Appendices

Appendix A: The career pattern (cursus honorum) of Roman senators in the second century вс (Chapter 3)

Minimum Age

Magistracy

Number

Responsibilities

     

Ten years military service in cavalry or on the staff of a relative/family friend needed to qualify for political office. In practice this rule may not have been rigidly enforced.

30

Quaestor

8-12

Financial administration at Rome and in the provinces; acted as second in command to governors.

36

Aedile

4

No military responsibility, but administrative role at Rome; an optional post.

39

Praetor

6

Judicial function at Rome; commanded provinces not allocated to consuls; usually controlled one legion + allies, but occasionally larger forces.

42

Consul

2

Most senior executive officers of state; governed larger provinces and given command in all major wars; usually controlled two legions + two allied alae.

-

Censor

2 every 5 years

No actual military command, but most prestigious magistracy reserved for most distinguished ex-consuls.

All magistracies apart from the censorship were held for a single year. All members of a magisterial college held equal power. The numbers of quaestors and praetors gradually increased as further provinces were added to the empire. However, until the very end of the Republic there were only ever two consuls per year.

Appendix B: The Legion of the Early Principate (Chapter 4)

OC — Legatus Legionis (Senatorial officer serving for c. three years).

2ic — Tribttnus Laticlavius (Senatorial offcier serving for c. three years).

3ic — Praefectus Castrorum (Experienced officer, usually former primus pilus).

Staff including: five Tribuni Angusticlavii (equestrian officers serving for c. three years, who have already commanded an auxiliary cohort and may go on to command an ala).

First Cohort — 800 men in five centuries of 160 each, commanded by five centurions ranked in order of seniority: primus pilus; princeps; princeps posterior; hastatus; hastatus posterior

Nine other cohorts — 480 men in six centuries of a centurion, optio, signifer, and tesserarius, plus eighty men. The centurions ranked in order of seniority:

pilus prior; pilus posterior; princeps prior; princeps posterior; hastatus prior; hastatus posterior

The ranks of the cohorts included many specialists and HQ personnel who spent much of their time on detached duty. Other units included:

The Cavalry — 120 men whose internal organization and command structure is unclear.

The Veterans — men who had served twenty years. They may have formed a separate unit or formed part of the first cohort.

Artillery — Vegetius claims that each cohort operated a large stone-throwing engine, whilst each century crewed a light bolt-shooter. The amount of artillery employed by a legion probably varied according to the situation.

Appendix C: Size and structure of auxiliary units - first to early third century ad (Chapter 4)

Unit title

Infantry (centuries)

Cavalry (turmae)

Cohors Quingenaria Peditata

480 (6)

None

Cohors Quingenaria Equitata

480 (6)

120 (4)

Cohors Milliaria Peditata

800(10)

None

Cohors Milliaria Equitata

800(10)

240 (8)

Ala Quingenaria

None

512(16)

Ala Milliaria

None

768 (24)

Quingenary units were normally commanded by a prefect. Milliary units and units of Roman citizens were commanded by tribunes.

Appendix D: Actual strength returns for three quingenary

MIXED COHORTS SHOWING VARIATION FROM THEORETICAL STRENGTH

(Chapter 4)

Date

Unit

Infantry

Horse

Total 1

Total 2

c.100

Cohors I Hispanorum veterana

417

119

536

546

156

Cohors I Augusta Lusitanorum

363

114

477

505

213-16

Cohors I Apanenorum

334

100

434

457

Total 1 is without officers or supernumeraries. Total 2 includes officers and in the case of the second two cohorts small detachments of camel-riders (dromedarii) employed for patrolling in desert regions. The totals of all three cohorts included a significant number of officers and men absent on detached duties.

Appendix E: Strength return of Cohors I Tungrorum c. ad 92-7 (Chapter 4)

This table shows the wide dispersal of and range of duties performed by a Roman garrison (Tab. Vind. II. 154).

18 May, total number of First Cohort of Tungrians, commanded by the Prefect Julius Verecundus, = 752,

including 6 centurions. From these are absent:

guards of the governor (singulares legati) — 46

at the office of Ferox (possibly a legionary legate) — unreadable

at Coria (Corbridge) — 337 including 2 centurions

at London — 1 centurion

unreadable —6 including 1 centurion

unreadable —9 including 1 centurion

unreadable — 11

at ?unreadable — 1

unreadable —45

Total absentees — 456 including 5 centurions

The remainder, present with the unit — 296 including 1 centurion — from these: sick - 15 wounded — 6

suffering from eye inflammation — 10 sub-total - 31

remainder, fit for duty — 265 including 1 centurion

Although milliary, the cohort appears to have had only six centuries. The high proportion of men, and especially five out of six centurions, can only have made it difficult for the cohort to train and drill as a unit.

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