Military history

Notes

ABBREVIATIONS

AC

Annals of Congress

ASP

American State Papers

HSP

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

LC

Library of Congress, Manuscript Division

MeHS

Maine Historical Society

MHS

Massachusetts Historical Society

NDB

Naval Documents Related to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers

NMM

National Maritime Museum, U.K.

NW1812

The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History

SCL

South Caroliniana Library

TNA

The National Archives, U.K.

WMSC

College of William and Mary, Special Collections Research Center

Prologue

1. Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship, 364–66.

2. Thomas Jefferson to William Duane, August 4, 1812, Jefferson Papers, LC.

3. “Disaster on Disaster on Land,” Columbian Centinel, February 17, 1813.

4. Osgood, Solemn Protest, 9.

5. Adams, Education of Henry Adams, 53.

6. Dye, “Early American Seafarers,” 340–41.

7. Humphrey, Press of the Young Republic, 85.

8. William Jones to James Madison, May 10, 1814, Madison Papers, LC.

9. Adams, “Birth of a World Power.”

10. Foster, Jeffersonian America, 5.

1. In Barbary

1. Edward Preble to William Bainbridge, March 12, 1804, NDB, III: 489.

2. McKee, Edward Preble, 47.

3. Ibid., 98–99.

4. Albert Gallatin to Thomas Jefferson, August 16, 1802, Jefferson Papers, LC.

5. Preble quoted in McKee, Edward Preble, 136–37.

6. Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 44–46; McKee, Edward Preble, 123–24.

7. Preble quoted in McKee, Edward Preble, 137–38.

8. Morris, Autobiography, 18–19.

9. Edward Preble to secretary of the navy, December 10, 1803, NDB, III: 256–60.

10. Preble quoted in McKee, Edward Preble, 181–82.

11. Edward Preble to James Leander Cathcart, January 4, 1804, NDB, III: 311.

12. Edward Preble to secretary of the navy, December 10, 1803, NDB, III: 256.

13. McKee, Edward Preble, 227–33; Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 45.

14. Edward Preble to Tobias Lear, January 31, 1804, NDB, III: 377–78; Preble to secretary of the navy, NDB, III: 384–86; Preble to George Davis, NDB, III: 386; Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 46.

15. Edward Preble to Charles Stewart, January 31, 1804, NDB, III: 375.

16. NDB, III: 388.

17. Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 1–2, 30–32; Ray, Horrors of Slavery, 69–70.

18. McKee, Edward Preble, 193–94.

19. Edward Preble to secretary of the navy, February 19, 1804, NDB, III: 440–41.

20. Heermann’s statement in Goldsborough, United States’ Naval Chronicle, 257–58n.

21. Journal of Midshipman F. Cornelius deKrafft, Brig Syren, February 3, 1804, NDB, III: 388–89; Edward Preble to Charles Stewart, January 31, 1804, NDB, III: 375–76; Preble to Stephen Decatur, January 31, 1804, NDB, III: 376–77; affidavit of Midshipman Edmund P. Kennedy, NDB, III: 420–21.

22. Morris, Autobiography, 25–26; Journal of Midshipman F. Cornelius deKrafft, Brig Syren, February 8, 1804, NDB, III: 399.

23. Morris, Autobiography, 26–28; Midshipman Ralph Izard Jr., to Mrs. Ralph Izard Sr., February 20, 1804, NDB, III: 416–17; McKee, Edward Preble, 196–97.

24. Affidavit of Surgeon’s Mate Lewis Heermann, NDB, III: 416–20; “Reminiscences &c by Lewis Heermann Surgeon U.S. Navy—1826,” House Committee on Naval Affairs, Claim of Susan Decatur, quoted in McKee, Edward Preble, 197–98.

25. Stephen Decatur to Edward Preble, February 17, 1804, NDB, III: 414–15; Charles Stewart to Preble, February 19, 1804, NDB, III: 415–16; Journal of Midshipman F. Cornelius deKrafft, Brig Syren, February 17, 1804, NDB, III: 431–32.

26. Cowdery, American Captives, 11; Ray, Horrors of Slavery, 110; William Bainbridge, February 18, 1804, NDB, III: 432–33.

27. Cowdery, American Captives, 4–11.

28. Harris, Commodore Bainbridge, 91–92.

29. Long, Ready to Hazard, vii–viii.

30. Ibid., 25, 42–43.

31. Ibid., 4–5, 270–71; Harris, Commodore Bainbridge, 247.

32. William Bainbridge to Edward Preble, November 1, 1803, NDB, III: 171.

33. William Bainbridge to secretary of the navy, November 1, 1803, NDB, III: 171–73; Bainbridge to Edward Preble, November 6, 1803, NDB, III: 173; Bainbridge to Preble, November 12, 1803, NDB, III: 173–74. For an example of letters from Bainbridge to friends begging for reassurance that he was not being “censured” at home, see Bainbridge to William Jones, January 20, 1804, Jones Papers, HSP.

34. “Documents Referred to in Captain Bainbridge’s Letter,” United States Gazette, March 27, 1804; Ray, Horrors of Slavery, 75–76.

35. “Extracts of a Letter from an Officer on Board the Philadelphia Frigate Dated at Tripoli,” Salem Gazette, April 3, 1804.

36. Long, Ready to Hazard, 82, 85; McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 214; William Bainbridge, February 18, 1804, NDB, III: 432–33; Ray, Horrors of Slavery, 89–90, 98, 99, 104.

37. Ray, Horrors of Slavery, 110–11.

38. Ibid., 87, 101.

39. Ibid., 77, 84.

40. Long, Ready to Hazard, 57–58; Ray, Horrors of Slavery, 74–75.

41. Rea, Letter to Bainbridge, 13, 23; Smith, Naval Scenes, 6; Durand, Life and Adventures, 18.

42. McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 174–77, 214–15; McKee, Edward Preble, 71–72.

43. London, Victory in Tripoli, 55, 203; McKee, Edward Preble, 298, 305, 336–37; Cowdery, American Captives, 19–20; Toll, Six Frigates, 248.

44. Long, Ready to Hazard, 98; Ray, Horrors of Slavery, 158–59; Cowdery, American Captives, 15, 16–17.

45. Long, Ready to Hazard, 43–44, 101; McKee, Edward Preble, 312–14, 335.

2. Honor’s Shoals

1. Augustus Foster to Lady Elizabeth Foster, December 30, 1804, February 5, 1805, June 2, 1805, Foster, ed., Two Duchesses, 196–98, 203–5, 225–26.

2. Adams, First Administration of Jefferson, II: 363–72.

3. Perkins, Prologue to War, 98–99; Adams, First Administration of Jefferson, I: 43, 45, 52–53, 55, 129.

4. Moore quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 8.

5. Perkins, Prologue to War, 5, 7.

6. Foster, “Notes,” 78, 102–6.

7. Adams, First Administration of Jefferson, I: 12–32.

8. Historical Statistics of the United States, 139; Adams, First Administration of Jefferson, I: 31–33.

9. Adams, First Administration of Jefferson, I: 18, 30–31; Foster, “Notes,” 70–72; Perkins, Prologue to War, 68.

10. Albert Gallatin to Thomas Jefferson, April 16, 1807, Jefferson Papers, LC; William Bainbridge to William Jones, January 20, 1804, Jones Papers, HSP; Contract for Sale of Opium to Young Tom, Canton, September 3, 1805, Jones Papers, HSP; Balinky, “Albert Gallatin,” 293–95, 304.

11. Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 33–34; Dye, “Early American Seafarers,” 339–40, 356–57; Lewis, Social History, 294–95.

12. Dye, “Early American Seafarers,” 348–53; Bolster, “Black Seamen,” 1174, 1180–87, 1194.

13. Whitbread quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 19.

14. Horsman, Causes of War of 1812, 33–36; Brougham quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 20; Sheffield in NW1812, I: 21.

15. Foster quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 28.

16. Daily Advertiser, February 20, 1804; June 18, 1804; August 6, 1804; August 9, 1804.

17. Hall, Fragments of Voyages, I: 285, 289–90.

18. Adams, Second Administration of Jefferson, I: 92; Crowninshield, “American Trade,” 114; Baring, Inquiry, 95.

19. Sentence of the Vice-Admiralty Court of Nassau, New Providence, in the case of the Brig Essex, Joseph Orne Master, NW1812, I: 17–21.

20. Stephen, War in Disguise, 8, 12–13, 92, 155, 203.

21. Adams, Second Administration of Jefferson, I: 199–200; Barclay, Correspondence, 232–39.

22. Bainbridge quoted in Long, Ready to Hazard, 105.

23. Thomas Jefferson to Jacob Crowninshield, May 13, 1806, Jefferson Papers, LC.

24. Jefferson quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 121.

25. Madison, Selected Writings, 279.

26. Perkins, Prologue to War, 5; Grenville quoted in ibid., 74; Merry quoted in Adams, Second Administration of Jefferson, I: 202.

27. Balinky, “Albert Gallatin,” 294, 296–98; 301.

28. ASP, Naval Affairs, I: 78–79, 104–8; Thomas Jefferson to Gouverneur Morris, May 8, 1801, Jefferson Papers, LC.

29. McKee, Edward Preble, 338–41; Thomas Jefferson to James Barron, May 23, 1807, James Barron Papers, WMSC; NW1812, I: liii, 2.

30. AC, 9th Cong., 1st sess. (March 5, 1806), 558–59; (March 11, 1806), 706–7.

31. NW1812, I: 12–15.

32. Mayhew, “Jeffersonian Gunboats,” 101–2; Chapelle, American Sailing Navy, 208; Tucker, “Gunboats in Service,” 97; ASP, Naval Affairs, I: 200; Paul Hamilton to Langdon Cheves, December 3, 1811, NW1812, I: 53–59.

33. Susan Jackson to secretary of the navy, October 31, 1808, quoted in McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 156; Decatur quoted in Smith, “Means to an End,” 118; NW1812, I: 12.

34. “By his Excellency William Shirley … A Proclamation,” Boston Post-Boy, November 23, 1747; “Two Letters Sent from His Excellency Governor Shirley,” Boston Post-Boy, December 14, 1747; Zimmerman, Impressment, 11.

35. Durand, Life and Adventures, 66, 127.

36. Lewis, Social History, 119, 134.

37. Durand, Life and Adventures, 64–65.

38. Lewis, Social History, 134.

39. Ibid., 86–95.

40. Ibid., 105–7, 115.

41. Zimmerman, Impressment, 265–67.

42. Durand, Life and Adventures, 49–50; Dalton, “Letters”; Perkins, Prologue to War, 86–88.

43. Daily Advertiser, May 22, August 10, August 29, October 20, 1804; New-York Gazette, March 22, July 24, 1805. One ship recaptured by her American crew was the Eugenia. Taken off Sandy Hook, she was ordered for Halifax when her American captain, pretending to be ignorant of the coast, advised the British prize master to put into New London for a pilot; once ashore, the captain rounded up thirty armed men who rowed back to the ship and overpowered the British prize crew. See Daily Advertiser, August 9, 1804.

44. Zimmerman, Impressment, 18, 26, 119; Perkins, Prologue to War, 92.

45. Zimmerman, Impressment, 109–10, 114.

46. James Madison to George Joy, May 22, 1807, Madison Papers, LC; Adams quoted in Zimmerman, Impressment, 176.

47. William Henry Allen to William Allen, March 30, 1807, Allen, “Letters,” 206–8.

48. De Kay, Rage for Glory, 78–79.

49. McKee, Edward Preble, 310.

50. Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 86; Toll, Six Frigates, 260.

51. James Barron to Franklin Wharton, September 14, 1806, and James Barron to John Rodgers, January 20, 1807, James Barron Papers, WMSC; Franklin Wharton and Thomas Tingey to Rodgers, January 31, 1807, Rodgers Family Papers, Naval Historical Foundation Collection, LC.

52. Secretary of the navy to James Barron, March 23, 1807, James Barron Papers, WMSC.

53. Heintze, “Gaetano Carusi,” 75–77, 81, 85–90. Carusi never did get back to Italy. He eventually settled in America, opening music stores in Philadelphia and Baltimore and later running a concert hall in Washington; he spent his final years unsuccessfully petitioning Congress for $4,992 he claimed as unpaid salary and compensation for a trunk containing all his valuable possessions that was thrown overboard during the Chesapeake’s battle.

54. Dye, Fatal Cruise, 48–51; Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 70–71. All five of the Halifax deserters initially enlisted on the Chesapeake, but four quickly thought better of their action and promptly deserted from her.

55. Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 78.

56. Dye, Fatal Cruise, 59.

57. Quoted in Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 4–5.

58. “The Chesapeake and the Leopard,” unidentified newspaper clipping, 1851, James Barron Papers, WMSC.

59. “Occurrences and remarks, on board the United States Frigate Chesapeak … Tuesday the 23 day of June year 1807,” Allen, “Letters,” 209–13; Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 6–12, 151.

60. Dye, Fatal Cruise, 70; Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 113–14.

61. Thomas Jefferson to Pierre S. Dupont de Nemours, July 14, 1807, Jefferson Papers, LC; Bond quoted in Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 124.

62. Cray, “Remembering the Chesapeake,” 445–46; Dye, Fatal Cruise, 68; Horsman, Causes of War of 1812, 103.

63. Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, August 25, 1807, Jefferson Papers, LC; Leiner, “Norfolk War Scare.”

64. Canning quoted in Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 130–31.

65. McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 403–6, 498; De Kay, Rage for Glory, 32–34.

66. Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 15.

67. Officers of the late U.S. Ship Chesapeake to secretary of the navy, June 23, 1807, James Barron Papers, WMSC.

68. William Henry Allen to William Allen, June 24, 1807, Allen, “Letters,” 213–16; William Henry Allen to William Allen, July 17, 1807, quoted in Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 152.

69. James Barron to Dr. Bullus, July 3, 1807, James Barron Papers, WMSC.

70. Tucker and Reuter, Injured Honor, 142.

71. Ibid., 163, 181.

72. Durand, Life and Adventures, 32–36; McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 259–61.

73. Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 88.

3. “A Defence Worthy of Republicans

1. Joshua Humphreys to Robert Morris, January 6, 1793, letterbook, 1793–97, Joshua Humphreys Papers, HSP. Humphreys appears to have misdated this letter, which was probably written in January 1794.

2. Chapelle, American Sailing Navy, 5, 24–27.

3. Ibid., 57–58; Eddy, “Joshua Humphreys,” 177.

4. Chapelle, American Sailing Navy, 13–19.

5. Lavery, Nelson’s Navy, 228–29.

6. Otton, “Constitution Reborn”; Tucker, Arming the Fleet, 134, 139.

7. Chapelle, American Sailing Navy, 119–27; Fox quoted in ibid., 121.

8. Wood, Live Oaking, 3–4, 9–15, 40–41.

9. ASP, Naval Affairs, I: 11–13; Tucker, Arming the Fleet, 41, 124. According to Tucker, a thirty-two-pound shot requires a velocity of 1,090 feet per second to penetrate thirty inches of oak; the initial muzzle velocity of a thirty-two-pound carronade was 750 feet per second.

10. Wood, Live Oaking, 26–28, 55; John T. Morgan to Joshua Humphreys, October 21, 1794, letterbook, 1793–97, Joshua Humphreys Papers, HSP.

11. ASI, Naval Affairs, I: 8–9.

12. Dodds and Moore, Wooden Fighting Ship, 44; Brodine, Crawford, and Hughes, Interpreting Old Ironsides, 6.

13. ASP, Naval Affairs, I: 17–19.

14. “Principal Dimensions” Book, Joshua Humphreys Papers, HSP; William Jones to Joshua Humphreys, June 11, 1799, correspondence, ibid.; Joshua Humphreys to Thomas Truxtun, “On the Proportion of Masts and Spars,” letterbook, 1793–97, ibid.

15. “To the Frigate Constitution,” Time Piece, October 18, 1797.

16. John Barry to Joshua Humphreys, September 19, 1798, correspondence, Joshua Humphreys Papers, HSP.

17. Toll, Six Frigates, 95.

18. Chapelle, American Sailing Navy, 153–54, 161; Leiner, Millions for Defense, 24–27.

19. Randolph quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 163; Bentley, Diary, III: 414; Bainbridge quoted in Long, Ready to Hazard, 113.

20. Perkins, Prologue to War, 161–63.

21. ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 584.

22. Perkins, Prologue to War, 305–6.

23. Lowell, Mr. Madison’s War, 11; Zimmerman, Impressment, 173.

24. ASP, Naval Affairs, I: 184–87, 193; Gallatin quoted in Adams, Second Administration of Jefferson, II: 428.

25. ASP, Naval Affairs, I: 194.

26. Bainbridge quoted in McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 9.

27. John Rodgers to Isaac Hull, June 19, 1810, NW1812, I: 39–40.

28. Gilliam, “Letters,” 54; Decatur quoted in Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 102.

29. NW1812, I: 40–50; the complete diplomatic correspondence over the Little Belt incident, including statements of the captains and a full transcript of the American court of inquiry, are reprinted in ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 476–500.

30. Clark, Dolly Madison, 136.

31. Wills, James Madison, 3–7; Smith, First Forty Years, 63; Gallatin quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 161.

32. Madison, Letters and Other Writings, IV: 491–92.

33. Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 69; “Our Relations with G. Britain,” National Intelligencer, April 16, 1811.

34. Foster, “Caviar Along Potomac,” 78, 79, 89; Perkins, Prologue to War, 274–79, 354; Horsman, Causes of War of 1812, 203.

35. Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 144; Stephen Decatur to Paul Hamilton, June 10, 1811, quoted in Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 104; David Porter to Hamilton, August 31, 1811, Madison Papers, LC; Perkins, Prologue to War, 291; Hamilton to James Madison, September 17, 1811, Madison Papers, LC.

36. Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 59–61, 69, 74.

37. James Madison to John Quincy Adams, November 15, 1811, quoted in Horsman, Causes of War of 1812, 227; ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 405; Perkins, Prologue to War, 281–82.

38. Perkins, Prologue to War, 287–88; Taylor, “Agrarian Discontent,” 498–99.

39. Jackson quoted in Horsman, Causes of War of 1812, 234–35.

40. Albert Gallatin, “Notes on President’s message,” n.d., Madison Papers, LC.

41. Paul Hamilton to Langdon Cheves, Chairman of the Naval Committee, December 3, 1811, NW1812, I: 53–60.

42. AC, 12th Cong., 1st sess. (January 18, 1812), 825–26, 840, 842; (January 21, 1812), 878.

43. Ibid. (January 18, 1812), 830–31, 833.

44. Ibid. (January 27, 1812), 999; (January 28, 1812), 1002–4; Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 101.

45. Long, Ready to Hazard, 126–29.

46. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 131.

47. Ibid., 134, 145.

48. Ibid., 46–47, 71.

49. Porter, Constantinople, I: 11.

50. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 140–42; Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 91.

51. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 139, 143–44.

52. Ibid., 153.

53. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 156–57; Hull quoted in Smith, Naval Scenes, 18.

54. Morris, Autobiography, 47–48.

55. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 162–64.

56. Carden, Curtail’d Memoir, 8–13.

57. Littleton Waller Tazewell to James Monroe, February 27, 1812, reel 2, Monroe, James Monroe Papers; Hickey, War of 1812, 34–35; Forester, Age of Fighting Sail, 83–84.

58. Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 146; Harris, Commodore Bainbridge, 135; Long, Ready to Hazard, 129–30.

59. Brant, “Timid President?”

60. Paul Hamilton to Morton A. Waring, October 17, October 19, November 30, 1810; May 11, 1812, Hamilton Papers, SCL.

61. Paul Hamilton to John Rodgers, May 21, 1812, NW1812, I: 118–19.

62. John Rodgers to Paul Hamilton, June 3, 1812, NW1812, I: 118–22; Stephen Decatur to Hamilton, June 8, 1812, ibid., I: 122–24.

63. Mahan, Sea Power in 1812, I: 315–18, 321–22.

64. Stephen Decatur to Paul Hamilton, June 8, 1812, NW1812, I: 122–24.

65. Agenda, Albert Gallatin, July 12, 1812, Madison Papers, LC.

66. Hickey, War of 1812, 40–44.

67. Albert Gallatin to James Madison, June 20, 1812, Madison Papers, LC.

68. Paul Hamilton to John Rodgers, June 22, 1812, NW1812, I: 148–49.

69. Paul Hamilton to Morton A. Waring, July 25, 1812, Hamilton Papers, SCL.

4. “The Present War, Unexpected, Unnecessary, and Ruinous

1. Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship, 42; Foster quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 416.

2. Perkins, Prologue to War, 316, 332–33; Horsman, Causes of War of 1812, 256–57; Brougham quoted in Perkins, Prologue to War, 340.

3. Naval Chronicle 28 (1812): 157–58, 246–47.

4. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, July 12, 1812, Jones Papers, HSP.

5. William Bainbridge to Paul Hamilton, July 11, 1812, NW1812, I: 190–91.

6. Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 100–101.

7. Isaac Hull to Joseph Hull, July 5, 1812, quoted in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 170.

8. Isaac Hull to Paul Hamilton, July 2, 1812, NW1812, I: 160–61; Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 103; Smith, Naval Scenes, 24.

9. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 170–71; Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 104.

10. Smith, Naval Scenes, 25.

11. The account of the Constitution’s escape that follows is drawn from several eyewitness accounts: Hull’s official report, Isaac Hull to Paul Hamilton, July 21, 1812, NW1812, I: 161–65; Morris, Autobiography, 56–61; Evans, “Journal,” 153–56; Smith, Naval Scenes, 25–28. In addition, Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 47–50, and Forester, Age of Fighting Sail, 48–56, provide very helpful explanations of the seamanship and maneuvers employed.

12. Brown quoted in Coggeshall, American Privateers, 8–9, 12.

13. NW1812, I: 165.

14. Evans, “Journal,” 158–60.

15. “Business and the Coffee House,” 11–13.

16. Columbian Centinel, August 1, 1812.

17. Evans, “Journal,” 161.

18. “Old and New Times,” Columbian Centinel, August 1, 1812.

19. Lathrop, Present War, 5, 10–11, 13.

20. Hickey, War of 1812, 53.

21. “Address … to their respective constituents,” AC, 12th Cong., 1st sess. (Appendix, 1812), 2219.

22. Ibid., 2196.

23. “Whoever Is Not for Us, Is Against Us,” Boston Gazette, May 21, 1812.

24. Wright quoted in Hickey, War of 1812, 56–57; Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, June 29, 1812, Madison Papers, LC.

25. Hickey, War of 1812, 56–59.

26. “Effects of the War,” Federal Republican, December 31, 1812.

27. Hickey, War of 1812, 60–67; “The Narrative of John Thomas,” Hagers-Town Gazette, August 18, 1812.

28. John Adams to John Adams Smith, June 15, 1812, reel 118, MHS, Adams Papers.

29. Blake and Lawrence, Nelson’s Navy, 49.

30. Lavery, Nelson’s Navy, 241–44.

31. Ibid., 94.

32. Elias, “Naval Profession,” 294, 307–9.

33. Lewis, Social History, 223.

34. Ibid., 206.

35. Lavery, Nelson’s Navy, 93; Lewis, Social History, 222.

36. Collingwood quoted in Lewis, Social History, 222–24.

37. Long, Ready to Hazard, 133; Lewis, Social History, 369–71.

38. James, Naval History, VI: 96; Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 248; Nelson quoted in Tucker, Arming the Fleet, 37.

39. Adams, First Administration of Jefferson, I: 219–22; Jefferson quoted in Balinky, “Albert Gallatin,” 302.

40. Smith quoted in McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 285, 304.

41. Ibid., 282.

42. Smith quoted in ibid., 277.

43. William Jones to Joseph Anderson, July 30, 1813, NW1812, II: 208; Jones to James Renshaw, September 15, 1813, ibid., II: 209–10; Jones to Robert T. Spence, July 26, 1813, quoted in McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 277–78.

44. Nicholas Brewer quoted in McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 113.

45. Truxtun quoted in ibid., 159.

46. Valle, Rocks and Shoals, 43–46; Truxtun quoted in McKee, Gentlemanly Profession, 225–26.

47. Lewis, Social History, 124, 139.

48. List of Punishments, 1812–14, WAR/21, NMM.

49. Isaac Hull to Paul Hamilton, July 28, 1812, NW1812, I: 206–7.

50. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 180.

51. Isaac Hull to Paul Hamilton, August 2, 1812, NW1812, I: 207–9.

52. Isaac Hull to Joseph Hull, August 1, 1812, in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 181.

53. Evans, “Journal,” 163, 165, 166.

54. Entry for August 15, 1812, Private Journal Kept on Board the U.S. Frigate Constitution, Amos A. Evans Papers, LC. This passage is not included in the published version of Evans’s journal.

55. Evans, “Journal,” 168–69; Isaac Hull to Paul Hamilton, August 28, 1812, NW1812, I: 230–33.

56. “Shipping News,” New-England Palladium, September 1, 1812; Coggeshall, American Privateers, 25.

57. “Captain Dacres’ Challenge,” Weekly Register 3 (1812): 31.

58. Smith, Naval Scenes, 30.

59. Coggeshall, American Privateers, 26; William B. Orne to Phineas Sprague, April 27, 1813, George H. Stuart Papers, LC; “British Account,” Weekly Register 3 (1812): 109; Smith, Naval Scenes, 34; “The Capture of the Guerriere by the Constitution,” New York Times, January 31, 1852. The last, an anonymous account subsequently republished in several newspapers and magazines under the byline “Octogenarian” (see e.g., Orne, “Reminiscence”), appears to match other recollections definitely written by Orne, including the letter published in Coggeshall cited above.

60. “Captain Hull,” Weekly Register 3 (1812): 159; Smith, Naval Scenes, 31–32; Coggeshall, American Privateers, 26–27; Wilson, “Commodore Hull,” 106.

61. Morris, Autobiography, 62–63; John Contee to Franklin Wharton, August 31, 1812, NW1812, I: 246.

62. Smith, Naval Scenes, 36.

63. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 189–90.

64. Coggeshall, American Privateers, 27; “The Capture of the Guerriere by the Constitution,” New York Times, January 31, 1852; “British Account,” Weekly Register 3 (1812): 109.

65. Gilliam, “Letters,” 60–61.

66. Adams, “Birth of a World Power,” 519–20.

67. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 192; Gilliam, “Letters,” 61; Morris, Autobiography, 63; “The Capture of the Guerriere by the Constitution,” New York Times, January 31, 1852; Evans, “Journal,” 376.

68. Isaac Hull to Paul Hamilton, August 28, 1812, NW1812, I: 237–42; James R. Dacres to Herbert Sawyer, September 7, 1812, NW1812, I: 243–45; Smith, Naval Scenes, 36; Evans, “Journal,” 376.

5. Love of Fame Is a Noble Passion

1. John Rodgers to Paul Hamilton, September 1, 1812, NW1812, I: 262–66; Maloney, “War of 1812,” 48–49; Essex Institute, American Vessels Captured, 96, 99, 100; Philip Broke to Sarah Louisa Broke, August 9, 1812, LBK 58/2, NMM.

2. Smith, Naval Scenes, 38; Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 195–96.

3. “Tribute to American Gallantry,” Connecticut Herald, September 15, 1812.

4. Gafford, “Boston Stage,” 329–30; Evans, “Journal,” 384–85.

5. Columbian Naval Melody, 15–16.

6. American Patriotic Song-Book, 141.

7. Gillespy, Columbian Naval Songster, 16.

8. “The Naval Victory,” Repertory, September 1, 1812.

9. “Progress of the War,” Repertory, September 1, 1812.

10. “British Account of the Capture of Detroit,” Boston Gazette, September 3, 1812; Evans, “Journal,” 379; Hickey, War of 1812, 82–84.

11. Evans, “Journal,” 380.

12. Isaac Hull to Paul Hamilton, September 1, 1812, quoted in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 196.

13. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 192, 194, 196–97; Smith, Naval Scenes, 35.

14. Evans, “Journal,” 382, Smith, Naval Scenes, 38; Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 200.

15. Smith, Naval Scenes, 38–39; Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 129; Long, Ready to Hazard, 143.

16. Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 207–8; Wilson, “Commodore Hull,” 109.

17. A List of Ships and Vessels on the West Indian and American Stations, August 7, 1812, HUL/18, NMM; The Present Disposition of His Majesty’s Ships and Vessels in Sea Pay, July 1, 1812, ADM 8/100, TNA; “Naval History of the Present Year, 1812,” Naval Chronicle 28 (1812): 159.

18. Warren, Sir John Borlase, Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, www.biographi.ca; Lohnes, “British Naval Problems at Halifax,” 324.

19. John Borlase Warren to the secretary of state, September 30, 1812, ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 595–96.

20. List of Punishments, WAR/21, NMM; Weekly Return of the Sick and Wounded, WAR/25, NMM; Disposition of Squadron, State and Condition of Ships, WAR/32, NMM.

21. Flag Officers Accounts, Sir John Borlase Warren, Account No. 1, October 31, 1813, HUL/33, NMM; Letters and Papers Relating to Prize Money, Sir John Borlase Warren, No. 2, May 24, 1815, WAR/33, NMM.

22. Lohnes, “British Naval Problems at Halifax,” 319–22; Philip Broke to Sarah Louisa Broke, October 10, 1812, LBK/58, NMM.

23. Orders No. 1 (October 4, 1812), No. 2 (October 10, 1812), No. 3 (October 14, 1812), Orderbook of Adm Sir J Borlase Warren, HUL/1, NMM.

24. John Borlase Warren to John W. Croker, October 5, 1812, NW1812, I: 507–9.

25. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 69.

26. John Borlase Warren to Edward P. Brenton, November 5, 1812, Orderbook of Adm. Sir J. Borlase Warren, HUL/1, NMM.

27. James Monroe to John Borlase Warren, October 28, 1812, ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 598; James R. Dacres to Herbert Sawyer, NW1812, I: 243–45.

28. Letters relating to prisoners of war, Cartel for the Exchange of Prisoners of War, WAR/79, NMM.

29. David Porter to Paul Hamilton, August 15, 1812, NW1812, I: 218–19; Porter to Hamilton, August 20, 1812, NW1812, I: 219–20.

30. John T. Duckworth to Paul Hamilton, August 31, 1812, reprinted in “Exchange of Prisoners,” Weekly Register 3 (1812): 89.

31. “Naval,” Weekly Register 3 (1812): 53.

32. Evans, “Journal,” 380; William M. Crane to Herbert Sawyer, August 28, 1812, NW1812, I: 233–34; Sawyer to Crane, August 29, 1812, NW1812, I: 235.

33. Anthony St. John Baker to James Monroe, September 19, 1812, NW1812, I: 499; John Borlase Warren to Monroe, September 30, 1812, ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 598.

34. David Porter to Paul Hamilton, September 3, 1812, NW1812, I: 443–47.

35. Farragut, Life, 15–16.

36. David Porter to William Bainbridge, September 8, 1812, NW1812, I: 468–69.

37. John Rodgers to Paul Hamilton, September 4, 1812, NW1812, I: 450–51; Bainbridge quoted in Maloney, “War of 1812,” 49; Hamilton to Rodgers, September 9, 1812, NW1812, I: 471–72.

38. William Jones to William Bainbridge, October 11, 1812, NW1812, I: 512–15.

39. Smith, Frigate Essex, 266–80.

40. NW1812, I: 466; “Aid to Glory,” 184.

41. William Bainbridge to William Jones, October 5, 1812, NW1812, I: 510–12.

42. Evans, “Journal,” 386.

43. Carden, Curtail’d Memoir, 256–58.

44. Leech, Thirty Years, 70, 87–89, 99.

45. Ibid., 125–27.

46. Ibid., 128.

47. Testimony of Lt. David Hope, Court martial, Captain J. S. Carden and the officers and Ships Company of the Macedonian, May 27, 28, 29 & 31, 1813, ADM 1/5436, TNA.

48. The best accounts of the battle are the Macedonian court-martial cited above; Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 61–67; and Mahan, Sea Power in 1812, I: 416–22. Neither Decatur nor the officers of the United States left any detailed description of the action; Decatur’s official report devotes no more than a single sentence to describing the actual engagement: Stephen Decatur to Paul Hamilton, October 30, 1812, NW1812, I: 552–53.

49. Testimony of Lt. John Bulford, Court martial, Captain J. S. Carden and the officers and Ships Company of the Macedonian, May 27, 28, 29 & 31, 1813, ADM 1/5436, TNA.

50. John S. Carden to John W. Croker, October 28, 1812, NW1812, I: 549–52.

51. Leech, Thirty Years, 147; Carden, Curtail’d Memoir, 264; Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 119.

52. Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 63; Tucker, Arming the Fleet, 41.

53. “Life of Captain William Henry Allen,” Port Folio 3 (1814): 2–23.

54. Carden, Curtail’d Memoir, 265.

55. Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 121–22; Dye, Fatal Cruise, 93–94; Leech, Thirty Years, 153–59.

56. “Another Brilliant Naval Victory!” National Intelligencer, December 10, 1812; Latrobe quoted in Dye, Fatal Cruise, 93.

57. Arthur Sinclair to Paul Hamilton, October 7, 1812, NW1812, I: 518–19; Daniel T. Patterson to Hamilton, November 10, 1812, NW1812, I: 423–25; William Bainbridge to Hamilton, October 8, 1812, NW1812, I: 517; James Lawrence to Hamilton, October 10, 1812, NW1812, I: 519–20; Lawrence to Hamilton, October 22, 1812, NW1812, I: 522–23.

58. Paul Hamilton to Stephen Decatur, December 29, 1812, NW1812, I: 638–39; Hamilton to Burwell Bassett, November 21, 1812, NW1812, I: 577–79; Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 203–4.

59. Isaac Hull to David Daggett, November 18, 1814, quoted in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 259–60.

60. Decatur quoted in Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 123; John Rodgers to Paul Hamilton, October 17, 1812, NW1812, I: 535–36; Rodgers to Hamilton, January 2, 1813, NW1812, II: 4–5.

61. David Porter to Paul Hamilton, October 14, 1812, NW1812, I: 527–28; Daniel T. Patterson to Hamilton, November 10, 1812, NW1812, I: 423–25; Hamilton to James Lawrence, October 17, 1812, NW1812, I: 522; “From the Boston Daily Advertiser,” Federal Republican, April 2, 1813.

62. David Porter to Samuel Hambleton, February 28, 1812, quoted in Porter, Memoir, 100.

63. “The Secretary of the Navy,” Yankee, October 30, 1812; Eckert, Navy Department, 15; Mitchill quoted in Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 289.

64. James Monroe to John Borlase Warren, October 27, 1812, ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 596–97.

65. Mitchill quoted in Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 273.

66. Paul Hamilton to James Madison, December 30, 1812, Madison Papers, LC; Madison to Hamilton, December 31, 1812, Madison Papers, LC; “Mr. Hamilton,” Federal Republican, February 26, 1813.

67. Evans, “Journal,” 469–70.

68. William Jones to William Bainbridge, October 11, 1812, NW1812, I: 512–15.

69. Long, Nothing Too Daring, 77.

70. William Jones to William Bainbridge, October 11, 1812, NW1812, I: 512–15; Evans, “Journal,” 470–73; Long, Ready to Hazard, 144–47; Martin, Most Fortunate Ship, 130–31.

71. Journal of Commodore William Bainbridge, NW1812, I: 639–44.

72. “A List of the Killed and Wounded of H.M.S. Java,” Naval Chronicle 29 (1813): 348–49; Long, Ready to Hazard, 154–55; Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 73.

73. William Bainbridge to John Bullus, January 23, 1813, Fogg Autograph Collection, MeHS.

74. Henry D. Chads, January 4, 1813, ADM 1/21, TNA.

75. “Extract of a letter from Commodore Bainbridge, to his friend in this city,” New-York Gazette, February 27, 1813.

6. Walls of Wood

1. “Retrospective and Miscellaneous,” Naval Chronicle 29 (1813): 242.

2. Times (London), March 20, 1813.

3. Ibid., October 29, 1812; December 19, 1812; March 20, 1813.

4. “Courts Martial,” Naval Chronicle 28 (1812): 422–24.

5. Court martial, Captain J. S. Carden and the officers and Ships Company of the Macedonian, May 27, 28, 29 & 31, 1813, ADM 1/5436, TNA.

6. Naval Chronicle 28 (1812): 381–82; Naval Chronicle 29 (1813): 117–19; “Our ‘fir-built Frigates,’ ” Yankee, December 18, 1812.

7. Naval Chronicle 29 (1813): 288–89; “From the London Star,” Federal Republican, March 15, 1813.

8. John S. Carden to John W. Croker, October 28, 1812, NW1812, I: 549–52; Naval Chronicle 29 (1813): 117–19; “Courts Martial,” Naval Chronicle 28 (1812): 422–24.

9. Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 31–34, 40–41, 54–55, 63, 72; Tucker, Arming the Fleet, 93; Duffy, Captain Blakeley, 191–92.

10. Cobbett quoted in Lossing, Pictorial Field-Book, 140n.

11. Naval Chronicle 29 (1813): 472–73.

12. Ibid., 465.

13. Ibid., 402, 466–69, 473–74.

14. Times, October 29, 1812; Liverpool and Foster quoted in Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 15, 17, 24.

15. Croker, Naval War with America, 3, 12–13, 23, 38.

16. Croker, Croker Papers, 1–2, 18, 20–22.

17. Carden, Curtail’d Memoir, 281–83.

18. Gardiner, ed., Naval War of 1812, 160–63.

19. John W. Croker to John B. Warren, January 9, 1813, NW1812, II: 14–15.

20. Ibid.; John W. Croker to John B. Warren, February 10, 1813, NW1812, II: 16–19.

21. John W. Croker to John B. Warren, January 9, 1813, NW1812, II: 14–15; Dudley, Wooden Wall, 80–81.

22. John B. Warren to John W. Croker, December 29, 1812, NW1812, I: 649–51; John W. Croker to John B. Warren, February 10, 1813, NW1812, II: 16–19; Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to Warren, November 27, 1812, pp. 276–78, ADM 2/1375, TNA.

23. Pack, Cockburn, 59–63.

24. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 91.

25. Vessels Captured and Detained, WAR/37, NMM; “A List of Vessels Brought into Bermuda from the Commencement of the American War,” HUL/18, NMM; Essex Institute, American Vessels Captured; Dudley, Wooden Wall, 143.

26. Narrative of Capture of Vixen, 7.

27. Lohnes, “Naval Problems at Halifax,” 322, 325.

28. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 11–13, 28–29.

29. Ibid., 19; John W. Croker to John B. Warren, March 20, 1813, NW1812, II: 75–78.

30. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 175–81.

31. Robert Saunders Dundas Melville to John B. Warren, March 26, 1813, NW1812, II: 78–79; John W. Croker to John B. Warren, March 20, 1813, NW1812, II: 75–78.

32. A Proclamation, John B. Warren, February 6, 1813, p. 221, ADM 1/503, TNA; Warren to John W. Croker, February 21, 1813, pp. 213–16, ibid.

33. Standing Orders on the North American Station, John B. Warren, March 6, 1813, NW1812, II: 59–60.

34. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, January 23, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

35. Robert Smith to William Jones, November 4, November 13, 1810, ibid.; Richard Rush to Jones, March 29, April 3, June 3, 1812, ibid.

36. Eckert, “William Jones,” 170–71; “Copy of address presented to capt. William Jones,” City Gazette & Daily Advertiser, May 8, 1795.

37. William Bainbridge to William Jones, March 1, 1813; George Read to Jones, January 10, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

38. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, March 22, 1813; Jones to James Ewell, March 10, 1813; Benjamin Homans to Jones, n.d., 1813, ibid.

39. Notes, January 1813; William Jones to Lloyd Jones, February 27, 1813, ibid.; Jones to Amos Binney, February 9, 1813, NW1812, II: 44; Jones to Burwell Bassett, February 2, 1813, NW1812, II: 24–26; Edward Cutbush to Jones, February 13, 1813, NW1812, II: 38–39; Eckert, Navy Department, 39–40.

40. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, March 8, February 10, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

41. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, April 10, January 23, 1813, ibid.

42. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, March 21, April 7, 1813, ibid.

43. Hull quoted in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 203; Hickey, War of 1812, 109–10.

44. AC, 12th Cong., 2nd sess. (December 15, 1812), 33; AC, 12th Cong., 2nd sess. (December 23, 1812), 443–50; Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 291; Hickey, War of 1812, 118.

45. William Jones to James Madison, October 26, 1814, NW1812, III: 631–36.

46. Circular from William Jones to Commanders of Ships now in port refitting, February 22, 1813, NW1812, II: 47–49.

47. William Jones to Samuel Smith, February 22, 1813, NW1812, II: 45; Chapelle, American Sailing Navy, 256–63.

48. Charles Stewart to William Jones, February 5, 1813, NW1812, II: 311–13; Jones to John Cassin, February 16, 1813, NW1812, II: 313–15.

49. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, March 21, March 22, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

50. Henry, Earl Bathurst, to Thomas Sidney Beckwith, March 20, 1813, NW1812, II: 325–26.

7. “You Shall Now Feel the Effects of War

1. New-England Palladium, April 16, 1813; Statesman, April 12, 1813.

2. William Bainbridge to William Jones, March 1, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

3. Ann Hull quoted in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 210.

4. John W. Croker to John B. Warren, March 20, 1813, NW1812, II: 75–78; Thomas Bladen Capel to Warren, May 11, 1813, NW1812, II: 105–6.

5. William Jones to Charles Stewart, April 8, 1813, NW1812, II: 346–47.

6. Garitee, Republic’s Private Navy, 52–53; Mahon, War of 1812, II: 17–18.

7. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, March 22, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP; Isaac Hull to Jones, April 23, 1813, NW1812, II: 92; Jones to Hull, April 30, 1813, NW1812, II: 94–95; Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 215–16; Long, Ready to Hazard, 175.

8. William Jones to Charles Stewart, April 8, 1813, NW1812, II: 346–47; Jones to Stewart, March 27, 1813, NW1812, II: 317.

9. Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 93–97; James, Naval Occurrences, 100; NW1812, II: 59, 68–75; Peacock court-martial, June 7, 1813, ADM 1/5436, TNA.

10. Craig, “Notes on Action,” 75.

11. Pack, Cockburn, 146; Mahan, Sea Power in 1812, II: 162.

12. Kendall Addison to George Cockburn, March 18, 1813, p. 171, ADM 1/4359, TNA; George Cockburn to Kendall Addison, May 19, 1813, NW1812, II: 324.

13. Naval General Order, William Jones, July 29, 1812, NW1812, II: 205; John Hayes to John B. Warren, n.d. 1813, NW1812, II: 272–73; William Bainbridge to William Jones, December 31, 1813, NW1812, II: 273.

14. Hickey, War of 1812, 171; Wright quoted in Tilghman and Harrison, Talbot County, I: 53–54.

15. Hickey, War of 1812, 115–16, 168–71.

16. Crawford, “Licensed Trade,” 166; Garitee, Republic’s Private Navy, 50; Dudley, Wooden Wall, 147; Hickey, War of 1812, 117.

17. Hickey, “Trade Restrictions,” 524.

18. AC, 12th Cong., 2nd sess. (February 24, 1813), 1116–17.

19. Crawford, “Licensed Trade,” 166–67.

20. Long, Ready to Hazard, 143; Cases Decided, 63–68.

21. Crawford, “Licensed Trade,” 168; Leiner, “Ruse de Guerre,” 162–72, 175, 183.

22. Scott, Prize Cases, I: 505–6, 507, 509.

23. AC, 13th Cong., 1st sess. (July 29, 1813), 484–85; Dudley, Wooden Wall, 100.

24. Letters from Philip Broke to Sarah Louisa Broke, LBK 58/2, NMM.

25. Leiner, “Squadron Commander’s Share,” 74–77; Lawrence quoted in Robert Dudley Oliver to John B. Warren, June 23, 1813, NW1812, II: 192–93.

26. Lawrence quoted in Purcell, “Don’t Give Up the Ship,” 86; “Naval Battle,” 375–78.

27. Tucker, Arming the Fleet, 48; Gilkerson, Boarders Away, 7, 8.

28. Roche, “Dockyard Reminiscences,” 62–63.

29. An Account of the Chesapeake–Shannon Action, June 6, 1813, NW1812, II: 129–33. This was Broke’s official report, but probably was not actually written by him owing to his injuries. Other sources for the account of the battle that follows are George Budd to William Jones, June 15, 1813, NW1812, II: 133–34; Mahan, Sea Power in 1812, II: 135–47; Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 100–108; Post, “Case of Captain Lawrence.”

30. Gilkerson, Boarders Away, 11–14.

31. “Arrival of Chesapeake,” 161.

32. Philip Broke to John B. Warren, June 6, 1813, ff. 14–15, WAR/70, NMM; Broke to Sarah Louisa Broke, August 31, September 28, 1813, LBK 58/2, NMM; Prize lists for captures by HM Ships SHANNON and STATIRA, ADM 238/13, TNA.

33. “House of Commons, Thursday, July 8,” Times (London), July 9, 1813; Montagu, England Victorious, 34; “Nautical Anecdotes,” Naval Chronicle 30 (1813): 41; “Naval History of the Present Year, 1813,” ibid., 69, 161; “Impromptu,” ibid., 158; Forester, Age of Fighting Sail, 166.

34. John W. Croker to Station Commanders in Chief, July 10, 1813, NW1812, II: 183–84.

35. Valle, “Navy’s Battle Doctrine,” 172–73.

36. William Jones to George Parker, December 8, 1813, NW1812, II: 294–96; Jones to John O. Creighton, December 22, 1813, NW1812, II: 296–97.

37. Stephen Decatur to William Jones, May 22, 1813, quoted in Dunne, “Inglorious First,” 207; Jones to Decatur, May 10, 1813, quoted in Dye, Fatal Cruise, 118.

38. Dunne, “Inglorious First,” 208–9.

39. Hardy quoted in ibid., 212.

40. Robert Dudley Oliver to John B. Warren, June 13, 1813, NW1812, II: 137–38; Stephen Decatur to William Jones, June 1813, NW1812, II: 135–36; Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 279.

41. Decatur quoted in Jordan, “Decatur at New London,” 63; Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 279–80.

42. Mahan, Sea Power in 1812, II: 153–54; John B. Croker to Edward Griffith, July 9, 1813, pp. 140–42, ADM 2/1377, TNA.

43. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 94–95; Dye, Fatal Cruise, 139.

44. John W. Croker to John B. Warren, April 28, 1813, pp. 320–22, ADM 2/1376, TNA.

45. George Cockburn to John B. Warren, May 3, 1813, NW1812, II: 341–44.

46. Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship, 236–38; “Events of the War,” Weekly Register 4 (1813): 164.

47. George Cockburn to John B. Warren, May 3, 1813, NW1812, II: 341–44; Lossing, Pictorial Field-Book, 671–72; Deposition of William T. Killpatrick, ASP, Military Affairs, I: 365.

48. Milne quoted in Hume, “Letters Written,” 290.

49. George Cockburn to John B. Warren, May 6, 1813, NW1812, II: 344–46.

50. “Events of the War,” Weekly Register 4 (1813): 402.

51. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 96.

52. Rouse, “Low Tide at Hampton,” 81–82; Mahan, Sea Power in 1812, II: 164–66; John Cassin to William Jones, June 23, 1813, NW1812, II: 359–60.

53. Napier, Life and Opinions, I: 217, 222, 228.

54. Report by Thomas Griffin and Robert Lively, July 4, 1813, ASP, Military Affairs, I: 379–81; Napier, Life and Opinions, I: 221.

55. Sidney Beckwith to Robert Taylor, June 29, 1813, ASP, Military Affairs, I: 376; John Myers to Robert Taylor, July 2, 1813, ibid., 377; Beckwith to John B. Warren, July 5, 1813, NW1812, II: 364–65; Hickey, War of 1812, 154.

56. Napier, Life and Opinions, I: 222; Robert Taylor to John B. Warren, June 29, 1813, ASP, Military Affairs, I: 375–76.

57. George Cockburn to John B. Warren, June 16, 1813, NW1812, II: 355–56.

58. Calderhead, “Naval Innovation,” 217–18.

59. Jacob Lewis to William Jones, June 28, 1813, NW1812, II: 161; John B. Warren to John W. Croker, July 22, 1813, NW1812, II: 162–63; General orders, John B. Warren, July 19, 1813, NW1812, II: 164; Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 131.

60. James Madison to William Jones, September 6, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP; Madison to John Mason, September 23, 1813, NW1812, II: 248–49.

61. ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 633–44; John Mason to James Prince, September 28, 1813, ibid., 655; Prevost quoted in Hickey, War of 1812, 178.

62. Thomas Barclay to the Commissary General of Prisoners, September 17, 1813, ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 652; George Cockburn to John B. Warren, March 13, 1813, NW1812, II: 320–24; Dye, “Maritime Prisoners,” 301–2; James Monroe to Commissary General of Prisoners, April 13, 1814, ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 632–33; Hickey, War of 1812, 177–78.

63. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 98–99; Napier, Life and Opinions, 218, 221–22.

64. Chandler Price to William Jones, February 12, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP; Hickey, War of 1812, 135–36, 139–41; Ingersoll quoted in ibid., 141.

65. Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship, 149–50; Hickey, War of 1812, 144–45.

66. William Jones to Isaac Chauncey, January 27, 1813, NW1812, II: 419–20; Chauncey to Noah Brown, February 18, 1813, NW1812, II: 426–27; William Bainbridge to Jones, April 27, 1813, NW1812, II: 429–30.

67. William Jones to James Madison, October 26, 1814, NW1812, III: 631–36.

68. Parsons, Battle of Lake Erie, 12; Cox, “Eyewitness Account.”

69. Hickey, War of 1812, 137–38.

70. Monroe quoted in Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 467; William Jones to James Madison, October 26, 1814, NW1812, III: 631–36.

71. Parsons, Surgeon of the Lakes, x; Evans, “Journal,” 152; Estes and Dye, “Death on the Argus,” 184.

72. Parsons, “Surgical Account,” 314.

73. Ibid., 315–16; NW1812, II: 561; Parsons, Surgeon of the Lakes, xiii.

74. Estes and Dye, “Death on the Argus,” 186–89; Dye, Fatal Cruise, 137; Goddard, “Navy Surgeon’s Chest”; Smith, Frigate Essex, 282–87; Brodine, Crawford, and Hughes, Interpreting Old Ironsides, 61–62; NW1812, II: 616; Isaac Chauncey to William Jones, December 19, 1813, NW1812, II: 621.

8. The Far Side of the World

1. “Events of the War,” Weekly Register 4 (1813): 374; “Events of the War,” Weekly Register 5 (1813): 29.

2. NW1812, II: 683.

3. Long, Nothing Too Daring, 33–34.

4. Paul Hamilton to David Porter, June 30, 1812, NW1812, I: 175–76; Long, Nothing Too Daring, 64.

5. Porter, Journal, I: 222; Long, Nothing Too Daring, 38–39.

6. Porter, Journal, I: 24–27. Porter omitted the “black hole of Calcutta” remark in the second, and much more widely available, edition of his book. Long, Nothing Too Daring, 74, quotes the original passage, and is elsewhere a useful source for other passages that appeared only in the now hard-to-find first edition.

7. Porter, Journal, I: 21, 2–3, 18; David Porter to secretary of the navy, July 2, 1813, NW1812, II: 697–99.

8. Journal of Midshipman William W. Feltus kept on board the U.S. frigate Essex, NW1812, I: 625–27; Jones, Journals of Yankee, 83–86; Browne, Yankee Privateer, 61–64; Porter, Journal, I: 15.

9. Porter, Journal, I: 48–49.

10. Ibid., I: 56–57.

11. Ibid., I: 61–63.

12. Long, Nothing Too Daring, 81.

13. Porter, Journal, I: 64–67.

14. Ibid., I: 74, 75–77; Farragut, Life, 20.

15. Porter, Journal, I: 92–93; Salas, “First Contacts,” 220–22.

16. Porter, Journal, I: 139–40, 95, 103.

17. David Porter to the Viceroy of Peru, March 26, 1813, NW1812, II: 692.

18. Porter, Journal, I: 115; Journal of Midshipman William W. Feltus, NW1812, II: 694.

19. Porter, Journal, I: 128.

20. Ibid., I: 142, 146–49

21. Farragut, Life, 31.

22. Porter, Journal, I: 148–49; David Porter to secretary of the navy, July 2, 1813, NW1812, II: 696; Farragut, Life, 23.

23. Porter, Journal, I: 150.

24. Ibid., I: 151–52, 160–61, 214.

25. Farragut, Life, 26.

26. Porter, Journal, I: 174, 188, 205, 213–14.

27. Ibid., I: 195–96, 207–8, 240; Long, Nothing Too Daring, 100–103.

28. Farragut, Life, 28; Porter, Journal, I: 237, II: 65.

29. Porter, Journal, II: 3–4; Long, Nothing Too Daring, 110.

30. Hickey, War of 1812, 118–23.

31. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, July 14, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP; Eckert, “William Jones,” 176.

32. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, September 17, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

33. Rebecca Strong to Eleanor Jones, May 12, 1813; William Jones to Eleanor Jones, September 17, 1813, ibid.

34. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, August 22, September 7, 1813, ibid.

35. National Intelligencer, September 6, September 7, 1813; “To the Public,” Federal Republican, September 6, 1813; William Jones to Eleanor Jones, September 17, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

36. James Barron to William Jones, July 22, 1813, NW1812, II: 190–91.

37. William Jones to William Henry Allen, June 5, 1813, NW1812, II: 139–41; Dye, Fatal Cruise, 139–45, 264.

38. Dye, Fatal Cruise, 276–78; NW1812, II: 217–24.

39. Journal of the Frigate President, May 28, May 9, 1813, Rodgers Family Papers, LC; George Hutchinson to John B. Warren, September 24, 1813, WAR/70, NMM; John Rodgers to William Jones, September 27, 1813, NW1812, II: 250–54.

40. William Jones to John Rodgers, October 4, 1813, NW1812, II: 254–55.

41. John B. Warren to John W. Croker, October 16, 1813, ibid., II: 260–61; A Proclamation, John B. Warren, November 16, 1813, ibid., II: 262–63; Warren to Croker, November 13, 1813, ibid., II: 284; Dudley, Wooden Wall, 102.

42. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 100–101, 139, 143–44; List of Vessels Brought into Bermuda, HUL/18, NMM; Vessels Captured and Detained, WAR/37, NMM.

43. John B. Warren to John W. Croker, December 30, 1813, NW1812, II: 307–8; Hotham quoted in Dudley, Wooden Wall, 104.

44. Dye, Fatal Cruise, 287–89.

45. “Funeral Honors,” Portland Gazette, September 13, 1813; Forester, Age of Fighting Sail, 192–93.

46. Forester, Age of Fighting Sail, 201–2; John W. Croker to Alexander Cochrane, January 25, 1814, pp. 95–97, ADM 2/1379, TNA.

47. James Madison to William Jones, October 15, 1813, Jones Papers, HSP.

48. William Jones to George Parker, December 8, 1813; Jones to John O. Creighton, December 22, 1813, NW1812, II: 293–97.

9. “My Country I Fear Has Forgot Me

1. Hickey, War of 1812, 8, 96; Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 337; Coggeshall, American Privateers, 460; Garitee, Republic’s Private Navy, 89–98, 133–36.

2. Coggeshall, American Privateers, 110–13; Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 316–23.

3. Munro, “Most Successful Privateer,” 19; Coggeshall, American Privateers, 168–69.

4. Dudley, Wooden Wall, 138–39; Mahan, Sea Power in 1812, II: 242; Hickey, War of 1812, 124, 165; Chapple, “Salem and War of 1812,” 55; Leavitt, “Private Armed Vessels,” 57–58.

5. Garitee, Republic’s Private Navy, 191–92, 193–94; Little, Life on the Ocean, 196; Maclay, American Privateers, 273.

6. Garitee, Republic’s Private Navy, 128–30, 193.

7. Ibid., 152–53, 184, 186, 274.

8. Little, Life on the Ocean, 197–99.

9. Browne, Yankee Privateer, 20–21; Cobb, Green Hand’s Cruise, 42–44.

10. Browne, Yankee Privateer, 21; Little, Life on the Ocean, 219–20.

11. Jones, Journals of Yankee, 113; Munro, “Most Successful Privateer,” 47; Nelson, “Privateer Harpy.”

12. Mouzon, “Unlucky General Armstrong”; William Jones to John Sinclair, June 7, 1813, NW1812, II: 68. This General Armstrong was a different ship from the much more famous and very successful New York privateer of the same name.

13. Little, Life on the Ocean, 225; Cobb, Green Hand’s Cruise, 110–14, 122.

14. Leech, Thirty Years, 135–36.

15. Herbert Sawyer to John W. Croker, September 20, 1812, pp. 597–99, ADM 1/502, TNA; Sawyer to Croker, September 17, 1812, NW1812, I: 497–99; Giljie, ed., “Sailor Prisoner,” 60, 64, 67.

16. Waterhouse, Journal, 17–19.

17. Ibid., 19–21.

18. Browne, Yankee Privateer, 82; Palmer, Diary, 13.

19. Waterhouse, Journal, 34–35.

20. “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 23: 358.

21. Waterhouse, Journal, 50, 66–68, 104.

22. Ibid., 121–22, 127–28.

23. Ibid., 124–25, 130.

24. Hickey, War of 1812, 165; George Cockburn to Alexander F. I. Cochrane, May 10, 1814, NW1812, III: 63–66; Dye, “Maritime Prisoners,” 305–6; Andrews, Prisoners’ Memoirs, 76.

25. Waterhouse, Journal, 151–52.

26. Garitee, Republic’s Private Navy, 116–17, 132–33; Coggeshall, “Journal.”

27. Coggeshall, American Privateers, 178–80, 182, 183, 186–87.

28. Ibid., 186, 188–90, 192.

29. Ibid., 215, 253, 261–62.

30. Ibid., 263, 266.

31. Ibid., 268.

32. Ibid., 269–70.

33. Ibid., 271–72, 276, 291.

34. “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 23: 360.

35. Waterhouse, Journal, 168–69.

36. Browne, Yankee Privateer, 154–57, 168–71; Valpey, Journal, 12; Waterhouse, Journal, 170–74; “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 23: 360, 24: 520; Pierce, “Journal,” 25–26.

37. “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 23: 517.

38. Valpey, Journal, 12–13; Waterhouse, Journal, 175–76; Horsman, “Paradox of Dartmoor.”

39. Andrews, Prisoners’ Memoirs, 33; Browne, Yankee Privateer, 258–59.

40. Waterhouse, Journal, 190–91; Horsman, “Paradox of Dartmoor”; “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 23: 519; Little, Life on the Ocean, 235; Browne, Yankee Privateer, 208–9.

41. Dye, “Maritime Prisoners,” 305; Browne, Yankee Privateer, 210–11.

42. Horsman, “Paradox of Dartmoor”; “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 23: 518; Waterhouse, Journal, 144.

43. Little, Life on the Ocean, 236–38.

44. Waterhouse, Journal, 191; Browne, Yankee Privateer, 197–98, 223–24, 227–28; “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 23: 519.

45. Andrews, Prisoners’ Memoirs, 38.

46. Browne, Yankee Privateer, 181–83, 193–96, 240–41; Bolster, Black Jacks, 102; Pierce, “Journal,” 33–34.

47. Pierce, “Journal”; Valpey, Journal; Palmer, Diary, 154.

48. Valpey, Journal, 34, 37.

49. Waterhouse, Journal, 215; Andrews, Prisoners’ Memoirs, 33.

50. Dye, “Maritime Prisoners,” 300; Andrews, Prisoners’ Memoirs, 36–37.

10. Fortunes of War

1. William Jones to William Young, n.d. 1814, Jones Papers, HSP; Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 370; Jones to James Madison, May 18, 1814, Madison Papers, LC.

2. Jones quoted in Hickey, War of 1812, 160.

3. Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 375–79.

4. William Jones to James Madison, April 25, 1814, Madison Papers, LC; Eckert, “William Jones,” 179; McKee, Honorable Profession, 334.

5. James Madison to Cabinet, June 3, 1814, NW1812, III: 497; Hickey, War of 1812, 174; Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 370–71.

6. William Jones to James Madison, May 25, 1814, NW1812, III: 495–97.

7. William Jones to Isaac Chauncey, April 18, 1814, NW1812, III: 402; Jones to James Madison, October 26, 1814, NW1812, III: 631–36; Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship, 104; Jones to Madison, May 6, 1814, NW1812, III: 460–62.

8. William Jones to James Madison, May 25, 1814, NW1812, III: 495–97.

9. State and Stations of Vessels of War of the United States, William Jones to James Madison, June 6, 1814, NW1812, III: 785–87; Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 216, 228.

10. Long, Ready to Hazard, 174–76; Boston Daily Advertiser, June 29, 1814.

11. Roosevelt, Naval War of 1812, 172–75, 178; William Jones to James Madison, May 10, 1814, Madison Papers, LC.

12. James Monroe to Commissioners of the United States, June 27, 1814, ASP, Foreign Relations, III: 704–5.

13. Farragut, Life, 48.

14. “The Essex,” New York Columbian, July 8, 1814; “Capt. Porter,” New York Columbian, July 9, 1814.

15. David Porter to William Jones, July 3, 1814, NW1812, III: 730–39; Carpenter’s Report of Damage to the Essex, NW1812, III: 742.

16. Porter, Journal, II: 16–19.

17. This passage appears in volume II, page 22, of the 1815 edition of Porter’s Journal but was omitted in the second edition.

18. Porter, Journal, II: 24–25 (1815 edition); Porter, Journal, II: 61.

19. Porter, Journal, II: 30 (1815 edition); Porter, Journal, II: 59.

20. Porter, Journal, II: 23 (1815 edition).

21. Farragut, Life, 27; Porter, Journal, II: 27, 62–63.

22. Porter, Journal, II: 19, 34–36.

23. Ibid., II: 87–93, 105–6.

24. Ibid., II: 137–39; Farragut, Life, 29–30.

25. David Porter to William Jones, July 3, 1814, NW1812, III: 730–39.

26. Farragut, Life, 32–34; Porter, Journal, II: 145.

27. James Hillyar to John W. Croker, February 28, 1814, NW1812, III: 714–15; Porter, Journal, II: 148; Crew of the Essex to Crew of the Phoebe, March 9, 1814, NW1812, III: 721.

28. David Farragut, “Some Reminiscences of Early Life,” NW1812, III: 752.

29. Ibid., III: 754–55; Farragut, Life, 41, 44.

30. Porter, Journal, II: 175.

31. David Farragut, “Some Reminiscences of Early Life,” NW1812, III: 757; David Porter to William Jones, July 9, 1814, NW1812, III: 764–65; John Mason to William Jones, August 10, 1814, NW1812, III: 767–77.

32. John M. Gamble to Benjamin W. Crowninshield, August 28, 1815, NW1812, III: 774–80; Gamble, Memorial, 11–16.

33. John B. Warren to Alexander F. I. Cochrane, March 23, 1814, WAR/53, NMM.

34. Proclamation of Vice Admiral Sir Alexander F. I. Cochrane, April 2, 1814, NW1812, III: 60.

35. Alexander F. I. Cochrane to George Cockburn, April 28, 1814, NW1812, III: 51–53.

36. Alexander F. I. Cochrane to George Cockburn, July 1, 1814, NW1812, III: 129–30.

37. George Cockburn to Alexander F. I. Cochrane, May 10, 1814, NW1812, III: 63–66; Cockburn to Cochrane, June 25, 1814, NW1812, III: 115–17; Cassell, “Slaves of Chesapeake,” 149–51.

38. Alexander F. I. Cochrane to Lord Melville, July 17, 1814, NW1812, III: 132–35; Cochrane to Commanding Officers of the North American Station, July 18, 1814, NW1812, III: 140–41; John W. Croker to Cochrane, April 4, 1814, NW1812, III: 70–71.

39. William Jones to Richard M. Johnson, October 3, 1814, NW1812, III: 311–18; Nourse quoted in Mahon, War of 1812, 291; Hickey, War of 1812, 196.

40. William Jones to Joshua Barney, August 20, 1814, NW1812, III: 188; Codrington, Memoir, 315.

41. William Jones to Richard M. Johnson, October 3, 1814, NW1812, III: 311–18; Joshua Barney to Jones, August 29, 1814, NW1812, III: 207–8; Mahon, War of 1812, 299; Hickey, War of 1812, 197–98.

42. Mordecai Booth to Thomas Tingey, September 10, 1814, NW1812, III: 208–13; Tingey to William Jones, November 9, 1814, NW1812, III: 320–21.

43. Cockburn quoted in Mahon, War of 1812, 301; “Naval Recollections,” 456.

44. William Jones to John Rodgers, August 29, 1814, NW1812, III: 243–44; David Porter to Jones, September 7, 1814, NW1812, III: 251–55.

45. Eleanor Jones to William Jones, September 1, 1814, Jones Papers, HSP.

46. Alexander F. I. Cochrane to Robert Saunders Dundas Melville, September 3, 1814, NW1812, III: 269–70.

47. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, September 30, 1814, Jones Papers, HSP.

48. William Jones to Eleanor Jones, November 6, 1814, ibid.

49. Alexander F. I. Cochrane to John W. Croker, September 17, 1814, NW1812, III: 286–88; Cochrane to Robert Saunders Dundas Melville, September 17, 1814, NW1812, III: 289–91.

50. Coggeshall, American Privateers, 361–62.

51. “II.—Further Papers Relating to the War with America,” ff. 103–6, CO 42/160, TNA.

52. Naval Chronicle 32 (1814): 218–19; “III.—Further Papers Relating to the War with America,” ff. 109–10, COC 42/160, TNA.

53. Collection of Sundry Publications, 3–13; U.S. Court of Claims, General Armstrong, 1–12.

54. “Successful Cruize—Gallant Affair,” Rhode-Island Republican, October 19, 1814.

55. Wellington quoted in Forester, Age of Fighting Sail, 195.

56. Brodine, Crawford, and Hughes, Against All Odds, 53–72; Macdonough quoted in Hickey, War of 1812, 193.

57. Alexander F. I. Cochrane to John W. Croker, March 8, 1814, pp. 635–44, ADM 1/505, TNA; Dudley, Wooden Wall, 156.

58. Napier, Journal, 22, 23; entry for July 5, 1814, William Begg Journal, HSP.

59. Hickey, War of 1812, 287–94.

60. AC, 12th Cong., 1st sess. (May 16, 1812), 2300; Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship, 164; Bainbridge quoted in McKee, Honorable Profession, 266, and Long, Ready to Hazard, 173.

61. Morris, Autobiography, 75–83; Bainbridge quoted in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 252.

62. Sketch on Financial Means, William Jones to James Madison, October 1814, Madison Papers, LC; Bainbridge quoted in Long, Ready to Hazard, 178; Jones to Treasury Secretary Alexander J. Dallas quoted in Hickey, War of 1812, 222–23, and Eckert, Navy Department, 67; Adams, Second Administration of Madison, II: 213–15, 245.

63. “Events of the Useless War,” Columbian Centinel, August 10, 1814; Long, Ready to Hazard, 181–84; Boston Daily Advertiser, September 17, 1814.

64. Murdoch, “Reports of British Agents,” 191–98; “Copy of intelligence obtained from a Gentleman lately of Boston,” pp. 185–83, 193, ADM 1/508, TNA.

65. Dunham, Oration, 10.

66. Mason, “Federalist Agitation,” 548–49; Wirt and Madison quoted in Stagg, Mr. Madison’s War, 472–73.

67. Adams, Second Administration of Madison, II: 309; Federal Republican, December 6, 1814; NW1812, III: 329–30.

68. Mahon, War of 1812, 362, 365–68; Andrew Jackson to secretary of war, January 13, 1815, Brannan, ed., Official Letters, 458–59.

69. “New Orleans,” Daily National Intelligencer, February 7, 1815; “Capture of the President,” Daily National Intelligencer, February 1, 1815.

70. Murdoch, “Reports of British Agents,” 195n43.

71. Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 140–49.

72. Latta, Sermon, 9, 15, 18.

73. “Glorious News,” Commercial Advertiser, February 12, 1815; “Peace,” Connecticut Courant, February 14, 1815; “Illumination,” Albany Argus, February 24, 1815; Hickey, War of 1812, 298; “The Illumination, &c.,” Daily National Intelligencer, February 20, 1815; Connecticut Journal, February 27, 1815.

11. “Praise to God for the Restoration of Peace

1. Pierce, “Journal,” 26, 30; Horsman, “Paradox of Dartmoor”; Palmer, Diary, 136, 141, 151–52.

2. Palmer, Diary, 159–60, 165, 171, 176; Andrews, Prisoners’ Memoirs, 85–86.

3. Palmer, Diary, 179; Browne, Yankee Privateer, 266.

4. Waterhouse, Journal, 226, 231, 234; Palmer, Diary, 182; Adams, Dartmoor Prison, 16–17. The British and American authorities conducted a joint investigation of the massacre that ended up being mostly a whitewash, the American commissioner admitting that “considering it of much importance that the report … should go out under our joint signatures,” he had “forborne to press some of the points.” The American prisoners wrote their own eloquent if impassioned reply setting forth their version of events. All are reprinted in Waterhouse, Journal, 239–56.

5. “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 24: 520.

6. Palmer, Diary, 219–20; Browne, Yankee Privateer, 302; Andrews, Prisoners’ Memoirs, 120.

7. “Reminiscences of Dartmoor,” 24: 522, 524.

8. King quoted in Hickey, War of 1812, 308.

9. Gore quoted in Adams, Second Administration of Madison, III: 59.

10. Hickey, War of 1812, 307.

11. James, Naval History, VI: 106.

12. Naval Chronicle 33 (1815): 295–96.

13. Papers Delivered from the Admiralty Relative to the War with America, p. 198, John W. Croker to R. Bickerton, May 31, 1813, CO 42/160, TNA.

14. Reid, Consequences of Treaty of Paris, 11–12; Petrie, Prize Game, 141–42.

15. Adams, Second Administration of Madison, I: 19–20.

16. Hickey, War of 1812, 303–4.

17. Humphreys, Journal, 19, 23–25.

18. Charles Stewart to secretary of the navy, May 15, 1815, in Brodine, Crawford, and Hughes, Interpreting Old Ironsides, 106–8; Whipple, Letters, 21; Humphreys, Journal, 31.

19. “The Frigate Constitution,” Salem Gazette, May 30, 1815.

20. AC, 13th Cong., 3rd sess. (February 18, 1815), 255–56.

21. “A Good One!” Yankee, August 4, 1815.

22. AC, 13th Cong., 3rd sess. (November 15, 1814), 1834; (November 8, 1814), 542–48.

23. Carter, “Mathew Carey,” 184–87; Bauer, “Naval Shipbuilding,” 34.

24. Long, “Board of Commissioners,” 66, 76.

25. Isaac Chauncey to Oliver H. Perry, July 30, 1813, NW1812, II: 530–31; Hickey, Don’t Give Up the Ship, 189–90.

26. Long, Nothing Too Daring, 181–83.

27. Long, “Barron–Decatur Duel,” 43–44.

28. Hull quoted in Maloney, Captain from Connecticut, 274–75.

29. Bainbridge quoted in ibid., 277, 279.

30. Hull quoted in ibid., 280; Rodgers quoted in Long, Ready to Hazard, 210.

31. Long, “Barron–Decatur Duel,” 46–47.

32. James Barron to James Monroe, March 8, 1819, James Barron papers, WMSC; Morris, Autobiography, 102–3; Stephen Decatur to Barron, November 30, 1819, Barron Papers, WMSC.

33. Long, “Barron–Decatur Duel,” 49.

34. Adams quoted in Tucker, Stephen Decatur, 182–83.

35. Eckert, “William Jones,” 182.

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