 ‘compiled in a devious way’, APRF 3/58/497

p.426 ‘members of…’, 25 May 1944, Manuilsky to Shcherbakov, RTsKhIDNI 495/77/37, pp. 32–4

p. 427 ‘on Comrade Shcherbakov’s…’, GARF r–9401/2/66

p. 427 ‘who could explain the principles…’, 20 Feb. 1945, Krivemko to Beria, GARF r–9401/2/92/322–4

p. 427 ‘It should be mentioned…’, 20 Feb. 1945, Krivemko to Beria, GARF r–9401/2/92/322–4

p. 428 ‘spiritual depression…’, Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 214

p. 428 losses, G. F. Krivosheyev (ed.), Grifsekretnosti sniat’: Poteri vooruzhennykh sil SSSR v voinakh, boevykh deistviiakh i voennykh konfliktakh, Moscow, Voenizdat, 1993, quoted in Erickson, ‘Red Army battlefield performance’, pp. 235–6

p. 428 ‘irrespective of their physical…’, quoted in Epifanov, p. 163

p. 429 ‘revanchist reactionary general’, RTsKhIDNI 495/77/37

p. 430 ‘was valid not only…’, Dibold, p. 186

p. 430 ‘sufficient reason…’, Gottfried von Bismarck MS.

p. 431 ‘a very unhappy man’, Behr, conversation, 25 Nov. 1995

p. 431 ‘pensioner of the Soviet-occupied zone’, BA-MA, N601/v. 9, p. 8

APPENDIX B

p. 439 195,000, Rüdiger Overmans, ‘Das andere Gesicht des Krieges: Leben und Sterben der 6. Armee’, in Förster (ed.), p. 442

p. 439 268,900, Peter Hild, ‘Partnergruppe zur Aufklärung von Vermisstenschicksalen deutscher und russischer Soldaten des 2. Weltkrieges’, in Epifanov, p. 29

p. 439 ‘Sixth Army ration strength in the Kessel’, BA-MA, RH20-6/239, p. 226

p. 439 ‘only inside the Kessel’, BA-MA, RH20-6/237, p. 129

p. 440 111,465, TsKhIDK, is/4/3, p. 16, quoted in Epifanov, p. 25

p. 440 Sixth Army losses: 15,000 to 6 December, then 36,859 between 6 December and 7 January, BA-MA, N601/v. 5

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