Notes

ABBREVIATIONS

ALAB

Papers of Lord Alanbrooke

ASTL

Papers of Joan Bright Astley

AVON

Papers of Sir Anthony Eden, later 1st Earl of Avon

BEAV

Papers of Lord Beaverbrook

BLAC

Archive of Lord Black of Crossharbour

BRGS

Papers of Lawrence Burgis

CAB

Cabinet Papers at the National Archives, Kew

CHAR

Chartwell Papers at Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge

CHUR

Churchill Papers at Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge

CUNN

Papers of Admiral Lord Cunningham

DILL

Papers of Sir John Dill

DUPO

Papers of Sir Dudley Pound

FDR

Papers of Franklin D. Roosevelt

FRUS

Foreign Relations of the United States

JACB

Papers of Sir Ian Jacob

KENN

Papers of Sir John Kennedy

LEAH

Papers of Admiral William Leahy

LH

Papers of Sir Basil Liddell Hart

MAR

Papers of George C. Marshall

MHI

USA Military History Institute, Carlisle, Pennsylvania

NA

British National Archives

PEAK

Papers of Sir Charles Peake

PORT

Papers of Lord Portal

PREFACE

1. Lees-Milne, Enigmatic Edwardian, p. 229

2. Ibid., p. 330

3. BRGS 1/1/46

4. Leasor, War at the Top, pp. 40–41

5. BRGS 1/1

6. BRGS 1/2

7. BRGS 1/1/44

8. BRGS 1/2

9. CAB 69/4/38

10. KENN 4/2/3–5

INTRODUCTION

1. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 268

2. JACB 1/14/B

3. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 268

4. ALAB 11/9

5. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, p. 344

CHAPTER 1: FIRST ENCOUNTERS: 1880–JUNE 1940

1. Churchill, The World Crisis: 1915, p. 166

2. The phrase is from William F. Buckley Jr

3. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, ii, p. 355; Beschloss, Kennedy and Roosevelt, p. 200; ed. Smith, Hostage to Fortune, p. 411; Black, Roosevelt, p. 91; Ward, First-Class Temperament, p. 393

4. Robbins, ‘The Atlantic Charter’, p. 18; Churchill, Gathering Storm, p. 345

5. Halifax Diary, 30/11/1941

6. Marshall, Together, p. 110

7. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 67

8. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 40

9. MAR Secretary of Defense Papers Box 207/12

10. Ibid.

11. ed. Stephen, Sir Victor Brooke, passim

12. Lord Carver in Times Literary Supplement, 7/5/1982, p. 504

13. Layton, Mr Churchill’s Secretary, p. 51

14. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vii, p. 863

15. Russell, Churchill, pp. 49–50

16. Churchill, My Early Life, p. 57

17. Major Buckley recollections in Astley Papers

18. ed. Wheeler-Bennett, Action This Day, p. 194

19. Halifax Diary, 27/11/1941

20. JACB 4/8

21. Jenkins, Roosevelt, p. 5

22. Black, Roosevelt, pp. 65–6

23. Ibid., pp. 646, 715

24. Ibid., p. 21

25. Fraser, Alanbrooke, p. 93

26. Ibid., pp. 64–5; ALAB 11/9; ALAB 11/55

27. Greenwood, Auchinleck, p. 51

28. Ronald Lewin reviewing Fraser, Alanbrooke, in The Times, 13/5/1982

29. KENN 4/2/5

30. Interview with General Sir David Fraser, 8/6/2006

31. MHI Pogue Notes for Supreme Command, 26/8/1958

32. MAR McCarthy Papers B-17/f-18, MAR GCM Library Xerox 2256

33. Russell, Churchill, pp. 288, 297; Churchill, My Early Life, p. 327

34. Cray, General of the Army, p. 110

35. Ibid., pp. 114–15

36. Pogue, Education, p. 353

37. Ibid., p. 340; ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 109

38. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 109

39. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 12

40. Ibid.; MAR William M. Spencer Interview with Marshall, 9/7/1949

41. Morgan, FDR, p. 589

42. MHI Hull Interview 1974 section 5, p. 29

43. MHI Hull Interview Session 6, pp. 24ff., interview with Larry Bland, 28/11/2006; MAR Richard DeMartino interview with Merill Pascoe, 11/11/1997, p. 7

44. MAR Pentagon Papers Boxes 80 and 81; ed. Bland, Papers, passim

45. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 71/20

46. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 22

47. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/28

48. Pogue, Education, pp. 341–2

49. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 329

50. LH 15/15/1

51. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 238

52. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 421

53. Churchill, Great Contemporaries, p. 302

54. LH 15/15/1

55. ed. Bond, Chief of Staff, i, p. 367

56. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vii, p. 865

57. 1959 BBC Interview of Lord Alanbrooke, videotape no. VC338475; Sunday Times, 27/1/1946

58. Gilbert, ‘Churchill and D-Day’, p. 24

59. ed. Macleod, Ironside Diaries, p. 351

60. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 79

61. Ibid., p. 80

62. Ibid., p. 81

63. Ibid.

64. ALAB 11/9

65. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 273

66. ALAB 11/9

CHAPTER 2: COLLECTING ALLIES: JUNE 1940–DECEMBER 1941

1. ALAB 11/59

2. Finest Hour, no. 130, Spring 2006, pp. 34–6

3. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 192

4. KENN 4/2/3, 21/11/1941

5. Best, Churchill and War, p. 176

6. David Freeman in Finest Hour, no. 115, Summer 2002, p. 34

7. Colville, Footprints, p. 189

8. Simpson, Stark, p. 144

9. Colville, Fringes, p. 283

10. ed. Parker, Churchill, p. 89

11. Reynolds, Creation, p. 167

12. Gilbert, Churchill War Papers, iii, p. 55

13. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 133

14. Gilbert, Churchill War Papers, iii, p. 397

15. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 154

16. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/29

17. ed. Danchev, Anglo-American Alliance, pp. 10–11

18. Morgan, FDR, p. 610

19. Papers of Jo, Countess of Onslow

20. BRGS 2/12, 30/3/1942

21. BLAC 4/8/1941

22. Robbins, ‘The Atlantic Charter’, p. 18

23. Morgan, FDR, pp. 596–7

24. BLAC

25. Morgan, FDR, pp. 596–7

26. BEAV D/491

27. Reynolds, In Command, p. 257; Danchev, ‘Dilly-Dally’, p. 21

28. ALAB 11/64

29. KENN 4/2/3

30. CHAR20/22/273

31. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 206

32. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 18

33. Jackson and Bramall, The Chiefs, p. 214

34. Danchev, ‘Waltzing’, p. 221; Fraser, Alanbrooke, p. 233

35. Jackson and Bramall, The Chiefs, p. 214

36. ALAB 11/74

37. CUNN Add MSS 52578/28

38. BRGS 2/22

39. CUNN Add MSS 52577/95

40. Ibid.

41. CAB 65/44/66

42. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 116

43. Marshall, Together, p. 145

44. KENN 4/2/3; Sunday Times, 27/1/1946

45. KENN 4/2/3

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. BRGS 2/10

49. KENN 4/2/3

50. Ibid.

51. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 209; KENN 4/2/4, p. 301

CHAPTER 3: EGOS IN ARCADIA: DECEMBER 1941–FEBRUARY 1942

1. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, p. 290

2. CHUR 4/225A/138; Ismay, Memoirs, p. 243

3. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, p. 30

4. BRGS 2/10

5. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 207

6. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, pp. 10–13

7. LH 15/15/1

8. Best, Churchill and War, p. 93

9. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 214

10. Morgan, FDR, p. 637

11. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/30

12. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 212

13. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 3, p. 42

14. JACB 1/13/16

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid.

17. MAR Robinett Papers Box 21, p. 357

18. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, pp. 10–11

19. MAR Robinett Papers Box 21, p. 363

20. Danchev, On Specialness, p. 19

21. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 293

22. MHI Pogue Interview, 20/12/46, p. 3

23. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 272; Ismay, Memoirs, p. 244

24. ed. Bland, Interviews, pp. 413–14

25. Ibid.

26. Danchev, ‘Very Special Relationship’, p. 5

27. MAR Robinett Papers Box 21, p. 365

28. Bercuson and Herwig, One Christmas, p. 178

29. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 601

30. Fenby, Alliance, p. 53

31. Gilbert, Churchill War Papers, iii, p. 1696; Reynolds, In Command, p. 40

32. JACB 1/13/20

33. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 20

34. ed. White, Stillwell Papers, p. 44

35. Ibid., pp. 44–5

36. Ibid., p. 47

37. ed. Bland, Interviews, pp. 592–3

38. Halifax Diary, 18/2/1942

39. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/31

40. Dupuy and Dupuy, Collins Encyclopedia, p. 1309

41. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 71/20

42. MAR Robinett Papers Box 21, p. 356

43. JACB 1/13/40

44. BRGS 2/11, 18/1/1942

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid.

47. CAB 69/4/23

48. BRGS 2/11, 2/2/1942

49. AVON 20/1/22

50. KENN 4/2/4

51. Danchev, On Specialness, p. 23

52. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 634

53. ed. Danchev, Anglo-American Alliance, p. 13

54. Danchev, ‘Very Special Relationship’, p. 6

55. ed. Danchev, Anglo-American Alliance, p. 8

56. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 18

57. ed. Bland, Interviews, pp. 623–4; Parrish, Roosevelt and Marshall, p. 251

58. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 213

59. MHI Caraway Interview 1971 section 6, pp. 50–51

60. Hastings, Nemesis, p. 21; MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 10

61. Jackson and Bramall, The Chiefs, p. 226

62. Harmon, ‘Alanbrooke and Churchill’, p. 36

63. Colville, Footprints, p. 190

64. Tully, FDR, p. 262

65. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 436

66. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 228

67. Danchev, On Specialness, p. 18

68. ALAB 6/2/12/8A

69. Kennedy, Business of War, pp. 104–5

CHAPTER 4: BROOKE AND MARSHALL ESTABLISH DOMINANCE: FEBRUARY–MARCH 1942

1. NAWO 193/334, 4/10/1942

2. Brodhurst, Churchill’s Anchor, p. 208

3. Ibid., passim; David Freeman in Finest Hour, no. 115, Summer 2002, p. 35

4. Brodhurst, Churchill’s Anchor, pp. 211–12

5. The Times, 24/4/1971

6. ALAB 11/64

7. KENN 4/2/4

8. ed. Wheeler-Bennett, Action This Day, p. 61

9. Ibid., p. 165

10. Churchill, Finest Hour, p. 20

11. LH 15/15/1

12. ALAB 6/4/21

13. Howarth, Intelligence Chief Extraordinary, pp. 143, 164–5

14. BRGS 1/1/47 and 1/2

15. Ibid., p. 166

16. CAB 69/4–1–4

17. AVON 20/1/22

18. Interview with General Sir David Fraser, 8/6/2006

19. MHI Pogue Interview, 17/12/1946, p. 5

20. Brendon, Churchill, p. 163

21. ed. Taylor, Churchill, p. 199

22. KENN 4/2/4, 18/3/1942

23. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 35

24. Nel, Mr Churchill’s Secretary, p. 74

25. MHI Lincoln Papers letter of 5/1/1954

26. ed. Bland, Interviews, pp. 610–11

CHAPTER 5: GYMNAST FALLS, BOLERO RETUNED: FEBRUARY–APRIL 1942

1. For some reason the money was paid in 1969 to St Paul’s School, Athens

2. BRGS 2/11, 10/2/1942

3. KENN 4/2/4

4. Ibid.

5. Fraser, Alanbrooke, p. 235

6. Mosley, Backs to the Wall, p. 245; ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 447

7. ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 446

8. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/32

9. MHI Hull Interview 1973 section 4, p. 38

10. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 392

11. Gilbert, Churchill: A Life, p. 719; Gilbert, ‘Churchill and D-Day’, pp. 24–5

12. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, pp. 392–3

13. Gilbert, Churchill: A Life, p. 719

14. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 74; Gilbert, ‘Churchill and D-Day’, pp. 24–5

15. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, pp. 398–9

16. KENN 4/2/4

17. Ibid.

18. Sherwood, White House Papers, ii, p. 523

19. Ibid., pp. 523–4

20. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 421

21. Butler, Grand Strategy, iii Part ii, p. 573

22. BRGS 2/12, 23/3/1942

23. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 214

24. Parrish, Roosevelt and Marshall, p. 254

25. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 215

26. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 437

27. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 71/19

28. Parrish, Roosevelt and Marshall, pp. 261–3

29. AVON 20/1/22

30. KENN 4/2/4

31. MHI Caraway Interview 1971 section 6, p. 29

32. KENN 4/2/4

CHAPTER 6: MARSHALL’S MISSION TO LONDON: APRIL 1942

1. ASTL Major Buckley’s Recollections

2. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 249

3. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 314

4. Morison, American Contributions, p. 15

5. ALAB 9/3/8

6. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 310

7. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 528

8. Ibid., p. 523; Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 308; Bryant, Turn of the Tide, p. 284

9. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 11

10. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 35

11. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 309

12. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 434

13. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 315; Butler, Grand Strategy, iii Part ii, Appendix iii

14. CAB 79/56 COS Cmtee No. 112 (42), 9/4/1942

15. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 317; Steele, First Offensive, pp. 117–18

16. Fenby, Alliance, p. 115

17. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 246

18. Ibid.

19. Ismay, Memoirs, p. 251

20. LH 15/15/2

21. Ibid.

22. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, pp. 105–6

23. Ibid.

24. LH 15/15/1

25. Ibid.

26. Mosley, Marshall, p. 202

27. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 247

28. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 313

29. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 530–31

30. Marshall Papers Verifax 631–660

31. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/32

32. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 449

33. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 247

34. CAB 79/56 COS Cmtee No. 118, 14/4/1942

35. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 89

36. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 533

37. CAB 69/4/59

38. Ibid., pp. 61–2

39. CAB 69/4, Defence Committee no. 10 (1942), 14/4/1942

40. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 89

41. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, pp. 289–90

42. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, pp. 319–20

43. LH 15/15/1

44. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 248

45. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 29

46. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 248

47. Morgan, FDR, p. 638

48. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 249

49. Matloff and Snell, Strategic Planning, p. 191

50. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 249

51. Morison, American Contributions, p. 19

52. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, passim; KENN 4/2/4

53. Mosley, Marshall, p. 202

54. ALAB 12/8/8; ed. Bland, Interviews, pp. 429, 436, 608

55. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 250

56. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 523

57. Ibid., pp. 458–9

58. Kimball and Rose, ‘Churchill and D-Day: Another View’, p. 31

59. Mosley, Marshall, pp. 204–5

60. AVON 20/1/22

61. Dimbleby and Reynolds, An Ocean Apart, pp. 141–2

62. MHI Wedemeyer 1972 Interview section 4, p. 31

63. MHI Pogue Interview, 17/12/46, p. 4

CHAPTER 7: THE COMMANDERS AT ARGONAUT: APRIL–JUNE 1942

1. Historian Ronald Lewin reviewing Fraser, Alanbrooke in The Times, 13/5/1982

2. KENN 4/2/4

3. Ibid.

4. Gilbert, ‘Churchill and D-Day’, p. 24

5. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 86

6. ed. Eade, Secret Session Speeches, p. 74

7. Halifax Diary, 13/6/1942

8. FDR President’s Secretary’s File Box 83

9. Ibid.

10. KENN 4/2/4

11. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 497

12. ed. Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries, pp. 59–60

13. KENN 4/2/4

14. Sherwood, White House Papers, ii, p. 567

15. Ibid.

16. FRUS, 1942, iii, p. 594

17. LH 15/15/1

18. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 503

19. Brinkley, Washington Goes to War, p. 75

20. BRGS 1/2. According to Martin Middlebrook and Chris Everitt, The Bomber Command War Diaries: An Operational Reference Book, 1939–1945, 1985, this raid on Cologne involved 1,103 bombers, of which 43 were lost

21. BRGS 2/12, 1/6/1942; KENN 4/2/4

22. AVON 20/1/22

23. BRGS 2/12, 8/6/1942

24. Black, Roosevelt, p. 745; Ziegler, Mountbatten, pp. 183–5

25. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, pp. 132–6

26. Ziegler, Mountbatten, pp. 183–5

27. KENN 4/2/4, 10/6/1942

28. CAB 195/1 WM (42) 74th

29. Ibid.

30. KENN 4/2/4

31. AVON 19/1/11

32. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 216

33. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/33

34. Sandys, Chasing Churchill, p. 150

35. Halifax Diary, 18/6/1942

36. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, pp. 217–19

37. Ibid.

38. MHI Wedemeyer 1972 Interview section 4, p. 7

39. CAB CCS 27th Meeting, 19/6/1942

40. ed. Danchev, Anglo-American Alliance, p. 158

41. JACB 1/14/B

42. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 267

43. JACB 1/14/C

44. CAB CCS 28th Meeting, 23/6/1942 section 2, American–British Conversations, p. 334

45. MHI Wedemeyer 1972 Interview section 4, p. 15

46. JACB 1/14/C

47. eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 180

CHAPTER 8: THE MASTERS AT ARGONAUT: JUNE 1942

1. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 33

2. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 515

3. Ibid.; JACB 1/14/E

4. MHI Wedemeyer 1973 Interview section 5, p. 6

5. Tully, FDR, p. 304

6. Ibid.

7. Colville, Fringes, p. 382

8. CAB 65/30, pp. 83–90

9. Ismay, Memoirs, p. 255

10. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, pp. 342–3

11. ALAB 9/3/8

12. KENN 4/2/4

13. JACB 1/14/F

14. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, pp. 344–5

15. CHUR 4/277 War Cabinet Paper No. 278 (42)

16. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 129; Churchill, Hinge of Fate, pp. 344–5

17. Fraser, Alanbrooke, p. 232

18. Holmes, World at War, pp. 362–3

19. Attlee, As It Happened, p. 123

20. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 622

21. Morgan, FDR, p. 635

22. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 220

23. Butler, Grand Strategy, iii Part ii, p. 627

24. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 270

25. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 334; Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, 22/6/1942

26. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/33; Parrish, Roosevelt and Marshall, p. 287; Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 334; ed. Bland, Papers, iii, p. 249

27. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/33

28. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 39

29. JACB 1/14/H and I; Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 333

30. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 333

31. Eichelberger, Jungle Road to Tokyo, pp. 22–4

32. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 271

33. Ismay, Memoirs, p. 257

34. Bryant, Turn of the Tide, pp. 331–2

35. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 271

36. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 216

37. LH 15/15/1, 31/4/1948 and 14/4/1948

38. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 3, and Hull Interview 1973 section, 4, p. 42

39. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, p. 309

40. ALAB 9/3/8

41. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 134

42. ALAB 11/73

43. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, pp. 5–6

44. Mosley, Marshall, p. 204

45. Ismay, Memoirs, p. 250

46. Churchill, Closing the Ring, p. 514

47. MHI Hull Interview 1973 section 4, p. 53

48. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 588

49. Evening Standard, 28/8/1982, p. 15; Scotsman, 21/8/1982

50. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 272–3; KENN Papers 4/2/4

51. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 273

52. ALAB 11/9

53. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 141

54. KENN 4/2/4

CHAPTER 9: TORCH REIGNITED: JULY 1942

1. KENN 4/2/4, p. 180B

2. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 580

3. Black, Roosevelt, p. 798

4. Keegan, Second World War, p. 312

5. ALAB 11/9

6. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, p. 79

7. Fraser, Alanbrooke, p. 240

8. ed. Bland, Interviews, 5/10/1956, p. 590

9. Overy, Why the Allies Won, pp. 44–5

10. Stoler, Allies and Adversaries, p. 116; MHI Hull Interview 1974 section 5, p. 15

11. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 164; Fenby, Alliance, p. 129

12. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 137

13. Hansard, 2/7/1942, col. 589

14. AVON 20/1/22

15. CAB 195/1 WM (42) 86th

16. BRGS 2/12, 6/7/1942

17. ALAB 6/2/6/7

18. CAB 65/31, p. 9

19. ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 461

20. KENN 4/2/4

21. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 518

22. CAB 65/31, p. 14

23. Danchev, ‘Very Special Relationship’, p. 6

24. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 220

25. ed. Harvey, War Diaries, p. 139

26. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 340

27. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 593; MAR Microfilm 322

28. Stoler, Politics of the Second Front, p. 55

29. Mosley, Marshall, p. 205

30. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 529

31. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, pp. 340, 477 n. 1

32. CHAR 20/78/5–6

33. Ibid.

34. Robertson, Soldiers and Statesmen, i, 96

35. Ibid.

36. Ismay, Memoirs, p. 252

37. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 5

38. KENN 4/2/4, p. 181A

39. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, p. 342; Stimson Diary, 12/7/1942

40. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 220

41. Ibid., p. 211

42. Parrish, Roosevelt and Marshall, p. 292

43. Reynolds, In Command, pp. 318, 588 n. 13; CHUR 4/277A/7; Churchill, Hinge of Fate, pp. 396–7

44. Reynolds, In Command, passim

45. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 167

46. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 149

47. Sherwood, White House Papers, ii, pp. 604–7

48. Butcher, Three Years, p. 20

49. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 281–2

50. CAB 79/56 COS Cmtee No. 75 (Operations), 18/7/1942

51. LH 15/15/1

52. CAB 65/31, p. 33

53. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 44

54. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 284

55. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 151

56. KENN 4/2/4, p. 186

57. CAB 65/31, p. 27

58. Ibid., p. 28

59. Ibid., p. 30

60. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 284

61. Butcher, Three Years, p. 24

62. Fenby, Alliance, p. 134

63. KENN 4/2/4, p. 186

64. Ibid.

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid., p. 187

67. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 284

68. Ibid.

69. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 581

70. LH 15/15/1

71. KENN 4/2/4, p. 194

72. Butler, Grand Strategy, iii Part ii, Appendix v, pp. 635, 684–5

73. Howard, Grand Strategy, iv, pp. 191–2

74. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 285

75. Howard, Grand Strategy, iv, p. xxi

76. AVON 20/1/22

77. Haffner, Churchill, p. 128

78. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 9

79. Fraser, Alanbrooke, p. 235

80. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 406

CHAPTER 10: THE MOST PERILOUS MOMENT OF THE WAR: JULY–NOVEMBER 1942

1. ALAB 11/9

2. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 33

3. MHI Hull Interview 1973 section 4, p. 42

4. CHAR 20/78/124

5. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, pp. 32–3

6. CHAR 20/78/79–81, 102

7. Ibid., pp. 100–101; ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 551

8. FDR Hopkins Papers Container 190

9. KENN 4/2/4, p. 193

10. AVON 20/1/22

11. Tedder, With Prejudice, p. 321

12. KENN 4/2/4, p. 215

13. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 290

14. Ibid., pp. 292–3

15. Ibid., p. 293

16. KENN 4/2/5, 20/11/1943

17. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, p. 413

18. JACB 1/17/10

19. BRGS 1/3 and 2/13; CAB 65/31, p. 80

20. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 221

21. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, pp. 510, 562

22. JACB 1/17/Minutes; JACB 1/17/45

23. KENN 4/2/4, p. 302

24. JACB 1/17/10

25. ed. Kemper, Resolution, p. 92

26. Van Der Vat, D-Day, p. 21

27. Mosley, Backs to the Wall, p. 288

28. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 317

29. KENN 4/2/4, pp. 206–7

30. Ibid.

31. Dupuy, Genius for War, p. 254

32. KENN 4/2/4, p. 215, 24/8/1942

33. CAB 195/1 WM (42) 118th

34. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 578

35. KENN 4/2/4, p. 224

36. ed. Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries, p. 78

37. Payne, Franco and Hitler, p. 91

38. Clark, Calculated Risk, p. 57

39. Eisenhower, At Ease, p. 365

40. Clark, Calculated Risk, p. 58

41. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 71/20

42. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, pp. 581–2

43. CAB 195/1 WM (42) 119th

44. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 592

45. ed. Ferrell, Eisenhower Diaries, p. 78

46. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 592

47. CAB 65/31, p. 126

48. Ibid., p. 128

49. Ibid., p. 135

50. Stoler, Allies and Adversaries, passim; Stoler, Politics of the Second Front, pp. 75, 114, 167

51. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, pp. 603–5

52. KENN 4/2/4, p. 239

53. Overy, Why the Allies Won, p. 44

54. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, i, p. 611

55. Ibid., p. 612

56. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 71

57. AVON 20/1/22

58. ed. Harvey, War Diaries, p. 165

59. KENN 4/2/4, 9/10/1942

60. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/36

61. Ibid.

62. BRGS 2/13, 26/10/1942

63. Ibid.

64. KENN 4/2/4, p. 255

65. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 589

66. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 222

67. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/37; FDR Hopkins Papers Container 180

68. FDR Hopkins Papers Container 180

69. CAB 195/1 WM (42) 151st

70. BRGS 2/13, 9/11/1942

71. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 340

CHAPTER 11: THE MEDITERRANEAN GARDEN PATH: NOVEMBER 1942–JANUARY 1943

1. KENN 4/2/4, p. 280

2. Ibid.

3. ed. Kemper, Resolution, p. 87

4. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 75

5. ed. Blum, The Price of Vision, p. 132

6. Interview with Lt-Gen. Sir Ian Jacob, 28/10/1988

7. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/37

8. Black, Roosevelt, p. 798

9. Gilbert, ‘Churchill and D-Day’, p. 26

10. AVON 20/1/22

11. ed. Taylor, Churchill, p. 193

12. KENN 4/2/4, p. 280

13. BRGS 2/13, 16/11/1942

14. KENN 4/2/4, p. 280

15. ed. Kemper, Resolution, p. 87

16. CUNN Add MSS 52570/123

17. BRGS 2/13, 30/11/1942

18. KENN 4/2/4, p. 302

19. Ibid., p. 307

20. Ibid., pp. 307–8

21. Danchev, ‘Waltzing’, p. 221

22. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 347–8

23. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 58/30

24. KENN 4/2/5, 24/5/1943

25. CAB 195/2 WM (42) 168th

26. CHAR 20/85/13

27. ed. Harvey, War Diaries, p. 200

28. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, pp. 281–2

29. KENN 4/2/4, pp. 311–12

30. Brodhurst, Churchill’s Anchor, p. 261

31. CAB 195/2 WM (42) 170th

32. FDR Personal File 8277

33. CAB 195/2 WM (42) 171st; CAB 195/2 WM (43) 1st

34. CAB 195/2 WM (42) 171st

35. AVON 20/1/22

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Morison, American Contributions, pp. 14–15

39. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 4th

40. Tedder, With Prejudice, Preface

41. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 357

42. Nicolson, Alex, p. 171

43. LEAH Leahy Diary reel 4, p. 71

44. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 358

CHAPTER 12: THE CASABLANCA CONFERENCE: JANUARY 1943

1. Berlin, Mr Churchill, pp. 37–8

2. Astley, Inner Circle, p. 87

3. JACB 1/21/32

4. JACB 1/21/33–4

5. KENN 4/2/4, p. 291, 27/11/1942

6. JACB 1/21/35

7. JACB 1/21/52

8. JACB 1/21/37

9. ed. Huston, American Airpower, i, p. 463

10. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 359

11. KENN 4/2/5, p. 12

12. Ibid.

13. Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 182

14. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 178

15. Ibid., p. 181

16. ed. Sherwood, White House Papers, ii, p. 672

17. MHI Wedemeyer 1973 Interview section 5, p. 28

18. Black, Roosevelt, p. 93

19. Roosevelt, As He Saw It, p. 83

20. Macmillan, War Diaries, p. 8

21. LH 15/15/1

22. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 360

23. Ibid., p. 361

24. Moran, Struggle for Survival, pp. 720–21

25. FRUS, Washington, 1941–1942 and Casablanca, 1943, p. 594

26. ed. Huston, American Airpower, i, p. 463

27. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 35

28. Ibid., p. 37

29. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 361

30. ALAB 6/1/1, p. 236

31. Ibid., p. 239; Hayes, History of the Joint Chiefs, pp. 286–8

32. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 167

33. KENN 4/2/5, p. 25

34. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 362

35. Ibid.; Danchev, ‘Very Special Relationship’, p. 6

36. Mosley, Marshall, pp. xi, 227

37. Black, Roosevelt, p. 799

38. JACB 1/2/44

39. Gilbert, ‘Churchill and D-Day’, p. 26

40. JACB 1/21/50

41. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 3, p. 42

42. MHI Hull Interview 1973 section 4, p. 12

43. Macmillan, War Diaries, p. 8

44. JACB 1/21/25

45. MHI Wedemeyer 1973 Interview section 5, pp. 27–8

46. MHI Wedemeyer 1972 Interview section 4, p. 3

47. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 608; MAR GCM Library Xerox 2256

48. KENN 4/2/5, p. 38

49. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 364

50. JACB 1/21/44

51. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 366

52. JACB 1/21/44

53. KENN 4/2/5, p. 44

54. Ibid.

55. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 367

56. ALAB 6/1/1, p. 236

57. Arnold, Global Mission, p. 204

58. Black, Roosevelt, pp. 805–6

59. PEAK Correspondence, 26/12/1944

60. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 179

61. Ibid., p. 181; MHI Wedemeyer 1972 Interview section 4, p. 16

62. BLAC

63. Jackson and Bramall, The Chiefs, p. 239

64. LH 15/15/1

CHAPTER 13: THE HARD UNDERBELLY OF EUROPE: JANUARY–JUNE 1943

1. Sunday Telegraph review of Fraser, Alanbrooke, 2/5/1982

2. JACB 1/21/42

3. ALAB 9/3/8

4. Coombs, Life through his Paintings, p. 163

5. BBC interview in 1959, Videotape no. VC338475

6. Sandys, Chasing Churchill, p. 160; BRGS 1/3

7. Hassett, Off the Record, pp. 151–2

8. Beevor, Stalingrad, pp. 387ff.

9. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, ii, 133

10. KENN 4/2/5, p. 38

11. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 88

12. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 34th

13. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 386

14. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 37th

15. Ibid.

16. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 40th

17. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 48th, 6/4/1943

18. BRGS 2/16, 8/3/1943

19. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 44th

20. BRGS 2/16, 29/3/1943

21. Dupuy, Genius for War, pp. 253–5

22. CAB 65/38, p. 6

23. KENN 4/2/3

24. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 53rd

25. Alex Danchev in eds Reynolds and Kimball, Allies at War, p. 18

26. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 394

27. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 129

28. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 39

29. LEAH Reel 4, pp. 109–10

30. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 96

31. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 402

32. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 96

33. LEAH Reel 4, p. 110; Leahy, I Was There, p. 191

34. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 403–4

35. Tuchman, Stilwell, p. 371

36. Astley, Inner Circle, p. 95

37. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 116

38. Black, Roosevelt, p. 832

39. MAR D736/1B3

40. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 116

41. ALAB 11/73, 23/6/1955

42. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 405

43. LEAH Reel 4, p. 111

44. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 406

45. Jackson and Bramall, The Chiefs, p. 243

46. ALAB 9/3/8

47. Howard, Grand Strategy, iv, p. 432

48. Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 183

49. Leahy, I Was There, p. 193

50. FRUS, Washington and Quebec, 1943, pp. 34–48

51. Leahy, I Was There, p. 194

52. LEAH Reel 4, p. 113

53. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 410

54. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 223

55. Blum, Years of War, p. 63

56. ed. Bland, Papers, iii, p. 708

57. ed. Bland, Interviews, 20/11/1956, pp. 552–3

58. Churchill, Hinge of Fate, pp. 812–13

59. Ismay, Memoirs, p. 253; ed. Soames, Speaking for Themselves, p. 483

60. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 272

61. Roosevelt, As He Saw It, pp. 144, 184

62. Eisenhower, At Ease, p. 264

63. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, pp. 3–4

64. Morgan, FDR, p. 632

65. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 79

66. Ibid., p. 103

67. MHI Typescript for John R. Deane’s Strange Alliance, 1946

68. CAB 195/2, WM (43) 81st

69. Ibid.

70. BRGS 2/17, 7/6/1943

CHAPTER 14: THE OVERLORDSHIP OF OVERLORD: JUNE–AUGUST 1943

1. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 640

2. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 420

3. Leahy, I Was There, p. 195

4. Roosevelt, Rendezvous with Destiny, p. 338

5. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, ii, pp. 303–4

6. KENN 4/2/5

7. ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 545

8. CAB 195/2 WM (43) 94th, 7/7/1943

9. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 427

10. BRGS 2/17, 12/7/43

11. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 40

12. Ibid.

13. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 222

14. Ibid., p. 226

15. Ibid.

16. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 45

17. KENN 4/2/5

18. Nicolson, Alex, p. 206

19. Butcher, Three Years, p. 330

20. Nicolson, Alex, p. 207

21. ALAB 9/3/8; KENN 4/2/5

22. AVON 20/1/23

23. Brodhurst, Churchill’s Anchor, p. 281

24. Astley, Inner Circle, pp. 103–4

25. MHI Pogue Interview, 26/2/1947, p. 1

26. Astley, Inner Circle, p. 109

27. Jackson and Bramall, The Chiefs, p. 247

28. Cozzens, Guard of Honor, p. 395

29. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, pp. 228–9

30. Morgan, Overture to Overlord, pp. 159, 181, 188

31. Howard, Grand Strategy, iv, pp. 563, 569

32. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 441–2

33. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 720

34. Churchill, Closing the Ring, p. 76

35. CHUR 4/319A/7

36. Ibid.

37. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, pp. 228–9

38. ALAB 11/64

39. KENN 4/2/5, 13/9/1943

40. MHI Pogue Interview, 17/12/46, pp. 1–2

CHAPTER 15: FROM THE ST LAWRENCE TO THE PYRAMIDS: AUGUST–NOVEMBER 1943

1. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 447

2. Ibid., p. 442

3. ed. Bland, Interviews, 5/10/1956, p. 590

4. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 443

5. Danchev, On Specialness, p. 27

6. MHI Pogue Interview, 26/2/1947, p. 4

7. Liddell Hart in ed. Taylor, Churchill, p. 194

8. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 445

9. Ibid., pp. 444–5

10. Ibid., pp. 445–6; Leahy, I Was There, p. 213; MHI Donnelly Autobiography, pp. 633–4

11. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, pp. 91–4; FRUS, Washington and Quebec, 1943, pp. 1024–5

12. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 709; Rose, Churchill, p. 323

13. MHI Wedemeyer 1973 Interview section 5, p. 35

14. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 447–8; Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 184

15. ASTL Major Buckley Recollections

16. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 449

17. KENN 4/2/5

18. Nicolson in Financial Times, 24/4/1982

19. KENN 4/2/5

20. Ibid.

21. See Howard, Captain Professor for a first-hand account of the Italian campaign

22. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 42

23. Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, p. 387

24. AVON 20/1/23

25. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, ii, p. 506

26. Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 185

27. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, ii, pp. 498–9; Ehrman, Grand Strategy, v, p. 95

28. Morison, American Contributions, p. 32; ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 622

29. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 321

30. Reynolds, In Command, pp. 357–8

31. KENN 4/2/5

32. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, pp. 128–9

33. Butcher, Three Years, p. 360

34. BRGS 2/18

35. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 81/2

36. Ibid.

37. AVON 20/1/23

38. AVON 20/1/24, 18/11/1944

39. KENN 4/2/5

40. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 386

41. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 176

42. Reynolds, In Command, pp. 379–80

43. DUPO 2/3; Pawle, The War and Colonel Warden, p. 253

44. Colville, Footprints, p. 188

45. Jackson and Bramall, The Chiefs, p. 250

46. Winton, Cunningham, p. 211

47. Frank McLynn in Literary Review, September 1998, p. 17

48. Winton, Cunningham, p. 337

49. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, ii, pp. 555–7

50. CHAR 20/122/22

51. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 462

52. Ibid., pp. 462–3

53. Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 186

54. Stoler, Politics of the Second Front, p. 131; ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 571

55. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, pp. 35, 56

56. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 81/4

57. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 562

58. KENN 4/2/5

59. Ibid.

60. eds Danchev and Todman, Diary, p. 465

61. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 47

62. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, pp. 127, 176–8

63. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 176

64. CHAR 20/124/5

CHAPTER 16: EUREKA! AT TEHERAN: NOVEMBER–DECEMBER 1943

1. Arnold, Global Mission, p. 219

2. Ehrman, Grand Strategy, v, p. 111; Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 187

3. Leighton, ‘Overlord Revisited’

4. MHI Sidney Matthews Box 3, 15/11/1943

5. KENN 4/2/5

6. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 472–3

7. MHI Sidney Matthews Box 3, 19/11/1943

8. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 81/5

9. MHI Sidney Matthews Box 3, 19/11/1943

10. Ibid.

11. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 672

12. Douglas, Years of Command, p. 229

13. Cunningham, Odyssey, p. 586

14. ASTL Major Buckley’s Recollections

15. MHI Charles Donnelly World War II Conferences Box

16. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 477, 479; ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 192

17. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 478

18. Arnold, Global Mission, p. 220

19. Ronald Lewin in The Times, 13/5/1982

20. ed. White, Stilwell Papers, pp. 230–32

21. Douglas, Years of Command, p. 188

22. Pogue, Ordeal and Hope, pp. 330–31

23. Black, Roosevelt, p. 799

24. ed. White, Stilwell Papers, pp. 230–32

25. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 478–80

26. Tuchman, Stilwell, pp. 403–4

27. MHI Wedemeyer 1973 Interview section 6, p. 7

28. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 192

29. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 669

30. Ibid., p. 670

31. Arnold, Global Mission, p. 221

32. ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 578

33. Stoler, Allies and Adversaries, chapters 6 and 7

34. ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 539

35. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 131

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid., p. 132

38. Ingersoll, Top Secret, p. 48

39. eds Danchev and Todman, War Diaries, p. 481

40. Cunningham, Odyssey, p. 587

41. FRUS, Cairo and Tehran, 1943, pp. 150–51, 363–5

42. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 476, 43. ASTL Major Buckley Recollections

44. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 483

45. FRUS, Cairo and Tehran, 1943, pp. 499–501, 505–7

46. Arnold, Global Mission, p. 224

47. ASTL Major Buckley Recollections

48. Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew, pp. 70–71

49. Lunghi, ‘Troubled Triumvirate’, pp. 17–18

50. Churchill, Closing the Ring, pp. 377, 378

51. Leahy, I Was There, p. 191

52. Sherwood, White House Papers, ii, p. 778

53. Ibid.

54. Letter to author from Hugh Lunghi, 2/1/2008; Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 187

55. MHI Wedemeyer 1973 Interview section 5, p. 35

56. Deane, Strange Alliance, p. 42

57. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 194

58. Harriman and Abel, Special Envoy, p. 271

59. Ibid.

60. ALAB 3/8

61. Bohlen, Witness to History, pp. 149–50

62. Ehrman, Grand Strategy, v, p. 189

63. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 57 n. 3

64. Holmes, Footsteps, p. 263

65. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 344

66. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, pp. 222–3

67. Ibid.

68. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 4, p. 30

69. Roosevelt, As He Saw It, p. 210

CHAPTER 17: ANZIO, ANVIL AND CULVERIN: DECEMBER 1943–MAY 1944

1. Churchill, Finest Hour, p. 20

2. KENN 4/2/5, 9/12/1943

3. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, ii, pp. 622–3

4. Hastings, Overlord, p. 32

5. eds Heiber and Glantz, Hitler and his Generals, p. 316

6. CHAR 20/130/39

7. CHAR 20/179/37

8. MAR GCM Library Xerox 2256, note 14; Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 58

9. Clark, Calculated Risk, p. 348

10. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 51

11. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 339

12. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 459

13. Warlimont, Inside Hitler’s Headquarters, p. 411

14. eds Reynolds and Kimball, Allies at War, p. 13

15. LH 15/15/2

16. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 80/31

17. BRGS 2/19

18. Eisenhower, At Ease, p. 273

19. ed. Chandler, Papers, iii, p. 1707

20. ALAB 6/2/3/B

21. ed. Nicolson, Diaries and Letters, p. 348

22. BRGS 2/19

23. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 81/9

24. ed. Chandler, Papers, iii, pp. 1732–6

25. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, pp. 313–14

26. BRGS 2/19

27. Ehrman, Grand Strategy, v, pp. 230–31

28. Marshall, Together, p. 188; Meacham, Franklin and Winston, p. 274

29. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 59

30. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 529, 530

31. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 342

32. Dupuy, Genius for War, p. 254

33. Farrell, Basis and Making, ii, p. 777

34. Matloff, Strategic Planning, chapter 14

35. CHAR 20/188A/64–5

36. Ibid., p. 66

37. Ibid., p. 68

38. LH 15/15/2

39. Reynolds, In Command, pp. 403–4

40. ALAB 6/3/10

41. Halifax Diary, 20/2/1942

42. MHI Pogue Interview, 17/12/46, p. 4

43. BRGS 2/20

44. ALAB 6/3/9

45. CHAR 20/188B/128; ALAB 6/3/9

46. CHAR 20/188B/132

47. ALAB 6/3/10

48. ALAB 11/9; Smith, Government, p. 208

49. ALAB 6/3/10

50. Halifax Diary, 31/3/1944

51. Matloff, Strategic Planning, pp. 424–5

52. MHI, Caraway Interview 1971 section 6, p. 59

53. DILL 3/1

54. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 404

55. CUNN Add MSS 52577/7

56. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 405

57. Ibid.

58. Reynolds, In Command, p. 393

59. CHAR 20/163/15

60. CHAR 20/163/59

61. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 551

62. ed. Kemper, Resolution, p. 86

63. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 544

64. CUNN Add MSS 52577/26

65. Hastings, Overlord, pp. 33–4

66. BRGS 2/20

67. CUNN Add MSS 52577/8

68. Cray, General of the Army, pp. 449–50

69. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 468

CHAPTER 18: D-DAY AND DRAGOON: MAY–AUGUST 1944

1. ed. Kemper, Resolution, p. 83

2. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, iii, p. 153

3. Djilas, Conversations with Stalin, p. 61

4. CUNN Add MSS 52577/8

5. BRGS 2/21

6. Ibid.

7. Butcher, Three Years, p. 486

8. Brian Bond in eds Freedman and others, War, Strategy, p. 190

9. Ehrman, Grand Strategy, v, pp. 279–80

10. eds Reynolds and Kimball, Allies at War, p. 18

11. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 689

12. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 3, pp. 46–7

13. Morison, American Contributions, p. 29

14. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 589

15. Bryant, Triumph in the West, p. 223

16. CUNN Add MSS 52577/31

17. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 477

18. MHI Handy Interview 1974 section 3, p. 47

19. ALAB 9/3/8

20. LH 15/15/1

21. ed. Taylor, Churchill, p. 196

22. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 233

23. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 560

24. ed. Chandler, Papers, iii, pp. 1938–9

25. ed. Bond, Chief of Staff, ii, p. 177

26. CUNN Add MSS 52577/36; ed. Kimball, Correspondence, iii, p. 199

27. Danchev, ‘Very Special Relationship’, p. 4

28. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 61

29. CUNN Add MSS 52577/38

30. Ibid.

31. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, pp. 497–8

32. ed. Kemper, Resolution, p. 83

33. Macmillan, War Diaries, p. 476

34. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, iii, pp. 227–9

35. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 208

36. Holmes, Footsteps, p. 263

37. CUNN Add MSS 52577/42

38. BRGS 2/21

39. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 843

40. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 566

41. CUNN Add MSS 52577/42

42. AVON 20/1/24

43. Ibid.

44. CUNN Add MSS 52577/40

45. AVON 20/1/24

46. ed. Bland, Papers, iv, p. 524

47. CUNN Add MSS 52577/51

48. ALAB 6/3/6

49. CUNN Add MSS 52577/55

50. Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, vii, p. 877

51. AVON 20/1/24

52. CUNN Add MSS 52577/57

53. Ibid., p. 58

54. Ibid., p. 94

CHAPTER 19: OCTAGON AND TOLSTOY: AUGUST–DECEMBER 1944

1. ed. Davenport-Hines, Letters from Oxford, pp. 33–4

2. CUNN Add MSS 52577/65

3. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 81/21

4. CUNN Add MSS 52577/67

5. Ibid., p. 68

6. Blum, Years of War, pp. 362–3

7. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 590

8. Pickersgill and Forster, Mackenzie King Record, ii, p. 67

9. Ibid.

10. Ehrman, Grand Strategy, v, pp. 510–12

11. FRUS, Quebec, 1944, p. 303

12. Bryant, Triumph in the West, p. 283n

13. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 697

14. MHI Pogue Interview, 12/2/1947, p. 1

15. LH 15/15/1

16. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 66

17. Morison, American Contributions, p. 34

18. ALAB 6/1/5, p. 236

19. FRUS, Quebec, 1944, pp. 40–41

20. Ibid., pp. 238, 313

21. ALAB 6/1/5, p. 240

22. Cunningham, Odyssey, p. 611; ALAB 6/1/5, p. 241; FRUS, Quebec, 1944, pp. 312ff.

23. Buell, Master of Sea Power, pp. 470–71

24. Ibid., p. 536

25. Ibid., p. 471

26. FRUS, Quebec, 1944, pp. 330–35

27. Arnold, Global Mission, p. 243

28. Buell, Master of Sea Power, p. 471

29. ed. Huston, American Airpower, ii, p. 212 n. 23

30. FRUS, Quebec, 1944, p. 335

31. Cunningham, Odyssey, p. 597

32. Kimball, Forged in War, p. 276

33. CUNN Add MSS 52577/73

34. BRGS 2/22

35. Deane, Strange Alliance, p. 155

36. eds Barnes and Nicholson, Empire at Bay, p. 1018

37. CUNN Add MSS 52577/110

38. Danchev, ‘Very Special Relationship’, p. 1

39. CUNN Add MSS 52577/110, p. 96

40. CHAR 20/174/92

41. Montgomery, Memoirs, pp. 534–5

42. PORT Box A File V

43. Eisenhower, General Ike, p. 124

44. BRGS 2/22, 29/11/1944

45. CUNN Add MSS 52577/109

CHAPTER 20: AUTUMN MIST: DECEMBER 1944–FEBRUARY 1945

1. CUNN Add MSS 52577/109

2. Hobbs, Dear General, p. 183

3. MHI Pogue Interview, 14/2/1947, p. 1

4. PORT Box A File V

5. CUNN Add MSS 52578/4

6. MHI Pogue Interview, 8/5/1947, p. 3

7. CHAR 20/197A/92

8. eds Barnes and Nicholson, Empire at Bay, p. 1026

9. FRUS, Malta and Yalta, 1945, pp. 22–3

10. BRGS 2/23

11. CUNN Add MSS 52578/5

12. DILL 3/1

13. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 550

14. BRGS 2/23

15. CUNN Add MSS 52578/13; eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 651

16. FRUS, Malta and Yalta, 1945, p. 473

17. ed. Soames, Speaking for Themselves, pp. 511–12

18. CUNN Add MSS 52578/15

19. MAR GCM Library Microfilm Reel 322 Part i, 25/7/1949

20. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 653

21. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 400; MAR GCM Library Microfilm Reel 322 Part ii, 25/7/1949

22. MAR GCM Library Microfilm Reel 322 Part ii, 25/7/1949

23. Ibid.

24. Black, Nixon, pp. 265, 323

25. Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, p. 16

26. FRUS, Malta and Yalta, 1945, p. 543

27. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 348

28. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 713

29. ASTL Joan Bright to Ismay, 10/2/1945

30. MHI Hull Autobiography chapter 18, p. 7

31. Sir Stewart Crawford’s Diary: Yalta section

CHAPTER 21: YALTA REQUIEM: FEBRUARY–MAY 1945

1. ed. Dilks, Cadogan, p. 432

2. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 415

3. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, iii, p. 524

4. ed. Bland, Interviews, pp. 400, 406

5. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 297

6. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 721

7. MHI Hull Autobiography chapter 18, p. 7

8. Sir Stewart Crawford’s Diary, Yalta section

9. FRUS, Malta and Yalta, 1945, pp. 564–7; Farrell, Basis and Making, ii, p. 778

10. ed. Bland, Papers, v, p. 44

11. CUNN Add MSS 52578/15–16

12. FRUS, Malta and Yalta, 1945, pp. 650–53

13. CUNN Add MSS 52578/17; Rose, Churchill, p. 313

14. BRGS 1/2

15. Ranfurly, To War, p. 328

16. ed. Parrish, Simon and Schuster Encyclopedia, p. 520

17. MHI Charles Donnelly Autobiography, p. 721

18. Ibid.

19. CUNN Add MSS 52578/18

20. MHI Hull Interview Session 7, p. 4

21. CUNN Add MSS 52578/26

22. Reynolds, Summits, p. 102; Cowles, Churchill, p. 339

23. BRGS 2/23

24. Ibid.

25. CAB 65/51/77–9

26. BRGS 1/2

27. ALAB 6/3/5

28. MHI Pogue Interview, 13/2/1947, p. 2

29. ALAB 6/3/5

30. ALAB 9/3/8

31. ed. Kimball, Correspondence, iii, p. 574

32. CUNN Add MSS 52578/36

33. Butcher, Three Years, p. 663

34. ed. Chandler, Papers, iv, p. 2589

35. CUNN Add MSS 52578/39

36. CHAR 20/213A/101–14

37. CUNN Add MSS 52578/40

38. CHAR 20/213A/101–14

39. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 81/32

40. ed. Bland, Papers, v, p. 114 n. 1

41. Cowles, Churchill, p. 350; ed. Kimball, Correspondence, iii, p. 608

42. MAR Pentagon Papers Box 81/32

43. CUNN Add MSS 52578/45

44. Below, At Hitler’s Side, p. 234; Kershaw, Hitler, pp. 791–2

45. Colville, Fringes, p. 587

46. ed. Hart-Davis, King’s Counsellor, p. 313

47. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 347

48. CAB 195/3 WM (45) 44th

49. Best, Churchill and War, p. 135; Jenkins, Churchill, p. 785

50. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, pp. 413–17

51. CUNN Add MSS 52578/47

52. ed. Bland, Papers, v, p. 159

53. CUNN Add MSS 52578/52

54. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, pp. 686–7

55. Astley, Inner Circle, p. 209

56. CUNN Add MSS 52578/56

57. ed. Bland, Papers, v, p. 171 n. 1

58. eds Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 688; CUNN Add MSS 52578/56

CONCLUSION: THE RIDDLES OF THE WAR

1. eds. Danchev and Todman, Diaries, p. 680

2. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 110

3. Berlin, Mr Churchill, pp. 37–8

4. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 326

5. ALAB 11/64

6. London Review of Books, 2–15/9/1982, p. 16

7. ed. Bland, Interviews, p. 589

8. Alex Danchev in eds Reynolds and Kimball, Allies at War, p. 18

9. Moran, Struggle for Survival, p. 45

10. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports!, p. 168

11. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 235

12. LH 15/15/1

13. KENN 4/2/4, pp. 180–82B

14. MHI Pogue Interview, 12/2/1947

15. KENN 4/2/5, p. 6

16. MHI Wedemeyer 1973 Interview section 5, pp. 1–2

17. Howard, Mediterranean Strategy, p. 24

18. Stimson and Bundy, Active Service, p. 237

19. MAR GCM Library Microfilm Reel 322 Part i, 25/7/1949; MAR GCM Library Xerox, p. 2256

20. ed. Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, pp. 538–9

21. My thanks to Paul Courtenay for this paragraph

22. Major-General David Dawnay, Wish Stream, vol. 7 no. 2, October 1953

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