This book has been a pleasure to write and I should like to thank all the friends and family who read and commented on the various drafts, notably Ian Haynes, Julian Deeks and especially Ian Hughes. The latter took part, along with Glyn Quigley, in a highly stimulating series of seminars on the Second Punic War run jointly by Louis Rawlings and myself as part of the Cardiff University MA programme in 1996-7. Several of the ideas in the second chapter were derived from the discussions in these sessions. I have followed Louis’ ideas on early Roman warfare extensively in the first chapter. Similarly, in chapter 5, I have drawn much inspiration from Hugh Elton’s splendid Warfare in Roman Europe and it is appropriate for me to acknowledge my debt to both of them. However, the views expressed here are my own and not necessarily shared by either scholar. I would also like to express my thanks to the team at Cassell, and especially Penny Gardiner, for all their work on the volume, and to Malcolm Swanston for his splendid maps and illustrations.

Praetorian guardsmen in parade uniforms from the Arch of Claudius.


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