Notes

CHAPTER ONE

1 The History Place, World War II in Europe, as reported at http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/posen.htm (date accessed 1/28/2011)

2 History of Keesler Air Force Base, as reported at http://keesler.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=4881 (date accessed 2/11/2011). “Generally unknown to most was the role that the Tuskegee Airmen and other black troops played on Keesler. In fact, more than 7,000 were stationed at Keesler Field by the autumn of 1943. These soldiers included pre-aviation cadets, radio operators, aviation technicians, bombardiers and aviation mechanics.”

3 Ambrose, Stephen E., The Wild Blue. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001, p. 65

4 Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington DC, Field Manual 23-65, Browning Machine Gun Caliber .50 HB M2, Chapter 1-7 Table 1-1 General Data, as reported at http://m2hb.net/manuals/fm23_65.pdf (date accessed 12/27/2013)

CHAPTER TWO

1 National Museum of the US Air Force, Norden M-9 Bombsight, as reported at http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=8056 (date accessed 12/27/2013). The bombing raid mentioned was an attack on ball-bearing factories at Schweinfurt.

2 Obituary of Owen Monkman, August 1946 (newspaper clipping—publisher unknown)

3 Nichol, John and Rennell, Tony, Tail-End Charlies—The Last Battles of the Bomber War, 1944-1945. New York: Thomas Dunn Books, an imprint of St. Martin’s Press, 2006, p. 243

4 Combat Chronology, op. cit., October 1944, as reported at http://paul.rutgers.edu/~mcgrew/wwii/usafhtml/Oct.44.html (date accessed August 4, 2013)

CHAPTER THREE

1 DiGeorge, Pat, Liberty Lady, a B-17 Bomber Crew, the OSS and a Wartime Love Story, as reported at http://libertyladybook.com/2009/04/14/schweinfurt/ (date accessed 12/29/2013)

2 Havelaar, Marion H. with Hess, William N., The Ragged Irregulars of Bassingbourn— The 91st Bombardment Group in World War II. Atglen, PA: A Schiffer Military History Book, 1995, introduction by Roger A. Freeman, p. 7

3 Havelaar, op. cit.,p. 59 (Chapter 6 pp. 55-62 relates the BG history of the Schweinfurt raid)

4 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 71

5 Havelaar, op. cit., p 71-75

6 BBC Home—WWII People’s War as reported at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/54/a4841354.shtml (date accessed 3/20/2012)

7 Addison’s mission list reflects 27 combat missions. The other four missions represent credited recalls and are not shown.

8 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 169

9 Havelaar, op.cit

10 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 161

11 Spartacus Educational, The Blitz, as reported at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWblitz.htm (date accessed 12/28/2013)

12 Frisbee, John L., Air Force Magazine, May 1986, Vol. 69, No. 5, as reported at http://www.afa.org/magazine/valor/0586valor.asp

13 Frisbee, op. cit., p. 1

14 Frisbee, op. cit.

15 Frisbee, op. cit., p. 2

16 Getz, Lowell L., as reported at http://www.91stbombgroup.com/chapter_1.htm p. 17 (date accessed 3/24/2008)

17 Frisbee, op. cit., p. 2

18 Frisbee, op. cit.

19 National Geographic, The Wings: How the Yanks of the Eighth Air Force Helped; March 1994; insert about Father Ragan at p. 100; also see History of Father Michael S. Ragan, as reported at http://frragan.com/albums/08FrRagan/frraganblesses91stbombgroupinbassingbourneengland.html (date accessed 08/10/2013)

CHAPTER FOUR

1 Bailey, Ronald H. and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Air War in Europe. Alexandria, VA: World War II Time-Life Books, 1981, p. 183

2 Combat Chronology of the US Army Air Forces November 1944, as reported at http://paul.rutgers.edu/~mcgrew/wwii/usaf/html/Nov.44.html (date accessed 3/18/ 2008)

3 World War 2 Headquarters, WWII German 88mm Anti-aircraft, Artillery Gun, as reported at http://worldwar2headquarters.com/HTML/weapons/german/88gun.html (date accessed 12/28/2013) “Over 18,000 (including all variants were built during the war.” Note: including other calibers and pre-war production figures, total AA guns equated to approximately 25,000.

4 Grant, Rebecca, “Twenty Missions in Hell” Air Force Magazine, April 2007, p. 75

5 U.S. Army Technical Manual TM E9-369A: German 88mm Antiaircraft Gun Material, June 29, 1943, as reported at http://www.lonesentry.com/manuals/88mmantiaircraft-gun/88mm-antiaircraft-gun-introduction.html (date accessed 12/28/ 2013) “Rate of fire: 20 rounds per minute (practical rate at an aerial target)”

6 Grant, op. cit., p. 74

7 Grant, op. cit., p. 76

8 Halpert, Sam, Mission List, 324th Bomb Squadron, 91st Bomb Group as reported at http://www.b17sam.com/misionlist.php (date accessed 2/27/2008). Also see Halpert, Sam, A Real Good War. St. Petersburg, FL: Southern Heritage Press 1997.

9 History, The 91st Bomb Group (H) Section One, prepared by the 91st Bomb Group Memorial Association (undated) p. 2 (note: no author shown; this reference booklet is a 91st BG reunion handout provided to the author by J. Addison Bartush)

10 Havelaar, op. cit., p 161 The author describes the planning for the disastrous November 2, 1944, raid on Merseburg as follows:

For some weeks Luftwaffe opposition had been almost nil and aircrews were beginning to believe that it had been defeated and would no longer be a large threat to them. However, the Germans had been carefully conserving their fuel until they could make a massive interception of the bombers and extract a crippling number from their formations. November 2nd was the day chosen for the Luftwaffe to put up over 500 single-engine fighters to oppose the bomber stream of the Eighth Air Force.

The 91st Bomb Group put thirty-seven B-17s in the air for the mission and thirty-six of them would drop their bombs. The course to the target was as if a ruler had been used and it went directly to the target. There was no zig-zag or any deviation that would tend to pull any aerial opposition away from the target area.

11 Frisbee, op. cit., p. 2

12 Bailey, Time-Life Books, op. cit., p. 184

13 Bailey, Time-Life Books, op. cit., p. 183

14 Bailey, Time-Life Book, op. cit., p. 182

15 Bailey, Time-Life Books, op. cit., p. 184

CHAPTER FIVE

1 Havelaar, op. cit ., p. 173.

2 Stout, Jay A., Unsung Eagles. Philadelphia & Oxford: Casemate, 2013, p. 234

3 Ask: How Fast Does a Skydiver Fall? as reported at http://www.ask.com/question/how-fast-does-a-skydiver-fall (date accessed 12/28/2013)

4 Letter from Pearl Bishop dated January 17, 1945

5 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 189

6 Army Air Forces Statistical Digest, World War II, Battle Casualties in all Overseas Theaters as reported at http://www.usaaf.net/digest/t34.htm (date accessed 12/28/ 2013)

7 Accident-Report.com Military Aviation Incident Reports, as reported at http://www.accident-report.com/crews/alpha/namep_phif.html (date accessed 10/26/2013); also Eighth Air Force Historical Society, Aircraft Groups, as reported at http://www.8thafhs.com/db/get_one_acgroup.php?acgroup_id=47 (date accessed 10/26/2013)

8 Combat Chronology, op. cit., November 30, 1944

9 Havelaar, op. cit. p. 174

10 Royal Air Force RAF Wyton Heritage Center Pathfinder Collection (see tactics section), as reported at http://wwwrafmod.uk/rafbramptonwyton/history/thepathfinderforce.cfm (date accessed 12/30/2013)

11 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 175

12 Letter from Miss Mary B. dated December 10, 1944.

13 V-Mail letter by Lt. John M. Antes dated February 13, 1945

14 US Air Force National Center for PTSD as reported at http://www.ptsd.va.gov/apps/aboutface/service-branches/usaf.html (date accessed 12/30/2013)

15 World War II Database, Battle of the Bulge 16 Dec 1944-28Jan 1944, as reported at http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=42 (date accessed 12/30/2013) “The Allies suffered 76,890 casualties (with 8,607 Americans killed)”

16 Dailies of the 324th Squadron, as reported at http://www.91stbombgroup.com/Dailies/324th1944.html (date accessed 8/11/2012)

17 Nichol, op. cit., p. 245

18 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 176

CHAPTER SIX

1 Yale Law School, The Avalon Project—Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy; War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity—Murder and Ill-treatment of Prisoners of War; Opinion of Parker, John J., Alternate Judge, Nuremberg Trial of Major War Criminals, as reported at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/judwarcr.asp (date accessed 7/31/2012)

2 American Prisoners of War in Germany—Dulag Luft—Prepared by Military Intelligence Service War Department, 1 November 1945—Compiled and presented by Greg Hatton, as reported at http://www.b24.net/pow/dulag.htm (date accessed 12/30/2013)

3 Simmonds, Kenneth W., Kriegie (published 1960), as reported at http://www.merkki.com/new_page_2.htm (date accessed 05/16/2012)

4 Gabreski, Francis, Gabby—A Fighter Pilot’s Life (Orion Books, a division of Crown Publishers 1991) p. 188, commenting on his stay at Oberursel: “The following day I was taken from my hot box, allowed to shower, and then introduced to my interrogator . . . I decided to come on strong, so I started right in to complain about the heat in my cell . . . Smooth as silk . . . [he] apologized for the thoughtless treatment. It must have been an accident, he said. He would take care of it immediately. So now he took on the role of the good guy.”

5 Gabreski, op. cit., p. 193

6 International Red Cross Inspection Report, Stalag Luft IV, January 1945, as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalag_Luft_IV (date accessed 05/18/ 2012)

7 For information on the French POW experience in World War II see Helion, Jean, They Shall Not Have Me: The Capture, Forced Labor, and Escape of a French Prisoner in World War II. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2012.

8 Schumacher, John C., Story of WWII Shoot Down and POW Experiences, as reported at http://www.rb-29.net/html/79SchumacherSty/07.01shcum.html (date accessed 05/30/2011). Chapter 7 “Camp Life—The Good, The Bad, The Ugly.”

9 Gabreski, op. cit., p. 194

10 O’Donnell, Joseph P, POW 1414, as reported at http://www.remember-history.com/my-heroes/sgt-joseph-p-odonnell-pow-1414/ (date accessed 07/12/2012)

11 Gabreski, op. cit.

12 Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross Visit of October 5 & 6, 1944 by Mr. Biner, Stalag Luft IV as reported at http://www.b24.net/pow/stalag4.htm (date accessed 6/12/2012) p. 3 of 6

13 Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross Visit of October 5 & 6, 1944 by Mr. Biner, Stalag Luft IV op. cit., pp. 1 and 2 of 6

14 Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross Visit of October 5 & 6, 1944 by Mr. Biner Stalag Luft IV as reported at http://www.b24.net/pow/stalag4.htm (date accessed 08/28/2013)

15 Bunyak, Dawn Trimble, Our Last Mission—A World War II Prisoner in Germany. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003. P105 “A German at the camp took this photograph and the rest of the photographs at Stalag Luft 4. The guard traded the photographs for contraband. Sgt. Frank Paules, camp spokesman, carried the photographs back to the United States after liberation”

16 Hillenbrand, Laura, Unbroken. New Yfork: Random House, 2010,.p. 263

17 Frisbee, John L., Valor: Lest We Forget, airforce-magazine.com, Vol. 80, No. 9, September 1997 as reported at http://www.airforce-magazine.com?MagazineArchive/Pages/1997/Sep (date accessed 5/22/2011)

18 Congressional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 104th Congress, First Session, Vol. 141, Washington, Monday May 8, 1995, No. 75 Senate Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Forced March of American Prisoners ofWar from Stalag Luft IV

19 Bunyak, op. cit., see Chapter 13 “The Gauntlet” pp 127-132

20 Caplan, Leslie, M.D., Testimony Regarding Mistreatment of American POWs at Stalag Luft IV (given 31 December 1947) as reported at http://www.rb-29.net/html/79SchumacherSty/07.01shcum.html (date accessed 05/30/2011).

21 The sadistic Luftwaffe guard was nicknamed “Big Stoop” by the POWs after a bad character in the comic strip Terry and the Pirates. See Schumacher, op. cit., Chapter 7: Schumacher states that he lost his hearing in his left ear as a consequence of being attacked during an inspection by Big Stoop who was “about 50 years old.” Also Krebs, William A., Testimony for the Judge Advocate War Crimes Investigation, as reported at http://www.stalagluft4.org/krebs.htm (date accessed 05/30/2011) Krebs testified on 10 June 1945 that Big Stoop, “. . . a man by the name of Schmidt . . .” along with other Germans went through his barracks and stole “ . . . watches, rings and other objects . . . “ Additionally see, Caplan, op. cit. “Big Stoop was the most hated of the guards.” In regard to ear cuffing POWs, Dr. Caplan testified, “This would cause pressure on the eardrums which sometimes punctured them.” Also see: “Big Stoop” at http://wwwfeldgrau.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=26&t=14175 (date accessed 6/6/2012). “Big Stoop the giant from Stalag Luft IV . . . had come with the prisoners all the way to Moosburg. He could not have realized how hated he was . . . There are various accounts of his death . . . head in a bushel basket . . . a pickaxe in his head . . .”

22 Bunyak, op. cit., p. 137

23 Deposition of Capt. Henry J. Wynsen for Judge Advocate General’s Investigation, 20 July 1945, as reported at http://www.b24.net/pow/stalag4.htm (date accessed 6/6/2012).

24 Gabreski, op. cit., pp. 196-197

25 Mrazek, Robert J., To Kingdom Come: An Epic Saga of Survival in the Air War Over Germany. New York: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group, 2011, p. 288

CHAPTER SEVEN

1 324th Squadron Dailies from 1945, as reported at http://www.91stbombgroup.com/Dailies/324th1945.html (date accessed 8/11/2012)

2 USAAF Chronicles, op. cit., January 1945

3 Getz, op. cit., p. 25

4 Wikipedia, V-1 and V-2 Rockets, as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-1_flying_bomb and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-2 (date originally accessed 7/20/ 2009)

5 V-2 as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-2 (date accessed 10/2/2012)

6 V-2, op. cit.

7 Door, Robert F., B-24 Units ofthe Eighth Air Force, Osprey Combat Aircraft #15. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1999, p. 74

8 Letter from Eileen Kircheson of Purley, Surrey to Addison dated March 20, 1945.

9 West End at War, as reported at http://www.westendatwar.org.uk/page_id_224_path_0p28p.aspx (date accessed 10/9/2012)

10 Havelaar, op. cit., Appendix 2, Aircraft Assigned

11 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 221

12 Schaffer, Ronald, Wings of Judgment—American Bombing in World War II. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985, p. 96

13 Salmaggi, Cesare and Pallavisini, Cesare, 2194 Days of War. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1977, p. 666

14 Stars and Stripes, London Edition, Wednesday January 3, 1945, p. 1

15 For details on British heavy bombing of German cities see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Arthur_Harris,_1st_Baronet (date accessed 6/25/2012)

16 Wikipedea, Operation Gomorrah, as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Hamburg_in_World_War_II (date accessed 6/28/2012)

17 Schaffer, op. cit., pp. 96-97

18 Ibid

19 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 179

20 Schaffer, op. cit., p.97

21 Bailey, Time Life Books, op. cit., p. 188

22 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 179

23 Allen, Thomas B., The Wings of War: How the Yanks of the Eighth Air Force helped turn the Tide in World War II, National Geographic, March 1994 p. 94

24 324th Squadron Dailies from 1945 op. cit

CHAPTER EIGHT

1 Paris, John “Pappy,” Pappy’s War, A B-17 Gunner’s World War II Memoir. Bennington, VT: Merriam Press, 2004,as also reported at http://www.398th.org/History/Veterans/History/Paris/Paris_March.html (date accessed 4/13/2011). This compelling personal account begins: “The Black March! I choose this title. Some went so far as to call it the Death March. Many were marked for life, while others died along the way. I prefer to reserve that infamous title for my comrades who suffered the obscenities of the Japanese bayonet on the infamous Bataan ‘Death March.’ The dirt roads were rutted, water filled, and with a crust of dirty ice on top.”

2 Air Force Magazine, Valor: Lest We Forget Vol. 80, No. 9, September 1997

3 Bailey, Ronald H., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, op. cit., Prisoners of War World War II. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1981, p. 170, reporting that on January 27, 1945 at 10:00 p.m., “The German guards gave them [the 10,300 airmen POWs at Stalag Luft III] an hour’s notice to pack and prepare to march west.” The forced march lasted approximately one week; crowded railroad cars were used for part of the travel.

4 Yale Law School, The Avalon Project—The Yalta Conference—Agreement regarding Japan as reported at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/yalta.asp (date accessed 3/31/2012)

5 Yale Law School, The Avalon Project: Agreement Relating to Prisoners of War and Civilians Liberated by Forces Operating Under Soviet Command and Forces Operating Under United States of America Command: February 11, 1945, as reported at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/sov007.asp (date accessed 10/17/2011)

6 The Herald Tribune, February 15, 1945

7 Wikipedia, Stalag Luft IV as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalag_Luft_IV “On February 6, 1945 some 8,000 of Luft 4 set out on what would be called The Black March” (date accessed 1/11/2011); also the American National Red Cross POW Bulletin Volume 2, No. 12, issued in December 1944 reported Luft IV as having “40 barracks, each housing 200 men” which supports the 8,000 figure.

8 Air Force Magazine, op. cit.

9 Air Force Magazine, op. cit.

10 Stupak, Steven, Veterans History Project, Central Connecticut State University; Center for Public Policy and Social Research, interview conducted December 18, 2003, as reported at http://contentlibrary.ccsu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/VHP&CISOPTR=2757 (date accessed 05/20/2011)

11 Air Force Magazine, op. cit., refers to “sub-zero weather” at the beginning of the forced march.

12 Paris, op. cit., p. 5-6

13 Paris, op cit. The material quoted is from the 398th Bomb Group Memorial Association website. The published book version is: Paris, John “Pappy,” Pappy’s War, A B-17 Gunner’s World War II Memoir (Merriam Press 2004)

CHAPTER NINE

1 PBS: The War: Dresden, Air Attack On (13-15 February 1945), as reported at http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5229.htm (date accessed 12/30/2013); History: February 13, 1945 Firebombing of Dresden as reported at http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/firebombing-of-dresden (date accessed 12/30/2013) “Eight square miles of the city was ruined.” Also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Dresden_in_World_War_II (date accessed 7/20/2009)

2 Nichol, op. cit., p. 264

3 Nichol, op. cit., p. 364

4 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 179

5 Nichol, op. cit., p. 274

6 Fowler, George, editor, Holocaust at Dresden Article from The Barnes Review, February 1995, pp. 3-13. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA; “U.S. Chief of Staff George C. Marshall announced publicly that Dresden had been attacked at Stalin’s specific request, although after the war the Soviets and East Germans repeatedly referred to the raid as a ‘diabolical plan’ of Churchill’s ’to kill as many people as possible’.”

7 Combat Chronology, op. cit.—February 14, 1945

8 Nichol, op. cit., p.274

9 Nichol, op. cit., p. 278

10 Bailey, Time Life Books op. cit., p. 188

11 Wikipedia, Thunderclap Plan, as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunder-clap_plan (date accessed 10/3/2012

12 Davis, Richard G., Operation ‘Thunderclap’: The U.S. Army Air Forces and the Bombing of Berlin (Journal of Strategic Studies, Volume 14, Issue 1, 1991)

CHAPTER TEN

1 Kohlrabi, cooked, boiled, drained without salt, as reported at http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2467/2 (date accessed 3/21/2012)

2 Shirer, William L., The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New Yfork: Simon & Schuster, 1960, p. 1428

3 Wikipedia, Hanover World War II, as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanover#World_War_II (date accessed 3/25/2012)

4 Bailey, Ronald H. and the Editors of Time Life Books, Prisoners of War. Alexandria, VA: World War II Time-Life Books,1981, p. 175

5 Yale Law School, The Avalon Project: Agreement Relating to Prisoners of War and Civilians Liberated by Forces Operating Under Soviet Command and Forces Operating Under United States of America Command: February 11, 1945, op. cit., Article 1

6 Yale Law School, The Avalon Project, op. cit., Article 2

CHAPTER ELEVEN

1 Salmaggi, op. cit., p. 689

2 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 189

3 Havelaar, op. cit., p. 189

4 324th Squadron Dailies from 1945 op. cit

5 Cooke, Alistair, The American Home Front 1941-42. London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Group, 2006. p. 56: Louisville Doctor distrusted Roosevelt “because he listens too much to the Jews” and a Jewish “syndicate” took over the businesses in town; p. 61: Q: “If you live in Atlanta what is the first thing you ask of anybody?” A: “Are you an air-raid warden or a Gentile?”; p. Chicago: “. . . the all too human itch to relieve the sense of guilt for this honeymoon by blaming it on the Jews.”

6 Heller, Joseph, Catch-22. New York: Borzoi Book published by Alfred A. Knopf, 1995, pp 100-101

7. Getz, Lowell L. “Mary Ruth Memories of Mobile, Chapter 8. Pandemonium Over Pilsen: The Forgotten Final Mission, p. 2

8. Getz, op. cit., p. 2

9. Ibid, p. 2

10. Headquarters, 1st Air Division, First Over Germany, Vol. 1, No. 4, May 5, 1945 p. 1 (document provided by J. Addison Bartush)

11. CombatChronology, op.cit—April 25,1945

12. Statement of Lt. Darling, 25 April 1945 as reported at http://www.91stbomb-group.com/Dailies/324th1945.html (date accessed 08/02/2014)

13. Nichol, op. cit., p.5

14. Statement of Flight Officer Schafts, 25 April 1945 as reported at http://www.91stbombgroup.com/Dailies/324th1945.html (date accessed 08/02/2014)

15. CombatChronology, op. cit—April 25, 1945

16. Havelaar, op. cit., p. 189

17. Getz, op. cit., p. 11

CHAPTER TWELVE

1 Bailey, Time-Life Books, op. cit., p. 171

2 Focke-Wulf Fw190, as reported at http://www.aviation-history.com/focke-wulf/fw190.html (date accessed 2/12/2012)

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

1 Pitt, Barrie, Consulting Editor, The Military History of World War II. London: Aerospace Publishing Limited, 1986, p. 294

2 Swanston, Alexander and Swanston, Malcolm, The Historical Atlas of World War II. Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, Inc., 2007, p. 334

3 Grant, Ulysses S., Memoirs. New York: Library Classics of the United States, Inc., 1990, p. 728

4 Ward, Geoffrey C. and Burns, Ken, The War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007, Ward, p. 392

5 Green, Philip, Sequel to: Liberated by Cossacks, as reported at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/stories/07/a3194507.shtml (date accessed 09/06/2014). “The town of Riesa was under Russian control and we were told to keep strictly within town limits, the war was still going on in sporadic outbursts, this was at the end of April 1945, the end came on May7th. Meanwhile it was made known to the ex ‘Kriegies’ (from Kriegsgefangener-Prisoners of War) that we would remain at Riesa until an EQUAL number of ex-Russian prisoners plus civilian slave workers had been assembled from the American and British sectors.”

6 Yale Law School, The Avalon Project: Agreement Relating to Prisoners of War and Civilians Liberated by Forces Operating Under Soviet Command and Forces Operating Under United States of America Command: February 11, 1945, op. cit., Article 2, Paragraph 1

7 Bailey, Time-Life Books, op. cit., p. 177

8 Nikolai, Forced Repatriation to the Soviet Union: The Secret Betrayal, reprinted by permission from Imprimus, the monthly journal of Hillsdale College, December 1988, Vol. 17, No. 12, as reported on http://www2.hillsdale.edu/news/imprimis/archive/issue.asp?year=1988&month=12, (date accessed 10/05/2013)

9 Ibid, p. 2

10 Ibid

11 Holden, Herbert T., The Continuing Relevance of Clausewitz: Illustrated Yesterday and Today, p. 17, as reported at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1991/HHT.htm

12 Tolstoy, op cit., p 2

13 Ibid, pp 2-3

14 Ibid, p 3

15 Ibid, pp 4-5

16 Ibid, pp 7-8

17 Vercoe, Tony, Survival at Stalag IVB: soldiers and airmen remember Germany’s largest POW camp of World War II. Jefferson, NC and London: MacFarland & Company, Inc., 2006, Vercoe, p. 181

18 Tolstoy, op. cit., p 5

19 Ibid p 6

20 Ibid

21 Ibid, p. 1

22 New York Times, May 12, 1945 “NEW CENSOR RULE PROVOKE DISPUTE”

23 New York Times, May 11, 1945, ‘ALLIES IN GERMANY BAR FOREIGN PRESS”

24 New York Times, May 14, 1945 “SHAEF SHOWDOWN ON PRESS IS LIKELY”

25 Vercoe, Tony, op, cit., Kurt Vonnegut quoted p. 174

EPILOGUE

1 Stephens, Bret, “Waterboarding and Hiroshima,” Wall StreetJournal, November 6, 2007, p. A18

2 Stephens, op. cit., quoting essayist Algis Valiunas

3 Stephens, op. cit.

4 Nichol, op. cit., pp 356-357

5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_aircraft_production (date accessed 9/4/2012)

6 Wikipedia, World War II casualties as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WWII_casualties (date accessed 7/20/2009)

7 Wikipedia, Stalag Luft III, as reported at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalag_Luft_III (date accessed 7/1/2012) Additional note: The Judgment at Nuremberg noted of the 50 executed British POW officers: “It was not contended by the defendants that this was other than plain murder, in complete violation of international law.” See Yale Law School,The Avalon Project, op. cit; http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/judwarcr.asp (date accessed 7/31/2012)

8 Bunyak, Dawn Trimble, Our Last Mission—A World War II Prisoner in Germany. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003. see Chapter 16 “The Black March” pp 165-181

9 Bunyak, op. cit.

10 Jones, Bill Treharne, The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler, a BBC centenary biography, broadcast April 1989. Henrietta Von Schirach, who had known Hitler since childhood, stated that she had confronted Hitler after witnessing Jews being rounded-up in Amsterdam. “Herr Hitler, you ought not be doing that,” she reported saying to the Führer. Hitler’s heated response, per her statement, was: “Every day 10,000 of my best soldiers die on the battlefield while others carry on living in the camps. That means the biological balance in Europe is not right anymore.”

11 Yale Law School, The Avalon Project, op. cit; http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/jud-warcr.asp (date accessed 7/31/2012)

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!