Military history

Source Notes

PREFACE

Part 1

p. xiv 13,500 executions, Institute of Military History, 21 Jan. 1993, quoted in Erickson, ‘Red Army battlefield p. xiv p. xiv performance’, p. 244

p. xiv ‘former Russians’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 81

CHAPTER 1

p. 3 ‘an important clarification’, Berezhkov, In diplomatischer Mission bei Hitler,p. 63

p. 3 ‘thirty-nine aircraft…’, Maslennikov, RGVA, 38652/1/58.

p. 4 ‘is not here…’, Berezhkov, op. cit., p. 64

p. 5 ‘Disinformation has…’, quoted in Andrew and Gordievsky, p. 212

p. 6 ‘In the course…’, quoted in Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad,p. 110

p. 6 ‘Reichsminister von Ribbentrop…’, Berezhkov, op. cit., p. 65

p. 7 ‘barely five feet tall…’, Andrew and Gordievsky, p. 195

p. 7 ‘like a caged…’, ‘statesmanlike…’, ‘The Führer…’, Schmidt, pp. 212, 234

p. 7 ‘His face was scarlet…’, Berezhkov, op. cit., p. 67

p. 8 ‘The Soviet Government’s…’, Schmidt, pp. 234–5

p. 8 ‘The Führer…’, Berezhkov, op. cit., p. 67

p. 8 ‘You’ll regret…’, Berezhkov, op. cit., p. 68

p. 9 ‘Even if you retreat…’, Volkogonov, p. 413

p. 10 ‘It was as if…’, Gavrielova, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 10 ‘fought in four wars’, Goncharov, conversation, 23 Nov. 1995

p. 10 ‘We thought…’, Nefyodova, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 11 ‘Propaganda fell…’, Grigorev, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

CHAPTER 2

p. 12 ‘Nothing is impossible…!’ Reichstag speech of 4 May 1941, Völkischer Beobachter, 5 May 1941

p. 12 ‘to establish a defence…’, Führer Directive No. 21, 18 Dec. 1940

p. 13 ‘The war with Russia…’, Gefreiter, 24th Pz. Div., interrogation, 12 Aug. 1942, TsAMO 48/453/13, p. 32

p. 13 305th Inf. Div. motor transport, BA-MA, RH19 VI/1, p. 129

p. 14 ‘Our optimism…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 14 ‘the final encounter…’, IMT ND-447-PS

p. 14 ‘that the downfall of 1918…’, BA-MA, RW4/577

p. 14 ‘That would be…’, Stahlberg, p. 159

p. 15 ‘battle between…’, quoted in Messerschmidt, p. 214

p. 16 ‘Many tens of millions…’, IMT ND 221-L

p. 16 ‘It makes one’s hair…’, Hassell, 8 Apr. 1941, p. 173

p. 16 ‘The annihilation of those same Jews…’, quoted in Jürgen Förster, ‘Motivation and indoctrination in the Wehrmacht, 1933–1945’, in Addison and Calder, p. 270

p. 17 ‘The jewish-bolshevik…’, 11th Army HQ 20 Nov. 1941, quoted in Klee and Dressen, pp. 41–44

p. 17 ‘Thegenerals…’, paulus,2iJuly 1951,’DasVerhalten der Generalität unter Hitler’, BA-MA, N372/9, p. 1

p. 17 ‘For us…’, Edgar Klaus, p. 36, and Beiträge zur Geschichte der 60. Infanterie Division (mot.), TS, MGFA-P, 1979, p. 3

p. 17 ‘Instead of…’, Kroll, conversation, 6 May 1996

p. 18 ‘Within the regiment…’, Kageneck, conversation, 24 Oct. 1995

p. 18 ‘of the three…’, Dr Alois Beck, ÖStA-AdR 522

p. 18 ‘You could not…’, anonymous conversation, 16 May 1996

p. 18 ‘the Wehrmacht should not…’, Theo Schulte, ‘The German soldier in occupied Russia’, in Addison and Calder, p. 279

p. 18 ‘shocked by…’, Dohna-Schlobitten, pp. 213–14, and conversation, 16 Oct. 1995

p. 19 ‘handed over…’, RGVA, 38652/1/8

p. 19 ‘The bombs were falling…’, Col. I. T. Starinov, ‘The frontier aflame’, in Bialer, p. 225

p. 20 ‘Of course I’ll be there…’, Schmidt, p. 233

p. 20 ‘approximately 160…’, quoted in Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1731

p. 20 ‘European Crusade…’, Völkischer Beobachter, 28 June 1941

CHAPTER 3

p. 21 ‘I know! It has already…’, Starinov, op. cit., in Bialer, p. 222

p. 22 ‘impetuous dash…’, Erich von Manstein, Lost Victories,p. 187

p. 22 ‘Our pilots feel…’, 4 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 48

p.23 ‘The Germans are coming…’, Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad,p. 121

p. 23 ‘the study of the…’, Erickson, ‘The development of Soviet military doctrine’, p. 7

p. 24 ‘political demands…’, captured document, APRF 3/58/451

p. 25 ‘I was with the troops…’, Starinov, op. cit., in Bialer, p. 237

p. 25 ‘a number of conclusions’, APRF, 45/1/478

p. 26 ‘I am dying…’, TsMVS

p. 26 ‘nearly always stubborn…’, APRF, 3/58/451

p. 27 ‘shocking and in comprehensible’, Gavrielova, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 27 ‘The hatred Fascism…’, Grossman, Life and Fate,p. 34

p. 27 ‘The Motherland Calls!’, TsMVS

p. 28 ‘Our aim is to defend…’, quoted in N. D. Dyatlenko MS.

p. 28 ‘Tomorrow, or…’, Ehrenburg collection, RGALI 1204/2/3453

p. 29 ‘the greatest battle…’, Sommerfeldt, pp. 95–6

p. 30 ‘Look closely…’, Malaparte, p. 61

CHAPTER 4

p. 31 ‘The vastness…’, 12 August 1941, quoted in Messenger, p. 150

p. 32 ‘up to forty miles…’, Gottfried von Bismarck MS.

p. 32 ‘the knights of modern warfare’, Podewils, p. 32

p. 35 ‘What a great…’, letter, 11 Oct. 1941, quoted in Paulus, p. 144

p. 35 ‘Strong-point after…’, letter, Lt-Gen. Himer, 2 Oct. 1941, quoted in Paulus, p. 143

p. 37 ‘rubbish’, quoted in Volkogonov, p. 422

p. 38 ‘with his impassive…’, Werth, The Year of Stalingrad,p. 104

p. 38 ‘Was the military parade…’, conversation, Ulko, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 39 ‘If they want a war of extermination…’, Werth, Russia at War,p. 246

p. 39 ‘There can be…’, Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad,p. 258

p. 40 ‘Many of the men…’, Gen. d. PZ. Tr. Rudolf Schmidt, XXXIX Panzer Corps, 13 Nov. 1941, quoted in Paulus, p. 145

p. 40 ‘This is no longer…’, quoted in Bartov, Hitler’s Army,p. 41

p.44 ‘a small army…’, Melnikov to Beria, 25 Sept. 1943, TsKhIDK, 451P/2/6

p. 44 ‘The German people…’, Hitler, quoted in Seydlitz, p. 114

p. 44 ‘You could see…’, Pabst, p. 54

p. 44 ‘photographing of executions…’, German reference: W 283/11.41c, 28 Nov. 1941, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/96

p. 45 ‘destroy and burn to ashes’, quoted in Volkogonov, p. 456

p.45 ‘Suicide in…’, order entitled ‘Suicide and Attempted Suicide’ of 17 Jan. 1942, TsAMO 48/453/21, p. 29

p. 45 ‘Christmas will not take place…’, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 468

p. 46 ‘You are under…’, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 346

p.46 ‘Notes for Those…’, TsAMO 206/294/48, pp. 471–4

p.47 ‘We want to return…’, Reichenau to XXIX Army Corps, 25 Dec. 1941, 01348/41, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/96

p. 47 ‘Front Letter No. 3’, TsAMO 206/294/12, pp. 17–19

CHAPTER 5

p. 52 ‘roughneck…’, quoted in Messenger, p. 61

p. 53 ‘more like a scientist…’, Kageneck, conversation, 24 Oct. 1995

p. 54 ‘Even his…’, letter, 11 Feb. 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 164

p. 54 ‘punitive measures’, VOTsDNI 113/14/306, quoted in Epifanov, p. 135

p. 55 SS-Obersturmführer August Häfner, quoted in Klee and Dressen (eds.), p. 111

p. 55 ‘In various places…’, reproduced in Heer (ed.), p. 75

p. 55 ‘dishonourable for officers…’, Paget, p. 173

p. 56 ‘We cannot…’, quoted in Groscurth, p. 91

p. 56 ‘You should bring with you…’, quoted in Heer, p. 78

p. 56 more than 30,000, R. W. M. Kempner, SS im Kreuzverhör, Munich, 1964, p. 29

p. 56 Reichenau’s order, quoted in Klee and Dressen (eds.), p. 39

p. 57 village of Komsomolsk, TsAMO 206/294/48

p. 57 ‘Interrogations should end…’, TsAMO 48/453/21, p. 32

p. 57 ‘The Landsers go…’, 5 July 1942, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 485

p. 58 ‘Führer’s Birthday’ and other examples all in BA-MA, N395/10

p. 58 ‘dead men lying…’, Kageneck, p. 30

p. 59 ‘We were afraid…’, Kageneck, pp. 32–3

p. 59 ‘Most of them…’, Malaparte, p. 121

p. 59 600 Soviet prisoners, Goldhagen, p. 157

p. 59 ‘should be left to starve’, BA-ΜA, N159/4, quoted in Messerschmidt, pp. 221–2

p. 59 ‘of cold, of starvation…’, Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad,p. 328

p. 59 Maximov, NKVD report, 4 Mar. 1943, TsAMO 226/335/7, p. 364

p. 60 ‘Their information on…’, 29 Mar. 1942, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/96

p. 60 ‘work only if…’, 16 Mar. 1942, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/96

p. 60 ‘My ambulance had…’, Dr Hans Heinz Schrömbgens, quoted in Schneider-Janessen, p. 136

p. 61 Feodosia, BA-MA, RW2/V. 151, 152, quoted in de Zayas, p. 181

p. 62 ‘Morale was…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 62 ‘Just be happy…’, Bruno Gebele, in Beck, p. 102

p. 63 ‘qualitative superiority…’, Förster, ‘Evolution and development of erman doctrine 1914–1945’, p. 7

p. 63 ‘My great concern…’, Bock diary, 8 May 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 176

p. 63 ‘that it was a farewell…’, Seydlitz, p. 147

p. 63 ‘The buildings…’, Seydlitz, p. 148

p. 65 ‘shells bounced…’, Kageneck, conversation, 24 Oct. 1995

p. 66 ‘The fighting methods…’, Uffz. Hans Urban, 389th I.D., BA-MA, RW4/V 264, p. 89

p. 67 ‘the German searchlights…’, MS. by unknown soldier in Ehrenburg papers, RGALI 1204/2/3453

p. 67 ‘the success…’, 20 May 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 166

p. 67 ‘How refreshing it is…’, 12 July 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 168

CHAPTER 6

p. 69 ‘If we don’t take…’, Paulus, p. 157

p. 71 ‘the fateful place’, Podewils, p. 29

p. 73 ‘The Russian tanks…’, Podewils, pp. 47–8

p. 73 ‘shot them…’, TsAMO 230/586/1, p. 78

p. 74 ‘During the…’, Bock diary, 3 July 1942, Paulus, p. 185

p.75 ‘As far as the eye…’, Podewils, p. 47

p. 75 ‘It was almost…’, Kageneck, conversation, 24 Oct. 1995

p. 76 ‘an ocean that…’, Strecker, 19 July 1942, Haller, p. 44

p. 76 ‘Black figures…’, Podewils, p. 44

p. 77 ‘A really small boy…’, 5 July 1942, Bähr and Bähr, p. 137

p. 77 ‘Germany, I have not…’, Bähr and Bähr, p. 139

p.77 ‘Our lads have…’, Cpl István Balogh, diary entry, 24 July 1942, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 78 ‘We were starved…’, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 147

p. 80 Rattenhuber’s interrogation by SMERSH on 28 Nov. 1945, Voennye Arkhivi Rossii, No. 1, 1993, p. 357

p. 81 ‘The constant…’, Haider, 23 July 1942, p. 489

p.81 ‘a sun-ray cure’, quoted in Stahlberg, p. 308

p. 81 ‘absolute League of Nations army’, quoted in Messenger, p. 149

p. 82 ‘amid silent people…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 82 ‘enough to buy…’, interrogation 26 Sept. 1942, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 561

p. 82 ‘A man went to…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 83 98,000 casualties, Mark Axworthy, ‘The Romanian soldier at the siege of Odessa’, in Addison and Calder, p. 227

p. 83 ‘The habit of looting…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

CHAPTER 7

p. 84 ‘They’ve forgotten…’, TsAMO 3/11 556/9, Volkogonov, p. 459

p. 84 ‘anyone who removes…’, Order 270 of 16 Aug. 1941, TsAMO 298/2526/5a, quoted in Volkogonov, p. 427

p. 85 ‘Panic-mongers…’, 16 Aug. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/28, p. 8

p. 85 ‘to combat cowardice’, Zhukov to Stalin, quoted in Volkogonov, p. 469

p. 85 ‘traitor to the…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1774

p. 85 422,700 Red Army men, Erickson, ‘Red Army battlefield performance’, in Addison and Calder, p. 236

p. 85 ‘atone with…’, TsAMO 48/486/28, p. 15

p.85 ‘already wounded…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 29 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 315

p. 86 ‘pale because they…’, Nikolay Filin, ‘Kak i pochemu ya byl agentom SMERSh’, Vechernyaya Moskva, 25 Nov. 1995

p. 86 ‘It is very difficult…’, Ehrenburg papers, RGALI 1284/2/3466

p. 86 ‘of the treatment…’, order from Second Panzer Army, 9 Feb. 1942, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/96

p. 87 ‘Most of the soldiers…’, 10 Aug. 1942, TsAMO 48/453/13, p. 10

p. 87 ‘a sin against…’, TsAMO 48/453/13, pp. 4–7

p. 87 ‘as hot…’, letter, 9 July 1942, quoted in Haller, p. 192; ‘53 degrees in the sun’, Groscurth, p. 527

p. 87 ‘The Russians have…’, Gefr. H. S., 389th I.D., 10 Aug. 1942, BZG-S

p. 87 ‘Soviet bombers…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 88 ‘the plague of flies…’, Dr Günther Diez, quoted in Schneider-Janessen, p. 130

p. 88 ‘To be honest…’, 19 July 1942, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 485

p. 89 horsebrush, TsAMO 48/486/28, p. 15

p. 89 ‘about this senseless task’, Podewils, p. 98

p. 90 ‘hiding in a ditch’, 31 July 1942, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 251

p. 90 ‘They had a longer range…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 91 ‘They would have quickly…’, Simonov, Raznye dni voiny,p. 180

p. 92 ‘Russians resisting…’, 2, 3, 5 and 6 Aug. 1942, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 486

p. 92 night-fighter regiment, Sterman, conversation, 7 Nov. 1995

p. 94 ‘Papa Hube’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 94 ‘consuming so many…’, Behr, conversation, 25 Oct. 1995

p. 94 ‘old warhorse’, Dohna-Schlobitten, conversation, 16 Oct. 1995

p. 94 ‘too pessimistic’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 94 ‘Not an encouraging sight…’, Podewils, p. 85

p. 95 ‘whenever a Russian…’, Metelmann, conversation, 12 Apr. 1996

p. 95 ‘an enormous herd of elephants’, Seydlitz, p. 158

p. 96 ‘The Russians are…’, quoted Paulus, p. 187

p. 96 ‘höchst primitiv’, Podewils, p. 95

p. 96 181st Rifle Division, conversation, Tsygankov, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 97 ‘the many, many…’, Sold. H. R., 9 Aug. 1942, 389th I.D., BZG-S

p. 97 seventy-two corpses, 24 Sept. 1942, TsAMO 62/335/7

p. 97 ‘The Russians can…’, Gefr. W. V., 9 Aug. 1942, 305th I.D., BZG-S

p. 97 ‘The only consolation…’, Sold. B. B., 389th I.D., 14 Aug. 1942, BZG-S

p. 97 ‘workers’columns’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1773

p. 98 petroleum-storage tanks, Nefyodova and Grebennikova, conversation, 23 Nov. 1995

p. 98 ‘Do you want to defend…?’ Albert, conversation, 23 Nov. 1995

p. 98 high-school pupils, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1774

p. 99 Traitor to the Party…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1774

p. 99 ‘special attention to the investigation…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 18 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 240

p. 99 ‘advising him to…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1774

p. 99 ‘political and moral degeneracy…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1774

p. 100 ‘the end of the world…’, Lazarev, conversation, 13 Nov. 1995

p. 100 ‘After the Don…’, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 485

CHAPTER 8

p. 103 ‘a very exhilarating…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 103 ‘General Paulus…’, Richthofen diary, 20 Aug. 1942, Paulus, p. 188

p. 103 ‘to cripple…’, Richthofen diary, 23 Aug. 1942, Paulus, p. 188

p. 103 ‘Make use of today!’ Podewils, p. 107

p. 104 ‘in tightly packed groups’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 104 ‘Stalingrad, the city of Stalin…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/216

p. 104 ‘a day which…’, Gavrielova, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 104 ‘Comrades, an air-raid…’, Nekrassov, p. 82

p. 104 ‘not just industrial…’, Grigorev, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 105 ‘literally had to drag…’, Nefyodova, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 105 ‘Before filling in…’, Goncharov, conversation, 23 Nov. 1995

p. 106 1,600 sorties, 1,000 tons, Plocher, p. 231

p. 106 ‘No one bothered…’, Goncharov, conversation, 23 Nov. 1995

p. 106 ‘Around Gumrak…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 107 ‘seemed to think…’, Albert, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 107 ‘Oh, they’re finished now!’ Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 107 ‘the soldiers…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 107 ‘We had started…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 107, ‘The Volga is reached!’ BA-MA, RH20-6/216

p. 107 ‘a feeling of…’, Langsdorff, p. 194

p. 108 ‘We looked at the…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation, 23 Oct. 1995

p. 108 ‘the girls refused…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 108 ‘stayed at her post…’, Goncharov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 108 ‘Right until the late…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 108 ‘It is completely…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264

p. 109 ‘We shall never surrender…’, TsMVS

p. 109 ‘deserted his post’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1773

p. 110 ‘Yesterday we reached…’, Gefr. E. R. 16th Pz. Div., 25 Aug. 1942, BZG-S

p. 110 ‘mit Eleganz’, Gefr. B. G., 2 Sept. 1942, BZG-S

p. 111 ‘gunboats’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 111 ‘We know how…’, Podewils, p. 117

p. 112 ‘like a calm lake’, Podewils, p. 105

p. 112 ‘Soon we too will…’, Gefr. B. G., 24 Aug. 1942, BZG-S

p. 112 ‘The song will really…’, Uffz. W. W., 27 Aug. 1942, BZG-S

p. 112 ‘You can’t imagine…’, Sold. H. R., 389th I.D., 28 Aug. 1942, BZG-S

p. 113 ‘very nervous’, Richthofen diary, Paulus, p. 188

p. 113 ‘the closer the…’, Strecker, Haller, p. 89

p. 113 ‘We will not abandon…’, 26 Aug. 1942, TsMVS

p. 114 ‘Many men have…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 29 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 308

p. 114 ‘Concentration of enemy…’, ÖStA-KA B/1540

p. 115 ‘led a battalion…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 78

p. 115 ‘This silver streak…’, Podewils, p. 119

p. 115 ‘Gentlemen, flying for fun…’, Einsiedel, p. 12

p. 116 ‘This shitty Russia’, Uffz. H. T., 71st I.D., 30 Aug. 1942, BZG-S

p. 117 ‘worried and angry’, Glichov, conversation, 6 Nov. 1995

p. 117 ‘What’s the matter…’, Volkogonov, p. 461

p. 118 ‘Delay at this moment’, Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad,p. 384

p. 118 The Germans also suffered…, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 118 ‘Hello, my dear ones!’ V. M. Kovalov, 2 Sept. 1942, AMPSB 258/4904

p. 118 ‘the Volga was the last line…’, Glichov, conversation, 6 Nov. 1995

p. 119 ‘but Stalingrad will…’, Gefr. B. G., 3 Sept. 1942, BZG-S

p. 119 ‘According to…’, Sold. W. W., 305th I.D., 2 Sept. 1942, BZG-S

p. 119 ‘The ring round…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/216

p. 119 ‘Here, everyone…’, letter, 23 Aug. 1942, quoted in Paulus, p. 169

CHAPTER 9

p. 121 ‘the fateful city’, letter, 3 Dec. 1942, Groscurth, p. 530

p. 123 ‘satisfying progress…’, Haider, 7 Sept. 1942, p. 518

p. 123 ‘That is a lie!’ quoted in Domarus, vol. ii, p. 1908

p. 123 ‘long stare…’, Warlimont, p. 269

p. 124 ‘a completely new…’, Below, p. 315

p. 124 ‘The tanks are no good…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 124 ‘The Russians attacked…’, Freytag-Loringhoven, conversation,23 Oct. 1995

p. 124 ‘As far as the eye…’, Gefr. O. K., 13 Sept. 1942

p. 125 ‘What if your beloved…’, Stalinskoe znamia, 8 Sept. 1942

p. 125 ‘Do not count days…’, Zayas, p. 169

p. 125 ‘sad smell of…’, Simonov, Raznye dni voiny, vol. ii, pp. 175–6

p. 127 ‘Comrade Chuikov…’, Chuikov, p. 84

p. 128 ‘Time is blood’, Chuikov, p. 89

p. 128 ‘to get across the Volga…’, Chuikov, p. 93

p. 128 ‘experienced traitor…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 77

p. 129 ‘every German must…’, Chuikov, p. 80

p. 129 ‘strong positions…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/216

p. 129 ‘then fourteen days…’, Haider, p. 521

p. 129 ‘A mass of Stukas…’, Gefr. H. S., 389th I.D., BZG-S

p. 131 ‘Yeremenko says…’, Zhukov, p. 143

p. 131 ‘Both divisions…’, BA-MA, RH20-6/216

p. 133 ‘Major Stalin’, S. D. Lugansky, ‘Malenkov’, in Bialer, p. 455

p. 134 ‘the kites perched…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 135 ‘flowed from Rodimtsev…’, conversation, Kidyarov, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 135 ‘Since yesterday…’, anon., 29th I.D. (mot.), 15 Sept. 1942, BZG-S

p. 136 ‘he was afraid of…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 77

p. 136 ‘Instead of taking…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 77

p. 137 ‘did not agree…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 78

p. 137 ‘These clouds of earth…’, Grossman, Life and Fate,p. 35

p. 138 ‘Stalingrad has been taken…’, TsAMO 3/11 556/10, quoted in

Volkogonov, pp. 474–5

p. 138 ‘Whenever an Me-109…’, 4 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 48

p. 138 ‘As soon as Stuka…’, Max Plakolb, OStA-KAB/1540; Kalb interrogation, TsAMO 48/453/13, p. 70

p. 139 ‘Attack target area…’, Herbert Pabst, letters, quoted in Bähr and Bähr, pp. 186–8

p. 139 ‘The soldiers’…’, Dr Günther Diez, Schneider-Janessen, p. 130

p. 141 ‘Each Guards soldier…’, conversation, Kidyarov, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 142 ‘The air is filled…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/42

p. 142 ‘It’s not a human…’, Podewils, p. 115

p. 142 ‘Home is so far…’, Herbert Pabst, quoted in Bähr and Bähr, Ρ 184

p. 142 ‘Hello, my dear Palina!’, AMPSB 22789

p. 142 The Germans won’t…’, AMPSB 752-/5.481

p. 143 ‘left the line of defence…’, Dobronin to Stalingrad Front Military Council, 3 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, pp. 9, 30–32

CHAPTER 10

p. 145 ‘necessity of indoctrinating…’, Haider, p. 528

p. 145 ‘The general staff…’, 19 Aug. 1942, Groscurth, p. 548

p. 146 ‘ready to film…’, Dohna-Schlobitten, p. 246

p. 146 ‘the battle flag…’., BA-MA, RH20-6/216, p. 51

p. 146 ‘in much too rosy…’, quoted in Boelcke, p. 365

p. 146 ‘from morning… highly nervous’, 29 Aug. 1942, Groscurth, p. 550

p. 148 ‘fighting in the…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 148 ‘like a layered cake’, Goncharov, conversation, 25 Nov. 1995

p. 148 ‘an aberration in the art of war’, Förster, ‘Evolution and development of German doctrine…’, p. 2

p. 149 ‘The enemy is…’, Strecker, Haller, p. 90

p. 149 ‘Not a house is left…’, Lt Anselm Radbruch, letter, 26 Sept. 1942, Bähr and Bähr, p. 174

p. 149 ‘The defenders have…’, Max Plakolb, ÖStA-KA B/1540

p. 149 ‘Make a mistake…’, Smirnov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 150 ‘If only you could…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 150 25 million rounds, BA-MA, RH20-6/216, p. 58

p. 150 ‘The Russkies…’, Gefr. O. K., Pion. Bt 45, 16 Sept. 1942, BZG-S

p. 151 ‘We lie exhausted…’, Klaus, p. 20

p. 151 ‘The Russians’ unchallenged…’, Sixth Army war diary, 15 Nov. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 152 ‘in Stalingrad…’, Tsygankov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 152 ‘On the other side…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 681/2/108

p. 153 ‘Vanyusha…’, Tsygankov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 153 ‘Further weapon training…’, 3 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 10

p. 154 ‘the gaunt and melancholy’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 154 ‘Look after your…’, TsAMO 48/486/39, p. 21

p. 155 ‘covered in icicles…’, Tsygankov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 155 ‘Shells exploding…’, Col. Vishnevsky, 17 Nov. 1942, AMPSB 602/10343

p. 157 ‘every imaginable sort…’, Lazar Ilich Lazarev, conversation, 13 Nov. 1995

p. 157 ‘military tribunal of NKVD Forces’, RTsKhIDNI 17/43/1773

p. 157 ‘physically and spiritually…’, Gavrielova, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 157 ‘brought over a hundred…’, and ‘threw grenades…’, TsMVS

p. 157 Kochnevskaya, 21 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 268

p. 158 ‘thousands of wounded…’, Sterman, conversation, 7 Nov. 1995

p. 158 ‘They often closed…’, Professor Krimskaya, quoted in Schneider-Janessen, p. 134

p. 158 Yekaterina Petlyuk, John Erickson, ‘Soviet women in war’, in Garrard and Garrard (eds.), p. 66

p. 158 ‘I had never seen…’, Simonov, Raznye dni voiny,p. 187

p. 159 ‘In hospital…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 159 ‘socialist competition’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 28 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, pp. 297–8

p. 159 ‘If they don’t…’, 4 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 47

p. 160 ‘it seemed as though…’, Maj. V. Velichko, ‘The 62nd Army’, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 148

p. 161 ‘white symmetrical…’, Nekrassov, p. 82

p. 162 ‘Russian women…’, Uffz. Hans Urban, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 89

p. 162 ‘One more battle…’, Chuikov, p. 167

p. 162 ‘You can’t imagine…’, Gefr. H. S., 389th I.D., BZG-S

p. 163 ‘the confusing…’, Viktor Kainzer, Jäg.-Rgt 54, Stalingradbund Österreich, May 1984

p. 164 ‘Where are you?’ Chuikov, p. 184

p. 164 ‘For the defenders…’, 17 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 216

p. 165 ‘no man will shift…’, quoted in Domarus, vol. ii, pp. 1914, 1916

CHAPTER 11

p. 166 ‘We Russians were…’, Smirnov, conversation, 22 Nov. 1995

p. 166 ‘In the blazing city…’, Chuikov, p. 223

p. 166 ‘Those who do not…’, Stalinskoe znamia, 4 Sept. 1942

p. 166 ‘the defeatist mood…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 74

p. 167 German tanks protect deserters, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 20

p. 167 Deserters from 124th Special Brigade, 3 Oct. 1942, Dobronin to Stalingrad Front Military Council, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 8

p. 167 ‘Since their last…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 167 ‘he was arrested…’, BA-MA, RH27-16/43

p. 167 ‘Morale among…’, Uffz. J. Sch., 79th I.D., 22 Sept. 1942, BZG-S

p. 168 178th Reserve Rifle Regt, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 21 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 239

p. 168 ‘citizens of Stalingrad…’, 13 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 162; 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 77

p. 168 ‘A shortage of…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 77

p. 168 ‘It was impossible…’, 26 Nov.1942, TsAMO48/486/25, pp.317–18

p. 169 ‘If I am sent to the…’, 16 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 209

p. 169 ‘the carelessness…’, 13 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 165

p. 169 ‘an extreme measure…’, 15 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 201

p. 169 ‘During the night…’, 13 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 165

p. 170 ‘It is hard for them…’, 11 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 138–9

p. 170 ‘received such…’, 14 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 183

p. 170 ‘To indoctrinate…’, 14 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 185

p. 170 ‘He announced that…’, 15 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 176

p. 170 ‘It is very difficult…’, 13 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 163

p. 170 ‘In battle conditions…’, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 79

p. 171 ‘criminal disorder…’, 23 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 292

p. 171 446 desertions, TsAMO 48/486/29, p. 49

p. 171 ‘a protective zone…’, 15 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 187

p. 171 ‘tried to hide…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 82

p. 171 ‘Eleven soldiers…’, 25 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 259

p. 172 ‘a sign of cowardice…’, 7 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 106

p. 172 ‘men found with…’, 18 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 240

p. 172 ‘discredited the leaders…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, pp. 82–3

p. 172 ‘When soldiers mutter…’, Nikolay Filin, ‘Kak i pochemu ya byl agentom SMERSh’, Vechernyaya Moskva, 25 Nov. 1995

p. 173 ‘nine grams of lead’, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 162

p. 173 ‘thanks to…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 76; 18 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 236

p. 173 ‘To be honest…’, quoted in Garrard and Garrard, p. 155

p. 173 ‘cemented the stones…’, Maj. V. Velichko, ‘The 62nd Army’, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 145

p. 174 ‘Life is not easy…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 175 ‘only fifty yards out…’, Goncharov, conversation, 24 Nov. 1995

p. 175 ‘Today I saw…’, Uffz. H. D., 295th I.D., 6 Nov. 1942, BZG-S

p. 176 ‘We crossed a bridge…’, Simonov, 25 Sept. 1942, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 60

p. 176 ‘these things cannot be helped…’, Simonov, 25 Sept. 1942, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 64

p. 177 ‘The enemy…’, 5 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 63

p. 177 ‘suitable’, VOTsDNI, 113/14/306L, quoted in Epifanov, p. 136

p. 178 ‘the majority aged between…’, from the interrogation of Mikhail Bulanov, 3 Dec. 1943, quoted in Klee and Dressen (eds.), p. 95

p. 178 ‘in hopeless cases…’, Podewils, p. 131

p. 178 ‘a huge black crowd’, Nefyodova, conversation, 23 Nov. 1995

p. 179 ‘no one knows how’, Goncharov, conversation, 24 Nov. 1995

p. 179 ‘signalling to the enemy…’, Dobronin to Stalingrad Front Military Council, 3 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, pp. 9, 32

p. 179 270,000 Ukrainians, BA-MA Wi ID/33, in Sergei Kudryashov, ‘The hidden dimension’, in Erickson and Dilks, p. 242

p. 179 800 Ukrainian youths, VOTsDNI, 113/14/306, pp. 75–90, Epifanov, p. 153

p. 180 Stalingrad campaign interrogations of German and allied PoWs, TsAMO 62/335/7,48/453/13,206/294/12,206/294/47,206/294/48, 226/335/7

p. 180 ‘Older soldiers…’, captured 16 Sept. 1942, TsAMO 48/453/13, p. 36

p. 180 Kaplan interrogations, TsAMO 48/453/13, pp. 75, 46, 48

p. 181 ‘very energetic measures…’, 7 Aug. 1942, 14th Pz. Div., RTsKhIDNI 17/125/96

p. 181 ‘How can we possibly…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 182 ‘God keep me alive…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 182 ‘God, don’t let…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 182 ‘You should…’, 30 July 1942, TsAMO 206/294/48, p. 466

p. 183 ‘We did not fire…’, TsAMO 206/294/47, p. 251

p. 183 991 Special Strafbattalion, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 183 ‘Russian agents…’, TsAMO 48/453/21, p. 96

p. 184 ‘lords and vassals’, Klaus, p. 23

p. 184 ‘Above all…’, Stolberg report, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 161

p. 184 ‘one for officers…’, BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 156

p. 184 ‘To avoid in future…’, 19 Sept. 1941, 3rd Rom. Army to 13th Rom.

I.D., RTsKhIDNI, 171/125/96

p. 184 ‘It is disturbing…’, 25 Oct. 1942, Groscurth, p. 552

p. 184 50,000 Russian auxiliaries, Kehrig, pp. 662-3; see also Rüdiger Overmans, ‘Das andere Gesicht des Krieges’, in Förster (ed.), Stalingrad,p. 441

p. 184 ‘Russians in the German…’, 4 Mar. 1943, TsAMO 226/335/7, p. 364

p. 185 ‘We believed the leaflets…’, RTsKhIDNI 17/125/97

p. 186 ‘Ivan’, conversation, Henry Metelmann, 12 Apr. 1996

p. 186 ‘On some parts…’, 8 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 81

CHAPTER 12

p. 187 ‘Will Stalingrad…’, letter to his brother, Groscurth, p. 528

p. 187 ‘the dark towering bulk…’, Grossman papers, RGALI, 628/2/108

p. 188 ‘The Russians made…’, Uffz. Philipp Westrich, Iooth jäger Division,

BA-MA, RW4/V. 264, p. 86

p. 189 ‘dogged, rugged…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 190 ‘As soon as dusk falls…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 191 overloaded boat, 15 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 162

p. 191 ‘encircle minefields…’, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 66

p. 191 ‘drunk themselves out…’, TsAMO 48/486/39, p. 22

p. 191 ‘the infantry company…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 15 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 188, and 48/486/28, p. 216

p. 192 ‘which signifies…’, Sixth Army war diary, 10 Oct. 1942, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 192 ‘The whole sky…’, Gefr. H. S., 389th I.D., 14 Oct. 1942, BZG-S

p. 193 ‘The fighting assumed…’, Maj. V. Velichko, ‘The 62nd Army’, in USSR, Stalingrad,p. 149

p. 193 ‘Those of us…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 15 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p.189

p. 193 ‘Our support…’, Uffz. H. G., 305th I.D., 24 Oct. 1942, BZG-S

p. 193 ‘It was a terrible…’, Grams, p. 54

p. 194 ‘The major part…’, Sixth Army war diary, BA-MA, RH20-6/221

p. 194 ‘more than thirty medium…’, TsAMO 48/486/35, pp. 212–13

p. 194 ‘Guns destroyed…’, TsAMO 48/486/35, p. 214

p. 194 ‘real mass heroism’, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 200

p. 195 ‘Factory walls…’, Strecker, quoted in Haller, p. 90

p. 195 ‘Our General…’, Sold. H. R., 389th I.D., 14 Oct. 1942, BZG-S

p. 195 ‘The help of our fighter…’, TsAMO 48/486/35, p. 212

p. 195 ‘I cannot understand…’, Herbert Pabst, 18 Oct. 1942, Bähr and Bähr, p. 188

p. 196 ‘hundreds of wounded…’, Chuikov, p. 203

p. 197 ‘exceptional cowardice’, Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, 9 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 117

p. 198 ‘Communist-infected circles’, Boelcke, p. 384

p. 199 ‘Hello, Shura!’ RGALI 1284/2/3466

p. 199 ‘I’m getting along…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 199 ‘we are constantly…’, 12 Oct. 1942, AMPSB 7555/13530

p. 199 ‘Mariya…’, 23 Oct. 1942, AMPSB 7555/13530

p. 200 ‘People might reproach me…’, AMPSB, quoted in Volgograd University history department project

p. 200 ‘I often ask myself…’, Leutnant Otten, AMPSB, quoted in Volgograd University history department project

p. 200 ‘I can’t stop worrying…’, to Josef Joffner from his wife in Nuremberg, AMPSB N45079A

p. 200 ‘Aunt Lyuba…’, 11 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 139

p. 200 ‘the wounded caught…’, 7 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 117

p. 201 ‘In 62nd Army alone…’, 11 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 138–9

p. 201 ‘In the occupied…’, 11 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 151

p. 202 ‘absolutely incorrect attitude’ and ‘unnecessary appendix’, 14 Nov. 1942, Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 179

p. 202 ‘Without my permission…’, Koshcheev to Shcherbakov, 21 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 262

p. 202 ‘because now that they…’, 14 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 179–80

p. 202 ‘a counter-revolutionary statement’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 18 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 249

p. 202 ‘They’ve invented the Orders…’, Dobronin to Shcherbakov, 15 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 162

p. 202 ‘criminal carelessness’, 15 Oct. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/24, p. 344

p. 202 medal in vodka, Lazarev, conversation, 13 Nov. 1995

p. 203 ‘a new wave of…’, 4 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 176–7

p. 203 ‘noble sniper’, 10 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 122

p. 204 ‘Rus, komm, komm!’ 6 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, pp. 76–7

p. 204 ‘Fascists should know…’, 4 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 58

p. 204 ‘learned the dark sides of life’, Grossman papers, RGALI 618/2/108

p. 205 Manenkov, 17 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 216

p. 205 ‘still the best…’, 12 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 144

p. 205 ‘In war…’, Grossman papers, RGALI, 1710/1/100

p. 206 ‘formerly workers…’, 4 Nov. 1942, TsAMO 48/486/25, p. 52

p. 206 ‘so close to the…’, Hptm. Kempter, quoted in Hauck, pp. 74–5

p. 206 ‘the dogs fight…’, Gefr. H. S., 389th I.D., 5 Nov. 1942, BZG-S

p. 207 ‘We felt at home in the dark’, Chuikov, p. 211

p. 207 ‘Father…’, Gefreiter Gelman to his family, AMPSB, quoted in Volgograd University history department project

p. 207 ‘Don’t worry…’, Grossman papers, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 207 ‘Here a saying…’, Sold. K. H. 113th I.D., 27 Oct. 1942, BZG-S

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