REFERENCES

1 Dick, Charles J. “A Bear Without Claws: The Russian Army in the 1990s.” The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, March 1997, pp. 1-2.

2 Miller, Steven E. “Moscow’s Military Power: Russia’s Search for Security in an Age of Transition.” The Russian Military: Power and Policy, edited by Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, MIT Press, 2004, pp. 2, 7.

3 Dick, p. 2.

4 Dick, pp. 1-2.

5 Allison, Roy, “Russia, Regional Conflict, and the Use of Military Power.” The Russian Military: Power and Policy, edited by Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, MIT Press, 2004, pp. 132-133.

6 Dick, p. 2.

7 Miller, p. 1.

s Arbatov, Alexei G, “Military Reform: From Crisis to Stagnation.” The Russian Military: Power and Policy, edited by Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, MIT Press, 2004, p. 100.

9 Dick, pages 3-4.

10 Shurygin, Vladislav. "The Russian Army: Chronicle of Collapse." Internet Agenstvo Federalnykh Rassledovaniy,

6 Nov 2006, www.apn.ru/publications/print1253.htm. Accessed 7 Jan 2007.

11 Unattributed. “Army Officers Moonlighting to Avoid Starvation.” Moscow Russian Television Network, 27 Oct 1996. Accessed 27 Oct 1996.

12 Golts, Aleksandr, “The Social and Political Condition of the Russian Military.” The Russian Military: Power and Policy, edited by Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, MIT Press, 2004, pp. 73-74.

13 Dick, p. 4.

14 Dick, pp. 4-5.

15 Barabanov, Mikhail, “Plard Lessons Learned: Russian Military Reform up to the Georgian Conflict.” Brothers Armed: Military Aspects of the Crisis in Ukraine, edited by Colby Howard and Ruslan Pukhanov, East View Press, 2014, pp. 80-81.

16 Barabanov, “Hard Lessons,” p. 75.

17 Barbanov, “Hard Lessons,” p. 76.

18 Pallin, Carolina Vendil. Russian Military Reform: A failed exercise in defense decision making. Routledge, 2009, pp. 71-74.

19 Barabanov, Mikhail (ed), Russia’s New Army. Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, Moscow, Russia, 2011, pp. 10-13.

20 Barabanov, “Hard Lessons,” pp. 79-80.

21 Pallin, pp. 94-96.

22 Pavlovskiy, Nikolay. “Good Bye, Soviet Army.” Boss Magazine, 15 Feb 2010. Accessed 25 Feb 2010.

23 Barabanov, “New Army,” pp. 17-18.

24 Barabanov, “Hard Lessons,” p. 85.

25 Barabanov, “New Army,” pp. 13-14.

26 Barabanov, “Hard Lessons,” p. 82.

27 Barabanov, “New Army,” pp. 15-16.

28 Barabanov, “New Army,” pp. 19-20.

29 Tamantsev, Yaroslav. “Where the Military Shambles in Russia Is Leading.” Internet SEGODNYA.ru, 16 Dec 2008, wwwsegodnia.ru/content/19109. Accessed 29 Dec 2008.

30 Shurygin, Vladislav. “Full text from the Press conference with General Makarov.” Kommersant-Vlast, 13 Jul 2009, www.kommersant.ru/vlast. Accessed 16 Jul 09.

31 Unattributed, “The Contract Fad.” Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye Online, 22 Nov 2013, nvo.ng.ru/. Accessed 26 Nov 2013.

32 Telmanov, Denis. “General Staff Submitted a Modernization Plan to the State Duma.” Moscow Gazeta Online, 13 Nov 2008, http://gzt.ru/. Accessed 18 Nov 2008.

33 Barabanov, Mikhail. “Reform of the Combat Spirit.” Kommersant-Vlast, 20 Oct 2008, www.kommersant.ru/vlast. aspx?issueid=41901. Accessed 21 Oct 2008.

34 Unattributed. “Chief of Russian General Staff Army Gen Nikolay Makarov meets with foreign military attaches.” Moscow Interfax, 21 Dec 2009, http://www.militarynews.ru/. Accessed 22 Dec 2009.

35 Unattributed. “The General Staff Has Laid Out a New Strategy.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 30 Dec 2009, www.Ng.ru/ nvo/2009-12-30_genshtab.html. Accessed 31 Dec 2009.

36 Barabanov, pp. 20-28.

37 Unattributed, “The Contract Fad.” Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye Online, 22 Nov 2013, nvo.ng.ru/. Accessed 26 Nov 2013.

38 Rastopshin, Mikhail. “Unprepared for the Noncontact Operations of the 21st Century.” Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 15 Aug 2008, www.nvo.ng.ru/wars/2008-08- 15/8_ossetia.html. Accessed 29 Aug 2008.

39 Kotenok Yuriy. "The Army Needs to Be Protected from Dilettantes." Utro.ru, 21 Oct 2008, www.utro.ru/articles/2008/10/21 /776199.shtml. Accessed 22 Oct 2008.

40 Khramchikhin, Aleksandr. "The Army is Cut Off at Its Knees: However, So Far There Are No Answers to the Questions: Why and to What End." Moscow Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 24 Oct 08. Accessed 3 Nov 2008.

41 Tamantsev, Yaroslav. “Where the Military Shambles in Russia Is Leading.” Internet SEGODNYA.ru, 16 Dec 2008, www. segodnia.ru/content/19109. Accessed 29 Dec 2008.

42 Bratersky, Alexander and Earle, Jonathan. “Shoigu Inherits Armed Forces at Crossroads.” The Moscow Times, 9 Nov 2012, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/ shoigu-inherits-armed-forces-at-crossroads/471212.html. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.

43 Nikolskiy, Aleksey, and Kostenko, Natalya. "Shoygu's Army." Vedomosti Online, 8 Nov 2012, http://www.vedomosti.ru/. Accessed 15 Nov 2012.

44 Unattributed. “Analysis: Russian Military Manpower - Strengths, Weaknesses, Ukraine Standoff.” Caversham BBC Monitoring, 15 May 2014, Bbc/co/uk. Accessed 15 May 2014.

45 Unattributed. “Advanced Russian Weapons Deployed in Donbass.” Internet Kyiv Defense Express, 17 Feb 2015, http:// www.defense-ua.com. Accessed 17 Feb 2015.

46 Unattributed. “More Russian Troops, Hardware Spotted in Ukraine.” 5 Kanal TV in Ukrainian. Accessed 3 Oct 2014.

47 Sutyagin, Igor, “Detailing Russian Forces in Syria.” RUSI Defense Systems, 13 Nov 2015, https://rusi.org/publication/ rus-defense-systems/detailing-russian-forces-syria. Accessed 25 Oct 2016.

48 “Northern Fleet.” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, http://structure.mil.ru/structure/okruga/north/news.htm.

49 Frolov, Vladimir, president of LEFF Group, a government relations and PR company. “Putin Seeks entente Cordiale with the West.” Opinion: The Moscow Times Online, 8 Mar 2016, http://www.themoscowtimes.com. Accessed 8 Mar 2016.

50 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.’” Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

51 Trenin, Dmitri. “The Revival of the Russian Military: How Moscow Reloaded,” Foreign Affairs, May/Jun 2016, pp. 23-29.

52 Lukyanov, Fedor. “Putin’s Foreign Policy: The Quest to Restore Russia’s Rightful Place.” Foreign Affairs, May/Jun 2016, pp. 30-38.

53 Lukyanov, “Putin’s Foreign Policy,” pp. 30-38.

54 Lukyanov, “Putin’s Foreign Policy,” pp. 30-38.

55 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.”' Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

56 Trenin, “The Revival of the Russian Military,” pp. 23-30.

57 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.’” Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

58 Lukyanov, “Putin’s Foreign Policy,” pp. 30-38.

59 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.’” Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

60 Unattributed. “Russian presidential representative to Afghanistan expressed his deep concerns regarding the expanding ISIL activities in Afghanistan.” TEHRAN (FNA), 24 Apr 2016, http://www.english.farsnews.com. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.

61 Government of the Russian Federation. “Deputy Secretary of the Russian Security Council Yevgeniy Lukyanov has issued a commentary on the most recent version of the National Security Strategy.” Official website of the Russian Federation Government, 18 Jan 2016, http://government.ru. Accessed 18 Jan 2016.

62 Kashin, Vasiliy and Pyatachkova, Anastasiya. "On The Road to an Alliance? How Far Rapprochement Between Russia and China Could Go." Internet: Moscow Lenta.ru in Russian, 25 Aug 2016, http://lenta.ru/. Accessed 30 Aug 2016.

63 Nechepurenko, Ivan. “Russia-China Alliance Could Launch New World Order.” The Moscow Times Online, 14 Jun 2014, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/. Accessed 16 Jun 2014.

64 Kashin and Pyatachkova, "On The Road to an Alliance? How Far Rapprochement Between Russia and China Could Go."

65 Trenin, Dmitriy. "Russia's Foreign Policy in the Coming Five Years: Goals, Stimuli, Reference Points." Politkom.ru, 29 Apr 2016, http://politikom.ru. Accessed 10 May 2016.

66 Cohen, Josh. “Putin's Fear of China Weakens Russia's Asia Pivot.” The Moscow Times, 17 Dec 2014, http://www. themoscowtimes.com/. Accessed 24 Dec 2014.

67 Melnikova, Kseniya citing experts Gabuyev, Aleksandr and Bordachev, Timofey. "Restless Neighborhood.” Moscow Lenta.ru in Russian, 15 Jul 2015, http://www/lenta.ru/. Accessed 19 Jul 2016.

68 Yegorov, Ivan. “Challenge Accepted; Nikolay Patrushev: National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation Has Been Updated.” Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 22 Dec 2015, www.rg. ru/2015/12/22/patrushev-site.html. Accessed 28 Dec 2015.

69 Official government document. “The Russian Federation National Security Strategy Through 2020.” Russian Federation Security Council Website, 12 May 2009, www.scrf.gov.ru. Accessed 15 May 2009.

70 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.”' Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

71 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.”' Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

72 Official government document. “The Russian Federation National Security Strategy Through 2020.” Russian Federation Security Council Website, 12 May 2009, www.scrf.gov.ru. Accessed 15 May 2009.

73 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.’” Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

74 Yaffa, Joshua. “ What the Russian Protests Mean for Putin,” 27 March 2017, www.thenewyorker.com.

75 Yaffa, Joshua. “ What the Russian Protests Mean for Putin,” 27 March 2017, www.thenewyorker.com.

76 Lipman, Maria. “How Putin Silences Dissent: Inside the Kremlin’s Crackdown,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2016, pp. 38-47.

77 Lipman, Maria. “How Putin Silences Dissent: Inside the Kremlin’s Crackdown,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2016, pp. 38-47.

78 Unattributed. “Russian National Guard to have central command point (Part 2).” Moscow Interfax, 9 Jul 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 10 Jul 2016.

79 Unattributed. “Maximal size of Russian Interior Ministry's staff cut to 904,800 - presidential order.” Moscow Interfax, 19 Sep 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 20 Sep 2016.

80 Sokirko, Viktor. “Interview with Vladimir Pronichev.” Komsomolskaya Pravda Online, 11 Oct 2011, http://www.kp.ru/. Accessed 15 Oct 2011.

81 Russia Federal Penitentiary Service. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Federal_Penitentiary_Service. Accessed 25 Oct 2016.

82 Unattributed. “Putin caps Emergencies Ministry headcount.” Moscow TASS, 30 Jul 2016, http://tass.ru. Accessed 31 Jul 2016.

83 Wilson, Kyle. “Australia: The puzzle of Putin’s insecurity: praetorian guards, Stalinist blueprints.” The Strategist, 23 May 2016, http://www.aspistrategist.org.au. Accessed 24 May 2016.

84 Unattributed. “Chechnya Move Worries Russian Press.”

BBC News Online, 17 Apr 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/. Accessed 17 Apr 2009.

85 Milashina, Yelena. "How Putin Has Liquidated Kadyrov's Army. Edict on the Formation of the National Guard Will Have Colossal Consequences for Chechnya." Novaya Gazeta Online, 10 Apr 2016, http://www.novayagazeta.ru/. Accessed 26 Apr 2016.

86 Unattributed. “CSTO peacekeepers in exercise in Belarus to practice creation of corridors for refugees.” Moscow Interfax, 24 Aug 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 25 Aug 2016.

87 Unattributed. “CSTO's draft strategy views NATO approach toward CSTO states' borders as threat to their security - Russian envoy Vasilyev (Part 2).” Moscow Interfax, 29 Jun 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 30 Jun 2016.

88 Unattributed. “Soldiers from the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) have called on simulated NATO peacekeeping forces to surrender as part of exercise ‘Cooperation 2016.’" Moscow Zvezda TV, Ministry of Defense TV channel, 19 Aug 2016.

89 Korostikov, Mikhail. "Tajik Mountains Can Barely Hold Out. Dushanbe Combating Terrorists and Drug Traffickers Using Chinese Jeeps and American Weapons." Kommersant Online, 29 Apr 2016, http://kommersant.ru/. Accessed 29 Apr 2016. "Unattributed. "Hopeless Dead End. The Resolution of the Karabakh Conflict Requires a Minimum Trust, Which Is Completely Absent.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 16 Oct 2016, www. Ng.ru/nvo/. Accessed 16 Oct 2016.

91 Karaganov, S.A. “A Strategy for Russia; Russian Foreign Policy: The End of The 201 Os to the Beginning of the 2020s." Council for Foreign and Defense Policy, 6 Jun 2016, http:// www.svop.ru. Accessed 22 Jul 2016.

92 Karaganov, Sergey. “Russian Foreign Policy: New Stage?

-Group of Established Experts Flave Presented Their View of the Priorities of Russian Foreign Policy.” Rossiyskaya Gazeta Online, 24 May 2016, http://rg.ru/. Accessed 29 May 2016.

93 Bocharova, Svetlana. “Siluanov Explained the Growth of the Classified Budget Expenditures.” RBC.ru, 17 Oct 2016. www. rbc.ru. Accessed 20 Oct 2017.

94 Economist Intelligence Unit. Russia GDP, Exchange Rate, GDP deflator, eiu.com. Accessed Jun 2017.

95 Unattributed. “Putin signs 2016 Budget Amendments, Deficit Rises to 3 Trillion Rubles.” Interfax, 24 Nov 2016, http:// www.interfax.com/. Accessed 24 Nov 2016.

96 "Economist Intelligence Unit. Russia GDP, Exchange Rate, GDP deflator, eiu.com. Accessed Jun 2017.

97 "Russian Federation Ministry of Finance. “Annual information about execution of the federal budget (data from 1 January 2006).” National defense line item, http://minfin.ru/ru/statistics/fedbud/#. Accessed 28 Nov 2016.

98 "Economist Intelligence Unit. Russia GDP, Exchange Rate, GDP deflator, eiu.com. Accessed Jun 2017.

99 Russian Federation Ministry of Finance. “Annual information about execution of the federal budget (data from 1 January 2006).” National defense line item, http://minfin.ru/ru/statistics/fedbud/#. Accessed 28 Nov 2016.

100 State Duma draft law 2428-7. “On introducing amendments in the Federal Law ‘On the Federal Budget in 2016,”’ Appendix No. 3 of Explanatory Note, “Expenditures of the Federal Budget in 2016 in Framework of Sections and Subsections of Categories of Expenditures of the Federal Budget.” duma.gov.ru. Accessed 31 Oct 2016.

101 Cooper, Julian. “Russian State Armament Programme to 2020: a quantitative assessment of implementation гонгов." SIPRI, Mar 2016, p. 20.

102 Cooper, p. 14.

103 Prokopenko, Aleksandra. “Расходы прорвали линию обороны.” Vedomosti Online, 9 Sep 2016.

104 Bocharova, “Siluanov Explained the Growth of the Classified Budget Expenditures.”

105 Economist Intelligence Unit. Russia GDP, Exchange Rate, GDP deflator, eiu.com. Accessed Jun 2017.

106 Russian Federation Ministry of Finance. “Annual information about execution of the federal budget (data from 1 January 2006).” National defense line item, http://minfin.ru/ru/ statistics/fedbud/#. Accessed 28 Nov 2016.

107 State Duma draft law 2428-7, “On introducing amendments in the Federal Law ‘On the Federal Budget in 2016,”' Appendix No. 3 of Explanatory Note, “Expenditures of the Federal Budget in 2016 in Framework of Sections and Subsections of Categories of Expenditures of the Federal Budget.” duma.gov.ru. Accessed 31 Oct 2016.

108 Unattributed. “Russian Finance Ministry suggests 5% budget cuts in 2017.” ITAR-TASS News Agency, 7 Jul 2016. Accessed 7 Jul 2016.

109 Kuvshinova, Olga. “Доходы бюджета в 2019 году снизятся до 20-летнего минимума” [Budget Outlays in 2019 Will Sink to 20-Year Low], Vedomosti Online, 4 Sep 2016, www.vedomosti.ru. Accessed 13 Sep 2016.

110 Unattributed. “Potential exists for Bashneft sale, but timing of Rosneft privatization needs analysis.” Interfax, 22 Jun 2016, www.interfax.com. Accessed 23 Jun 2016.

111 “Interfax Russia & CIS Banking and Finance Weekly.” Interfax, 12 Aug 2016, www.interfax.com. Accessed 12 Aug 2016.

112 Prokopenko, Alexandra. “Experts Predict 'Lost Decade' for Russia's Stagnating Economy.” The Moscow Times,

19 Aug 2016, themoscowtimes/articles/experts-proclaim-lost-decade-for-russias-stagnating-economy-55039. Accessed 19 Aug 2016.

113 Gerasimov, Valery. “Ценность Р1ауки В Предвидении Р1овые Вызовы Требуют Переосмыслить Формы И Способы Ведения Боевых Действий” [The Value of Science is in Foresight: New Challenges Demand Rethinking of the Forms and Methods of Conducting Combat Actions]. Military-Industrial Courier, 27 Feb 2013.

114 Unattributed. “Russian Chief of General Staff Makarov Addresses Academy of Military Sciences.” Moscow Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 19 Feb 2012, http://nvo.ng.ru/. Accessed 19 Feb 2012.

115 Unattributed. “Numerous military conflicts may develop into full-fledged war - Makarov (Part 2).” Interfax-AVN Online in English, 7 Dec 2011, http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 7 Dec 2011.

116 Chekinov, Sergey.G. and Bogdanov, Sergey A. “Initial Periods of Wars and Their Impact on a Country's Preparations for a Future War.” Military Thought, 31 Dec 2012.

117 Gerasimov, “The Value of Science is in Foresight.”

118 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president,

31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

119 Unattributed. “К Вопросу о Ядерном Сдерживании” [On the Question of Nuclear Deterrence]. Military Thought, 1 Dec 2002.

120 Felgengauer, Pavel. “Rybkin’s Preventive Strike.” Moscow Segodnya, 14 Feb 1997.

121 Unattributed. “Russia Classifies Information on Pre-emptive Nuclear Strikes - Military.” Interfax-AVN Online, 5 Sep 2014, http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 5 Sep 2014.

122 Unattributed. “On Employing Nuclear Weapons to De-Escalate Military Operations.” Military Thought, 1 May 1999.

123 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president,

31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

124 Malashenko, E.l. “Creation and Employment of Strategic Reserves.” Military Thought, vol. 1,2006.

125 Garayev, M.A. "Lessons and Conclusions Drawn from the Experience of the Great Patriotic War for Building Up and Training the Armed Forces.” Voyennaya Mysl, 5 May 2010.

126 Bogdanov, S.A. "Features of The Initial Period of Past and Future Wars." Voyennaya Mysl, 1 May 2003.

127 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president,

31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

128 President of the Russian Federation. “2010 Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation.” 5 Feb 2010, http://www. kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Feb 2010.

129 Radchuk, V.A. “Determination of Levels of Unacceptable Damage to State Economic System: A Methodological Approach.” Military Thought, vol. 3, 2008.

130 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

131 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

132 Burenok, F.M. and Achasov, O.B. “Russia: Non-Nuclear Deterrence.” Military Thought, 1 Jan 2008.

133 Chekinov, S.G. and Bogdanov, S.A. “Strategic Deterrence and Russia's National Security Today.” Military Thought, 1 Jan 2012.

134 Radchuk, V.A. “Determination of Levels of Unacceptable Damage to State Economic System: A Methodological Approach.” Military Thought, vol. 3, 2008.

135 Ozhegov, S.l. and Shvedova, N.Yu. Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Russian Language. Russian Academy of Science Institute of the Russian Language, 1999, p. 707.

136 Unattributed. “К Вопросу о Ядерном Сдерживании” [On the Question of Nuclear Deterrence]. Military Thought, 11 Jan 2002.

137 Unattributed. “Strategic Deterrence and Russia's National Security Today.” Military Thought, 3 Aug 2012.

138 Unattributed. “Issues of Strategic Deterrence in Current Conditions.” Military Thought, 17 Feb 2010.

139 Barynkin, V.M. “Assessment of Effectiveness of Measures to Resolve Military Conflicts in the Early Stages of Their Development.” Military Thought, 1 Mar 1996.

140 Tsgychko, V.N. “Balance of Forces’ Category in Potential Military Conflicts.” Military Thought, Mar 2002.

141 Unattributed. “К Вопросу о Ядерном Сдерживании” [On the Question of Nuclear Deterrence]. Military Thought, 11 Jan 2002.

142 Unattributed. “К Вопросу о Ядерном Сдерживании” [On the Question of Nuclear Deterrence]. Military Thought, 11 Jan 2002.

143 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president,

31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

144 Official President Edict. “Presidential Edict 683 approving appended text of ‘The Russian Federation's National Security Strategy.’” Official website of the Russian Federation President, 31 Dec 2015, www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

145 Chekinov, S.G. and Bogdanov S.A. “Asymmetrical Actions to Maintain Russia’s Military Security.” Military Thought, 20 Jun 2013.

146 Bikkenin, R. “Questions of Theory: Information Conflict in The Military Sphere: Basic Elements and Concepts.” Information Conflict in Military Sphere, 18 Sep 2003, pp. 38-40.

147 Giles, Keir. “Russia’s New Tools for Confronting the West.” Research Paper, Chatham Plouse, Mar 2016, https://www. chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/publications/ research/2016-03-21-russias-new-tools-giles.pdf. Accessed 28 Mar 2016.

148 “Constitution of Russia, chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation.” Wikisource, amended 30 Dec 2008, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Russia#CHAPTER_4._THE_PRESIDENT_OF_THE_RUSSIAN_FEDERATION. Accessed 14 Dec 2016.

149 Unattributed. “1.18 The Powers of the Russian-Federation President in the Sphere of Command and Control of the Russian-Federation Armed Forces in Peacetime and Wartime.” Chernyye Dyry V Rossisykom Zakondatelstve, 1 Oct 2007, www.K-press.ru/bh. Accessed 8 Nov 2007.

150 Unattributed. “Defense Minister General of the Army Sergey Shoygu Conducted a Teleconference with Armed Forces Key Personnel.” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 8 Apr 2013, www.mil.ru. Accessed 8 Apr 2013.

151 Unattributed. “Ministry of Defense Concludes First Contract for Delivery of Over 100 Armata Tanks.” Moscow RIA Novosti, 6 Sep 2016, www.rian.ru. Accessed 7 Sep 2016.

152 Unattributed. “Russian Federation Ministry of Defense: Russia is Preparing a Response to USA Prompt Global Strike." ITAR-TASS, 2 Jun 2014, http://www.itar-tass.com/. Accessed 3 Jun 2014.

153 Unattributed. “Defense Minister General of the Army Sergey Shoygu Conducted a Teleconference with Armed Forces Key Personnel.” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 8 Apr 2013, www.mil.ru. Accessed 8 Apr 2013.

154Yershov, Yevgeniy. “Shoygu the All-Purpose and... the Only.” Moscow Polit.ru, 6 Nov 2012, http://polit.ru/. Accessed 7 Nov 2012.

155 Unattributed. “General of the Army Sergey Shoygu, Russian Defense Minister, Has Summed Up the Outcome of Snap Inspections of the Combat Readiness of the Troops (Forces).” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 3 Aug 2015, http://www.mil.ru. Accessed 4 Aug 2015.

156 Miranovich, Gennadiy. “Defense of the Country: Scientific Approach.” Moscow Krasnaya Zvezda, 31 Jan 2014, http:// www.redstar.ru. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.

157 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President)/. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

158 President of the Russian Federation. “Statute on the Russian Federation Armed Forces General Staff.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 25 Jul 2012, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 30 Jul 2013.

159 Unattributed. “1.18 The Powers of the Russian-Federation President in the Sphere of Command and Control of the Russian-Federation Armed Forces in Peacetime and Wartime.” Chernyye Dyry V Rossisykom Zakondatelstve, 1 Oct 2007, www.K-press.ru/bh. Accessed 8 Nov 2007.

160 Unattributed. “GEN. Gerasimov Becomes Central Military District Commander.” Moscow Interfax, 11 May 2012, http:// www.interfax.com. Accessed 11 May 2012.

161 BBC Monitoring. “BBCM Profile: Russia's New Armed Forces Chief, Valeriy Gerasimov.” BBC Monitoring, 9 Nov 2012, www.monitor.bbc.co.uk. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.

162 Unattributed. “Traditions will be Continued.” Moscow Krasnyy Voin, 3 Apr 2009. Accessed 4 Apr 2009.

163 Unattributed. “Gerasimov Will Bring Better Organization to General Staff - Experts.” Moscow Interfax-AVN, 9 Nov 2012, http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 9 Nov 2012.

164 Unattributed. “The General Staff Planned a Complex of Measures for Strategic Deterrence for the Provision of Military Conflicts - Chief of the General Staff.” Moscow Interfax-AVN. 27 Jan 2014. http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 5 Feb 2014.

165 Unattributed. “Russian General Staff Chief Outlines 'Problematic Issues' with NATO.” Moscow Rossiya 24 TV, 23 Jan 2014, Vesti.ru. Accessed 23 Jan 2014.

166 Gerasimov, Valeriy. “First Main Test: Russia's Nuclear Arsenal Remains the Most Important National Security Guarantee.” Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer (VPK), 3 Sep 2014, http:// vpk-news.ru/articles/21648. Accessed 5 Sep 2014.

167 Unattributed. “Russia Taking Measures to Prevent US, NATO military superiority.” Moscow Interfax-AVN, 30 Jan 2015,, http://www.interfax.ru/. Accessed 30 Jan 2015.

168 Unattributed. “Functions of the Main Operations Directorate of the General Staff.” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 30 May 2013, http://www.mil.ru. Accessed 31 May 2013.

169 Unattributed. “Chief of Main Operations Directorate Sergey Rudskoy Speech During Briefing on Terrorism.” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 2 Dec 2015, http://www. mil.ru. Accessed 3 Dec 2015.

170 Tikhonov, Aleksandr. “Where the Threats to Peace Come from.” Moscow Krasnaya Zvezda, 28 May 2014, http://www. redstar.ru. Accessed 2 Jun 2014.

171 Unattributed. “Out of 550 Proposals for RDT&E Costing 120 Billion, Only 146 Costing About 20 Billion Were Included in Gosoboronzakaz-2011Moscow Interfax-AVN, 4 Mar 2011, http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 4 Mar 2011.

172 Unattributed. “Russian General Gives Data On Military Research.” Moscow Interfax-AVN, 4 Mar 2011, http://www. militarynews.ru. Accessed 6 Mar 2011.

173 Unattributed. “Russian Army Revises State Defense Order, Suspends Military Education Reform.” Moscow Interfax-AVN, 14 Nov 2012. http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 14 Nov 2012.

174 Unattributed. “Russia, Syria did not strike at areas agreed on in Geneva in past week - Rudskoi.” Interfax in English, 19 Sep 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 19 Sep 2016.

175 Unattributed. “Russia, U.S. exchange info on ceasefire in Syria - Russian Defense Ministry.” Interfax in English, 27 Feb 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 27 Feb 2016.

176 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Biography of Russian President Putin.” http://eng.mil.ru/en/management/leader.htm. Accessed 14 Oct 2016.

177 Unattributed. “1.18 The Powers of the Russian-Federation President in the Sphere of Command and Control of the Russian-Federation Armed Forces in Peacetime and Wartime.” Chernyye Dyry V Rossisykom Zakondatelstve, 1 Oct 2007, www.K-press.ru/bh. Accessed 8 Nov 2007.

178 Petrov, Ivan. "Young and Stern: The Generals Will Be Discharged by a 42-Year-Old Veteran of the State Emergency Committee." RBK Daily, 6 Nov 2008.

179 Unattributed. “1.18 The Powers of the Russian-Federation President in the Sphere of Command and Control of the Russian-Federation Armed Forces in Peacetime and Wartime.” Chernyye Dyry V Rossisykom Zakondatelstve, 1 Oct 2007, www.K-press.ru/bh. Accessed 8 Nov 2007.

180 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

181 Miranovich, Gennadiy. “Defense of the Country: Scientific Approach.” Moscow Krasnaya Zvezda, 31 Jan 2014, http:// www.redstar.ru. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.

182 Unattributed. “Personnel Training System for Russian Ground Forces Will Be Improved - Commander-in-Chief.” Moscow Interfax-AVN, 3 Oct 2014, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 3 Oct 2014.

183 Yarynich, Valery E. “C3: Nuclear Command, Control, Cooperation.” Conference paper, 2003. Source is former Russian General Staff officer and SRF member.

184 Bozhov, Oleg. "How They Will Wage War in the Future: Tanks Rumbled Across the Sky." MK Online, 13 Aug 2016, http://mk.ru/. Accessed 13 Aug 2016.

185 Unattributed. “1.18 The Powers of the Russian-Federation President in the Sphere of Command and Control of the Russian-Federation Armed Forces in Peacetime and Wartime.” Chernyye Dyry V Rossisykom Zakondatelstve, 1 Oct 2007, www.K-press.ru/bh. Accessed 8 Nov 2007.

186 Yarynich, “C3: Nuclear Command, Control, Cooperation.” 187Yarynich, “C3: Nuclear Command, Control, Cooperation.”

188 Litovkin, Dmitriy. "The Military Go on the Net." Izvestiya Online. 18 Oct 2010. httpY/www.izvestia.ru/.Accessed 18 Oct 2010.

189 Yarynich, Valery E. “Russian Missile Programs, The MTCR and the Future of U.S. Russian Arms Control.” Conference paper. 21 Jul 1995.

190 Yarynich, “C3: Nuclear Command, Control, Cooperation.”

191 Yarynich, “C3: Nuclear Command, Control, Cooperation.”

192 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

193 Yarynich, “C3: Nuclear Command, Control, Cooperation.”

194 Hoffman, David E. The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and its Dangerous Aftermath. Doubleday, 2009.

195 Russian Ministry of Defense, http://function.mil.ru/news_ page/country/more.htm?id=12066124@egNews&_print=true. Accessed 17 Nov 2015.

196 Russian Ministry of Defense, http://function.mil.ru/news_ page/country/more.htm?id=12066124@egNews&_print=true. Accessed 17 Nov 2015.

197 Unattributed. “President Signs Decree On Four Joint Strategic Commands in Russia.” ITAR-TASS in English, 15 Jul 2010.

198 Belousov, Yuriy and Tikhonov, Aleksandr. "From the Volga to the Yenisey." Krasnaya Zvezda Online, 10 Nov 2010, http:// www.redstar.ru. Accessed 10 Nov 2010.

199 Stepanov, Aleksandr. "Russia Expands Arctic Military Grouping. Air Force and Air Defense Army to Be Part of Northern Fleet." MK Online, 3 Aug 2015, http://mk.ru/. Accessed 3 Aug 2015.

200 Belousov and Tikhonov, "From the Volga to the Yenisey."

201 Unattributed. “Organization of Russia's new operational-strategic commands will be over in 2010.” Interfax-AVN, 12 Jun 2010, http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 12 Jun 2010.

202 Belousov and Tikhonov, "From the Volga to the Yenisey."

203 Unattributed. "Organization of Russia's new operational-strategic commands will be over in 2010." Interfax-AVN, 12 Jun 2010, http://www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 12 Jun 2010.

204 Unattributed. "Russia opens regional defense control center in Yekaterinburg." Interfax, 31 Mar 2014, http://www. interfax.com/. Accessed 31 Mar 2014.

205 Dyachenko, A.A. Опаленные В Борьбе При Создании Ядерного Щита Родины: Научно-Публицистическая Монография. Chapter 4: Nuclear Test Site in The Arctic. Edited by V.N. Mikhaylov, Moscow, 2008, pb. 465-471.

206 Unattributed. "Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation." IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

207 Unattributed. "Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation." IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

208 Unattributed. "Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

209 Unattributed. "Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

210 Unattributed. "Upgraded Russian-made Tu-160M2 bomber to perform first flight in 2019.” TASS World Service, 2 Mar 2016.

211 Podvig, Pavel, et al. “Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.” Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, English language edition supported by the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT Press, 2001. pp. 50-51.

212 Rosatom Annual Report - 2014.

213 Unattributed. “Medvedkov: The Creation of Infrastructure for the Nuclear Deterrence Forces Is our Main Administration's Key Task.” Interfax, 3 Aug 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 16 Aug 2016.

214 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

215 U.S. Department of State. “Bureau of State, Bureau of Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance, New START Treaty Aggregate Numbers of Strategic Offensive Forces, Fact Sheet, Washington, DC.” 1 April 2017, http://www.state.g0v/t/ avc/newstart/269496. htm.

216 Sutyagin, Igor. “Royal United Services Institute Occasional Paper; Atomic Accounting: A New Estimate of Russia’s Non-Strategic Nuclear Forces.” Nov 2012, p. 5.

217 Arbatov, Alexei. “Nuclear Threat Initiative. A Russian Perspective on the Challenge of U.S., NATO, and Russian Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons.” NATO Parliamentary Assembly, Science and Technology Committee, www.nti.org/media/pdfs/NTI_Framework_Chpt8b.pdf%3F_%3D1322702907+&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us.

218 Unattributed. “Report: Russian Military Modernization 176 STC 15 E.” 11 Oct 2015.

219 Andreyev, Oleg. “RVSN Given Six Years to Rearm; Moscow Adjusts Plans to Enhance Combat Readiness of the Armed Forces.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 18 May 2016, http://www. ng.ru/. Accessed 19 May 2016.

220 Unattributed. "Source Names Timeframe for Troobs to Get New Sarmat Missile." Moscow Lenta.ru, 5 Seb 2016, http:// lenta.ru/. Accessed 15 Sep 2016.

221 Bodner, Matthew. “Kremlin Threatens Response to U.S. Nuclear Bomb Deployment in Germany.” Moscow Times Online in English, 23 Sep 2015, http://www.themoscowtimes. com. Accessed 24 Sep 2015.

222 Leitenberg, M and Zilinskas, R. The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History. Harvard University Press, 2012.

223 “Note by The Director General Overall Progress with Respect to the Destruction of the Remaining Chemical Weapons Stockpiles.” OPCW, EC-80/DG.22, 28 Sep 2015.

224 “Update on destruction of Russian chemical weapons released”, 12 January 2017, BBCMIR2017,12 January 2017

225 “Report of the Visit by the Chairperson of the Executive Council and Representatives of the Executive Council to the Kizner Chemical Weapons Destruction Facility the Russian Federation, 25-29 Apr 2016.” OPCW, EC-82/1,30 May 2016.

226 “Remarks by Director-General Ahmet Uzumcu Closing Ceremony of Maradykovsky Chemical Weapons Destruction Facility.” OPCW, 30 Oct 2016.

227 Riches, James. “Analysis of Clothing and Urine from Moscow Theatre Siege Casualties Reveals Carfentanil and Remifentanil Use.” Technical analysis from Porton Down, 2012.

228 Zaretsky, B.L. “Russia's Aerospace Security.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 24, no. 3, 2015, pp. 24-30.

229 Cherednikov, I.Yu., et al. “Protection of Critical Assets from Missile Attacks by Sabotage and Reconnaissance Groups.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 24, no. 1,2015, pp. 39-44.

230 Khmara, Yu, Lutovinov, V. “Military Security of the Russian Federation: How to Ensure It under Present Conditions.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 25, no. 1,2016, pp. 26-40.

231 Belomytsev, A.V., et al. “How to Fight an Enemy Coming from Aerospace.” Moscow Military Thought, no. 5, 2014, pp. 41-43.

232 Falichev, Oleg. “We Cannot Allow Ourselves to Purchase Bad Armaments." Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 2 Mar 2011, http://vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 2 Mar 2011.

233 Cheltsov, B.F. “Approaches to the Creation of the National Aerospace Defense System in Light of Future Network-Centric Wars.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 4, 2008, pp. 1-11.

234 “Questions of strategic and Operational Art in Soviet Military Labor (1917-1949)” [Вопросы стратегии и оперативного искусства в советских военных трудах (1917- 1949). М.: Воениздат]. Moscow Military Publishers, 1965, р. 636.

235 Fitzgerald, Mary. “The New Revolution in Russian Military Affairs Royal United Services Institute for Defense Studies.” Whitehall Paper Series, 1994, p. 3.

236 “Questions of strategic and Operational Art in Soviet Military Labor (1917-1949)” [Вопросы стратегии и оперативного искусства в советских военных трудах (1917-1949). М.: Воениздат]. Moscow Military Publishers, 1965, р. 636.

237 Aleksandrov, A. Ye. “Prospects for the Introduction of Network-Centric Concepts.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 23, no. 2, 2014, pp. 49-58.

238 Kalinkin, D.A., et al. “Strategic Deterrence against the U.S. Global ABM System and Prompt Global Strike Capabilities.” Moscow Military Thought, Vol. 24, no. 1,2015, pp. 1-7.

239 Oya, Yelena. “Interview: Star Wars. How Russian Air Defenses Will Respond to the Latest Threats from the Skies. The Deputy Commander in Chief of the Russian Federation's Aerospace Forces Has Told Life.ru About New Armament in Service with the Russian Army.” Russkaya Sluzhba Novostey Online (RSN), 21 Aug 2016, http://www.rusnovosti.ru/. Accessed 28 Aug 2016.

240 Falichev, Oleg. “We Cannot Allow Ourselves to Purchase Bad Armaments." Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 2 Mar 2011, http://vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 2 Mar 2011.

241 Solovyov, I.Ye and Tsurilov, Yu.N. “Executive Planning Principles for the Development of the CIS Joint Air Defense System.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 23, no. 3, 2014, pp. 132-140.

242 Akhmerov, D.Ye, et al. “Antiaircraft Defense Task Forces in Strategic Areas.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 24, no. 4, 2015, pp. 62-69.

243 Unattributed. “Advanced control systems to strengthen Russian air defense systems.” Interfax, 9 Oct 2015, http:// www.interfax.com/. Accessed 9 Oct 2015.

244 Zakharov, V.A., “Antiaircraft Forces in an Active Global Defense System.” Moscow Military Thought, no. 4, 2014.

245 Ilyin, Yu.D., et al. “Development Outlook for High-Precision Ammunition.” Moscow Military Thought, Vol. 23, no. 2, 2014, pp. 98-111.

246 Litvinenko, VI. “Generalized Assessment of the Effectiveness of Conventional Arms and Weapons Based on New Physical Principles.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 24, no. 4, 2015, pp. 69-77.

247 Kiselyov, V.A. and Vorobyov, I.N. “Trends in the Tactics of Network-Centric Operations.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 23, no. 2, 2014, pp. 33-41.

248 Korabelnikov, A.P. “Promising Trends in the Development of Aerospace Defense Forms and Methods in the Russian Federation.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 24, no. 4, 2015, pp. 145-155.

249 Litvinenko, VI. and Rusanov, I.P. “Basic Trends in Firepower Employment in Modern-Day Operations (Combat Actions).” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 23, no. 4, 2014, pp. 40-48.

250 Simpkin, Richard. Deep Battle: The Brainchild of Marshal Tukhachevsky. Brassey's Defence, 1987.

251 Ogarkov, N.V. “A Reliable Bastion of Socialism and Peace.” Krasnaya Zvezda, 23 Feb 1983, p. 2.

252 Fitzgerald, Mary. “Marshal Ogarkov on the Modern Theater Operation.” Center for Naval Analysis, CRM 86-238, Nov 1986.

253 Fitzgerald, Mary. “The Soviet Military and the New Air War in the Persian Gulf.” Airpower Journal, 1991.

254 Falichev, Oleg. “We Cannot Allow Ourselves to Purchase Bad Armaments." Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 2 Mar 2011, http://vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 2 Mar 2011.

255 Khayrullin, Shamil. “Salvos Thunder in the Caspian...” Krasnaya Zvezda Online, 17 Jan 2013, http://www.redstar.ru. Accessed 18 Jan 2013.

256 Mukhin, Vladimir. “Wars and Armies: Putin Saw the Maneuvers through Shoygu's Eyes: They Verified the Effectiveness of the Nuclear and Precision-Guided Weapons Platforms at the Vostok-2014 Exercises.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 24 Sep 2014, http://www.ng.ru/. Accessed 25 Sep 2014.

257 Unattributed. “Kalibr Missile Launches in Kavkaz-2016 Exercise." Moscow Zvezda TV, 9 Sep 2016, http://www. tvzvezda.ru/tv. Accessed 9 Sep 2016.

258 Ganin A.V. and Korolyov 1.1, and Pavlov, V.N. “Electronic Information Blockades by Combined-Arms EW Forces.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 22, no. 3, 2013, pp. 17-25.

259 Koybletskiy, Oleg. “From Above We Can See Everything!” Moscow Oriyentir Online, 14 Sep 2016, http://orientir.milportal.ru/. Accessed 5 Oct 2016.

260 UCS Satellite Database. Union of Concerned Scientists. http://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear-weapons/space-weapons/ satellite-database#.V_Uj1TZfO-4, 5 Oct 2016.

261 Morozov, Igor Vitalyevich. “Space and the Nature of Contemporary Military Operations: Gaining and Maintaining Supremacy in the Information and Space Spheres Has a Decisive Impact on the Course and Outcome of a Contemporary High-Tech Armed Confrontation.” Vozdushno-Kosmicheskaya Oborona, 14 Jul 2009, http://www.vko.ru/. Accessed 25 Aug 2009.

262 President of the Russian Federation. “2010 Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation." 5 Feb 2010, http://www. kremlin.ru. Accessed 5 Feb 2010.

263 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

264 Raskin, Aleksandr, "Are Net 'Battles' Coming? We Continue the Discussion on the Nature and Look of Possible Wars of the Future." Armeyskiy Sbornik, monthly journal of the General Staff of the Russian Federation Armed Forces, 30 Sep 2005. Accessed 15 Dec 2005.

265 Rog, Valentin. “Will We Respond to The Challenges of the Time?” Armeyskiy Sbornik, 1 Apr 2005, ed. 4, pp. 10-13.

266 Khudoleyev, Victor. “Troops for the Battle in the Ether.” Krasnaya Zvezda, 15 Apr 2014, http://redstar.ru/index.php/ newspaper/item/15511 -vojska-dlya-srazheni. Accessed 23 Apr 2014.

267 Kupriyanov, G.P. “Principal Trends in The Evolution of Space Warfare.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 14, no. 1,2005.

268 Chekinov, S.G. and Bogdanov S.A. “Asymmetrical Actions to Maintain Russia’s Military Security.” Military Thought, 20 Jun 2013. Accessed 21 Jun 2013.

269 Bogdanov S.A. and Chekinov, S.G. “Strategic Deterrence and Russia's National Security Today.” Moscow Military Thought, no. 3, 2012, pp. 11-20.

270 Oleinikov, 1.1., et al. “A Space Monitoring System as Part of Strategic Deterrence.” Moscow Military Thought, vol. 24, no. 3, 2015, pp. 16-23.

271 Unattributed. “New branch of Armed Forces, Aerosbace Forces, created in Russia - Shoygu.” Interfax, 3 Aug 2015. http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 3 Aug 2015.

272 Golts, Alexander. “Russia's Aerospace Forces Will Never Take Off.” The Moscow Times Online, 10 Aug 2015, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/. Accessed 13 Aug 2015.

273 Bodner, Matthew. “Russian Military Merges Air Force and Space Command.” The Moscow Times Online, 3 Aug 2015, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/. Accessed 3 Aug 2015.

274 Unattributed. “Russia's Space Troops: Armaments and Facilities.” Voyennoye Obozreniye, 25 Mar 2011, http://topwar.ru/. Accessed 29 Mar 2011.

275 Durnovo, Aleksey. "Aerospace Defense Troops Space Command's Primary Mission Is to Ensure Russia's Security in Space." Ekho Moskvy Online, 9 Dec 2014, http://www.echo.msk.ru. Accessed 9 Dec 2014.

276 Unattributed. “Yury Vlasov Appointed Acting United Rocket and Space Corporation General Director.” Interfax, 2 Feb 2015, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 2 Feb 2015.

277 Unattributed. “Yury Vlasov Appointed Acting United Rocket and Space Corporation General Director.” Interfax, 28 Dec 2015, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 29 Dec 2015.

278 Unattributed. “The Army: We Are Awaiting Assistance from Military Science and the Defense Industrial Complex: We Will Not Manage to Create State-Of-The-Art Armed Forces Without this.” Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 8 Feb 2012, http://vpk-news.ru. Accessed 19 Feb 2012.

279 Chekinov, S.G. and Bogdanov S.A. “Asymmetrical Actions to Maintain Russia’s Military Security.” Military Thought, 20 Jun 2013. Accessed 21 Jun 2013.

280 “Plan of Russian Space Launches (part 2).” NASA Space-flight Forum, 5 Oct 2016, http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/ index.php?topic=26990.880.

281 Chekinov, S. and Bogdanov, S. “The Nature and Content of a New Generation War.” Voennaya Mysl, no. 4, 2013.

282 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 5 Feb 2010, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 9 Feb 2014.

283 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

284 Prudnikov, D. P. “State Information Policy in the Defense Area: An Initial Definition.” Military Thought 2008

285 Darczewska, Jolanta. “The Anatomy of Russian Information Warfare. The Crimea Operation, a Case Study.” OSW Point of View, no. 42, May 2014.

286 Solopov, Maksim. “Kavkaz with A Syrian Bias: The General Staff Has Summed Up the Results of the Kavkaz-2016 Exercises.” Gazeta.ru, 13 Sep 2016, http://www.gazeta.ru/. Accessed 20 Sep 2016.

287 Russian Federation Security Council. "Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation (Draft)." Security Council of the Russian Federation, 23 Jun 2016, http://www.scrf.gov.ru. Accessed 20 Jun 2016.

288 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

289 Rozhkov, Roman. “Many Troubles, One Runet. Prospects for Russia’s ‘Digital Sovereignty.’” Kommersant Online, 6 Jan 2015, http://kommersant.ru. Accessed 25 Dec 2016.

290 Unattributed. “Putin signs law on industrial policy.” Moscow Interfax, 31 Dec 2014, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 30 Nov 2016.

291 Haines, John R. “Russia’s Use of Disinformation in the Ukraine Conflict.” Foreign Policy Research Institute, 17 Feb 2015.

292 Darczewska. “The Anatomy of Russian Information Warfare. The Crimea Operation, a Case Study.”

293 Denning, Dorothy. “The Rise of Hacktivism.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 8 Sep 2015, http://journal.georgetown.edu/the-rise-of-hacktivism/. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

294 Leyden, John. “IT’S WAR: Hacktivists Throw in Their Lot with Spies and the Military.” The Channel Register, 20 Apr 2015, http://Www.channelregister.co.uk/2015/04/20/Hactivists_and_ spies_feature_isis_anonymous. Accessed 30 Aug 2016.

295 Unattributed. “Russia’s Use of Disinformation in the Ukraine Conflict. Russian strategy analysis.” Eurasia Review, 18 Feb 2015, http://www.eurasiareview.com/18022015-russias-use-of-disinformation-in-the-ukraine-conflict-analysis/. Accessed 19 Mar 2015.

296 Darczewska. “The Anatomy of Russian Information Warfare. The Crimea Operation, a Case Study.”

297 Pomerantsev, Peter and Weiss, Michael. “The Menace of Unreality: How the Kremlin Weaponizes Information, Culture, and Money.” The Interpreter, Institute of Modern Russia, 22 Nov 2014, p. 5, http://www.interpretermag. com/wp-content/uploads/2014/IVThe_Menace_of_ Unreality_Final.pdf. Accessed 2 Aug 2015.

298 Haines, “Russia’s Use of Disinformation in the Ukraine Conflict.”

299 Unattributed. “CyberBerkut - The New Russian Proxy?” Seculnsight, 12 Jun 2014, http://www.secuinsight. fr/2014/06/12/is-cyberberkut-the-new-russian-proxy/. Accessed 18 Mar 2015.

300 Unattributed. “Pro-Russian Hackers Claim 1,100 Ukrainian Soldiers Killed in Past Two Weeks." RIA Novosti, 28 Jan 2015, http://ria.ru/. Accessed 28 Jan 2015.

301 Unattributed. “Ukrainian Presidential Election: Security Service Thwarts Cyber Plot to Rig Results.” Kyiv Post Online, 25 May 2014, http://www.kyivpost.com/. Accessed 25 May 2014.

302 Unattributed. “Ukrainian State Agency Refutes Reports of Hacker Attack on Central Elections Commission Website.” UNN Online, 25 Oct 2014, http://www.unn.com.ua/. Accessed 25 Oct 2014.

303 Unattributed. “Alert: Ukrainian State Agency Confirms DDoS Attack on Central Elections Commission Website.”

UNN Online, 25 Oct 2014, http://www.unn.com.ua/. Accessed 25 Oct 2014.

304 Chen, Adrian. “The Agency.” New York Times, 2 Jun 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/magazine/the-agency. html?_r=0. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

305 Walker, Shaun. “Salutin’ Putin: Inside a Russian Troll House.” Guardian, 2 Apr 2015, http://www.guardian.co.uk. Accessed 2 Apr 2015.

306 Garfield, Leanna. “5 Countries that use bots to spread political propaganda.” Tech Insider, 16 Dec 2015, http://www. techinsider.io/political-bots-by-governments-around-the-world-2015. Accessed 28 Sep 2016.

307 Chen, Adrian. “The Agency.” New York Times, 2 Jun 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/20l5/06/07/magazine/the-agency. html?_r=0. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

308 Yegorov, Ivan. "Network Requires Protection. New Information Security Doctrine to Be Adopted This Year.” Rossiyskaya Gazeta Online, 18 Jul 2016, http://rg.ru/. Accessed 29 Sep 2016.

309 Baikova, Tatyana. "It Would Be Better for America to Ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty." Izvestiya, 10 Sep 2016.

310 Unattributed. “Central Asia Military.” Highlights: Central Asia Military Issues, 17 Aug 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 4 Nov 2016.

311 Unattributed. “Russia’s Duma Adopts Revised Anti-Terror Bill.” RIA Novosti, 24 Jun 2016, http://ria.ru/. Accessed 24 Jun 2016.

312 Afanasyeva, Anna. “With Share of Loyalty. Why State Is Taking Control Not Just of Media.” Kommersant Online, 30 Dec 2016, http://kommersant.ru/. Accessed 4 Jan 2017.

313 Unattributed. “Communications Ministry Mulls Total Control over Russian Sector of the Web - Reports.” RT Online, 19 Aug 2016, http://rt.com/. Accessed 19 Aug 2016.

314 Unattributed. “Putin Bans Foreigners from Russian TV Audience Research.” TASS, 4 Jul 2016, http://tass.ru/. Accessed 4 Jul 2016.

315 Rogozin, D.O. Ed. “War and Peace: Terms and Definition— Voyna I Mir V Terminakh I Opredeleniyakh.” Military-Political Dictionary,, ProRog, 2011.

316 Rogozin, “War and Peace: Terms and Definitions—Voyna I Mir V Terminakh I Opredeleniyakh.”

317Borkovskyy, Antin. "Andriy Illarionov on Prospects for Cease-Fire, Putin's 'Ukrainian Plan,1 Likelihood of Use of Nuclear Weapons." Espreso TV Online, 26 May 2015, http://www.espreso.tv. Accessed 26 May 2015.

318 Suvorov, Viktor, “Chapter 8: The Agent Network.” Spetsnaz: The Inside Story of the Soviet Special Forces. W.W. Norton, 1988.

319 Kuznetsov, V.I., et al. “Electronic Warfare and Information Warfare: How They Compare.” Military Thought, vol. 1,1 May 2013.

320 Dvornikov V.A., et al. “Tactics of Electronic Warfare Forces.” Military Thought, vol. 1,2015.

321 Donskov, Col. Yu. Ye. and Nikitin, Lt. Col. O. G. “Special Information Operations in Armed Conflicts.” Military Thought; 30 Sep 2005. The authors are leading Russian military scientists.

322 Melnikov, Igor. “Weapons of Assymetrical Response.” Rostov-na-Donu Voyennyy Vestnik Yuga Rossii, 11 Apr 2015.

323 Donskov “Special Information Operations in Armed Conflicts.”

324 Dvornikov, “Tactics of Electronic Warfare Forces.”

325 Durnovo, Aleksey. “Long Range Aviation - Air Force's Main Strike Force.” Ekho Moskvy Online, 26 Feb 2016.

326 President of Russia. “Visit to the Armed Forces Central Command Centre, 6 Jun 2013.” Official Website of the Russian Federation President, 7 Jun 2013, http://eng.kremlin.ru/. Accessed 7 Jun 2013.

327 Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. “The Navy Begins the Implementation of the Long-Range Maritime Zone Support Vessel Renewal Program.” Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Information and Press Service Directorate, 21 Jan 2013, http://www.mil.ru. Accessed 21 Jan 2013.

328 Unattributed. “Russia, Venezuela to Have Joint Naval Drill in Atlantic Ocean.” Agentstvo Voyennykh Novostey, 8 Sep 2008, www.militarynews.ru. Accessed 8 Sep 2008.

329 Unattributed. "The Large ASW Ship Severomorsk Is Escorting Another Convoy of Three Ships." Severnyy Flot,

22 Mar 2013, http://pressa-sf.livejournal.com/. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.

330 Unattributed. "The Large ASW Ship Severomorsk Is Escorting Another Convoy of Three Ships." Severnyy Flot,

22 Mar 2013, http://pressa-sf.livejournal.com/. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.

331 Unattributed. "The Large ASW Ship Severomorsk Is Escorting Another Convoy of Three Ships." Severnyy Flot, 22 Mar 2013, http://pressa-sf.livejournal.com/. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.

332 Unattributed. “Syria Conflict: US Presses Russia on Military Buildup.” BBC, 16 Sep 2015.

333 Unattributed. “Russia starts ground operations in Syria.” 23 Nov 2015, Al Bawaba Business.

334 Quinlivan, James T. “War on the Rocks—Artillery Returns to the Battlefield in the War Against ISIL.” 11 Jan 2016.

335 Unattributed. “RPT - Fight for Syria’s Aleppo Exposes Limits of Russian Air Power.” Reuters, 30 Aug 2016.

336 Unattributed. “Syria: Russia’s continuing war.” BBC, 27 Apr 2016.

337 Mclnnis, J. Matthew. “What does Iran Really Want in Yemen?” AEI Ideas, 13 Apr 2015.

338 Unattributed. “Fight for Syria’s Aleppo Exposes Limits of Russian Air Power.” Channel Newsasia, 29 Aug 2016.

339 Unattributed. “Russian Cruise Missiles Target Syria.” Zaman al-WasI, 19 Aug 2016. Accessed 19 Aug 2016.

340 Unattributed. “Syria: Russia’s continuing war.” BBC, 27 Apr 2016.

341 Kozhanov, Nikolay. “What’s at stake for Russia in Syria?” BBC, Chatham House, 21 Sep 2015.

342 Lavrov, Anton and Ramm, Aleksey. “Retribution without Refueling: Operation in Syria Reveals Weak Points in Aerospace.” Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 6 Apr 2016, http:// vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 13 Apr 2016.

343 1 991 Military Forces in Transition. U.S. Department of Defense, Sep 1991, p. 41.

344 1 991 Military Forces in Transition. U.S. Department of Defense, Sep 1991, p. 40.

345 1 991 Military Forces in Transition. U.S. Department of Defense, Sep 1991, p. 40.

346 1 991 Military Forces in Transition. U.S. Department of Defense, Sep 1991, p. 40.

347 Gavrilov, Yuriy. “The Order Will Come from the Center: National Defense Management Center, a Top-Secret Complex, Will Go On Alert Duty on 1 Dec.” Rossiyskaya Gazeta Online, 27 Oct 2014, http://rg.ru/. Accessed 1 Nov 2014.

348 Military Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Strategic Rocket Forces. Ministry of Defense, 1999, p. 521.

349 V.D. Zabolotin and N.E. Dimitriev. “Operational-Tactical Maskirovka.” Slovar’ voyennykh terminov” [Dictionary of Military Terms], 2000, p. 95. The Dictionary was the definitive General Staff Academy reference work on Russian military terminology at the time of publication.

350 Ministry of Defense. “Maskirovka.” Military Encyclopedia, vol. 5, p. 23.

351 V.D. Zabolotin and N.E. Dimitriev, “Surprise.” Slovar’ voyennykh terminov [Dictionary of Military Terms], 2000, p. 24.

352 Pynnoniemi, Katri and Racz, Andraz, Eds. Fog of Falsehood: Russian Strategy of Deception and the Conflict in Ukraine. The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Report 45, 2016.

353 Robert, James Q. “Maskirovka 2.0 Hybrid Threat, Hybrid Response.” Joint Special Operations University - Center for Special Operations Study and Research, Dec 2015.

354 Pomerantsev and Weiss, “The Menace of Unreality.”

355Chekinov, S., Bogdanov, S., “The Nature and Content of a New Generation War,” Voennaya Mysl, no. 4, 2013.

356 Shevchenko, Vitaly. “Little green men or Russian invaders?” BBC News, 9 Mar 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/ world-europe-26532154. Accessed on 9 Mar 2015.

357 President of the Russian Federation. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by Russian Federation President V. Putin.” Official website of the Russian Federation president,

31 Dec 2014, http://www.kremlin.ru. Accessed 31 Dec 2014.

358 Darczewska, “The Anatomy of Russian Information Warfare. The Crimea Operation, a Case Study.”

359 Website of the Russian President. “Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation.” 31 Dec 2014.

360 Felgengauer, Pavel. “Rybkin’s Preventive Strike.” Moscow Segodnya, 14 Feb 1997.

361 “Strategic Missile Troops (RVSN).” Russian Military Analysis, http://warfare.be/db/catid/239/linkid/2244/. Accessed 5 Sep 2016.

362 “Russia Country Profiles.” http://www.nti.org/country-profiles/russia/. Accessed 21 Sep 2016.

363 Podvig, Pavel, et al. “Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.” Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology English language edition supported by the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT Press, 2001. pp. 4-5.

364 “Russian Strategic Missile Forces.” www.ausairpower.net/ APA-RVSN-Analysis.html. Accessed 6 Sep 2016.

365 “Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.” http://russianforces. org/current/. Accessed 6 Sep 2016.

366 “No plans to reduce the number of missile divisions.” http:// russianforces.org/blog/02/no_plans_to_reduce_the_number. shtml. Accessed 6 Sep 2016.

367 Unattributed. “No reductions planned in Russian Strategic Rocket Forces.” Interfax in English, 18 Feb 2016, http://www. interfax.com/. Accessed 18 Feb 2016.

368 Unattributed. “Key Russian Strategic Missile Deployments.” Jane's CBRN Assessments, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.

369 Multiple location name searches, www.google.com/maps. Accessed 28 Nov 2016. “Google Maps” is a free online mapping service.

370 “Comprehensive Control Inspections of Results of Winter Training Period Have Commenced in Strategic Missile Troops.” Moscow Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, www.mil.ru. Accessed 9 Apr 2015.

371 “Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces.” http://russianforces. org/current/. Accessed 6 Sep 2016.

372 “Strategic Rocket Forces.” http://russianforces.org/missiles/. Accessed 6 Sep 2016.

373 Andreyev, Oleg. “RVSN Given Six Years to Rearm; Moscow Adjusts Plans to Enhance Combat Readiness of the Armed Forces.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 18 May 2016, http:// www.ng.ru/. Accessed 19 May 2016.

374 Unattributed. "Rubezh Missile Will Enter Duty in a Year.” Rossiyskaya Gazeta Online, 12 May 2016, http://rg.ru/. Accessed 12 May 2016.

375 Unattributed. ‘“Missile defense killer’: Russia finalizes testing on prototype ICBM.” RT, 8 Jun 2013, www.rt.com/news/ missile-defense-killer-prototype-411/. Accessed 28 Mar 2017.

376 Litovkin, Viktor. “RS-26 Antimissile Defense 'Killer' Flies Where It Must.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta Online, 9 Oct 2013, http://www.ng.ru/. Accessed 16 Oct 2013.

377 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

378 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

379 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Strategic Weapon System, Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s 360, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 6 Sept 2016.

380 “Russian Nuclear Forces, 2016.” http://dx.doi.org/10.1080 /00963402.2016.1170359. Accessed 6 Sep 2016.

381 Bozhyeva, Olga. "Sources: Russia Successfully Tested New Missile Superweapon: Developers Called Launch of Sarmat ICBM Warhead a 'Fantastic Success.'" MK Online,

21 Apr 2016. http://mk.ru/.

382 NEW START TREATY Text. 8 Apr 2010.

383 Andreyev, Oleg. “RVSN Given Six Years to Rearm; Moscow Adjusts Plans to Enhance Combat Readiness of the Armed Forces.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 18 May 2016, http://www.ng.ru/. Accessed 19 May 2016.

384 “Russian Nuclear Forces, 2016.” http://dx.doi.org/10.1080 /00963402.2016.1170359. Accessed 6 Sep 2016.

385 Unattributed. “Key Russian Strategic Missile Deployments.” Jane's CBRN Assessments, 25 Apr 2016, www.janes.com. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.

386 “Russian Army Order of Battle.” Globalsecurity.org, 27 Aug 2016. Accessed 29 Aug 2016.

387 “Chapter Five: Russia and Eurasia, The Military Balance,” 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/04597222.2017.1271211, p. 211.

388 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

389 Luca, Ana Maria. “Post-Soviet Russian Military Interventions.” Beirut NOW, 21 Oct 2015, www.nowlebanon.com. Accessed 22 Oct 2015.

390 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

391 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

392 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

393 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Seb 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

394 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

395 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

396 Russian Ministry of Defense. “Ground Troops.” Website of the Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.

397 “Ground Troops.” Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, structure.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sep 2016.

398 “Ground Troops.” Russian Ministry of Defense, 2 Sep 2016, structure.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Sep 2016.

399 Barabanov, Mikhail, Ed. Novaia armiia Rossii [The New Military of Russia]. Moscow, Center for the analysis of strategy and technology, 2010.

400 First Tank Army and 2nd Taman Division resubordinated to 20th Army. “Russia Is Closing the ‘Black Hole’ on the Border with Ukraine.” Vzglyad Online, 5 Jun 2015, http://vzglyad.ru/.

401 Bridge, Robert. "Border Alert: Nuke risk rising." Russia Today,

17 Nov 2011, www.russiatoday.com. Accessed 19 Nov 2011.

402 Grau, Lester W. and Gress, Michael (translated and edited). The Soviet-Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. University of Kansas Press, 2002.

403 Vorob'ev I. and Kiselev V. "Taktika otriadno-gruppovogo boia" [The tactics of detachment-group combat]. Armeiskiy sbornik, [Army Digest], no. 9, Sep 2013, pp. 11-13.

404 Popov, Vladimir. "Sukhoputnye voiska Rossii segodnia i zavtra" [The ground forces of Russia today and tomorrow], Rossiiskoe voennoe obozrenie [Russian military review], no. 3, Mar 2016, pp. 10-13.

405 Kiselev, V. “Gibridnaia voina как novyi tip voiny budushchego” [Hybrid warfare as a new type of future war], Armeyskiy Sbornik [Army Digest], no. 12, Dec 2015); and Kiselev, V.A. and Vorob’ev, I.N. “Gibridnye operatsii kaknoviyvid protivoborstva” [Hybrid warfare as a new type of confrontation], Voennaia Mysl’ [Military Thought], no. 5, Apr 2015.

406 Giles, Keir. "Russia’s New Tools for Confronting the West.” Research Paper, Chatham House, Mar 2016, https://www. chathamhouse.org/sites/files/ chathamhouse/publications/ research/2016-03-21-russias-new-tools-giles.pdf. Accessed 28 Mar 2016.

407 Barabanov, Mikhail (ed). Russia’s New Army. Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, 2011, pp. 23-24.

408 Anisimov, Vladimir. "Five Primary Missions; The Arrival of Over 3,000 Models of Arms and Military Equipment in the Ground Troops Is Planned in the Near Future.” Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 1 Jul 2009, www.vpk-news.ru. Accessed 21 Jul 2009.

409 Anatoliy-K (forum moderator pseudonym). "Al'ternativnaya OShS Otdel'noy tankoviy batal'yon tankovoy brigady" [Alternative TOEs for Separate tank battalions of tank brigades]. Voyniy Rubezh, 2 Jun 2009. Accessed 2 Jun 2009.

410 Anatoliy-K (forum moderator pseudonym). “Noviye Mototrelkoviye Brigady - 3 Chast” [New Motorized Rifle Brigades, Part 3]. Voyniy Rubezh, 26 July 2009. 26 July 2009.

411 Anatoliy-K (forum moderator pseudonym). “Noviye Mototrelkoviye Brigady - 3 Chast” [New Motorized Rifle Brigades, Part 3]. Voyniy Rubezh, 26 July 2009. 26 July 2009.

412 Anatoliy-K (forum moderator pseudonym). “Noviye Mototrelkoviye Brigady - 3 Chast” [New Motorized Rifle Brigades, Part 3]. Voyniy Rubezh, 26 July 2009. 26 July 2009.

413 Kirichenko, Ivan. “Unready Brigades: The Military Reform ala Serdyukov and Makarov Has Returned to Where It Began.” Svobodnaya Pressa, 20 Sep 2012, http://svpressa.ru/ society/article/58846/. Accessed 20 Sep 2012.

414 Mikhaylov, Viktor. “The Russian Military Brigade Contract.” Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, 22 May 2009, http://nvo.ng.ru/. Accessed 28 May 2009.

415 Gavrilov, Yuriy. “Tests of the Latest ‘Rakushka’ BTR Will Be Conducted near Tula.” Rossiyskaya Gazeta Online, 7 Jan 2015, www.rg.ru. Accessed 7 Jan 2015.

416 Unattributed. “The VDV Will in the Coming Years Become Part of the Rapid-Response Force.” Argumenty i Fakty, 4 Jun 2015, www.aif.ru/society/army/vdv_v_blizhayshie_ gody_voydut_v_sostav_voysk_bystrogo_reagirovaniya. Accessed 7 Jun 2015.

417 “The Soviet Army: Special Warfare and Rear Area Support.” U.S. Army, FM100-2-2, pp. 2-2-2-3.

418 “The Soviet Army: Special Warfare and Rear Area Support.” U.S. Army, FM100-2-2, pp. 2-2-2-3.

419 “VDV ORBAT.” globalsecurity.org, 2015.

420 Richin, Sergey. "Authority": "Air Assault Force Will Change to Tanks." Moscow Rossiskaya Gazeta online in Russian,

24 May 2016.

421 Unattributed. "All Airborne Assault Formations of the Airborne Troops will Receive Tank Companies." Moscow Lenta, ru in Russian, 1 Aug 2016.

422 “The Soviet Army: Special Warfare and Rear Area Support; Amphibious Operations.” U.S. Army, FM100-2-2, p. 4 1.

423 20 1 7 Jane's World Navies, https://janes-ihs-com.pentagonlibrary.idm.oclc.org/WorldNavies/Display/1322754.

424 Official Press Release. “Motorized Riflemen and Naval Infantrymen of the Baltic Fleet Are Performing Life-Fire Drills as Part of Squads.” Moscow Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 11 Jul 2016, function.mil.ru/news page/country/ more?id12089569@egNews. Accessed 12 Jul 2016.

425 Khudoleyev, Victor. “Country Celebrated Missile Troops and Artillery Day on 19 Nov": "Heading for a Reconnaissance-Fire Delivery System.” Krasnaya Zvezda Online, 21 Nov 2014, http://www.redstar.ru. Accessed 12 Dec 2014.

426 Unattributed. “PF coastal troops redeployed as part of surprise checks into combat readiness.” Interfax, 15 Sep 2014, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 15 Sep 2014.

427 2017 Jane's World Navies, https://janes-ihs-com.pentagonlibrary.idm.oclc.org/WorldNavies/Display/1322754.

428 Avdeyev, Yuriy. “Navy Coastal Troops' Acquisition of New Missile Systems Continues.” Krasnaya Zvezda Online, 2 Nov 2015, http://www.redstar.ru. Accessed 9 Nov 2015.

429 Unattributed. “Pacific Fleet Bal Coastal Missile System Battalion Starts Field Training in Primorye.” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 17 Feb 2016, http://www.mil.ru. Accessed 3 Mar 2016.

430 Bodner, Matthew. “Russian Military Merges Air Force and Space Command.” The Moscow Times, 3 Aug 2015.

431 Unattributed. “Russian Air Force/Aerospace Reorganization.” Fortune's Corner, 1 Jan 2015, http://fortunascorner. com/2015/01/02/russian-air-force-reorganization/.

432 “Aerospace Forces.” Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, http://eng.mil.ru/en/structure/forces/type/vks.htm. Accessed 26 Oct 2016.

433 Air Forces Intelligence Database. 28 Sep 2016, www.airforcesintel.com.

434 Tuchkov, Vladimir. “The Strategic Aircraft, of Which the U.S. Is Frightened, Increases Its Might: With What Can America Counter the Tu-160M2 Missile-Equipped Aircraft.” Svobodnaya Pressa, 10 Aug 2016, http://www.svpressa.ru/. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.

435 Tuchkov, Vladimir. “The Strategic Aircraft, of Which the U.S. Is Frightened, Increases Its Might: With What Can America Counter the Tu-160M2 Missile-Equipped Aircraft.” Svobodnaya Pressa, 10 Aug 2016, http://www.svpressa.ru/. Accessed 15 Aug 2016.

436 “Chapter Five: Russia and Eurasia, The Military Balance.” 2015, 115:1, 159-206.

437 Gordon, Yefim. Russian Air Power. Military Transport Aviation, 2009.

438 Unattributed. “New branch of Armed Forces, Aerospace Forces, created in Russia - Shoygu.” Interfax, 3 Aug 2015, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 3 Aug 2015.

439 Bodner, Matthew. “Russian Military Merges Air Force and Space Command.” The Moscow Times Online. 3 Aug 2015. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/. Accessed 3 Aug 2015.

440 Unattributed. “Russia's Space Troops: Armaments and Facilities.” Voyennoye Obozreniye, 25 Mar 2011, http:// topwar.ru/. Accessed 29 Mar 2011.

441 Durnovo, Aleksey. "Aerospace Defense Troops Space Command's Primary Mission Is to Ensure Russia's Security in Space." Ekho Moskvy Online, 9 Dec 2014, http://www.echo. msk.ru. Accessed 9 Dec 2014.

442 “World Air Forces 2016.” FlightGlobal Insight, 2016.

443 “The Military Balance.” International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2014.

444 Newdick, Thomas. “Russia’s New Air Force is a Mystery.” War is Boring, 21 Feb 2014.

445 Butowski, Piotr. “Russian Airpower: Almanac 2015.” Air Force Magazine, 2015.

446 “Russian Air Force.” Combat Aircraft.

447 “World Air Forces 2016.” FlightGlobal Insight, 2016.

448 “The Military Balance.” International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2014.

449 “Russia’s New Air Force is a Mystery” Thomas Newdick, War is Boring, 21 Feb 2014.

450 Butowski, Piotr. “Russian Airpower: Almanac 2015.” Air Force Magazine, 2015.

451 “Russian Air Force.” Combat Aircraft.

452 Dawisha, Karen and Parrott, Bruce. Russia and the New States of Eurasia: The Politics of Upheaval. Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 170.

453 Unattributed. “Aerospace Forces/Russian Federation Aerospace Forces.” Milkavkaz.net, 23 Dec 2015, www.milkavkaz. net. Accessed 12 Oct 2016.

454 Unattributed. “Chief of Russian air defence enterprise outlines plans for new Systems.” Moscow Vesti TV, 11 Sep 2007, Vesti.ru. Accessed 15 Sep 2015.

455 Unattributed. “Aerospace Forces/Russian Federation Aerospace Forces.” Milkavkaz.net, 23 Dec 2015, www.milkavkaz. net. Accessed 12 Oct 2016.

456 Unattributed. “Russia Transports Ultra-Modern OSA Air Defense Missile Systems to the Crimea: Russian Military Equipment is not Remaining in Place and it is Travelling Further to the Crimean Peninsula.” Kyiv UNIAN, 18 Mar 2014, http://www.unian.net/. Accessed 18 Mar 2014.

457 Unattributed. “Russian Defense Ministry explains S-300 deployment in Syria citing need for protection of Russian military bases.” Interfax, 10 Oct 2016, lnterfax.com. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.

458 Unattributed. “Russian Defense Ministry explains S-300 deployment in Syria citing need for protection of Russian military bases.” Interfax, 10 Oct 2016, lnterfax.com. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.

459 “The Military Balance.” International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2014.

460 Butowski, Piotr. “Unmanned Russia.” Air International, Sep 2013, pp. 60-63.

461 Butowski, Piotr. “Unmanned Russia.” Air International, Sep 2013, pp. 60-63.

462 Oxenstrierna, Susane and Westerlund, Fredrik. “Arms procurement and the Russian Defense Industry: Challenges Up to 2020.” Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 2013.

463 Bender, Jeremy. “Russia is Modernizing its increasingly aggressive air force.” Business Insider, 18 Mar 2015, www.businessinsider.com/russia-is-modernizing-its-air-force-2015-3.

464 Bender, Jeremy. “Russia is Modernizing its increasingly aggressive air force.” Business Insider, 18 Mar 2015, www.businessinsider.com/russia-is-modernizing-its-airforce-2015-3.

465 Vaev, Pavel K. “Russian Air Power Tool Brittle for Brinkmanship.” Ponars Eurasia, Policy Memo 398, Nov 2014.

466Truffer, Patrick. “The Development of Russian Naval Capabilities After the Cold War.” CIMSEC, 24 Nov 2015, http://cimsec.org/development-russian-naval-capabilities-cold-war/20147.

467 “Military balance 2015.” Annual periodical on World Military Forces. Routledge, 2015.

468 Polmar, Norman. Guide to the Soviet Navy. Naval Institute Press, 1985.

469 Pasyakin, Vladimir. “At the Highest Level of Coordination.” Sevastopol Flag Rodiny, 20 Dec 2014, www.sc.mil.ru/. Accessed 25 Jul 2016.

470 List of current ships of the Russian Navy - 2016. russian-ships.info, 8 Jun 2016, http://russianships.info/eng/today.

471 List of current ships of the Russian Navy - 2016. russian-ships.info, 8 Jun 2016, http://russianships.info/eng/today.

472 Flake, Lincoln Edson. “Russia's Security Intentions in a melting Arctic.” Military and Strategic Affair Publication, vol. 6, no. 1, Mar 2014.

473 Zhunusov, Oleg. “Rosneft1 Is Taking 'Zvezda1 From OSK: A Consortium Will Help the Primorskiy Shipbuilders.” Kommersant Online, 22 Aug 2013, http://kommersant.ru/. Accessed 24 Aug 2013.

474 “Vladivostok.” Globalsecurity.org/Vladivostok. Accessed 18 Aug 2016.

475 The split of forces can be observed on Google Earth. Accessed 17 Aug 2016.

476 “List of current ships of the Russian Navy.” russianships. info, http://russianships.info/eng/today. Accessed 8 Jun 2016.

477 Zavolokin, Pavel. “The Crimea - Is Under Protection.” Krasnaya Zvezda Online, 6 Feb 2015, http://www.redstar.ru. Accessed 6 Feb 2015.

478 Unattributed. “Russia to end production of Varshavyanka Kilo-class submarines." Moscow RIA Novosti, 4 Sep 2015, http://ria.ru/. Accessed 7 Sep 2015.

479 List of current ships of the Russian Navy - 2016. russian-ships.info, 8 Jun 2016, http://russianships.info/eng/today.

480 Yurov, Dmitriy. “Service Reinforced by the Way of Life.” Moscow Krasnaya Zvezda, 16 May 2006, http://www.redstar. ru. Accessed 23 May 2006.

481 Russiannavy.com. Information on tasks, roles, and missions. Accessed 18 Aug 2016.

482 Unattributed. "Russian Navy to use up to ten civil vessels for military supplies to Syria.” Interfax, 15 Oct 2015, Interfax, com. Accessed 15 Oct 2015.

483 Unattributed. “Caspian Flotilla ships carrying Kalibr-NK missiles depart for tactical drills.” Interfax, 25 Apr 2016, Interfax, com. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.

484 Unattributed. “Caspian Flotilla force ends tactical exercises.” Interfax, 8 Jul 2016, lnterfax.com. Accessed 8 Jul 2016.

485 Unattributed. “Caspian Flotilla ships carrying Kalibr-NK missiles depart for tactical drills.” Interfax, 25 Apr 2016, Interfax.com. Accessed 25 Apr 2016.

486 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Navy, Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s 360,

10 Aug 2016, www.janes.com.

487 Wertheim, Eric. The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, 16th Edition. Naval Institute Press, 2013, p. 573.

488 Litovkin, Dmitriy. "Deep Rising. Russia's Nuclear Submarine Fleet Is Being Rapidly Upgraded and Renewed.” Moscow Vzglyad, 28 Jul 2014, http://www.vz.ru/society/2014/7/28/697642.html. Accessed 3 Aug 2014.

489 Unattributed. "Nuclear Submarine Severodvinsk Strikes Coastal Training Target from Barents Sea." RIA Novosti, 2 May 2016, http://ria.ru/. Accessed 2 May 2016.

490 Khodarenok, Mikhail. “Strategic Ocean Operations No Longer Are Being Planned: Current Russian Navy Status.” Moscow Gazeta, 31 Jul 2016, http://www.gazeta.ru/. Accessed 6 Aug 2016.

491 Blechschmidt, Peter. “War Ships Against Pirates.” Munich Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 21 Nov 2008, Sueddeutsche.de. Accessed 21 Nov 2008.

492 List of current ships of the Russian Navy - 2016. russianships.info, 8 Jun 2016, http://russianships.info/eng/today.

493 Suvorov, Viktor. “Chapter 3. A History of Spetsnaz.” Spetsnaz: The Inside Story of Soviet Special Forces. Translated from Russian by David Floyd. Norton & Company, 1988.

494 Suvorov, Viktor. “Chapter 3. A History of Spetsnaz.” Spetsnaz: The Inside Story of Soviet Special Forces. Translated from Russian by David Floyd. Norton & Company, 1988.

495 Galeotti, Mark. “The rising influence of Russian special forces.” Jane's Intelligence Review, 24 Nov 2014, https://janesihs-com.pentagonlibrary.idm.oclc.org/Janes/Display/1729350.

496 Федеральный конституционный закон "О Правительстве Российской Федерации" [Federal Constitutional Law “Directorates of the Russian Federation”]. 17 Dec 1997.

497 Schneider, Eberhard. "The Russian Federal Security Service under President Putin.” Politics and the Ruling Group in Putin’s Russia, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2008, pp. 42-62.

498 Littell, Jonathan. The Security Organs of the Russian Federation. A Brief History 1991-2004. Psan Publishing House, 2006.

499 Galeotti, Mark. “Putin’s Hydra: Inside Russia’s Intelligence Services.” European Council on Foreign Relations, May 2016, www.ecfr.eu.

500 “Tests Complete for New Staff Module for Russia Power Ministries.” RIA Novosti, 13 Jun 2016.

501 “In Russia the National Guard is Created.” Rossiiskoe Voennoe Obozrenie, Issue 4; 30 Apr 2016.

502 “National Guard Conducted RCB (NBC) Training of its Units in Volga NG Administrative District (MD).” Vremenniy Informatsionniy Tsentr, FSBNGRF, 27 Sept 2016.

503 “GRU.” Special Services, http://specialsluz.my1.ru/index/ gru/0-13.

504 Russian News Agency, http://ru-an.info/новости/ шпионские-тайны-гру/.

505 Safronov, Ivan. "Intelligence to Remain In-House. Who Could Replace Igor Sergun in the Post of Chief of the GRU?" Kommersant Online, 14 Jan 2016, http://kommersant.ru/. Accessed 14 Jan 2016.

506 Unattributed. “GRU on 91st Anniversary.” Moscow Vzglyad, 5 Nov 2009, www.vzglyad.ru. Accessed 7 Nov 2009.

507 Mikhaylov, Aleksey. "Control of the Main Strike. What Problems Can the New GRU Chief Resolve?" Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 10 Feb 2016, http://vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 12 Feb 2016.

508 Galeotti, “Putin's Hydra: Inside Russia’s Intelligence Services.”

509 Unattributed. “GRU on 91st Anniversary.” Moscow Vzglyad, 5 Nov 2009, www.vzglyad.ru. Accessed 7 Nov 2009.

510 Mikhaylov, "Control of the Main Strike. What Problems Can the New GRU Chief Resolve?"

511 Unattributed. “GRU on 91st Anniversary.” Moscow Vzglyad, 5 Nov 2009, www.vzglyad.ru. Accessed 7 Nov 2009.

512 Mikhaylov, "Control of the Main Strike. What Problems Can the New GRU Chief Resolve?"

513 Unattributed. “GRU on 91st Anniversary.” Moscow Vzglyad. 5 Nov 2009. www.vzglyad.ru. Accessed 7 Nov 2009.

514 Mikhaylov, "Control of the Main Strike. What Problems Can the New GRU Chief Resolve?"

515 Unattributed. “GRU on 91st Anniversary.” Moscow Vzglyad. 5 Nov 2009. www.vzglyad.ru. Accessed 7 Nov 2009.

516 Mikhaylov, "Control of the Main Strike. What Problems Can the New GRU Chief Resolve?"

517 Unattributed. “Russian MP Antoshkin, Recently Back from Syria, says Airstrikes Exceptionally Precise.” Interfax, 15 Oct 2015, http://www.interfax.com/.

518Gorbenko, Aleksandr. "The Russian Military Space Program of Tomorrow: What will This Be?" Odnako Online, 19 Jun 2013, http://www.odnako.org/magazine/new.

519 Unattributed. “Russian Military Intelligence Chief Dies Unexpectedly.” Charter 97, 5 Jan 2016, http://www.charter97. org/en/news/.

520 Galeotti, Mark. “The Unexpected Death of Russia’s Military Intelligence (GRU) Chief, Igor Sergun.” Moscow’s Shadows,

4 Jan 2016, www.inmoscowsshadows.wordpress.com. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

521 Safronov, Ivan. “Intelligence to Remain In-House. Who Could Replace Igor Sergun in the Post of Chief of the GRU?" Kommersant Online, 14 Jan 2016, http://kommersant.ru/. Accessed 14 Jan 2016.

522 Unattributed. “Russian GRU Military Spy Chief Igor Sergun dies.” BBC Online, 5 Jan 2016, http://www.bbc.co.uk. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.

523 Unattributed. “More evidence that captured Russians were military intelligence officers.” Prava Lyudyny v Ukrayini, 25 Nov 2015, http://khpg.org.ua. Accessed 25 Nov 2015.

524 Pereborshchikov, Georgiy. "‘You could say we proved ourselves.’ War stories from Russians returned from fighting in eastern Ukraine." Meduza, 22 Feb 2016, https://meduza.io/ en. Accessed 22 Feb 2016.

525 Unattributed. “Russia Ramps Up Syria Military Involvement: Pro-Assad.” Beirut NOW, 27 Aug 2015, www.nowlebanon. com. Accessed 27 Aug 2015.

526 “On Zaslon in Syria." Russian Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (CAST). LiveJournal, 19 Oct 2015, Livejournal.ru. Accessed 25 Oct 2015.

527 Butrin, Dmitriy. "The Prime Minister's Eyes Opened to the Budget—The 'Open Government' Proposes to Buy Textbooks Rather Than Tanks." Kommersant Online, 10 Aug 2012, http://kommersant. ru/.

528 Hobson, Peter. “The Cost of Russia's War in Syria.” The Moscow Times Online, 21 Oct 2015, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/. Accessed 21 Oct 2015.

529 Smirnov, Roman. "Russia's Defense Industry Complex Ready to Fire Salvo at The Crisis." Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye Online, 4 Oct 2015, http://nvo.ng.ru/.

530 "Weapons of mass Acquisition." Оборона и безопасность, 1 Apr 2016.

531 “With a Key from the Sky—President.” Оборона и безопасность, 1 Apr 2016.

532 Zubarevich, Natalya. “Russian Economic Crisis Risks Stagnation, Degradation (Op-Ed).’’ Moscow Times Online in English, 25 Mar 2016, http://www.themoscowtimes.com. Accessed 31 Mar 2016.

533 Butrin, "The Prime Minister's Eyes Opened to the Budget"

534 Pismennaya, Yevgeniy, et al. "Medvedev's Concern That the Military Is Considered Too Expensive for the Country." Vedomosti Online, 22 Dec 2011, www.vedomosti.ru/newsline/ news/1448040/oshibka_medvedeva. Accessed 22 Dec 2011.

535 Unattributed. “Russia's anti-crisis commission to soon consider support for auto industry.” Interfax, 6 Feb 2015, www.interfax.com. Accessed 6 Feb 2015.

536 Ivankhnik, Aleksandr. "Resuscitation of Economic Council." Politkom, 22 Nov 2013, http://politcom.ru/.

537 Falichev, Oleg. "A Contingency Order.” Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 26 Jan 2015, http://vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 26 Jan 2015.

538 Unattributed. "Russia is proud of you." Rossiya 24 Television, 17 Mar 2016. Accessed 17 Mar 2016.

539 Falichev, Oleg. "Soldiers to Order; Military Robots Being Rid of Outside Elements." Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer,

4 Jun 2015, http://vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 4 Jun 2015.

540 Russian Federation Defense Ministry Press Service and Information Directorate. "Specialists from the Russian Defense Ministry Main Directorate of Scientific Research Activity Are Taking Part in the Work of a Military Industry Conference on the Development of Robotics for the Security Agencies."

Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, 2 Oct 2014, http://www.mil.ru. Accessed 2 Oct 2014.

541 President of Russia. "Meeting on armed forces development on 9 Nov 2015 in Sochi." Official Website of the Russian Federation President, 10 Nov 2015, http://eng.kremlin.ru/. Accessed 10 Nov 2015.

542 Unattributed. “Pace of fulfilling presidential instructions for military-industrial complex must be maintained - Putin.” Interfax, 12 May 2015, http://www.interfax.com. Accessed 12 May 2015.

543 President of Russia. “Putin Chairs Meeting on Defence Procurement.” Official Website of the Russian Federation President, 15 May 2014, http://eng.kremlin.ru/. Accessed 15 May 2014.

544 Safronov, Ivan. “Supreme decision-making commander.” Kommersant Online, 5 Sep 2014, http://www.kommersant.ru/ doc/2559841. Accessed 5 Sep 2014.

545 Safronov, Ivan and Kozichev, Yevgeniy. "The Supreme Decider-in-Chief: Vladimir Putin will also Head the Military Industrial Commission." Kommersant Online, 6 Sep 2014, http://kommersant.ru/. Accessed 6 Sep 2014.

546 Unattributed. "Russian Scientists Present Unique Projects to the Ministry of Defense.” ITAR-TASS, 4 Dec 2012.

547 “Шойгу С Рогозиным Задумали Эксперимент.” Nezavisimaia Gazeta, Issue 89, 29 Apr 2013. Accessed 29 Apr 2013.

548 “Russia will develop strike weapons to defeat US missile defences - Putin.” Rossiya 24 Television, 10 Nov 2015.

549 Gorenburg, Dmitry. “How is Economic Crisis Affecting Russian Military Modernization?” Russia Insider, 14 Apr 2016, http://russia-insider.com/en/how-economic-crisis-impacting-russian-military-modernization/ri13882. Accessed 26 Aug 2016.

550 Marakhonov, Vladimir. "So Who Among Us Favors Strong Russia? Conflict with Ukraine Has Cost Our Country Half

Its Nuclear Potential.” Novaya Gazeta Online, 20 Jul 2015, www.novayagazeta.ru. Accessed 20 Jul 2015.

551 Vyatkin, Yaroslav. "Hypersonic Weapons: Even Alien Invaders Have Failed to Help the United States." Argumenty Nedeli Online, 4 May 2016, http://argumenti.ru. Accessed 27 Jul 2016.

552 Unattributed. “The Acceptance in the Inventory of the RS-26 ‘Yars-M’ Missile Complex Is Planned in 2017.” Vzglyad Online, 12 May 2016, www.vzglyad.ru. Accessed 12 May 2016.

553 Litovkin, “The Army: They Will Test Sarmat Near the Hawaiian Islands: They Will Lay Out a New Route for the New Ballistic Missile." Izvestiya Online, 4 Jul 2016, www.izvestiya.ru. Accessed 4 Jul 2016.

554 Unattributed. “Russia Test Fires ICBM to Target in Kazakhstan.” Fars News Agency, 28 Dec 2013, http://www.english. farsnews.com. Accessed 21 Sep 2016.

555 Summary of Reporting on Russian and FSU Nuclear Issues. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1 Dec 2014. Accessed 27 Nov 2016.

556 Marakhonov, "So Who Among Us Favors Strong Russia? Conflict with Ukraine Has Cost Our Country Half Its Nuclear Potential.”

557 Litovkin, Dmitriy. “The Army: They Will Test Sarmat Near the Hawaiian Islands: They Will Lay Out a New Route for the New Ballistic Missile." Izvestiya Online, 4 Jul 2016, www.izvestiya. ru. Accessed 4 Jul 2016.

558 Russian Space Web. Topol-M, online missile guide, 2 Nov 2014, www.russianspaceweb.com/topolm.html. Accessed 10 Sep 2016.

559 Litovkin, “The Army: They Will Test Sarmat Near the Hawaiian Islands.”

560 Unattributed. “Testing of heavy strategic missile ‘Sarmat’ to start promptly.” Interfax, 10 Aug 2016, www.interfax.com. Accessed 11 Aug 2016.

561 Unattributed. “The Acceptance in the Inventory of the RS- 26 ‘Yars-M’ Missile Complex Is Planned in 2017.” Vzglyad Online, 12 May 2016, www.vzglyad.ru. Accessed 12 May 2016.

562 Unattributed. "Rubezh Missile Will Enter Duty in a Year." Rossiyskaya Gazeta Online, 12 May 2016, www.rg.ru. Accessed 12 May 2016.

563 Gertz, Bill. “Russia Tests Hypersonic Glide Vehicle on Missile.” The Washington Free Beacon, 22 Apr 2016, http:// freebeacon.com/national-security/russia-tests-hypersonic-glide-vehicle/.

564 NASIC; “Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat; 2013; http://www. dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a582843.pdf

565 NASIC; “Ballistic & Cruise Missile Threat; 2013; http://www. dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a582843.pdf

566 Unattributed. “Offensive weapons, Ballistic missiles,

Russian Federation, R-29RM Shetal/Sineva (RSM-54/3M27).” Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems, 18 Dec 2015.

567 Litovkin, “The Army: They Will Test Sarmat Near the Hawaiian Islands.”

568 Petrov, Vladimir. “Russia announces deployment plans for Bulava missile and Borey-class submarine.” Jane's Defence Weekly, 30 Sep 2008, www.janes.com.

569 Kristensen, Hans and Norris, Robert. “Russian nuclear forces, 2016.” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, vol. 72, no. 3, 13 Sep 2016, pp. 125-134.

570 “OTR-21 Tochka.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ OTR-21_Tochka. Accessed 16 Sep 2016.

571 Unattributed. “SS-21 'Scarab' (OTR-21/9M79 Tochka).” Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems, 19 Jul 2005, www.janes.com.

572 Unattributed. “SS-26 'Stone' (9M720 Tender/lskander-E).” Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems, 19 Jul 2005, www.janes.com.

573 Barabanov, Mikhail. "The Reason We Need a Combat Aircraft.” Odnako Online, 18 Aug 2011, http://odnakoj.ru/. Accessed 18 Aug 2011.

574 Unattributed. "RF Long-Range Aviation Will Test New Cruise Missiles in 2014." RIA Novosti Online, 28 Jan 2014, http://ria.ru/. Accessed 28 Jan 2014.

575 Khudoleyev, Konstantin, et al. “Serve Russia.” Zvezda TV, 9 Feb 2014.

576 Unattributed. "Tactical Missiles Corporation to Showcase Modern Weapons.” Aviapanorama, 21 Aug 2013, Accessed 21 Aug 2013.

577 Tactical Missile Corporation, http://eng.krtv.ru/about_eng. Accessed 18 Aug.

578 Unattributed. “V. Putin summarized series of Meetings, Dedicated to Fulfillment of the GOZ and Outfitting the [State Armaments Program] RF Armed Forces with Modern ViVT.” Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 9 Dec 2013, http://Vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 9 Dec 2013.

579 President of Russia. “Russian leader, Defence Plant Chiefs Discuss Production, Overhaul of Facilities.” Official website of the Russian Federation President, 29 Nov 2013, http://eng. kremlin.ru/. Accessed 29 Nov 2013.

580 President of Russia. “Russian leader, Defence Plant Chiefs Discuss Production, Overhaul of Facilities.” Official website of the Russian Federation President, 29 Nov 2013, http://eng. kremlin.ru/. Accessed 29 Nov 2013.

581 Yesin, Viktor. "Peace Vehicles—Part II: It Is Time to Eliminate the Gap Between Advanced Engineering Solutions and Defense-Industrial Complex Production Capabilities.” Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer, 27 Feb 2015, http://vpk-news.ru/. Accessed 27 Feb 2015.

582 Mardasov, Anton. “Voyevoda and Stilet Will Reach America Without Ukraine. How Far the Rupture with Kyiv Threatens the Effectiveness of Russian ICBMs and Cruise Missiles.” Moscow Svobodnaya Pressa, 24 Aug 15, http://svpressa.ru/war21/ article/130231/. Accessed 30 Aug 2015.

583 “Cruise Missiles: Kh-101/102." Missile Threat: A Project of the George C. Marshall and Claremont Institutes, missilethreat.com. Accessed 18 Aug 2016.

584 Capaccio, Anthony. “Russia Deploys Advanced Cruise Missiles in Major Navy Reboot.” Bloomberg, 30 Dec 2015, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-12-30/russia-deploying-advanced-cruise-missiles-in-major-navy-reboot. Accessed 18 Aug 2016.

585 Capaccio. “Russia Deploys Advanced Cruise Missiles in Major Navy Reboot.”

586 “U.S. Debates Cruise Missile Procurement.” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 7 Jul 2016.

587 Akulov, Andrei. “Kalibr: Russia’s Naval System Upping Cruise Missile Game.” Strategic Culture Foundation, 24 May 2016, http://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2016/05/24/ kalibr-russia-naval-system-upping-cruise-missile-game.html. Accessed 18 Aug 2016.

588 Akulov. “Kalibr: Russia’s Naval System Upping Cruise Missile Game.”

589 “Jane’s P-800 Oniks/Yakhont (SS-N-26 Strobile).” Jane’s Defense Industry-Weapons: Naval.

590 Vyatkin, Yaroslav. "Hypersonic Weapons: Even Alien Invaders Have Failed to Help the United States." Argumenty Nedeli Online, 4 May 2016, http://argumenti.ru. Accessed 27 Jul 2016.

591 Vyatkin, Yaroslav. “Hypersonic Weapons: Even Alien Invaders Have Failed to Help the United States." Argumenty Nedeli Online, 4 May 2016, http://argumenti.ru. Accessed 27 Jul 2016.

592 Unattributed. “Russian Defence Ministry Praises New Kalibr Missile launches on Syria targets.” TASS Russian News Agency, 9 Dec 2015, http://tass.ru/ed/defense/842799. Accessed 20 May 2016.

593 Mukhin, Vladimir. “Russian Arctic Will Be Protected by the Triumf; Production of Aerospace Defense Assets Will Increase Tenfold in Near Future.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 2 Mar 2016, http://www.ng.ru/. Accessed 4 Mar 2016.

594 Kozhin. “Negotiations on sale of S-400 surface-to-air missile systems to China and India ongoing, but priority their supply to Russian Armed Forces.” Moscow Interfax, 18 Apr 16, http://www.interfax.com. Accessed 18 Apr 2016.

595 “Concern PVO “Almaz-Antey’VConcern Aerospace Defense [PVO].” GlobalSecurity.org, 29 Mar 2016 http:// www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/concern-pvo. htm. Accessed 23 Aug 2016.

596 “Aerospace and Defense: Company Overview of Joint-Stock Company Concern Almaz-Antey.” Bloomberg, http:// www.bloomberg.com/Research/stocks/private/snapshot. asp?privcapid=34169028. Accessed 23 Aug 2016.

597 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Russia-Air Force.” IHS Jane’s 360, 10 Aug 2016, www.janes.com.

598 Mukhin, Vladimir. “Russian Arctic Will Be Protected by the Triumf; Production of Aerospace Defense Assets Will Increase Tenfold in Near Future.” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, 2 Mar 2016, http://www.ng.ru/. Accessed 4 Mar 2016.

599 “Antey-2500 Long-range Air Defense Missile System.” Military Today, http://www.military-today.com/missiles/antey_2500.htm. Accessed 23 Aug 2016.

600 "Pantsyr si close Range Air Defense System, Russia.” Army-Technology.com, www.army-technology.com. Accessed 22 Aug 2016.

601 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Russia-Air Force.” IHS Jane’s 360,10 Aug 2016, www.janes.com.

602 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment- Russia and the CIS, Russia-Air Force.” IHS Jane’s 360,10 Aug 2016, www.janes.com.

603 Unattributed. “Jane's, Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia and the CIS, Russia-Air Force.” IHS Jane’s 360,10 Aug 2016, www.janes.com.

604 “Aircraft industry of Russia: Military aircraft.” Wikipedia, https://en.wiki pedia.org/wi ki/Aircraft_industry_of_Russia#Military_aircraft. Accessed 2 Sep 2016.

605 “United Aircraft Corporation.” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia. org/Wiki/United_Aircraft_Corporation. Accessed 2 Sep 2016.

606 Gorengurb, Dmity. “Russia’s State Armaments Program 2020: Is the Third Time the Charm for Military modernization?” PONARS Eurasia policy memo, 12 Oct 2010.

607 “Modernized Strategic Bombers to Debut in Victory Day Parade Over Moscow.” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 14 Apr 2016, janes.com. Accessed on 4 Aug 2016.

608 Harress, Christopher. “Russia Tupolev 22M3 Bombers Upgrade: Modernized Jets to be in Service by the End of 2015.” International Business Times, 17 Jul 2015, www.ibtimes.com.

609 “Modernized Strategic Bombers to Debut in Victory Day Parade Over Moscow.” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 14 Apr 2016, janes.com. Accessed on 4 Aug 2016.

610 “Aircraft Upgrades^polev Tu-160.” Janes, 15 Dec 2015, janes.com. Accessed 8 Aug 2016.

611 Unattributed. “Russian Air Forces to Take Delivery of More than 10 Upgraded Tu-95 Bombers in Two Years.” Russian Aviation, 30 Mar 2015, www.ruaviation.com. Accessed 9 Aug 2016.

612 Unattributed. “Russia Plans to Complete Tu-22M3 Bomber Modernization Program by 2019.” Russian Aviation, 12 Jan 2016, www.ruaviation.com. Accessed 2 Aug 2016.

613 “Development of PAK-DA Bomber Moved from Preliminary Design State to Research and Development Work.” Russian Aviation, 2 Jul 2015, www.ruaviation.com. Accessed 8 Aug 2016.

614 Jane’s Information Group, “Kuznetsov NK-321.” Jane’s Aero-Enginesm, Aero-engines - Turbofan, Russian Federation, 4 May 16.

615 Shapkin, Dmitriy. “They Have Pulled Out of the Dive: Combat Aircraft.” Kommersant Online, 21 Aug 2013, http://kommersant.ru. Accessed 24 Aug 2013.

616 Litovkin, Dmitriy. “The Army: The T-50 Fighter Aircraft Is Ready for Series Production: The Delivery of the Aircraft to the Troops Will Begin in 2017.” Moscow Izvestiya Online, 15 Jun

2016, http://www.izvestia.ru/. Accessed 15 Jun 2016.

617 Khodarenok, Mikhail. “Long Restrained, We Will Fly Quickly; Fifth-Generation Russian Fighter Will Be Serially Produced in

2017. ” MoscowGazeta.ru, 1 Sep 2016. Accessed 13 Sep 2016.

618 Unattributed. “Nothing critical happens to Russian Helicopters holding as result of imposition of Western sanctions.” Moscow Interfax, 8 Sep 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 8 Sept 2016.

619 Kramnick, Ilya. “Preserving the Heights: A Series of Advanced Helicopters Must Help Russia to Not Lose Its Place in the World Market.” Moscow Vzglyad Online, 10 Dec 2012, http://www.vz.ru/. Accessed 20 Dec 2012.

620 Unattributed. “Russian Helicopters business unaffected by extension of Ukrainian sanctions.” Moscow Interfax, 25 Oct 2016, http://www.interfax.com/. Accessed 25 Oct 2016.

621 Fedorov, Konstantin. “Modernization of Russian Military-Transport Aviation: Russia's Military-Transport Aviation: Need for Radical Renewal.” Moscow Segodnya.Ru, 3 Jun 2015, http://www.segodnia.ru/. Accessed 5 Jun 2015.

622 Fedorov, “Modernization of Russian Military-Transport Aviation.”

623 Zhuravlev, Nataliya. “A Hope for a Trillion: Plans Were Expressed on the Sale of the Latest Version of the Veteran Transport.” Moscow Vzglyad Online, 26 Dec 2012, http:// www.vz.ru/. Accessed 5 Jan 2013.

624 “Jane’s World Navies - Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s,

30 Jun 2016, pp. 27-28.

625 Unattributed. "Saylut Scientific Production Center Upgrades Test Stands for Ship Engines." RIA Novosti, 23 Aug 2016, www.ria.ru. Accessed 23 Aug 2016.

626 Ishchenko, Sergey. “Squadron Losing Way: Construction of 17 Surface Combatants for Our Navy Under Threat of Disruption.” Moscow Svobodnaya Pressa, 19 Mar 2015, http://www. svpressa.ru/. Accessed 26 Mar 2015.

627 “Jane’s World Navies - Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s, 30 Jun 2016, pp. 27-28.

628 “Kuznetsov Overhaul Designed to Maintain Carrier Capability While Russia Considers Future Carrier Options.” Jane’s Navy International, 30 Jun 2016.

629 Litovkin, Dmitriy. “A Unique Dock Will Be Built to Accommodate the Aircraft Carrier Admiral Kuznetsov.” Izvestiya Online, 7 Jun 16, http://www.izvestia.ru/. Accessed 12 Jun 2016.

630 Unattributed. “Shtorm aircraft carrier design to begin in 2020.” Moscow Interfax, 30 Jun 16, http://www.interfax.com. Accessed 1 Jul 2016.

631 “Russia’s New Maritime Doctrine.” Jane’s Defense Weekly, 14 Aug 2015, p. 4.

632 “Jane’s World Navies - Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s, 30 Jun 2016, p. 31.

633 “Jane’s World Navies - Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s, 30 Jun 2016, p. 30.

634 “Jane’s World Navies - Russian Federation.” IHS Jane’s, 30 Jun 2016, p. 30.

635 de Larrinaga, Nick. “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation.” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 8 Mar 2016.

636 de Larrinaga, “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation.”

637 de Larrinaga, “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation.”

638 Koryakin, Oleg. “T-80 Tank Is Being Modernized with Relikt and Sosna-U: Omsk Armorers Took on Modernization of T-80BVTank.” Rossiyskaya Gazeta Online, 14 Jul 2016, http://rg.ru/. Accessed 15 Jul 2016.

639 Golts, Aleksandr. “Higher Arithmetic of the Russian Defense-Industrial Complex.” Moscow Yezhednevnyy Zhurnal, 15 May 2015, www.ej.ru. Accessed 18 May 2015.

640 Frolov Andrey. “An Obstacle for the Aircraft Carrier. The State Armaments Program to 2025 Fits III with Economic Realities.” VPK Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer Online, 16 Mar 2016, vpk-news.ru. Accessed 21 Mar 2016.

641 de Larrinaga, “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation.”

642 Fedyushko, Dmitriy. “ВМР-3's Second Youth. Vehicle Designed a Quarter of a Century Ago Flas Become the Basis for the Newest Developments.” VPK Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer Online, 23 Sep 2015, http://www.vpk-news.ru/articles/27164. Accessed 26 Oct 2015.

643 Frolov, Andrey. “An Obstacle for the Aircraft Carrier. The State Armaments Program to 2025 Fits III with Economic Realities.” VPK Voyenno-Promyshlennyy Kuryer Online, 16 Mar 2016, vpk-news.ru. Accessed 21 Mar 2016.

644 Official government statement. “Preliminary Testing of State-of-Art Boomerang Armored Personnel Carrier Will Be Completed in 2016.” Moscow TASS, 3 Jun 2016, tass.ru/. Accessed 6 Jun 2016.

645 de Larrinaga, “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation.”

646 de Larrinaga, “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation.”

647 de Larrinaga, “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation."

648 de Larrinaga, “Return of the Bear: Russian Ground Forces Modernisation.”

649 “Ukraine mobility upgrades for Russian rocket launchers.” Jane’s International Defence Review, vol. 44, no. 3, Mar 2011, pp. 31-33.

650 “Rosoboronexport outlines 2020 strategy.” Jane's Defence, Industry Market Intelligence, 18 Nov 2013.

651 Safronov, Ivan and Dzhordzhevich, Aleksandr. “Demand Gives Rise to Armament — Russian Military Exports Beat Records.” Moscow Kommersant Online, 23 Mar 2017, http://kommersant.ru/. Accessed 29 Mar 2017.

652 Safronov, Ivan. ‘“Our Goal is to Hold on to Russia’s Second Place in the Arms Delivery Sphere.’ Rosoboronexport General Director Anatoliy Isaykin Talks About 2013’s Results and the Prospects for 2014.” Kommersant Online, 27 Jan 2014, www.kommersant.ru. Accessed 27 Jan 2014.

653 Unattributed. “Rosoboronexport's sales reach $6.5 bln in H1 (Part 2).” Interfax, 15 Aug 2013, www.interfax.com. Accessed 15 Aug 2013.

654 Unattributed. “Arms export costs account for $2 bln - $2.5 bln in Russia's arms exports - Military-Technical Cooperation Service.” Interfax, 16 Jun 2015, www.interfax.com. Accessed 16 Jun 2015.

655 Unattributed. “Russia broadens geography of military produce exports in 2014 - service.” Interfax, 26 May 2015, www.interfax.com. Accessed 27 Mar 2015.

656 President of Russia. “Russian President Addresses Arms Exports Commission Meeting.” Russian Presidential Website, 27 Jan 2015, www.eng.kremlin.ru. Accessed 27 Jan 2015.

657 Unattributed. “Patrushev seeks broader military- technological cooperation within BRICS (Part 2).” Interfax,

26 May 2015, www.interfax.com. Accessed 26 May 2015.

658 Safronov, Ivan. “’Our Goal is to Hold on to Russia’s Second Place in the Arms Delivery Sphere.’ Rosoboronexport General Director Anatoliy Isaykin Talks About 2013’s Results and the Prospects for 2014.” Kommersant Online, 27 Jan 2014, www.kommersant.ru. Accessed 27 Jan 2014.

659 President of Russia. “Russian President Addresses Arms Exports Commission Meeting.” Russian Presidential Website, 27 Jan 2015, www.eng.kremlin.ru. Accessed 27 Jan 2015.

660 president of Russia. “Russian President Addresses Arms Exports Commission Meeting.” Russian Presidential Website, 27 Jan 2015, www.eng.kremlin.ru. Accessed 27 Jan 2015.

661 Vlahovic, Branko. "Price Tag of Russian Weapons After Syria." Belgrade Vecernje Novosti, 4 Apr 2016, www.novosti.rs. Accessed 4 Apr 2016.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
Previous
Page
Next
Page