Military history

NOTES

EPIGRAPHS

1 Miot de Mélito, Memoirs, 557. The count was a courtier who served Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s brother and onetime king of Spain.

2 Trinquier, Modern Warfare, 74. Trinquier was a veteran of the French Indochina and Algerian wars.

PROLOGUE

Guardian, Oct. 23, 2010.

2 Brunais’s patrol: Based on the author’s personal observations.

3 According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, there were 161 conflicts raging around the world in 2010, almost all of them internal wars involving low-intensity tactics. The same database lists 363 nonstate armed groups.

4 Weinstein, Rebellion, 5.

5 Histories of guerrilla warfare: See, e.g., Asprey, Shadows; Laqueur, Guerrilla Warfare; Ellis, Barrel; Polk, Violent Politics; Arnold, Jungle; O’Neil, Insurgency. Histories of terrorism: Burleigh, Blood; Carr, Infernal Machine; Carr, Lessons; Bowden, Terror;Laqueur, Terrorism.

6 Laqueur, Terrorism, 6. For definitions I also draw on Hoffman, Terrorism; Kalyvas, Logic; Chaliand, Terrorism; Cronin, Ends; Richardson, Terrorists; Bowden, Terror; O’Neill, Insurgency.

7 Burke, Select Works, 315.

8 Crossman, “Ethics.”

9 Heer, Extermination, 112–13.

10 Osanka, Guerrilla Warfare, xvi.

BOOK I: BARBARIANS AT THE GATE

1 For an attempt to translate the events of the Jewish war into modern dates, see Levick, Vespasian, 40–42.

2 Roman army: Goldsworthy, Roman Warfare; Hackett, Warfare; Heather, Fall; Campbell, Roman Army.

3 Ambush: Josephus, War, in Complete Works (“continued”: 2.19.6; “unexpected”: 2.19.7; “covered,” “fell,” “contrivance”: 2.19.8; “calamity”: 2.20.1); Suetonius, Twelve Caesars, 284 (eagle); Gichon, “Campaign”; Goodman, Rome, 9–10.

4 End of revolt: Josephus, War, 2.19.8 (“flight”), 6.5.1 (“ground”), 6.8.5 (“blood”); Suetonius, Twelve Caesars; Tacitus, Histories; Cassius Dio, Roman History; Goodman, Rome; Price, Under Siege; Levick, Vespasian.

5 Hanson, No Other, 94.

6 Thucydides, Peloponnesian, 3.82–83.

7 Aetolions: Ibid., 3:94–98, 250–53.

8 Alexander in Central Asia: The best account is Holt, Land of Bones (“thick”: 76). See also Arrian, Campaigns; Curtius, History; Diodorus, Historical Library; Plutarch, Lives; Green, Alexander; Fuller, Generalship; Stein, Alexander’s Track; Worthington,Alexander.

9 Maccabees: Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, in Complete Works; 1 and 2 Maccabees; Hayes, Jewish People; Bright, Israel; Shanks, Ancient Israel; Hearn, Maccabees; Scolnic, Brother’s Blood.

10 Diaspora revolt: Cassius Dio, Roman History, 68.32; Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 4.2; Bloom, Revolts. Bar Kokhba revolt: Cassius Dio, Roman History, 69.12–13; Yadin, Bar-Kokhba; Hayes, Jewish People, 211–15; Goodman, Rome, 464–69; Isaac, Limits, 84; Bloom, Revolts.

11 David: I Samuel 16–31; Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 6.12–13; Bright, History of Israel, 193–95; Shanks, Ancient Israel, 85–98; McKenzie, King David, 70–110; Gabriel, Military History, 234–35.

12 LeBlanc, Constant Battles, 128–56; Gat, War, 157; O’Connell, Of Arms, 26–33.

13 Spalinger, Ancient Egypt, 36 (force size), 83–100; Hackett, Warfare, 29–32; Ferrill, Origins, 54–57.

14 Tatersall, Beginnings, 91.

15 Diamond, “Vengeance.”

16 Edwards, West Indies, 1.527 (“dastardly”).

17 Malone, Skulking, 24.

18 Keegan, Warfare, 9.

19 Underhill, Newes, 36.

20 Keeley, War before, 65.

21 Ibid., 195, 93.

22 Ferrill, Origins, 23–24; Keeley, War before, 37; Guilaine, Origins, 67–72.

23 Mann, 1491, 43.

24 Sargon: Hamblin, Warfare (cup bearer: 73–74; “king of the world”: 76; weapons: 98; “bread and beer”: 96; “mass slaughter”: 79; “show mercy”: 76, 99; “annihilated”: 78; “all the lands”: 80; “lawless”: 103; “serpent”: 103); Yadin, Art, 1.48 (“revolutionary”); Liverani, Akkad; Sasson,Civilizations, vol. 2; Frayne, Royal Inscriptions; Westenholz, Legends (wicker basket: 41; “ruin”: 71; “lion”: 99); Lewis, Legend; Meador, Inanna; Hallo, Exaltation; Snell, Near East; Bradford, Arrow.

25 Invasion of Mesopotamia: Hamblin, Warfare (wall: 110–11; “no cities”: 155; “enemy”: 120; “ruined”: 121; “corpses,” “goats”: 122).

26 Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.1.5.2.

27 Herodotus, Histories, 1.201–16; Farrokh, Shadows, 48–49.

28 Scythians: Herodotus, Histories, 4.64–65 (“drinks,” “arms”); Hildinger, Warriors, 5–14; Barfield, Frontier, 20–28; Grousset, Empires, 6–15; Sinor, Cambridge History, 97–110.

29 Herodotus, Histories, 4.120.

30 Ibid., 4.126–27.

31 Ferrill, Origins, 69; Saggs, Assyria, 262.

32 Herodotus, Histories, 1.95. See also Hackett, Warfare, 36–53; Saggs, Assyria; Holland, Persian Fire, 1–7; Bradford, With Arrow, 41–49.

33 Strauss, Spartacus; Shaw, Spartacus.

34 “Bleaching”: Tacitus, Histories, 1.62. “Hiss”: Florus, Epitome, 2.30.

35 Polybius, Histories, 10.15.4.

36 Price, Under Siege, 175.

37 Tacitus, Agricola, 81.

38 Death of Vetilius: Appian, Wars, 63.266. Platius’s losses: 64.270. “Agile”: 62.263. Death of Viriathus: 74.311–14; Richardson, Romans in Spain, 65.

39 “Marched”: Josephus, War, 5.9.1. “Begged”: 5.9.3.

40 Herod: Richardson, Herod; Perowne, Herod; Hanson, Ancient Strategy, 175–76.

41 Scheidel, Economic History, 45–49.

42 Goodman, Rome, 397.

43 Josephus, War, 2.12.1; Goodman, Rome, 386.

44 Josephus, War, 6.6.2.

45 Madden, Empires.

46 Tabachnick, Enduring Empire, 129.

47 Madden, Empires, 178.

48 Gibbon, Decline, 1.1.

49 Goldsworthy, Rome Fell, 16.

50 Gibbon, Decline, 1.170.

51 Mitchell, Later Roman Empire, xiv, notes that scholarship since the 1960s “has changed our perceptions of the later Roman Empire ineradicably, and to a large extent supplanted the paradigm of decline and fall, established by Gibbon.” See also Heather, Fall, 141; Jones, Later Roman Empire, 1027. Goldsworthy, Rome Fell, 11–25, notes the historical pendulum swinging back to “decline and fall.”

52 Goldsworthy, Rome Fell, 258.

53 “Guerrilla mode”: Ellis, Barrel, 39.

54 Huns: Ammianus, History, 31.2.1–12 (“beasts,” “very quick,” “indomitable”); Jordanes, Origins, 36.188 (“treachery”); Priscus, “Court” (“haughty”); Schaff, Select Library, 6.130, 161 (“these brutes”); Thompson, Huns; Man, Attila (impalement: 128–29); Howarth, Attila; Matyszak,Enemies, 270–81; Hildinger, Warriors, 57–74; Kennedy, Mongols (stirrups: 28–30); Mitchell, Later Roman Empire, 197–202; Goldworthy, Rome Fell, 22 (“After 217”), 314–35.

55 Heather, Fall, 346.

56 Ibid., 446–47.

57 Goldsworthy, Rome Fell, 415.

58 Keegan, Warfare, 387.

59 Hanson, Carnage.

60 Keegan, Warfare, 221.

61 “Without fighting”: Sawyer, Seven Classics, 161. “Deception”: 158.

62 “Gongs”: Ibid., 266. “Capturing”: 265. Drummer, “climb”: 267.

63 Chinese armies: Ibid., 10–11; Peers, Soldiers, 36; Graff, Military History, 29–31.

64 Graff, Military History, 13–14.

65 Debate: Cosmo, Ancient China, 210–15; Barfield, Perilous Frontier, 54.

66 Han: Lewis, Chinese Empires (market: 83); Loewe, Everyday Life; Chang, Rise (50 million: 1.177; 500,000: 1.85); Hardy, Establishment (120,000 mandarins: 101).

67 Sinor, Cambridge History, 1–18; Soucek, Inner Asia, xi–xii.

68 Graff, Military History, 57.

69 Sima, Records, 2.196.

70 Ibid., 129–30. “Girdles”: 145.

71 Barfield, Perilous Frontier, 49; Kierman, Chinese Ways, 81; Chang, Rise, 1.158.

72 Cosmo, Ancient China, 203.

73 Sima, Records, 2.129.

74 Ambush: Sima, Records, 1.78–79, 2.138–39 (“gifts”: 138); Barfield, Frontier, 35–36; Cosmo, Ancient China, 191–92; Sinor, Cambridge History, 121–22.

75 Sima, Records, 2.139; Barfield, Frontier, 45–48; Cosmo, Ancient China, 192–94; Lewis, Chinese Empires, 132–33; Graff, Military History, 64; Chang, Rise, 1.145; Sinor, Cambridge History, 122–25; Yu, Trade, 40–51.

76 Barfield, Frontier, 51; Yu, Trade, 36–37.

77 Sima, Records, 2.149.

78 Ibid., 194.

79 Cosmo, Ancient China, 213.

80 Chang, Rise, 1.129.

81 Wu: Chang, Rise, 1.89–96, 1.145 (“avenge”); Pan Ku, History, 2.27.

82 Sima, Records, 2.67, 247–51; Perdue, Marches West, 35; Cosmo, Ancient China, 232.

83 Cosmo, Ancient China, 203–4; Lewis, Chinese Empires, 139.

84 Chang, Rise, 1.86.

85 Lewis, Chinese Empires, 138.

86 Goldsworthy, Roman Warfare, 105–9; Hackett, Warfare, 165–67, 170–73; Holland, Rubicon, 161–62; Mackay, Ancient Rome, 98, 125–26.

87 “Hardship,” “exhausted”: Sima, Records, 2.64–65. “Hide currency”: 2.69. Revenues: Barfield, Frontier, 57.

88 Chang, Rise, 1.2, 155, 224.

89 Barfield, Frontier, 58–63; Graff, Military History, 65.

90 Wright, “Equation Revisited,” concludes “that an overall preponderance of the evidence does point to some strong connection between the two groups.”

91 Perdue, China Marches West, 282–87; Lorge, War, 164–66; Barfield, Frontier, 293–94; Graff, Military History, 127–29.

92 Waldron, Great Wall.

93 May, Mongol, 21.

94 Graff, Military History, 67.

95 Kennedy, Mongols, 16–21.

96 Uyar, Ottomans; Crowley, 1453.

97 Uyar, Ottomans, 5.

98 Parker, Illustrated History, 84–87; Prestwich, Edward I, 44.

99 “Burning”: Barber, Black Prince, 50. “Revenue”: 52.

100 John, Chronicles, 334.

101 Scott, Robert, 4.

102 Barrow, Robert, 88.

103 Murray, Rob Roy, 39.

104 Wallace: Chronicle of Lanercost, 175–76; John, Chronicle, 2.332; Bower, History, 194–95; Fisher, Wallace, 226–53; Mackay, Wallace, 245–68 (“half living”: 265).

105 Bruce: Barbour, The Bruce (“valiant,” “so good”: 103; “endeavour”: 160; “harry”: 81; “such a blow”: 107; “sweat”: 109); John, Chronicles (“raw herbs,” “hiss”: 335); Bain, Calendar, 2.474 (“accomplices”), 2.483 (“traitor”), 2.495 (cages); Bower, History(“art”: 199); Scott, Robert(“moor”: 4); Barrow, Robert (“speed, surprise”: 221); Barron, Scottish War, 260–94; McNamee, Robert, 112–36.

106 “Mishaps”: John, Chronicle, 333.

107 Barbour, The Bruce, 171; Scott, Robert, 139; Sadler, Border Fury, 117–18.

108 Chronicle of Lanercost, 207.

109 Froissart, Chronicles, 47. See also Chronicle of Lanercost, 194–95; John, Chronicles, 341–42; Barrow, Robert, 305–19.

110 Scott, Robert, 193; McNamee, Robert, 217.

111 Campbell, Black Death, 49; Campbell, “Benchmarking.”

112 Barbour, The Bruce, 318.

113 “Heroes”: Hobsbawm, Bandits, 20. “Universal”: 21.

114 Schiller, Thirty Years’ War, 109.

115 “Undisciplined”: Maurice, Strategikon, 96. “Deceit”: 116. “Strategems,” “greedy”: 119.

BOOK II: LIBERTY OR DEATH:
THE RISE OF THE LIBERAL REVOLUTIONARIES

1 Enlightenment warfare: Boot, War Made New, ch. 3; Childs, Warfare (400,000 soldiers: 89); Weigley, Battles, 46–58; Duffy, Military.

2 “Fire”: Ewald, Treatise, 13. “Overrun”: Zimmerman, Popular History, 1567.

3 Russell, “Redcoats,” 631.

4 Duffy, Military Experience, 268.

5 Rogers: Rogers, Journals, 80 (“wood service”), 44 (“flames”), 9 (scalping), 139–44 (St. Francis raid), 82–86 (rules); Brumwell, Devil (“resolute,” “dress”: 101); Ross, Run (“few words”: 2); Cuneo, Rogers (“deceiving”: 60).

6 “Necessary”: Grandmaison, Petite guerre, 6, 8. “New”: Ewald, Treatise, 64.

7 Adams, “Too Dumb”; Spring, With Zeal (“inert”: 254).

8 Anderson, Crucible, 288, estimates that 40–60 percent of military-age men in New England served in the French and Indian War.

9 Lexington and Concord: Peckham, Sources (“crush evils”: 1.129); Percy, Letters (“scattered”: 52; “incessant”: 50; “inevitable”: 54; “men who know”: 53); “Intercepted Letters” (“above ten”: 225; “savages”: 225; “peasants”: 224; “country people”: 225; “properly”: 226); Mackenzie, Diary(“enraged,” “put to death”: 1.20–21); Evelyn, Memoir (“scoundrels”: 53; “cowards”: 53; “incessant”: 54); Gage, Correspondence, 1.396–99; Balderston, Lost War, 29–30; Hudson, Lexington, Appendix (“disperse”: 528; “regulars are coming”: 541); Stiles, Literary Diary, 1.551–52 (“colonist hussars”); Barker, British in Boston, 31–38; Revere, Accounts (“roar of musketry”); Heath, Memoirs (“corpulent”: 1; “obtainable”: 1); Emerson, Diaries (“disorder”: 72); Lister, Concord Fight; Sutherland, Late News; Willard, Letters, 76–95. For secondary accounts see Fischer, Revere’s Ride, 184–266 (1774 raid: 44–45; Gage’s wife: 386–87; “Regulars are coming”: 109; “Indian manner”: 247); Smith, West Cambridge; Birnbaum, Red Dawn, 142–94; Galvin, Minute Men; Tourtellot, Lexington; Ferling, Miracle, 29–33; Middlekauff, Glorious, 270–81.

10 Emerson, “Concord Hymn”: http://www.bartleby.com/102/43.html.

11 “Dirty”: WP/RW: 1.336. “Stupidity”: 1.372. “Proper”: 1.90. “Broken”: 6.396. Also see Ferling, Miracle, 75–78, 208; Kwasny, Partisan War, xi.

12 AP, 3.185.

13 Lee: Lee Papers, 2.383–89 (“European plan”: 384; “impeding”: 388). “Cultivated”: Shy, Numerous, 127.

14 Kwasny, Partisan War, 330–31.

15 120,000 inhabitants: Mitnick, New Jersey, 15. British abuses: Mellick, Old Farm, 322–28; Stryker, Documents, 1.245–47; Fischer, Crossing, 172–81.

16 Muenchhausen, Howe’s Side, 8.

17 “Rascal”: Ibid., 7. “Chances”: 16.

18 Spring, With Zeal, 14.

19 2,500 troops: WP/PR, 8.576. “Annoy”: Fischer, Crossing, 349.

20 “Hornets”: Stryker, Documents, 1.314. Casualties: Fischer, Crossing, 415–19, 536.

21 Clinton, Rebellion, 192.

22 Tarleton, Campaigns, 38–44; Wilson, Southern Strategy, 234; Gordon, South Carolina.

23 “Gentlest”: Wickwire, Cornwallis, 175.

24 “Reconciliation”: Clinton, Rebellion, 8. “Hearts”: “Conversation with Lord Drumond,” Feb. 7, 1776, HCP.

25 Mackenzie, Diary, 1.56.

26 Tarleton: Tarleton, Campaigns, 40 (“irregularities”), 101 (“campaigns”); Scotti, Brutal Virtue, 19 (“cool), 39 (over 500); Atlay, “Tarleton” (“middle height”: 234–35); Bass, Green Dragoon, 11–22; Buchanan, Courthouse, 58–64; Conway, “To Subdue,” 392 (“fire and sword”); Balderston,Lost War, 122 (“soup ladle”); Hoffman, Uncivil, 62 (“stripped”).

27 Bass, Gamecock; Gregorie, Sumter.

28 Waring, Fighting Elder.

29 Marion: Lee, Memoirs, 174 (“small”), 584–85; James, Sketch, 21 (“his frame”); Moultrie, Memoirs, 223 (“active”); McCrady, South Carolina, 1.568–72; CSR; FMP; Rankin, Marion; Bass, Swamp Fox; Horry, Life; James, Sketch; Sims, Life.

30 Moultrie, Memoirs, 223.

31 Marion to Horatio Gates, Oct. 4, 1780, CSR.

32 “Scarcely”: Tarleton, Campaigns, 205; Cornwallis, Correspondence, 1.71; Clinton. Rebellion, 476.

33 Marion to William Moultrie, July 28, 1781, in Year Book 1898, 380.

34 “Swamp Fox”: James, Sketch, 32. For the Parson Weems version, published in 1824 in cooperation with one of Marion’s officers (who complained that Weems had “carved and mutilated” his manuscript with “many erroneous statements”), see Horry, Life, 123. This was probably the inspiration for William Gilmore Simms to use “swamp fox” in his 1844 account: Life, 99.

35 Snow’s Island: James, Sketch (“slept”: 38); Bass, Fox, 104–5, 156–57.

36 “Shadow”: Greene Papers, 7.17. “Strokes”: 7.18. “Keep up”: 6.520.

37 Ibid., 8.168.

38 Cornwallis, Correspondence, 1.80.

39 Ferling, Miracle, 574.

40 8,000 men lost: Ketchum, Yorktown, 246; Ferling, Miracle, 538. 34,000 troops left: Mackesy, War, 525. British population: Conway, British Isles, 28.

41 Fischer, Revere’s Ride, 415.

42 Somerville, Own Life, 187. See also Conway, British Isles, 130–33; Bradley, Popular Politics, 59–89.

43 Great Britain, Parliamentary Register, 2.218.

44 Trevelyan, Revolution, 3.208; Billias, Opponents, 45.

45 Lutnick, Revolution, 59.

46 Davidson, Propaganda, 56–58; Stoll, Samuel Adams, 115–16; Puls, Samuel Adams, 127–29.

47 Fischer, Revere’s Ride, 275.

48 Lutnick, Revolution, 75.

49 Berger, Broadsides, 165–67; Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin, 339–40.

50 Lutnick, Revolution, 25.

51 Balderston, Lost War, 33.

52 “Suicide”: Lutnick, Revolution, 108. “Grave”: 168. “Enough”: 121. “Sick”: Conway, British Isles, 129.

53 Casualties: Peckham, Toll, 132–33; Clodfelter, Warfare, 142. Population: http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/pdf/cb10-ff12.pdf.

54 Addington, Patterns, 15.

55 Greene Papers, 7.75.

56 Mansoor, Hybrid.

57 Confusion: Mackesy, War, 20–24, 33, 514; Fischer, Washington’s Crossing, 66–78; Gordon, South Carolina, 58–59; Conway, “Subdue America,” 406.

58 Addington, Patterns, 12–14; Mackesy, War, 29, 524–25. In addition, a maximum of 11,000 Loyalists served with the British forces at any one time. The rebels never had more than 35,000 men under arms.

59 Montanus, “Failed.”

60 Vendée: Bell, Total War (250,000: 156); Secher, Genocide (“crushed”: 110); Ross, Banners; Paret, Internal War.

61 Calabria: Finley, Monstrous; Davis, Napoleon; Colletta, Naples.

62 Eyck, Loyal Rebels; Broers, Under Napoleon.

63 Zaragoza: Rudorff, Death (“infernal”: 141; “foaming”: 170; “fury”: 127; “madmen”: 158); Brandt, Legions (“death lurked”: 58); Jacob, Travels, 123 (“feminine”); Vaughan, Narrative (“well bred”: 4; “to the knife”: 23; “enraged populace”: 26); Fraser, Cursed War (“hell opened”: 167); Southey, Peninsular War (“raving,” “knife”: 2.25); Oman, Peninsular War, 1.140–62; Esdaile, Peninsular War; Bell, Total War; Gates, Spanish Ulcer.

64 Bourrienne, Memoirs3.123.

65 Esdaile, Peninsular War, 38–40; Tone, Fatal Knot, 49–50; Fraser, Cursed War, 56–71.

66 Napoleon, Correspondence, 1.341.

67 “Guerrilla”: Esdaile, Resistance, 137–60.

68 Tone, Fatal Knot, 53.

69 “Heretics”: Esdaile, Fighting Napoleon, 63. Antichrist: Rudorff, Death, 43.

70 Fraser, Cursed War, 132.

71 Blaze, Captain Blaze, 100.

72 Espoz y Mina: Espoz y Mina, Breve extracto (13,000 men: 35; customs, courts: 39-43); Tone, Fatal Knot (“Lancers”: 208; “little king”: 132; lemon seller: 134; killed 5,500: 140); Fraser, Cursed War (“slightly blond”: 391); Southey, Peninsular War, vol. 5; Esdaile, Fighting Napoleon.

73 Troop levels: Sherer, Military Memoirs, 274; Tone, Fatal Knot, 3–4; Gates, Spanish Ulcer, appendix 2.

74 Suchet, Memoirs, 1.57.

75 Brandt, Legions, 165.

76 Disorganization: Fraser, Cursed War, 422–23; Connelly, Gentle, 148, 168–72, 188.

77 Rocca, Memoirs, 147–48.

78 Lieven, Russia, 218–19; Zamoyski, Moscow, 327–30. Notwithstanding the activities of a few famous partisan leaders such as Denis Davidov, Zamoyski writes (329) that “modern Russian historians are generally agreed that there is no guerrilla that could bear any comparison with the Spanish model, and that the contribution of the peasants was largely confined to opportunistic pillage and murder.”

79 Wellington to Earl of Liverpool, May 28, 1812, Dispatches, 9.191.

80 Espoz y Mina, Breve extracto, 23.

81 Gates, Total War, 280. No exact casualty figure exists. Estimates that included wounded and prisoners range from 240,000 to 600,000. See Fraser, Cursed War, 417.

82 Suchet, Memoirs, 1.44.

83 Wellington, Dispatches, 11.349.

84 “Studied”: Jomini, Art of War, 29. “Terrible”: 26. “Scarcely”: 27. “Chivalrous”: 31.

85 “Fire”: Clausewitz, On War, 777. “Artificial”: 776. “Soul”: 781. In addition to ch. 25 of On War (“Arming the Nation”), Clausewitz worked on a study about guerrilla warfare that was never published and does not survive. See Paret, Internal War, 34–35; Sumida, Decoding.

86 Jomini, Art of War, 31.

87 Start of revolt: Edwards, Survey (“screams”: 68; nailed alive: 74; “field of carnage”: 63; “terror”: 70); Edwards, History Civil, 3.351 (arretez); Hopkirk, Account (infant emblem: 17; sawed in half: 18; “the torch”: 18); Popkin, Revolution (“blameless”: 56; “tatters,” “utensils,” “assassin”: 77); Heinl, Written (“vengeance”: 40; slave punishments: 23–24); Rainsford, Account (“indulgence”: 88); Parham, My Odyssey, 27–45 (“unchained”: 40); Geggus, Studies, 5 (sugar, coffee), ch. 6 (Bois Caiman ceremony); Stoddard, French Revolution (“wall of fire”: 131); Dubois, Avengers (veterans: 109).

88 Louverture, Revolution, 1.

89 Louverture: Geggus, “Toussaint” (“contacts”: 116); Rainsford, Account, 240–45; Bell, Toussaint Louverture, 57–83; Dubois, Avengers, 171–76 (“Black Spartacus”: 172); Geggus, Studies, 16; Popkin, Revolution, 277 (“haughty”).

90 Lacroix, La révolution, 214.

91 “Brigands”: Howard, Haitian Journal, 79. “Ambuscades”: 80. “Lolling”: 43. Drowned: 49.

92 For the constitution’s text see Louverture, Revolution, 45–61.

93 Louverture, Memoir, 324–25.

94 Bell, Toussaint, 293.

95 Rainsford, Account, 252–53.

96 Dubroca, Life, 62–63.

97 “Lash”: Popkin, Racial Revolution, 277. “Splendor”: 279.

98 Chazotte, Black Rebellion, 34.

99 “White and black”: Fraser, Pauline, 67. Affair with Napoleon: 142–44.

100 Napoleon, Correspondance, 7.504.

101 Pachonski, Caribbean Tragedy, 137; Heinl, Written, 111.

102 Lacroix, La révolution, 320.

103 “Word of honor”: Louverture, Memoir, 316. “Surrounded”: 318. “Frightful”: 326.

104 Leclerc, Lettres, 254.

105 Beard, Toussaint, 168.

106 “Inhuman”: Popkin, Revolution, 297. “Tiger”: 345. “Panic”: Chazotte, Black Rebellion, 61.

107 Bourrienne, Memoirs, 2.91.

108 Pachonski, Caribbean Tragedy, 99; Dubois, Avengers, 289.

109 Leclerc, Lettres, 256.

110 Atrocities: Fick, Making, 220–22; Hassal, Secret History, 99 (burned alive); Pachonski, Caribbean Tragedy, 113–14 (dogs); Rainsford, Account, 327 (“putrefaction”); Léger, Haiti, 135–36; Ott, Revolution; Popkin, Revolution, 332 (“fat”); Annual Register(1803), 329 (“atrocious”).

111 Dubois, Avengers, 277, 295; Auguste, L’expedition, 163–65.

112 Popkin, Revolution, 331.

113 Annual Register (1803), 333.

114 Bell, Toussaint, 252; Dubois, Avengers, 269.

115 Méneval, Memoirs, 1.194.

116 Slave revolts: Geggus, Studies, 55; Davis, Inhuman Bondage, ch. 11; Shaw, Spartacus, 12–13.

117 Price, Maroon Societies, 7. See also Zips, Black Rebels, ch. 4; Campbell, Maroons.

118 Annual Register (1803), 334.

119 Fick, Haiti, 15–19; Geggus, Studies, 5.

120 Dubois, Avengers, 172.

121 Casualties: Scheina, Latin America’s Wars, 1.xiii–xiv (“six times”); Auguste, L’expedition Leclerc, 316; Girard, Paradise Lost, 49; Geggus, Studies, 20; Duffy, Soldiers, 328–29.

122 1798 revolt: Kee, Green Flag (“without mercy”: 99; six weeks: 122; 50,000 killed: 123; military was Irish Catholic: 99); Gordon, Rebellion (salt in wounds: 253); Elliott, Wolfe Tone.

123 Slatta, Bolivar’s Quest, 41.

124 “Intelligent, “cowards”: Letters, 34. “Own way”: 28.

125 Péta: “Adventures of a Foreigner—IV” (November 1826) (“regular fire,” “dreadful cries,” “torrent”); Brewer, Greek War, 148–53; St. Clair, Greece, 97–102; Gordon, History, 1.387–94; Finlay, History, 1.326–31; Howarth, Adventure, 93–96.

126 Fireship: Brewer, Greek War, 163–64; Gordon, Greek Revolution, 1.367–69; Finlay, History, 1.316–18; Howarth, Adventure, 44–45.

127 Chios: Argenti, Massacres; Brewer, Greek War, 164–66; Gordon, Greek Revolution, 1.367–69; Finlay, History, 1.311–14, 319–20.

128 Walsh, Residence, 1.385.

129 “Adventures of a Foreigner—I” (August 1826).

130 Trelawny, Recollections, 192.

131 Byron, “On This Day I Complete My Thirty-Sixth Year.”

132 St. Clair, Greece, 66.

133 Green, Sketches, 207.

134 See, e.g., Wellington, Despatches, 3.113–16.

135 NA/ADM; Woodhouse, Battle; Codrington, Memoirs, vol. 2.

136 Letter from Codrington, Oct. 21, 1827, NA/ADM.

137 St. Clair, Greece, 274–75.

138 Bass, Freedom’s Battle, 151.

139 “Rampant”: Roosevelt, Letters, 93. “Humanity”: 122–23.

140 Melena, Recollections, 230; Parris, Lion, 15.

141 Garibaldi, Autobiography, 1.19.

142 Mazzini, Writings (“method”: 1.109; “merit”: 1.374); Hibbert, Garibaldi, 15 (“dangerous”); Mack Smith, Mazzini; Bayly, Mazzini.

143 Macaroni: Ridley, Garibaldi, 46. “Destined”: Hibbert, Garibaldi, 17.

144 Tortured: Garibaldi, Autobiography, 1.45–47; Ridley, Garibaldi, 67–69; Trevelyan, Garibaldi’s Defence, 26. “Chivalrous”: Riall, Garibaldi, 45.

145 Ridley, Garibaldi, 43, 118, 139, 187, 318.

146 Garibaldi, Autobiography, 2.23.

147 Ridley, Garibaldi, 178; Mack Smith, Garibaldi, 24.

148 Winnington-Ingram, Hearts of Oak, 93.

149 Anita: Garibaldi, Autobiography, 1.78–79 (“mine”); Ridley, Garibaldi, 85–94; Riall, Garibaldi, 43 (“two years”); Valerio, Anita; Hibbert, Garibaldi, 19–21; Parris, Lion (“wench”: 55).

150 Riall, Garibaldi, 47–58; Scirocco, Garibaldi, 125–30; Parris, Lion, 64.

151 Garibaldi, My Life, 3.

152 Ibid., 9–14; Garibaldi, Autobiography, 1.258–88 (“holy”: 261).

153 Rome and retreat: Garibaldi, Autobiography, 2.19–20 (wanted guerrilla war), 1.2–3 (“scum,” “vice”), 2.22 (“entreaties”), 2.23 (“timidity”), 2.40 (bushes), 2.32 (“suffering”); Forbes, Campaigns, 334 (“Antichrist”); Ossoli, Memoirs, 2.64 (lions); Dandolo,Volunteers, 189–290; Mazzini, Life, 5.192–64; Trevelyan, Garibaldi’s Defence; Ridley, Garibaldi, 308 (“hunger”); Riall, Garibaldi; Mack Smith, Garibaldi; Hibbert, Garibaldi, 45–121.

154 Melena, General Garibaldi, 229.

155 Vecchj, Caprera, 5.

156 Melena, Public, vii.

157 Hibbert, Garibaldi, 171–72; Ridley, Garibaldi, 426–28; Riall, Garibaldi, 180–82.

158 Melena, Public, 26.

159 Ibid., 14.

160 1859 campaign: Trevelyan, ”War-Journals”; Parris, Lion, 152 (“disorganizing”); Times (London), July 26, 1859; Hibbert, Garibaldi, 146–62; Ridley, Garibaldi, 397–415.

161 Trevelyan, Thousand, 226–27; Ridley, Garibaldi, 436–41.

162 Thousand: Riall, Garibaldi, 183–84; Ridley, Garibaldi, 443–44; Mack Smith, Garibaldi, 91–92; Forbes, Campaign, 143 (“religion”).

163 Calatafimi: Garibaldi, Autobiography, 2.165 (“hail”), 2.167 (“immeasurable”); Garibaldi, My Life, 95 (“decrepit”); Abba, Diary (“intoxicated”: 33; “covered”: 37; “miracle: 39; “traces”: 41); Forbes, Campaign, 30–33; Mundy, H.M.S. Hannibal, 86–88; Hibbert,Garibaldi, 211–14.

164 Palermo: Garibaldi, My Life, 101 (“joined us”), 104 (“balcony”); Trevelyan, Thousand, 303 (population, troops); Abba, Diary; Trevelyan, “War-Journal” (“fallen”); Forbes, Campaign (“feints”: 42; “carnage”: 57; “rules”: 93); Mario, Red Shirt; Mundy, H.M.S. Hannibal, 110–85; Times(London), June 18, 1860; Hibbert, Garibaldi, 219–37.

165 Forbes, Campaign, 233.

166 New York Times, Oct. 29, 1860.

167 Ridley, Garibaldi, 515, notes, “He had ruled 4,000,000 subjects in April 1859; in November 1860 he ruled 22,000,000, of whom 9,000,000 had been given to him by Garibaldi in the former Kingdom of Naples.”

168 Forbes, Campaigns, 2.

169 Parris, Garibaldi, 277.

170 Times (London), April 12, 1864; New York Times, April 28, 1864; Parris, Garibaldi, 287; Hibbert, Garibaldi, 341.

171 Ridley, Garibaldi, 521–23; Parris, Lion, 269–70.

172 Trevelyan, Thousand, 6.

173 Lieber, Instructions, 26, 29; Hartigan, Lieber’s Code; Grimsley, Hard Hand, 144–51; Fellman, Inside War, 82–84.

174 Franco-Prussian War: Hatley, “Inevitable” (16,000 men: 279; “element”: 247; Châtillon-sur-Seine: 250–51); Howard, Franco-Prussian War, 249 (“pause”), 251 (“not soldiers”); Wawro, Franco-Prussian, 288–89, 309; Showalter, German Unification, 319; Ridley, Garibaldi; Garibaldi,Autobiography (“oppressed”: 3.403); Horne, Atrocities (“harsh”: 140–41); Hibbert, Garibaldi, 360 (“execrable”); Melena, Public, 285 (“left”).

175 Mack Smith, Garibaldi, 179.

176 Hibbert, Garibaldi, xiii.

177 Bin Laden to Zawahiri, 2002. Harmony Database, CTC, AFGP-2002-600321.

178 Shelley, Hellas, 51.

179 Hassal, Secret History, 152.

180 “Misery”: Riall, Garibaldi, 369. “Base”: 371.

181 Bolívar, Selected Writings, 1.117.

182 Ibid., 2.761. San Martín also warned of “anarchy”: Harrison, Captain, 175.

BOOK III: THE SPREADING OIL SPOT:
THE WARS OF EMPIRE

1 In 1450, 1800: Lynn, Acta. In 1914: Headrick, Tools, 3.

2 Thornton, Warfare, 150.

3 Morris, Washing.

4 Boot, War Made New, 77–103.

5 Kopperman, BraddockWP/CS, 1.336; Anderson, Crucible (casualty figures: 760, n. 17); Russell, “Redcoats”; Grenier, Way.

6 Jamestown: Smith, Historie (“beasts”: 1.281; “barbarously”: 1.280; “destroy them”: 1.286); Kingsbury, Records (“skies fall”: 3.550; “defacing”: 3.551; “viperous”: 3.553; wine: 4.98–99, 102, 220–22; “perpetual”: 3.672); Price, Love, 200–21; Kupperman,Jamestown, 304–16; Rountree,Powhatan, 69–78 (Indian dress); Rountree, Pocahontas’s People, 73–77; Neill, Memoir, 57 (“happy league”); Vaughan, “Expulsion”; Shea, Virginia Militia, 25–38; Horne, Land, 255–62; Steele, Warpaths, 46; Utley, Indian Wars, 8; Grenier, First Way, 23–24; Taylor, American Colonies, 129–37; Fausz, “Barbarous Massacre.”

7 A paraphrase of Wilson, Weep, 47.

WP/CS, 2.233.

9 Champlain, Works (“frightened,” “lost courage”: 2.100); Fischer, Champlain’s Dream, 265–70; Trigger, Aataentsic, 249–54; Steele, Warpaths, 64–65.

10 For the use of “Indians,” rather than “Native Americans,” see Mann, 1491, appendix A.

11 Morgan, Heroes, 16 (“horror”), 17 (“cherished”).

12 Mann, 1491, 87.

13 Malone, Skulking Way (firearms: 42–45; Indian marksmanship: 52); Starkey, Native American Warfare, 20–25; Trigger, Cambridge History, vol. 1, pt. 2, pp. 5–21.

14 Rowlandson, Narrative, 68.

15 Parkman, France, 402.

16 Mann, 1491, 94, notes that estimates of Indian population in the New World prior to 1492 range from 8 million to 112 million. He adds (132) that “the High Counters seem to be winning the argument, at least for now.” For the case against the High Counters, see Henige, Numbers.

17 Snow, “European Contact.”

18 Bradford, Plymouth, 327.

19 Wilson, Weep, 75.

20 King Philip’s War: Cook, “Interracial Warfare” (casualty figures); Drake, King Philip’s War; Lepore, Name of War; Schultz, King Philip’s War (253 years: 2); Leach, Flintlocks.

21 Wilson, Weep, 21.

22 Saggs, Assyria, 263–68.

23 70,000 removed: Vandervort, Indian Wars, 122. “Brute”: Rozema, Voices, Kindle location 2363.

24 Missall, Seminole Wars; Mahon, Second Seminole War; Sprague, Florida War.

25 Sand Creek: U.S. Congress, Report (“brains”: 42); Greene, Sand Creek; Hoig, Sand Creek; Hatch, Black Kettle, 146–67.

26 Washita: Hardorff, Washita (buffalo trail: 107–8; “heap Injuns”: 137; “close”: 111; “moody”: 153; “watch tick”: 207; “village rang”: 114; “eyelids”: 208; “determined defense”: 82; “gorgeous”: 210; “superior”: 88; ponies killed: 26–27, 144; mistress: 231; “nice”: 171; casualties: 78–79); Custer, Wild Life, 206–33; Godfrey, “Reminiscences” (“Wilderness”); Brewster, “Battle” (“oppressive,” “boys”); Barnitz, Life (“dispatch[ed]”: 220; “surprising”: 227); Spotts, Campaigning; Keim, Troopers, 145 (“mutilation”). For secondary sources, see Greene, Washita; Hoig, Washita; Epple,Custer’s Battle; Hatch, Black Kettle; Utley, Regulars (“total war”: 144); Brill, Custer, Black Kettle; Wert, Custer (mistress: 287–88); Utley, Cavalier, 64–78; Barnard, Hoosier.

27 The U.S. army and civilian figures are for 1848–90; the figure for Indians is for 1865–90. Vandervort, Indian Wars, xiv.

28 “Better”: Hassrick, Sioux, 32. “Courting”: 33. “Suffer”: 34. Coup: 90–91.

29 270,000 Indians: Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Report 1866, 372. 100,000 hostiles: Utley, Frontier Regulars. 5.8 million Americans: Utley, Indian Wars, 161. 30,000 Sioux: U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Report 1866, 371.

30 Utley, Indian Wars, 193.

31 U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Annual Report 1873, 3–4.

32 Utley, Regulars, 15.

33 Ibid., 22.

34 Crook: Cozzens, Eyewitnesses, 5.213, 246; Bourke, Border, 110 (“lance”); AHEC/CKP, box 1 (“vices”: Diary, Jan. 31, 1873–Feb. 15, 1873; cribbage: Diary, Aug. 13, 1885–Dec. 11, 1887; “pastime”: A. H. Nickerson, “Major General George Crook and the Indians: A Sketch”).

35 Aleshire, Fox, ix.

36 Cozzens, Eyewitnesses, 5.217.

37 Crook, “Apache Problem,” 263–65 (“wildest,” “physique,” “pard,” “trail”).

38 Bourke, Border, 443.

39 Diary, Jan. 31, 1873–Feb. 15, 1873, AHEC/CKP, box 1.

40 Geronimo: AHEC/CKP; Aleshire, Fox; Crook, Autobiography; Miles, Recollections, 445–532, and Serving, 219–32; Bourke, Border; Bourke, Apache Campaign; Roberts, They Moved (266 mules, 327 men: 228; $2: 309); Aleshire, Fox; Utley, Frontier Regulars, 344–96; Vandervort, Indian Wars, 192–10; Geronimo, Story; Gatewood, Memoir; Thrapp, Apacheria; Cozzens, Eyewitnesses, vol. 1.

41 Alcohol, swearing: Utley, Cavalier, 108–9; Wert, Custer, 46; Barnett, Touched, 80.

42 “Genial”: A. H. Nickerson, “Major General George Crook and the Indians: A Sketch,” AHEC/CKP, box 1. “Pomp”: Bourke, Border, 108.

43 Cozzens, Eyewitness, 4.251.

44 Little Bighorn: Utley, Frontier Regulars; Yenne, Sitting Bull and Indian Wars; Cozzens, Eyewitnesses, vol. 4; Michino, Lakota Noon (estimates of Indian strength: 3–12); Gray, Custer’s Last Campaign and Centennial Campaign; Wert, Custer; Utley, Cavalier; Vandervort, Indian Wars; Hutton, Custer Reader and Soldiers West; Scott, Perspectives; Godfrey, Account; AHEC/CKP, box 1 (“lithe”: A. H. Nickerson, “Major General George Crook and the Indians: A Sketch”); Utley, Cavalier, 65 (“Indians enough”).

45 Utley, Indian Wars; St. Clair, Narrative; Trigger, Cambridge History, vol. 1, pt. 1.

46 Reasonable choice: Friedman, “Strategy Trap.”

47 Miles: AHEC/NAM (“nature”: Winfield S. Hancock to 2nd Corps Headquarters, June 24, 1863, box 1; “sleepless,” “uncommon”: Francis C. Barlow to Sen. Henry Wilson, Nov. 28, 1863, box 1; “pounding”: Phil Sheridan to Adjutant General, Oct. 25, 1877, box 2); Finerty, War-Path (“no rest”: 298); Remington, John Ermine (“light fires”: 136); Miles, Recollections (“Esquimaux”: 219; 60 below: 218); Cozzens, Eyewitnesses, vol. 4; Utley, Frontier Regulars; Greene: LakotaYellowstoneBattlesMorning; Robinson,Good Year; Andrist, Long Death; DeMontravel, A Hero; Wooster, Nelson A. Miles.

48 Vandervort, Indian Wars, 46.

49 Gimri: Baddeley, Conquest (snow: 276; “ferocious”: 266–69; Germentchug: 27–274); Blanch, Sabres (“bare”: 70; “wild beast”: 73–74); al-Qarakhi, Shining (pulled out sword: 22); Gammer, Resistance, 58–59; Allen, Caucasian Battlefields, 47–48 (“Wahabi”).

50 Baddeley, Conquest, xxxvi.

51 Blanch, Sabres, 1.

52 Yermolou: Baddeley, Conquest (abandoned gun: 107; “terror”: 97); King, Ghost of Freedom, 45–50; Gammer, Resistance, 29–38, and Lone Wolf, 31–44; Blanch, Sabres, 22–26; Longworth, Russia, 199–200; Dunlop, Chechnya, 13–18.

53 Tolstoy, Hadji Murat, 63.

54 Gammer, Resistance, 22.

55 Origins of gazavat: Gammer, Resistance, 39–65; Gammer, Lone Wolf, 45–50; King, Ghost, 64–73; Zelkina, Quest, 121–68; Blanch, Sabres, 54–124; Baddeley, Conquest, 230–88; Dunlop, Chechnya, 23–24; Seton-Watson, Russian Empire, 291–92.

56 Shamil’s appearance: Blanch, Sabres, 48 (height), 52 (henna), 129 (“flames darted”); Tolstoy, Hadji Murad, 67 (“hewn”).

57 Second escape: Blanch, Sabres, 162–74; Baddeley, Conquest, 328–43; King, Ghost, 79–80; Gammer, Resistance, 96–109.

58 Baddeley, Conquest, 438.

59 Blanch, Sabres, 129–33; Baddeley, Conquest (“betraying”: 378); Gammer, Resistance, 239–40.

60 Zelkina, Quest, 223.

61 Gammer, Muslim Resistance, 24; King, Ghost, 90.

62 J. A. Longworth to the Earl of Clarendon, July 20, 1855, NA/CIR.

63 Vernadsky, Source Book, 3.609.

64 Ibid.

65 War’s end: Blanch, Sabres, 293–301, 390–410; Baddeley, Russian Conquest, 437–82; al-Qarakhi, Shining, 61–65; King, Ghost, 84–92; Gammer, Resistance, 277–79, and Lone Wolf, 63–64; Zelkina, Quest, 226–34; Barrett, “Remaking.”

66 Abd el-Kader: Kiser, Commander (Shamil’s thanks: 303); Churchill, Abdel Kader; Danziger, Abd al-Qadir.

67 Baddeley, Conquest, 480.

68 King, Ghost, 76.

69 See Lermontov’s A Hero of Our Time and Tolstoy’s Hadji MuradThe Cossacks, and “The Wood-Felling: A Junker’s Tale,” in Sevastopol and Other Military Tales, 154–205.

70 Start of march: Kaye, History (“ankle-deep”: 2.329); “Brydon’s Ride,” in Sale, Journal (“charred”: 161); Sale, Journal (frosty: 95; “disorganized”: 102); Eyre, Military Operations (size of force: 196; “dreary”: 195; “conflagration”: 199; “fell”: 199).

71 Kipling, “Hymn before Action” (1896).

72 Army of the Indus: Kaye, History, 1.379,388, 389 (“comforts”), 1.464 (“bayonets”); Waller, Beyond, 137–38; Havelock, Narrative, 1.23 (“mortifying”); Gleig, Sale’s Brigade, 69–73 (cricket).

73 Gleig, Sale’s Brigade, 100.

74 Kaye, History, 2.336–37.

75 Sale to T. H. Maddock, April 16, 1842, NA/RBJ (“fanatical,” “melancholy”).

76 Lunt, Bokhara Burnes; Burnes, Cabool.

77 Sale, Journal, 37.

78 Ibid., 20.

79 Kaye, History, 2.191.

80 Ibid., 196.

81 Ibid., 273.

82 Colley, Captives.

83 End of march: NA/AC; Kaye, History (“ankle-deep”: 2.329; “incessant”: 2.162; “dark”: 2.384: “cruel”: 2.385); “Brydon’s Ride,” in Sale, Journal (“charred”: 161); Sale, Journal (“frost-bitten”: 108); Eyre, Military Operations, 195–235 (size of force: 196; “faintest semblance”: 201; “monstrous”: 205; 3,000 died: 209; “slaughter”: 208; 700 Europeans: 196); Marshman, Memoirs, 50 (“stupendous”); Gleig, Sale’s Brigade; Stewart, Crimson Snow, 145–75; Macrory, Retreat, 197–238; Waller, Beyond, 236–55; Tanner,Afghanistan, 193 (hostages); Norris, First Afghan War, 378–81; Dupree, Afghanistan, 388–93.

84 Maj. Rawlinson to Maj.-Gen. Nott, Feb. 1, 1842, NA/AC, 75.

85 Low, Pollock, 255–58.

86 Colley, Captives, 354 (“scribbling”).

87 Ibid., 363.

88 Pollock to Maj. Gen. Lumley, Oct. 13, 1842, NA/AC, 217.

89 Low, Pollock, 416.

90 Kaye, History, 3.376.

91 Proclamation by governor general, Oct. 1, 1842, NA/AC, 214.

92 Second Afghan War: Robson, Road (casualties: 299); Intelligence Branch, Official Account; Hanna, Second Afghan War; Roberts, Forty-One Years, vol. 2; Hensman, Afghan War.

93 Third Afghan War: Robson, Crisis.

94 Elphinstone, Caubul, 253.

95 Schofield, Afghan Frontier, 163.

96 Warburton, Eighteen Years, 343.

97 Malakand Field Force: Churchill, Malakand Field Force, 127 (“chastise”), 204 (“roadless,” “march anywhere”), 168 (“destroyed”), 66 (“no quarter”); Churchill, Young Winston’s Wars; CAM/CHUR, 28/23; Blood, Four Score; Pioneer, Risings; Schofield, Afghan Frontier, 107–11; Swinson,North-West Frontier, 232–55.

98 Great Britain, Hansard’s, 54.749, March 7, 1898.

99 “Pinpricking,” “we had”: Masters, Bugles, 194–95. “Castrate”: 199. “Few”: 197.

100 Kipling, Complete Verse, 414–16.

101 Masters, Bugles, 201.

102 Maurice, History, 1.91–92.

103 Henissart, Wolves, 29.

104 Porch, Morocco, 85–86. For a response, see Singer, Force, 200–201.

105 Lyautey, “Du rôle social.”

106 Windrow, Our Friends, 170.

107 Lyautey, Lettres, 1.122.

108 Maurois, Lyautey, 47.

109 Ibid., 54.

110 Gann, Proconsuls, 90.

111 Indochina: Ibid., 80–108; Hoisington, Lyautey, 7; Gershovich, Military Rule, 30; Thompson, Indo-China, 74; Earle, Makers, 238–40; Windrow, Our Friends, 191–209.

112 Lyautey, “Du rôle colonial.”

113 Porch, Morocco, xxii; Bidwell, Morocco, xi.

114 Porch, Morocco, 187. For a contrary view see Hoisington, Lyautey, 53, 206.

115 Morocco population: Park, Historical Dictionary, 98.

116 Windrow, Our Friends, 167.

117 Burnoose: Maurois, Lyautey, 115–17. “Notables”: 158. “Passion”: 50.

118 Harris, Morocco, 295.

119 Maurois, Lyautey, 196.

120 El-Hiba: Porch, Morocco, 266–67; Hoisington, Lyautey, 46; Gershovich, Military Rule, 96; Maxwell, Lords, 129–30; Bidwell, Morocco, 104; Windrow, Our Friends, 403. “Execution”: Boot, War Made New, 148.

121 Maurois, Lyautey, 168–69.

122 Gershovich, Military Rule, 80.

123 Rif: Woolman, Rebels (half million: 196); Gershovich, Military Rule, 122–66; Pennell, Country.

124 Lyautey, Lettres, 2.129. Degrees, “bad”: Earle, Makers, 258.

125 Black Week: Amery, Times History, 3.2 (“unsuccess,” “stinging”), 3.3 (“stirred”) ; Fitzgibbon, Arts, 2 (“deep gloom”); NA/SAD, vol. 1; Doyle, Great Boer War, 108–9 (“disastrous”); Pennell, Whistler, 253–54 (“whipped”); TimesGuardianObserver; Victoria,Letters, 3.434 (“grieved”);Daily Telegraph, Dec. 11, 1899 (“grave news”), Dec. 16 (“reverse”); Daily Mail, Dec. 15 (“heavy losses”); Farwell, Anglo-Boer War, 139–47; Pakenham, Boer, 252–64.

126 Population: http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp99/rp99-111.pdf. Industrialized: Kennedy, Rise and Fall, 200.

127 Schikkerling, Commando, 207–8.

128 Reitz, Commando, 142.

129 Maurice, History, 1.1; Amery, Times History, 2.88.

130 Pakenham, Boer, 253.

131 Times (London), Dec. 18, 1899.

132 Kipling, “Bobs” (1892).

133 Maurice, History, 4.5; Pakenham, Boer War, 486.

134 De Wet: Pienaar, With Steyn, 97 (“sorry sight”), 103 (“castrate”); Wilson, After Pretoria, 1.49; De Wet, Three Years, 75 (“rapidity”); Rosenthal, De Wet, foreword (“byword”); Rosslyn, Captured, 256 (“undistinguished”).

135 Sanna’s Post: De Wet, Three Years (“hands up”: 66); Rosenthal, De Wet, 74–78; Amery, Times History, 4.29–50; Pakenham, Boer War (30,000 men: 414); Farwell, Anglo-Boer War, 257–63.

136 Smuts raid: Reitz, Commando, 112 (George Washington), 215 (“every valley”), 218 (“finished”), 219 (“glissading”), 212 (“evil dreams”), 209 (“ragged”), 223 (“froze”), 210 (“first slice”), 230 (“refitted”); Smuts, Smuts, 63 (Anabasis), 61 (250 men); Smuts,Papers, 1.433 (“poison”), 1.434 (“terrible”), 1.437 (“right”).

137 James, Heels, 12.

138 Mosley, Glorious Fault, 119.

139 Farwell, Anglo-Boer War, 353.

140 Phillipps, With Rimington, 201.

141 Great Britain, Hansard’s, 90.180, March 1, 1901.

142 Reconcentrado: Tone, War, 193 (deaths), 164 (“bonbons”); Thomas, Cuba, 329–31.

143 Pakenham, Scramble; Hull, Destruction.

144 Hamilton, Commander, 67.

145 Concentration camps: Hobhouse, Brunt, 116 (“indescribable”), 118 (“luxury”), 153 (“barbarism”); Hall, Bloody Woman, 3 (“bloody”); Hamilton, Commander, 67 (“feel”); Martin, Concentration Camps, 31 (death figures); Judd, Boer War; Pakenham, Boer War, 549 (150,000).

146 Pakenham, Boer War, 492.

147 2,000 volunteers: Judd, Boer War, 247.

148 Blockhouses: NA/BLOCK; Fuller, Last, 107–48 (“nothing to do”: 111); Wilson, After Pretoria, 2.546–50; Maurice, History, 4.568–76.

149 NA/AT.

150 “Blockhead”: De Wet, Three Years, 260. “Succeeded”: 261. “Night”: 263. “Undoing: 18. “Probability”: 224.

151 Andrew, Secret Service, 29; Pakenham, Boer War, 573.

152 Woolls-Sampson: Sampson, Anti-Commando (“fanatical”: 99; “mad”: 150; “enflamed”: 134); Farwell, Anglo-Boer War, 356–57; Pakenham, Boer War, 573.

153 “Attrition”: Reitz, Commando, 314. “Ruin,” “disastrous”: 322.

154 Maurice, History, 4.562.

155 Reconstruction: Amery, Times History, vol. 6; Milner Papers, 2.367–403; Thompson, Forgotten Patriot, 219–38.

156 Fuller, Last.

157 “Massed”: Fuller, Last, 7. Fatalities: Amery, Times History, 7.25.

158 “Friendly”: Lt. Gen. Bindon Blood, Aug. 27, 1901, NA/SAD, 1.159. “Rules”: 1.160.

159 Philippines: Boot, Savage Wars, ch. 5.

160 Amery, Times History, 3.3.

161 Callwell, Small Wars, ch. 11.

162 Ibid., 24.

163 Mockaitis, Counterinsurgency, 18.

164 Kipling, Complete Verses, 327. See also Gilmour, Recessional, 119–24.

BOOK IV: THE BOMB THROWERS:
THE FIRST AGE OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

1 Assassins: Lewis, Assassins (“genius”: 37; “dared to leave”: 51; “cursed and fled”: 1; “unlike”: xi); Daftary, Assassin Legends; Bartlett, Assassins (50 victims: 68; “dignity”: 97); Juvaini, History; Hodgson, Secret Order.

2 Fraser, Faith; Williamson, Gunpowder Plot.

3 Dash, Thug. For a comparison of Thugs, Sicarii, and Assassins, see Rapoport, “Fear.”

4 Jensen, “Anarchist Terrorism.”

5 Rapoport, “Fourth Wave.”

6 Pottawatomie: BSC (“Freedom,” “confidence”: Brown to John Brown Jr., July 9,1858); U.S. House, Special Committee, 1193–206 (“come back”: 1193; “old man”: 1195; “cut off”: 1195); Brown, Truth, 20–41; Oates, To Purge, 126–38 (damp wind: 134); Carton,Patriotic Treason, 187–93; Reynolds, John Brown, 138–78; Villard, John Brown, 148–88 (“WAR”: 189).

7 Watts, “How Bloody,” 123.

8 Ruchames, Brown Reader, 38.

9 Hinton, John Brown, 679.

10 Reynolds, John Brown, 152.

11 “Wild”: Brown, Truth, 70. “Strike,” “example”: 68. “Barbarians”: KSH/WJB, 281.

12 Black Jack: BSC; KSH/JBP; KSH/BBJ; KSH/WJB (“memories”); Oates, To Purge, 152–54; Carton, Patriotic Treason, 207–12; Reynolds, John Brown, 185–88.

13 Osawatomie: BSC; Brown to family, Sept. 7, 1856, KSH/JBP; Bridgman, With Brown; Reynolds, John Brown, 199–201 (“end”: 200); Carton, Patriotic Treason, 216–20; Oates, To Purge, 169–71.

14 “Damaging”: Brown, Truth, 70. “Terrified”: 74.

15 Reynolds, John Brown, 175.

16 Brown to John Brown Jr., July 9, 1858, BSC.

17 Renehan, Secret Six, ch. 3.

18 “All the books”: Hinton, John Brown, 182–83. “Admirably”: 673. “Iron”: LifeTrial, 14. “Preparatory”: Reynolds, John Brown, 241.

19 Harpers Ferry: Life, Trial (“gory”: 85; “mockery”: 55; “forfeit”: 95); BSC (“cheerful”: Brown to Mary Ann Brown, Oct. 31, 1859); Boteler, “Recollections” (“drizzly”); Green, “Capture” (blue; “tigers”); Daingerfield, “John Brown”; Rosengarten, “Brown’s Raid”; Chambers, “School-Girl”; Moore, “Eyewitness”: Strother, “Invasion” (“variety”); Carton, Patriotic Treason; Reynolds, John Brown; Oates, To Purge.

20 Thoreau, Writings, 10.234.

21 Ruchames, Brown Reader, 331.

22 Fleming, Documentary, 1.455–56.

23 Rable, No Peace, 26; Zuczek, Rebellion, 160.

24 Zuczek, Rebellion, 127.

25 KKK origin: Lester, Ku Klux Klan (“diversion”: 53; “mysterious”: 56; 500,000 members: 30; “kulos”: 55); Fleming, Documentary, vol. 2; Trelease, White Terror, xv–64; Hahn, Nation, 257 (“rubric”), 269 (“guerrilla”); Foner, Reconstruction, 342, 425; Franklin,Slavery, 248–51.

26 Elias Hill: Unless otherwise specified, all quotations are from U.S. Congress, KKK Report, 5.1406–15, 1477. See also Martinez, Carpetbaggers, 77–78; Lester, Ku Klux Klan (“terror”: 73; “ignorant”: 74; “darkies”: 22) Budiansky, Bloody Shirt, 131–33; West,York County, 83–84; Trelease,White Terror, 371–72.

27 KKK murders: U.S. Congress, KKK Report, 5.1472, 5.1678–79, 5.1712–41 (Williams); Rubin, Scalawags, 46–47; Zuczek, Rebellion, 54; Martinez, Carpetbaggers, 1–6, 25; Trelease, White Terror, 116, 367; West, York County, 123–25 (Williams); Budiansky,Bloody Shirt, 122–23; Williamson, After Slavery, 260; Lamson, Glorious Failure, 83–84.

28 Foner, Reconstruction, 437.

29 Ibid., 434.

30 Sefton, Army, 261–62; Trelease, White Terror, xxxiv; Gillette, Retreat, 35. 900 agents: Foner, Reconstruction, 143.

31 1870 Census (online).

32 York: U.S. Congress, KKK Report, 5.1482 (“sporadic” ), 5.1600 (“powerless”), 5.1602 (600 cases), 5.1465 (“beating, whipping”), 5.1603 (“white community,” “wickedness”), 5.1602 (“game”), 5.1605 (“crushed”); New York Tribune, Nov. 13, 1871 (“German professor”; “dreariness”); Akerman to Merrill, Nov. 9, 1871, ATA (“villainies”); Letters Sent, vol. 1.10, NARA/RPY (“kindly”); “respectable”: vol. 2.64, NARA/RPY; NARA/DOJ-SC, box 1, folder 5; NARA/DOJ-LS, reels 13–14; Casey to President, Aug. 7, 1862, NARA/LM, roll 38 (“talent”); Martinez,Carpetbaggers, 76–106, 133–233; Zuczek, Rebellion, 93–122 (sentences, convictions: 101, 122; Bratton: 120); Budiansky, Bloody Shirt (“just the man”: 136); West, York County, 80–108, 126–30 (Bratton); Fleming, Documentary History, 2. 123–30 (KKK Act); Rable, No Peace, 156 (“no peace”); Trelease, White Terror, 362–80, 401–8.

33 Lester, Ku Klux Klan, 90.

34 For an overview of the historical evidence on the “deal” to remove troops, see Kousser, Region, 417–51.

35 3,000 killed: Budiansky, Bloody Shirt, 7. 650,000 to 850,000 killed: New York Times, April 2, 2012.

36 Horne, Fall.

37 Émile Henry: Merriman, Club (“black pants”: 149; Eiffel Tower: 147; Café: 1–3, 149–55; “perfect little”: 185; “kind of society”: 16); New York Times, Feb. 13, 1894; Vizetelly, Anarchists, 157–62; Malato, “Anarchist Portraits”; Review of Reviews (Jan.–June 1894), 9.269 (“loafer”); Guerin,No Gods (“turned my stomach”: 3.41); Lonergan, Forty Years, 172 (“indifferent”); Carr, Anarchism, 65–66; Cyclopedic Review of Current History (1894), 201 (“atoms”); Joll, Anarchists, 136–38; Rudorff, Belle Epoque, 165–67; Butterworth, World, 326–28.

38 Brousse, “La propagande.” Bakunin had inspired the phrase in 1870: “We must spread our principles, not with words but with deeds, for this is the most popular, the most potent, and the most irresistible form of propaganda.” Bakunin, On Anarchism, 195–96.

39 Anarchist philosophers: Marshall, Demanding; Butterworth, World; Joll, Anarchists (“despair”: 153); Guerin, No Gods; Kropotkin, Memoirs; Bakunin, On Anarchism; Avrich, Portraits; Kedward, Anarchists.

40 Jensen, “Anarchist Terrorism,” 120.

41 Vizetelly, Anarchists, 159–60; Cyclopedic Review of Current History (1894), 208–9; Oliver, Movement (“clumsy”: 104); New York Times, Feb. 16, 1894.

42 Bowden, Terror, 134–61.

43 Joll, Anarchists, 130.

44 Bookchin, Spanish Anarchists, 102; Kedward, Anarchists, 41; New York World, Nov. 9, 1893.

45 Gage, Day; Davis, Wagon; Avrich, Sacco, 204–7.

46 Malato, “Anarchist Portraits”; Carr, Anarchism, 63–65; Merriman, Club, 137–46; Vizetelly, Anarchists, 145–54.

47 Vizetelly, Anarchists, 169; Cyclopedic Review of Current History (1894), 201; Merriman, Club, 174–78.

48 Vizetelly, Anarchists, 163–64.

49 Joll, Anarchists, 133; Weber, France, 117.

50 Avrich, Portraits, 41.

51 Serge, Memoirs, 17.

52 Guerin, No Gods, 3.43.

53 Most, Revolutionary Warfare, 60.

54 New York Times, April 2, 1881.

55 Butterworth, World, 373.

56 Police cooperation: Jensen, “Campaign”; Zuckerman, Secret Police; Deflem, “Wild Beasts”; Ruud, Fontanka, 79–100; Liang, Police, 151–82.

57 Carr, Infernal, 32.

58 Guerin, No Gods, 3.42; Butterworth, World, 327–28.

59 Avrich, Portraits, 111–24; Palij, Makhno; Joll, Anarchists (15,000: 187).

60 Jensen, “Campaign”; Deflem, “Wild Beasts.”

61 Tsar hunt: Radzinsky, Alexander II (sentenced to death: 315; “cold wet mud”: 318; “marmalade”: 322; blind eye: 400; “red cap”: xv; “deafening”: 413; “bloody chunks”: 415); Figner, Memoirs (pine grove: 68; “populist socialist”: 74; “prosperous”: 12; “vivacious”: 28; “spark”: 47; “doll” 79; “struck dumb”: 94); Stepniak, Underground (“charming”: 126; “sweet,” “dreaded”: 127); Marshall, Demanding, 284 (“doomed man”); Hingley, Nihilists (“peasant-lovers”: 74); Figes, Natasha’s Dance, 9 (Winter Palace); Ulam, Name (Winter Palace casualties: 340–41; “uncompromising”: 353); Lincoln, Romanovs, 442–47 (“dreary”: 446); Seth, Russian Terrorists; Ruud, Fontanka, 46–51; Daly, Under Siege, 31–33; Footman, Conspiracy; Venturi, Roots, 633–720; Kennan,Siberia, 2.433–36 (“Nihilists”); Bergman, Vera Zasulich; Siljak, Angel.

62 Pipes, Degaev; Ulam, Name, 380–89; Land, Enemies, 207–10; Seth, Russian Terrorists, 158–63.

63 Pomper, Brother; Naimark, Terrorists, 130–53; Ulam, Name, 328 (emulate), 392–93.

64 Education: Figes, Tragedy, 93 (literacy), 108 (urban), 163 (university students); Brooks, To Read, 4 (literacy), 112 (periodicals).

65 Witte, Memoirs, 210.

66 SRs: Geifman, Thou (airplane: 17; suicide: 74); Geifman, Death, 101 (opera); Savinkov, Memoirs; Hildermeier, Revolutionary (“holy act”: 54); Ascher, Stolypin (18th attempt: 2; suicide bombers: 138–39; assassination: 371–89); Lincoln, Romanovs, 650–68; Ruud, Fontanka, 173–200; Daly,Watchful State.

67 Trotsky, Individual Terrorism, 22.

68 Geifman, Thou, 91.

69 Stalin: Montefiore, Young Stalin (street battles: 128–50; Tiflis holdup: 3–16, 178–81); Deutscher, Stalin, 70–72, 84–90; Geifman, Thou, 21 (2,000 robberies); De Lon, “Stalin,” 182 (“cut throats”), 183–86 (Tiflis robbery).

70 Avrich, Russian Anarchists; Geifman, Thou, 127–38.

71 Geifman, Thou, 21; Ruud, Fontanka 16, 278.

72 Alexander, Once, 224.

73 Russian repression: Pipes, Old Regime, 281-318 (44 executed: 315; exiles: 311); Deutscher, Stalin, 49 (“education”); Ruud, Fontanka; Daly, Under Siege (8,000 exiled: 181; 3,000–5,000 killed: 182), and Watchful State (100 times fewer, “underpoliced”: 5; 200–300: 7); Lauchlan, Hide-and-Seek (161 employees: 85); Zuckerman, Secret Police in Russian Society; Figes, Tragedy, 139 (Das Kapital); Kennan, “Penal Code” (“unpermitted”); Kennan, Siberia, 2.461 (“swarms”); Witte, Memoirs, 257 (“lethargy”); Geifman,Thou; Montefiore, Young Stalin, 107–15; Deutscher, Stalin, 57–58.

74 Azef: Geifman, Entangled; Nikolaejewsky, Aseff; Geifman, Thou, 232–37; Savinkov, Memoirs, 312–51; Ascher, Stolypin, 270–71; Seth, Russian Terrorists, 177–292; Ruud, Fontanka, 125–51; Daly, Watchful State, 84–97.

75 Day, Watchful State, 72.

76 Geifman, Thou, 249.

77 Daly, Watchful State, xi.

78 Fenians: Short, Dynamite War; Golway, Irish Rebel; Kee, Green Flag, 299–351 (2,000 members: 504).

79 Ambush: Breen, My Fight, 7–35; Dan Breen interview: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SYiOUyhSvd0 (“got to kill”); NAI/DB; Hopkinson, Irish War, 115–16; Griffith, Curious Journey, 134 (“farthing”); O’Malley, Wounds, 97 (Small Wars).

80 Dáil: Freeman, Oct. 12, 1921 (“chairs”); NLI/PBP, 912/14 (“national status”); Kee, Green Flag, 630–31; Hopkinson, Irish War, 38–39, 207–9.

81 New York World, Jan. 22–23, 1919.

82 Collins: Hart, Mick (whiskey, cigarettes, swearing: 35; nickname: 105; “fun”: 136; “lightning”: 207; workdays: 244; 12 shot: 212–14; “playboy”: 341); Coogan, Michael Collins (admired De Wet: 13; description: 20; Foy, Intelligence War (“never let”: 40; moles: 44–51); NAI/MCC (“constitutional,” “no jails”: Interview with Gen. Crozier, 422/13); NLI/PBP, 916/4 (Collins to De Wet, Sept. 21, 1921: “inspiration”); Winter, Tale (“Robin Hood”: 345); O’Malley, Wounds, 123 (“hearty”); Barry, Guerilla Days, 241 (“harsh,” “virtually”); Neligan, Spy, 74 (appearance), 88 (“rattled”); Stapleton, “Michael Collins’s Squad” (“extermination”); Kavanagh, “Intelligence Organisation”; NA/IBR, 88 (“nursery”); NAI/JB; NAI/VB (“getting on,” “loved”: 36; “extreme action”: 32); NAI/BCB; NAI/PM (“obnoxious”: 16); NAI/JL; NAI/PL; NAI/CD; NAI/WJS.

83 Neligan, Spy, 84.

84 Bloody Sunday: Maj. E. L. Mills, report, Nov. 22, 1920, NA/IRE (“any need”); Proceedings of Courts of Inquest, Nov. 23, 1920, Dec. 8, 1920, NA/IRE (“surround”); Andrews, Dublin (“winter’s day”: 162); IWM/RDJ; NAI/VB, 53–57 (“both fell dead”); NAI/PM; NAI/JL; NAI/WJS (“hysterical”: 29); NAI/JJS; NAI/CD (“spot”: Interview with Gen. Crozier, 422/13); Dalton, Dublin Brigade, 101–9; Woodcock, Officer’s Wife, 20 (“hush-hush”), 61–69 ; Foy, Intelligence War, 140–77 (casualties: 173–74); Sturgis,Last Days, 76 (“black day”); Kee, Green Flag, 693–95 (size of Auxies and Tans: 671); Horgan, Lemass, 17–18; Macready, Annals, 2.507–10; Hart, Mick, 240–42; Neligan, Spy, 122–25; Sheehan, British Voices, 88–90; Hopkinson, Irish War, 46–47 (barracks), 89–91; Winter, Tale, 321–24; Stapleton, “Collins’s Squad” (“laws of God”); Crozier, Ireland, 99–105, 116–17.

85 New York Times, Nov. 10, 1920.

86 “Pitiable”: Macready, Annals, 2.470. Pistol in lap: 2.469. “Immobilized”: Winter, Tale, 291. “Evening meal”: Barton, Spurs, 206. “Hunted”: Montmorency, Sword, 357.

87 Macready, Annals, 2.499.

88 Gleeson, Bloody Sunday, 55–78.

89 Lt. W. E. Crossley, “Report on ambush of ‘L’ Coy,” June 17, 1921, NA/IRE.

90 O’Malley, Wounds, 240.

91 Callwell, Wilson, 2.264.

92 Hart, British Intelligence, 29.

93 Shadow government: Macready, Annals, 2.477–78; NLI/PBP, 913/3; Barry, Guerilla Days, 84; Duff, Sword, 70; Hopkinson, Irish War, 44.

94 Troop strength: Hart, I.R.A., 113; Kee, Green Flag, 682, 719; Hopkinson, Irish War, 49; Collins, Nationalism, 176. Population: 1926 Census, www.cso.ie/census/census_1926_results/Volume1/C%201%201926%20V1.pdf.

95 Macready, Annals, 2.435.

96 NA/DRA.

97 Gilbert, Churchill, 4.461.

98 Corum, Airpower, 54–57; Omissi, Air Power, 18–38; Jacobsen, “By the Sword.”

99 Wilson to Macready, June 7, 1920, IWM/NMC, vol. A.

100 Macready to Wilson, July 13, 1920, IWM/NMC, vol. A.

101 Churchill, World Crisis, 297.

102 “Integrity”: Gilbert, Churchill, 4.470. “Conspiracy”: 4.461. “Prussians”: 4.455.

103 Collins to Kitty Kiernan, Aug. 4, 1922, NLI/KK.

104 Collins to Kitty Kiernan, Aug. 8, 1922, NLI/KK.

105 Barry, Guerilla Days, 243.

106 English, Irish Freedom, 328.

107 Kee, Green Flag, 744.

108 NA/IBR, 6.

109 Maloney, Secret, 23.

110 Hart, Mick, 199 (4,000); Hart, I.R.A., 30, 66–67; Kee, Green Flag, 671, 699; Hopkinson, Irish War, 201. Collins, Nationalism, 170, gives a lower overall figure (751 killed, 1,200 wounded) but a higher figure for crown forces: 550 dead, 1,027 wounded.

111 Duff, Sword, 64.

112 NAI/CD, 13–14; O’Malley, Wounds, 319; Hart, Mick, 220–23; Dalton, Dublin Brigade, 67; Hopkinson, Irish War, 70.

113 Propaganda war: Macready, Annals, 2.471 (“rankled”), 2.553 (“inability”); IWM/NMC, vol. C (“futile”: Macready to Wilson, March 10, 1921; “blackguard”: Macready to Wilson, March 18, 1921); Kenneally, Paper Wall, 159 (“defiled”), 160 (“lynch”); Montmorency, Sword (“bad Press”: 353; “flabby”: 355).

114 Marks, Shaped, 17–37; Carr, Infernal, 35; Heehs, “Terrorism.”

115 IMRO: Djordjevic, Balkan, 178–80, 220–21; Pettifer, Macedonian, 9–13; Gross, Violence, 54–57.

116 Balakian, Burning Tigris, 45, 103–10.

117 Laqueur, Terrorism, 120.

118 Stepniak, Underground Russia, 42–45.

119 “Monster”: Dostoevsky, Demons, 306. “Crook”: 420. “Louse”: 560. “Destroyed”: 607.

120 “Pieces”: Conrad, Secret Agent, 56. “Exterminate”: 249.

121 Montefiore, Young Stalin, 182–83.

122 Vizetelly, Anarchists, 111–27; Merriman, Club, 70–87; Butterworth, World, 300–302.

123 Hardy: O’Malley, Wound, 271–77; NAI/WJS, 49 (“special”); Kee, Green Flag, 691 (“variance”).

124 “Drawn”: Krueger, What Makes, 3. “Curtailed”: 7.

125 Reich, Origins, 25–40.

126 Hart, Mick, 307; Dalton, Brigade, 11–12.

BOOK V: THE SIDESHOWS:
GUERRILLAS AND COMMANDOS IN THE WORLD WARS

1 Franz Ferdinand: Smith, Morning; Dedijer, Road; Owings, Sarajevo Trial.

2 Nazis: Evans, Coming; Kershaw, Hubris; Shirer, Rise; Campbell, SA (500,000: 120).

3 Japanese militarists: McClain, Japan (Brotherhood: 415); Gordon, Japan, 161–90; Drea, Imperial Army, 163–90; Toland, Rising Sun, 3–34; Byas, Assassination (Chaplin: 28–29).

4 Neumann, Future, 6.

5 Aqaba: Jarvis, Arab Command, 28–30 (source of all quotes unless otherwise specified); IWM/FGP, box 4; “Literary Fringes,” IWM/FTB (“huts”); Brown, Letters, 116 (“maddest”); Rolls, Chariots, 238 (“hate”).

6 Early life: Wilson, Lawrence (“endurance”: 44; bicycling: 40); Liddell Hart, Lawrence; Brown, Letters; Mack, Prince.

7 Brown, Letters, 69.

8 Bruce, Crusade, 58.

9 Lawrence, Pillars, 67.

10 Ibid., 77.

11 Ibid., 84.

12 Barr, Desert, 142.

13 Lawrence, Pillars, 86.

14 Ibid., 91.

15 Storss, Memoirs, 186.

16 Brown, War, 80.

17 Bruce, Crusade, 54.

18 Brown, War, 70.

19 Lawrence, Pillars, 104.

20 “Sniping”: Ibid. “Sphere”: Brown, War, 77.

21 Lawrence, Pillars, 136.

22 “Detachment”: Ibid., 194. “Gas”: 192. “Soup”: 193.

23 Ibid., 188.

24 Abu el Naam: Ibid., 197–203; Brown, War, 111–16; Wilson, Lawrence, 388.

25 Lawrence, Pillars, 189.

26 Ibid., 168.

27 Ibid., 225.

28 Young, Arab, 162.

29 Lawrence, Pillars, 312.

30 Young, Arab, 157.

31 Lawrence, Pillars, 319.

32 “Fear”: Young, Arab, 162. Bounty: Wilson, Lawrence, 460.

33 Brown, Letters, 111.

34 Ibid., 124.

35 Ibid., 111.

36 Rape: Lawrence, Pillars, 441–47 (“torn,” “delicious”: 445); Wilson, Lawrence, 459–61; Brown, War, 165–66; Brown, Letters, 165–67, 360; Mack, Prince, 226–42; Barr, Desert, 201–6.

37 “Rank and File,” 1936, IWM/TWB.

38 Stirling, Safety, 94.

39 100,000 vs. 69,000: Bruce, Crusade, 208. 8,000 Arab regulars: 217.

40 Lawrence, Pillars, 370; Winterton, Tumultuous, 71; Wilson, Lawrence, 557–60; Woodward, Hell, 202–3; Bruce, Crusade, 77, 242; Barr, Desert, 293.

41 Shotwell, Peace Conference, 131.

42 Wilson, Lawrence, 630; Fromkin, Peace, 498.

43 Fromkin, Peace, 507.

44 New York Times, May 26, 1935.

45 Fromkin, Peace, 9–10.

46 Brown, Letters, 246.

47 Ibid., 343–44.

48 Thomas, With Lawrence, 3.

49 New York Times, May 26, 1935.

50 Lawrence to Robertson, Feb. 13, 1935, IWM/LTEL.

51 New York Times, May 26, 1935.

52 Ibid., May 20, 1935.

53 Sex life: Wilson, Lawrence, 703–5, 750–51; Mack, Prince, 415–41 (“disorder”: 427); Lawrence, To Liddell Hart, 163 (“sexlessness”); Brown, Letters, xxvi–xxvii.

54 “Strange”: Abdullah, Memoirs, 170. “Madness”: Lawrence, Pillars, 32.

55 “Charlatan”: Edmund Ironside to Wingate, June 8, 1939, OWA. “Lied”: Leebaert, To Dare, 406. Leebaert claims, at 405, without offering any evidence, that Seven Pillars was “heavily fanciful.” The most thorough biography of Lawrence, which Leebaert does not cite, finds it, to the contrary, “remarkably accurate on questions of fact” (Wilson, Lawrence, 12).

56 Liddell Hart, Lawrence, 382–84.

57 “Side show”: Brown, War, 272. “Minor”: Lawrence, Pillars, 23.

58 Papen, Memoirs, 80–81.

59 “Witty”: Wavell, Soldier, 59. “Impish”: 61.

60 Brown, Letters, 249.

61 Brown, War, 260–73.

62 Bray, Sands, 156.

63 Brown, War, 142–47.

64 “Incuriousness”: Lawrence, To Liddell Hart, 75. “Active”: 140.

65 Lucas, Kommando, 24.

66 Durnford-Slater, Commando, 14 (“terror”); Young, Commando, 8–13 (urgency).

67 Foot, SOE, x.

68 “Arson”: Box 180, folder 4, NARA/OSS. “Hedy,” “Jemima”: “New Weapons for Sabotage,” Oct. 13, 1943, box 200, folder 8, NARA/OSS.

69 See Leebaert, To Dare, for an overview of special operations that applies that label promiscuously and anachronistically to various units throughout history.

70 Allen, Guerrilla War, 9.

71 Foot, SOE, 69.

72 Clarke, Assignments, 219.

73 “Popularity”: Mosley, Gideon, 146. “Mountebank”: 6.

74 Tulloch, Wingate, 24.

75 IWM/ACP.

76 “Gloom”: Bierman, Fire, 11. “Damnation”: IWM/OWP, 97/20/2.

77 “Suckled”: Mosley, Gideon, 10. “Guide”: Yehuda Yaari, “Wingate as a I Knew Him,” IWM/OWP, Chindit box 5.

78 Thesiger, Life, 320.

79 Anglim, “Formative Experiences.”

80 Tulloch, Wingate, 74.

81 Dodds-Parker, Ablaze, 65. See also Mosley, Gideon, 115; Burchett, Adventure, 47.

82 Bierman, Fire, 155.

83 Meeting Wingate: Hay, Genius, 18–22. His height: Bierman, Fire, 16. “Sandpaper”: James, Chindit, 88.

84 Bierman, Fire, 48, 389.

85 Palestine: OWA (“rose”: Wingate to mother, Oct. 14, 1936; “anti-Jew,” “soldiery”: Wingate to “Cousin Rex,” Jan. 1, 1937; “virtual control,” “bodily,” “feeble,” “ignorant”: “Appreciation . . . of the Possibilities of Night Movements,” June 5, 1938; “zigzags”: “Principles Governing the Employment of SNS,” June 10, 1938; “silence,” “surprise”: “Organization and Training of SNS,” Aug. 1938; “nugatory”: “Remarks of General Officer Commanding,” July 10, 1939; 140 killed: “Brief History of SNS,” Oct. 13, 1938); IWM/ACP; King-Clark, Blast (“gangsters”: 160; “iron”: 162; “courtesy”: 164; “stony”: 171; “calmly”: 189); Bierman, Fire (“for them”: 63; 140 men: 99; rampage: 115; “dust”: 131); Morris, Victims, 148–49; Dugdale, Baffy, 80 (“fanatic”); Oren, “Friend”; Mosley, Gideon, 40–78; Rooney, Wingate, 34–47; Sykes, Wingate, 135–205; Dayan, My Life, 46 (“path,” “infected”); Bethel, Triangle, 37 (“forfeited”); Mockler, Selassie’s War, 281 (“risk”); Mosley, Gideon, 78 (“risk); Weizmann, Trial, 398 (“intenseness”); Burchett, Adventure, 46 (Lawrence); Sykes, Wingate, 132–33 (Lawrence).

86 Abyssinia: IWM/OWP, box 7 (troop strength, casualties, “patriot population,” “men of integrity”: Wingate, “The Ethiopia Campaign,” Aug. 1940–June 1941; “Italian rations”, “patriot support,” “corps d’elite,” “paralyze”: Wingate, “Appreciation of the Ethiopian Campaign,” June 18, 1941); NA/AAD (“clear off”: 11); IWM/MT; Dodds-Parker, Ablaze, 54–73; Thesiger, Life, 311–54 (“curse”: 320; “when we meet”: 330); Allen, Guerrilla War (camels: 38); Mosley, Gideon (“favorable”: 115; camels: 117–21; killed and captured: 126–27; bluff: 133; “rude”: 136); Foot, SOE, 251–64; Playfair, Mediterranean (“ruthless”: 1.404; size of force, “remarkable”: 1.427); Bierman, Fire (“goading”: 202; “tell them”: 206); Spencer, Ethiopia, 87–99; Mockler, Selassie’s War (“favorable”: 286); Rooney, Wingate, 48–75; Sykes, Wingate, 236–320; Shirreff, Bare Feet; Haile Sellasie, My Life, 2.141–67; War Illustrated (April 25, 1941) (“mud”).

87 Thesiger, Life, 333.

88 Ibid., 353.

89 First Chindit expedition: IWM/OWP, Chindit box 1 (“maintain forces”, “90%”: Wingate, “Report to Commander, 4th Corps, on Operations of 77th Indian Infantry Brigade in Burma, February to May 1943”); Fergusson, Chindwin (“horrid”: 146; “acute”: 149; “weak”: 173; “éclairs”: 192; 70 pounds: 249; “not much”: 241); Fergusson, Trumpet, 174 (“grossly”); Calvert, Mad, 112–32 (1,500 miles: 130; 1944 offensive: 131–32); Slim, Defeat, 162–63 (“failure”, “press”); Tulloch, Wingate (“anatomy”: 63; “maintain”: 62; “endemic”: 58; casualties: 89; 1944 offensive: 91–92); Stibbe,Return (“shock troops”: 57; “beautiful”: 61–62; “circus”: 68; “thick,” “steep”: 82); Masters, Mandalay, 214 (“flying fruit”); Bierman, Fire (Robert the Bruce: 297; casualties: 307); Rooney, Wingate, 76–102; Thompson, Enemy Lines, 130–72; Lewin, Chief, 211–14; Allen, Burma (“shock troops”, “ordinary”: 149); Rolo, Raiders (“Tarzan”: 33; “circus”: 45; mile-wide: 107; “swiftly flowing”: 111; spare kilts: 63; “emaciated”: 175); Burchett, Adventure; Sykes,Wingate, 360–432; Chinery, March, 20–91; Kirby, Against Japan, 2.309–31; Thompson, Hills, 19–33; Hoe, Re-Enter.

90 Moran, Diaries, 113.

91 Wingate to Michael Calvert, Aug. 8, 1942, IWM/OWP, Chindit Box 1.

92 Second Chindit expedition: IWM/OWP (“machan,” “orbit”: Wingate, “The Stronghold”); HIA/ACW, box 80, file 5; IWM/LFMS; Masters, Mandalay, 177–291 (“threshold”: 268; “111 Company”: 282); Fergusson, Green Earth; Calvert, Prisoners (“silence”: 27); Calvert, Mad, 132–83 (“brilliant”: 139; “rending”: 143; “shrouds”: 155; “exhausted”: 176; 300 men: 180); Slim, Defeat, 216–18, 258–81; Tulloch, Wingate, 114–255 (2:30: 202; “approach”: 156; “war”: 136; casualties: 253; 90 percent: 239); Towill,Chronicle (no seatbelts: 19; vocal cords: 73); Bierman, Fire (“any time”: 346); Rooney, Wingate, 111–201; Thompson, Enemy Lines (“waste away”: 234); Kirby, Against Japan, vol. 3 (“guts”: 183; 3 months: 410; 3,628 lost: 415); Pownall, Diaries, 2.142 (“nasty”); Mosley, Gideon, 5 (“marsupial”); Allen, Burma (400 aircraft: 319); Sykes, Wingate (“guts”: 522); Chinery, March, 110–239; Romanus, Command Problems, 220–23; James, Chindit (“wayward”: 87); Stilwell, Papers (“Limeys”: 276, 287, 306); Milner,To Blazes; Van Wagner, Air Commando; Baggaley, Chindit Story; Thompson, Hills (“stream by stream”: 58; “scarecrows”: 61); Allen,Burma, 348 (“villainously”).

93 Ogburn, Marauders, 273. See also Romanus, Command Problems, 238–56.

94 Substantially: Rooney, Wingate, 199. “Few months”: Kirby, Against Japan, 3.445.

95 “Genius”: Rooney, Wingate, 207. “Maniac”: 205.

96 “Awe”: Thompson, Enemy Lines, 137. “Terrified”: 138.

97 James, Chindit, 87.

98 Kirby, Against Japan, 3.223.

99 Masters, Mandalay, 160. Cited in Thompson, Enemy Lines, 256.

100 Burma: Smith, OSS, 264 (“successful”); Peers, Burma Road (10,000: 220); Cruickshank, SOE, 163–91; Hilsman, American Guerrilla; Dunlop, Japanese Lines.

101 Japanese empire: Mazower, Empire, 588–90; Lapham, Raiders, 213–18 (“stupid”: 217); Hartford, Sparks, 108 (“there alls”); “The Viet Nam Government,” July 29, 1947, NARA/CREST, CIA-RDP82-00457R000700750001-5 (“terrorism”).

102 Philippines: Lapham, Raiders (800 towns: 209; 225,000: 226); Greenberg, Hukbalahap, 17 (15,000); Kerkvliet, Huk, 88; Hunt, Behind; Volckmann, We Remained.

103 Foot, SOE, 281.

104 Mazower, Empire, 478.

105 Bennett, Swastika, 101.

106 Hitler admired British: Mazower, Empire, 581. “Counter-productive”: 7.

107 Ibid., 462.

108 Ibid., 456.

109 Slepyan, Stalin’s Guerrillas, 51.

110 Two German soldiers: Cooper, Nazi War, 144. For an overview of COIN ratios see Goode, “Force.”

111 Mazower, Empire, 472–73.

112 Jackson, Dark Years, 557.

113 Cancian, “Wehrmacht”; Kennedy, Antiguerrilla, 44, 49; “Yugoslavia,” June 30, 1943, NARA/OSS, box 211, folder 8.

114 “Gentle”: Vuckovich, Tragedy, 39.

115 Tito: Djilas, Wartime; Djilas, Tito; Dedijer, Diaries; Dedijer Tito Speaks; Maclean, Approaches (Tito’s name: 280); Maclean, Barricade; Roberts, Tito; Deakin, Embattled (“no front”: 14; “annihilation”: 27); CAM/DEAK; West, Tito; Tomasevich, Chetniks andOccupation; Kurapovna,Shadows; Pavlowitch, Disorder; Vuckovich, Tragedy; Rootham, Miss Fire; NA/TITO; John G. Goodwin, “Final Report of Mulberry Team,” March 1944–March 1945, NARA/OSS, box 88, folder 11; Robin S. Newell, “Report of Geisha Mission,” May 19–Oct. 13, 1944, ibid. (“teaching”); Rex D. Deane, “Redwood Team Report,” Jan. 31, 1945, NARA/OSS, box 58, folder 3; Lindsey, Beacons (“indoctrinate”: 237); Jackson, Dark Years, 557 (more than Italians or French received); Mazower,Empire, 518 (“only place”); Berenbaum, Victims, 64 (over 1 million killed).

116 Moss, Ill Met.

117 Thompson, Enemy Lines, 52–55 (“failure”: 55); Gordon, Desert War, 78–82.

118 Slim, Defeat, 546–47.

119 Verney, Going, 145.

120 Hawes, Resistance, 197.

121 Successful operations: Foot, SOE, 298–99, 323–24, 336–37; Foot, Resistance, 180, 281; Mackenzie, History, 452, 623, 654–55; Haukelid, Skies.

122 North Africa: Maclean, Approaches, 199–62 (“fractured”: 226); Thompson, Enemy Lines, 94–98 (“fiasco”: 96); Wynter, Special Forces, 142–46, 167–75; Mortimer, Stirling’s Men, 47–48; Gordon, Desert War, 95–96, 126–28.

123 Thompson, Enemy Lines, 106.

124 Alexander, Shadows, 5.

125 Cohen, Commando, 56.

126 Hunt, Japanese Lines, 269.

127 Maclean, Approaches, 256.

128 Foot, SOE, 98.

BOOK VI: THE END OF EMPIRE:
THE WARS OF “NATIONAL LIBERATION”

1 Britain: Kynaston, Austerity, 102 (“blitz”), 20 (750,000 houses), 71 (“queues”), 105 (whale), 196 (Amis), 191–92 (Isherwood).

2 France: Beevor, Paris, 264 (height), 77 (women shaved), 265 (bakeries), 101 (paper); Gildea, France, 65–100; Jackson, Dark Years, 570–99 (10,000: 581).

Life, Oct. 12, 1942.

4 McMahon, Colonialism; Westad, Cold War, 114.

5 Bayly, Forgotten Wars, 221.

6 Bayly, Forgotten Armies, 146.

7 Hyam, Declining, 94.

8 Ibid., 162.

9 Wolpert, Shameful Flight, 132.

10 Hyam, Declining, 109.

11 “Warfare”: Orwell, Essays, 4.467. “Heard”: 4.469. “Shaking”: 4.463.

12 Zionists: Bethel, Triangle, 358 (338 killed, “hell”); Begin, Revolt; Bell, Terror; Morris, 1948, 44 (“coup”).

13 Gildea, France, 21; Grimal, Decolonization, 243, 357.

14 Shanghai: Bergère, Shanghai; Clifford, Spoilt Children; Sergeant, Shanghai; Dong, Shanghai.

15 Population, income, ownership: Guillermaz, Communist Party, 7. “Semi-colonial”: Mao, Military Writings, 77. Positive: Dikotter, Openness; Waldron, From War.

16 Party Congress: Chang, Rise (“pale-faced”: 1.140); Short, Mao, 117–22; Guillermaz, Communist Party, 57–60; Chang, Mao, 25–27; Saich, Power, 3–19; Kuo, Analytical History, 1.14–37, 341–50.

17 “Guests”: Snow, Red Star, 96. “Greenish”: Li, Private Life, 99. Bathe: 100. Privy: 133. Smoking: Ch’en, Mao, 211. “Pepper”: Snow, Red Star, 93. Spence, Mao, 98, notes his “deliberate cultivation of a coarse manner.”

18 Snow, Red Star, 131.

19 Wilson, Long March, 26.

20 Ch’en, Mao25.

21 Young Mao: Snow, Red Star (“scholar”: 133; “forcibly”: 140 ; “liberalism”: 149; “exist”: 151); Li, Private Life, 122 (“ruthless”); Spence, Mao, (“ignorance”: 18; water: 15); Short, Mao; Siao-yu, Mao and I; Chang, Mao; Terrill, Mao; Schram, Road, vol. 1; Ch’en, Mao.

22 Short, Mao, 147.

23 Taylor, Generalissimo, 38.

24 Band, Two Years, 242.

25 Zhu De revolt: Gao, Zhou, 59–61; Smedley, Great Road, 199–25; Guillermaz, Communist Party, 150–56; Kuo, Analytical History, 1.281–85.

26 Saich, Power, 198.

27 Mao, Military Writings, 75.

28 Ibid., 274.

29 Snow, Red Star, 165.

30 Wilson, Long March, 41.

31 Terrill, Mao, 99; Smedley, Great Road, 176.

32 Mao-Zhu slogans: Mao, Military Writings, 72; Schram, Road, 5.499; Snow, Red Star, 173–74; Short, Mao, 222; Braun, Agent, 55; Mao, Aspects, 50 (“fish,” “dry”).

33 “Interview with Mao Zedong,” Oct. 25, 1937, HIA/NW, box 22, file 591.

34 Saich, Power, 199.

35 Band, Two Years, 244. See also Forman, Report, 177: “the Chinese Communists are no more Communistic than we Americans are.”

36 Schram, Road, 3.74.

37 Mao’s methods: Short, Mao (“merciless”: 269; “hanging”: 273; “confess”: 281); Li, Private Life, 120–21 (“devoid”, “sacrificed”); Rittenberg, Stayed Behind, 450 (“designs”); Sun, Long March (“leniency”: 53); Griffin, Counter-Revolutionaries (186,000 killed: 18); Saich, Power, 496, 530–35; Chang, Mao, 89–109; Guillermaz, Communist Party, 216–17; Benton, Mountain Fires, 71–72, 81–82; Saich, Perspectives, 79–116; Kuo, Analytical History, 2.331–44.

38 Hartford, Sparks, 187–88, offers differing estimates of the number of blockhouses.

39 Saich, Power, 533.

40 Number of marchers: Salisbury, Long March, 2; Wilson, Long March, 227; Chang, Rise, 2.445. Rearguard: Benton, Mountain Fires, 6–8. Mao claimed the Long March covered 25,000 li (7,700 miles), but according to Jocelyn, Long March, 326–27, it was only 12,000 li (3,750 miles), still a long trek.

41 Wilson, Long March, 233.

42 Chang, Mao, 153. Regarding the supposed “Reds-for-son swap,” the authors concede (135), “It was not an offer that could be spelt out.” For a critical examination of their claims, see Benton, Monster.

43 Salisbury, Long March, 63.

44 Luding Bridge: Braun, Agent, 119–20; Salisbury, Long March, 220–30; Sun, Long March (“through”: 146); Snow, Red Star, 194–99; Wilson, Long March (“rice bowl,” “roar”: 168); Jocelyn, Long March (30 feet: 248; locals in lead: 250).

45 “Interview with Mao Zedong,” Oct. 25, 1937, HIA/NW, box 22, file 591.

46 “Traitors”: Sun, Long March, 21. “Dick”: 29. 30,000: 79; Salisbury, Long March, 103.

47 Grasslands: Braun, Agent (24 rivers, 18 mountains: 146); Sun, Long March (“vultures”: 167; “bloated”: 171; leather: 172; “intake”: 175); Snow, Red Star, 200–206; Wilson, Long March, 175–84, 204–21 (“sat down”: 178; “bitter”: 209; boiled hides: 216); Peng,Memoirs, 380–84; Jocelyn,Long March, 258–303.

48 Yang, From Revolution, 2.

49 “Record,” “invincible”: Schram, Road, 5.71. “Heroes”: 5.92.

50 Braun, Agent, 101.

51 Saich, Power, 643–48, 1168.

52 Mao’s ascent: Hsiung, Bitter Victory, 92–94; Guillermaz, Communist Party, 363–68; Chang, Mao, 240–49; Short, Mao, 379–96; Saich, Perspectives, 299–338; Saich, Power (“correct”: 1164); Short, Mao, 379–96; Kuo, Analytical History, 4.396–423.

53 Thomas, Season, 136.

54 Ibid., 132.

55 “Lincolnesque”: Snow, Red Star, 90. “Humor”: 92. “Moderating”: 95.

56 Mao’s wives: Chang, Mao; Snow, Red Star, 459–61 (“slender”: 460); Li, Private Life, 356–64 (young beauties); Snow, Communists, 250; Barrett, Dixie Mission, 83 (“chic”); Short, Mao.

57 Saich, Perspectives, 263–98; Kuo, Analytical History, 3.595–603.

58 Ch’en, Mao, 209.

59 Arthur Waldron and Edward O’Dowd, “Introduction to Second Edition,” in Mao, On Guerrilla, 13–14.

60 “Formation,” “Centre,” “morality”: Mazzini, Writings, 1.369. “Retiring”: 1.375.

61 Mao’s precepts: Mao, Military Writings, 278 (“guerrilla-ism”), 246 (“outcome”), 210–19 (three stages), 247 (“primary”), 66 (“base areas”), 168 (“roving”), 66 (“Red Guards”), 33 (“concentration”), 247 (“originally”), 78 (“laws”). For assessments, see Connable,Insurgencies End, 7 (“nearly”); Wilson, Scales, 117–43; Osanka, Guerrilla Warfare, 131–77; Graff, Military History, 229–49; Stout, Perspectives, 126 (Al Qaeda).

62 Casualties: Waldron, “Remembering.” 90 percent KMT: Taylor, Generalissimo, 7.

63 Hsiung, Bitter Victory, 83.

64 Ibid., 79, 102; Guillermaz, Communist Party, 328.

65 Westad, Decisive Encounters, 69.

66 Levine, Anvil, 130; Chang, Last Chance, 52.

67 Eastman, Seeds, 203.

68 Westad, Encounters, 209.

69 Courtois, Black Book, 463–64.

70 Bigeard: Bigeard, Gloire; Bergot, Bigeard; Roy, Dienbienphu, 185 (“profile”); Fall, Street (Tu Le: 66–70); Singer, Cultured, 267–345 (10 to 1: 286); Roy, Dienbienphu (“possible”: photo caption); Windrow, Last Valley, 120–21; Morgan, Valley, 192–94.

71 Ho: Duiker, Ho Chi Minh, 94 (“token”), 95 (“Stalinist”), 136 (“goodness”), 251 (“mat”), 302 (saved Ho), 573 (using Americans), 348 (Diem’s brother), 361 (“shit”); Sainteny, Ho Chi Minh (“frankness”: 66; sleep on floor: 77); Brocheux, Ho Chi Minh; Quinn-Judge, Missing Years; Ho, On Revolution and Writings; Patti, Why, 199 (“wisp”); “Who’s Who of Members of Present Government,” Nov. 7, 1945, NARA/OSS, box 200, folder 5 (“Democrat”).

72 “The Viet Nam Government,” July 29, 1947, NARA/CREST, CIA-RDP82-00457R000700750001-5.

73 Duiker, Ho Chi Minh, 402.

74 Lea: Ibid., 408–10; Currey, Victory, 138–40; Fall, Street, 28–31; Windrow, Last Valley, 95–96; Porch, Secret Services, 300–301; Elliott, Willow, 165–67.

75 Schoenbrun, France, 234–36; Duiker, Ho Chi Minh, 379.

76 Giap: Currey, Victory (bush: 147; “gospel”: 154); Macdonald, GiapTime, Feb. 9, 1967 (“bush”).

77 Macdonald, Giap, 99–100.

78 Giap, Unforgettable, 46.

79 Vietminh adversaries: Trinquier, Maquis; Fall, Street, 267–79; Windrow, Last Valley, 218–19; Porch, Secret Services, 326–33; Macdonald, Giap, 111–12.

80 NARA/MAACV-OM, 1952–54.

81 “Rape”: Ainley, To Die, 30. “Feared”: 32–33. Germans: Porch, Legion, 531–32.

82 Scholl-Latour, Ricefields, 29.

83 Elliott, Sacred Willow, 195.

84 Fall, Street, 110–11.

85 Scholl-Latour, Ricefields, 32.

86 Truong Chin, Writings, 111.

87 Ainley, To Die, 106.

88 Zhai, China (generals: 63); Chen, “China.”

89 Time, Sept. 24, 1951.

90 New York Times, Feb. 18, 1951.

91 Fall, Street, 39.

92 Troop strength: Window, Last Valley, 147 (Vietminh), 170 (French); Lawrence, First Vietnam War, 217, 221; Giap, Dien Bien Phu, 911; Fall, Street, 180 (80,000); Morgan, Valley of Death, 101 (82,000); Dalloz, Indo-China, 104; Porch, Legion, 531 (60 percent German).

93 Morgan, Valley, 70.

94 Bodard, Quicksand, 83.

95 Starobin, Eyewitness, 70.

96 Newsweek, April 23, 1953.

97 “Illicit Opium Traffic Southeast Asia,” CIA memo, Dec. 13, 1948, NARA/CREST, CIA-RDP82-00457R002100350002-2.

98 Bodard, Quicksand, 23.

99 Dien Bien Phu: Bigeard, Gloire (“lush”: 134; “whistled”: 135; “not one”: 174); Roy, Dienbienphu (“clucking”: 37; “possible”: photo caption); Fall, Hell (“cotton seeds”: 10; “hailstorm”: 137; firing slit: 140; 3 rounds: 102; “flame”: 233); Simpson, Tiger, 89–100 (“stilted”: 94; “thin slice”: 99); Giap, Dien Bien Phu (“human chain”: 84; 5:05 p.m.: 221; “mat”: 383); Windrow, Last Valley (“administrative”: 233; “whole nights”: 293; artillery: 294–95, 708–11, 343–51; 180 tons: 417; Gaucher: 383: “all over”: 385; 300 dead at Eliane: 504; “one-legged”: 591; 3 percent: 629; 92,000 killed: 653); Currey, Victory (tons of rice: 191; “horse to ride”: 185; mistresses: 187); Grauwin, Doctor (Gaucher: 83; “groans”: 97; “shriveled”: 252); Langlais, Dien Bien Phu; De Borchgrave, “Great Stand” (170 tons); Morgan, Valley (Giap’s HQ: xv–xvii; 1,000 killed: xvi; “Verdun”: 246; “rotting”: 429; Eliane 1: 428); Fall, Street, 263 (48 planes), 300 (500-mile march); Porch, Secret Services, 318–57 (opium); Porch, Foreign Legion, 555–65; Macdonald,Giap; Dinh Van Ty, “Iron Horses”; Burchett, North, 47–59; Simpson, Dien Bien Phu (mistresses: 39); Macdonald, Giap, 124–61; Ainley, To Die, 59 (“all important); Newsweek, April 5, 1954 (“Verdun”).

100 Morgan, Valley, 163.

101 “Probable Developments in Indochina Through Mid-1953,” CIA memo, Aug. 23, 1952, NARA/CREST, CIA-RDP79R01012A00100004014-0.

102 Sainteny, Ho Chi Minh, 89.

103 Bigeard, Gloire, 210.

104 Magneto: Rejali, Torture, 141–62.

105 Alleg, The Question. Servan-Schreiber’s Lieutenant in Algeria was another prominent antitorture memoir.

106 Horne, Savage War, 91.

107 Connelly, Revolution, 18.

108 “Headlines”: Morgan, My Battle, 21. “Corpse”: Horne, Savage War, 132.

109 29,000: Anderson, Hanged, 9. 32 killed: 4.

110 Ibid., 6.

111 Massacre: Aussaresses, Casbah, 45–55 (“pity,” “indifferent”); Leuliette, St. Michael, 149–52 (“indiscriminately,” “hot,” “machine guns,” “bulldozers”).

112 Behr, Problem, 99, quoting Yacef Saadi.

113 “Support”: Trinquier, Modern Warfare, 17. “Snickers”: Galula, Pacification, 53–54.

114 Lazreg, Torture, 98.

115 Battle of Algiers: Aussaresses, Casbah, 85 (“extreme”), 85 (“take back”), 121 (“dangerous”), 122 (“remote”), 123 (“grunt”); Bigeard, Gloire, 274–86, 303–8; Trinquier, Temps perdu, 231–60, 270 (“precision”); Massu, Bataille (Jan. 8: 88; strike: 92; 4,600 men: 98; census: 140; “necessity”: 168); Horne, Savage War; Morgan, My Battle (Bigeard shot: 118; “shrimp”: 139; “baskets”: 161); NARA/DS (“unprecedented”: Lewis Clark, Jan. 3, 1957, box 3379, 751S.00/1-257; “tough”: Ibid., Jan. 15, 1957; “siege”: Ibid., Jan. 21, 1957; “brown skin”: Merritt N. Cootes, March 1, 1957, 751S.00/3-157; “absence”: Ibid., March 12); Kettle, Algeria, 106 (“enormous”), 398 (“without trace”); Connelly, Revolution, 131 (arrests, disappearances); Clark, Turmoil (146 casualties: 327), 387 (“dash”); Porch, Secret Services; Gale, Englishman, 133 (“spidery”); Time, May 26, 1958 (“chopping-block”); Lazreg, Torture (“crevettes”: 53); Rejali, Torture, 481–92 (informants: 484); Singer, Cultured, 310–12 (Bigeard shot).

116 Troop strength: Kettle, Algeria, 485–86; O’Ballance, Insurrection, 141; Clark, Turmoil, 301–2, 307; Paret, Revolutionary, 41; Gortzak, “Indigenous Forces” (120,000); Galula, Pacification, 10–11, 13, 244. 1:50: U.S. Army, Counterinsurgency, 23; Connable,Insurgencies End, 129–31.

117 Morice Line: Horne, Savage War, 263–65; Roy, Algeria, 86 (“doomed”); O’Ballance, Insurrection, 117–20; Alexander, Algerian War, 12 (helicopters), 15 (80,000 troops).

118 Horne, Savage War, 159–61; Kettle, Algeria, 69; Morgan, My Battle, 26; Connelly, Revolution, 114–15; Porch, Secret Services, 369–74.

119 Connelly, Revolution, 292.

120 Public opinion: Connelly, Revolution (inspire ANC: 5); Evans, Memory; Wall, France; Ulloa, Francis Jeanson; Dine, Images.

121 De Gaulle, Hope, 75.

122 OAS: Henissart, Wolves (“harsh”: 161; 30–40 killings: 319); Bocca, Secret Army; Horne, Savage War, 480–534; Feraoun, Journal, 313–14 (“terror”); Porch, Secret Services, 396–403.

123 Anderson, Hanged, 4.

124 Casualties: Horne, Savage War, 538; Kettle, Algeria, xiii–xiv.

125 “Dwarfs”: Larteguy, Centurions, 51. “Enough”: 304. “Hatred”: 370. “Shady”: 320. “Shit”: Praetorians, 23. Modeled on Bigeard: Dine, Images, 29.

126 Trinquier, Temps perdu, 240.

127 Clutterbuck, Long War, 80.

128 Templer’s background: TEMP (Adenauer: J. A. Barraclough to Templer, May 16, 1954); Cloake, Templer; “Battle of Malaya” (“mind”).

129 Barber, Running Dogs, 70.

130 Chin Peng, My Side, 30.

131 Population: Lyttelton, “Cabinet Paper: Malaya,” Dec. 21, 1951, TEMP; Stubbs, Hearts, 12; Barber, Running Dogs, 15, 17. 5,000 fighters: Chin Peng, My Side, 26.

132 3,000 killed: Barber, Running Dogs, 139. Police, army: Stockwell, Malaya, 327; Thompson, Insurgency, 48; Lyttelton, Memoirs, 358; Stubbs, Hearts, 159.

133 Gurney: Chin Peng, My Side, 287–88; Barber, Running Dogs, 130–31; Stubbs, Hearts, 133; Miller, Menace, 190–93; Stockwell, Malaya, 301–2; Mackay, Domino, 111–14.

134 “Losing”: Cloake, Templer, 199. “Hopelessness”: Ramakrishan, “Transmogrifying.”

135 “Plan,” “occurred”: Lyttelton, Memoirs, 364. “Goods”: Copy of Jan. 1, 1952, letter from Montgomery to Churchill, TEMP.

136 Coates, Suppressing, 143.

137 Harper, Making, 176.

138 Thompson, Insurgency, 140; Short, Rats, 391.

139 Stubbs, Hearts, 158.

140 Stockwell, Malaya, 220.

141 Horne, Savage, 338.

142 Clutterbuck, Long War, 51.

143 “Battle of Malaya.”

144 Stockwell, Malaya, 237.

145 Thompson, Insurgency, 117.

146 “Scalded”: Cloake, Templer, 127. “Electrifying”: 213. “Chairbound”: Miller, Menace, 163. “Varnished”: Lyttelton to Templer, May 16, 1952, TEMP.

147 “Seldom go”: Cloake, Templer, 263. Close down: 265.

148 “Clipped”: Robinson, Transformation, 108. “Stinker”: “Battle of Malaya.” “Bloody”: Raj, War Years, 127. “Dynamic,” “brusque”: Blake, View, 140. “Torch”: Cloake, Templer, 213.

149 Templer to Lyttelton, Sept. 12, 1952, TEMP.

150 Templer to Lyttelton, Nov. 3, 1952, TEMP.

151 Barber, Running Dogs, front page.

152 Adams, Works, 10.266.

153 Stubbs, Hearts, 1.

154 Stockwell, Malaya, 372.

155 “Mean to win”: Thompson, Insurgency, 146. “Ruthless”: 144.

156 Tanjong Malim: Stockwell, Malaya, 424–25; Cloake, Templer, 222–23; “Battle of Malaya”; Barber, Running Dogs (“savage”: 158); Ching Peng, My Side, 297; Clutterbuck, Long War, 81–82; Stubbs, Hearts, 165; Miller, Menace, 206–10; Mackay, Domino, 126–27.

157 Abuses: Short, Rats, 160–69; Stubbs, Hearts, 73–74; Chin Peng, My Side, 239–40; Stockwell, Malaya, 328 (detainees).

158 Templer to Lyttelton, Feb. 20, 1952, TEMP.

159 Templer to Lyttelton, Feb. 7, 1953, TEMP.

160 Templer to Lyttelton, Sept. 12, 1952, TEMP.

161 “Inducement”: Conduct of Operations, 4.2.3.

162 Raj, War Years, 127.

163 Conduct of Operations, 3.12.1

164 Ramakrishan, Propaganda, 189–90.

165 Henniker, Red Shadow, 181.

166 Chin Peng, My Side, 270.

167 Henniker, Red Shadow, 210.

168 Barber, Running Dogs, 270.

169 Clutterbuck, Long War, 80.

170 Cloake, Templer, 261.

171 Coates, Suppressing, 50.

172 Casualties: Short, Rats, 507–8; Thompson, Insurgency, 27; Barber, Running Dogs, 270; Stewart, Smashing Terrorism, 339; Nagl, Eat Soup, 103.

173 In 1960: Andrew Birtle of the U.S. Army Center of Military History, email to author, Dec. 20, 2010. Nagl, Eating Soup, and Tilman, “Non-Lessons,” offer differing views in the debate over Malaya’s lessons.

174 Mockaitis, Counterinsurgency, ix.

175 “Measures”: French, British Way, 248. “Dirty”: 249. “Operate”: 248.

176 Anderson, Hanged (statistics: 4–5, 9); Elkins, Reckoning; Branch, Mau Mau (casualties: 5; “ideology”: xi). Elkins’s book won a Pulitzer Prize but is marred by sensationalistic descriptions (e.g., calling British prisons a “gulag”) and very high estimates of Kenyans killed and detained that are not supported by other sources.

177 Holland, Revolt; Grivas, Memoirs; Crawshsaw, Revolt (casualties: 349); Rosenbaum, “Success”; Byford-Jones, Grivas (casualties: 185).

178 Hughes, “Model Campaign”; Peterson, Oman’s Insurgencies; Arkless, Secret War; Gardiner, Service.

179 Geraghty, Irish War; English, Struggle (casualties: 380); Saville, Report.

180 Aden: Walker, Aden (200 killed: 285); Hinchcliffe, Without Glory; Pieragostini, South Arabia.

181 http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=980.

182 French, British Way, 57.

183 “Secondary”: Lewis Clark to John W. Jones, April 22, 1955, NARA/DS, box 3333, 751S.00/1-155. “Dream”: Clark to Secretary of State, Jan. 4, 1957, NARA/DS, box 3379,751S.00/1-257.

BOOK VII: RADICAL CHIC: THE ROMANCE OF
THE LEFTIST REVOLUTIONARIES

1 Wolfe, Radical Chic.

2 “Bites”: Taber, Flea, 49. “Have-nots”: 173. “Futile”: 176. For Taber’s pro-Castro views see, Anderson, Che, 292, 389.

3 “Faddish”: Schlesinger, Days, 342.

4 “Propagandist”: Galula, Counterinsurgency, 62. “Fire”: 95. “Subversion”: Thompson, Insurgency, 55. For background see Cohen, Galula; Marlowe, Galula; and Thompson, Hills.

5 Boot, Savage Wars.

6 Greene denied any connection to Lansdale and had apparently finished his manuscript before Lansdale arrived in Saigon. See Sherry, Greene, 2.416–17; Nashel, Lansdale’s War, 159.

7 Greene, Quiet American, 23.

8 Lederer, Ugly American, 110.

9 Early life: HIA/EGL, boxes 69–70; Currey, Unquiet.

10 “Fear”: Lansdale diary, March 19, 1947, HIA/EGL, box 72, diaries 1946–48. “Stinking”: Dec. 26, 1946. “Sopping”: Oct. 30, 1946. “Squabble,” “rightness”: March 30, 1947. “Slick”: April 11, 1947.

11 Lansdale to Ben, June 12, 1973, HIA/EGL, box 83, file 118.

12 LBJ/LOH, 24 (“I didn’t speak [French] at all”); “Foreign Language Qualifications,” Oct. 16, 1961, HIA/EGL, box 69, misc. file; Currey, Unquiet, 5.

13 Rufus Phillips, email to author, July 23, 2010.

14 Currey, Unquiet, 44–45.

15 Lansdale, Midst, 5.

16 “Connection with CIA,” Lansdale memo, Dec. 15, 1985, HIA/EGL, box 70, biographical file/memo.

17 Kerkvliet, Huk, 195.

18 Lansdale, Midst, 25.

19 Greenberg, Hukbalahap, 57.

20 Valeriano, Counter-Guerrilla, 103.

21 Martinez, Magsaysay, 176.

22 “Friends,” candy: Valeriano, Counter-Guerrilla, 206. “Chicken”: 201.

23 Ibid., 207.

24 Lansdale, Midst, 48.

25 Valeriano, Counter-Guerrilla, 207.

26 Greenberg, Hukbalahap, 67, 110.

27 Taruc, Tiger, 91.

28 Kitson, Gangs; Cline, “Pseudo Operations.”

29 Taruc, Tiger, 137.

30 Nashel, Lansdale’s War, 32–33.

31 Valeriano, Counter-Guerrilla, 139.

32 Kerkvliet, Huk, 238.

33 Lansdale, Midst, 85.

34 “Preliminary Working Draft Prepared in State for Discussion at OCB Meeting of January 19, 1955,” NARA/CREST, CIA-RDP80R01731R002900480007-6.

35 LBJ/LOH, 7.

36 Simpson, Tiger, 113.

37 “Depth”: Lansdale, Midst, 159. “Blind”: U.S. Department of Defense, Pentagon Papers, 11.7.

38 “Roly-poly”: Lansdale, Midst, 158.

39 Washington Post, Aug. 25, 1965.

40 “Universality”: Lansdale speech at Principia, April 9, 1965, HIA/EGL, box 73, file 1. “Fuzzy”: Speech at Yale, Nov. 23, 1964. “Fight,” “hide”: Speech at Special Warfare School, Aug. 30, 1962. “Brotherhood,” “licking”: Speech at Air Force Academy, May 25, 1964.

41 Lansdale, Midst, 226.

42 Currey, Unquiet, 160.

43 Department of Defense, Pentagon Papers, 1.577–79; LBJ/LOH, I.28–29.

44 Rufus Phillips, email to author, Aug. 21, 2011.

45 Lansdale, Midst, 213.

46 Phillips, Vietnam, 67.

47 Ibid., 53.

48 Lansdale, Midst, 232–33.

49 “Monthly Report of TRIM Activities,” May 1–31, 1955, NARA/MAAGV-OM, box 2, folder 30.

50 http://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml.

51 “Background—South Vietnam O/B,” March 23, 1955, NARA/CREST, CIA-RDP79R00890A00030052-2.

52 Lansdale, Midst, 316–18; Phillips, Vietnam, 78.

53 Lansdale to family, May 2, 1955, HIA/EGL, box 83, file 188.

54 “The Crisis in Saigon,” Memo to DCI, April 4, 1955, NARA/CREST, CIA-RDP7900904A000200020005-2; Nashel, Landsdale’s War, 59–60; Currey, Any Cost, 224–25; Rufus Phillips, email to author, Aug. 21, 2011.

55 Collins to Dulles, April 27, 1954, NARA/DS, box 3333, 751G.00/4-155.

56 “Interview II,” Sept. 15, 1981, HIA/EGL, box 79, file 285; Lansdale, Midst, 204; Phillips, Vietnam, 33.

57 “Patriot”: Lansdale, Midst, 155. “Successor”: Phillips, Vietnam, 64. See also U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations: Vietnam, 1955–1957, 145, 301–30; U.S. Department of Defense, Pentagon Papers, 1.229–35, 2.26; Anderson, Trapped, 111–15.

58 U.S. Department of Defense, U.S.-Vietnam, 11.2.

59 Phillips, Vietnam, 223.

60 Colby, Lost Victory, 366.

61 Lansdale, Midst, 301.

62 Paris Embassy to Dulles, April 4, 1955, NARA/DS, box 3333, 751G.00/4-155.

63 “Unbelievable”: Simpson, Tiger, 151. 80 percent: Phillips, Vietnam, 327.

64 Sheehan, Lie, 138.

65 Terror: Duiker, Road, 196; Moyar, Forsaken, 79; Karnow, Vietnam, 254–55; Currey, Victory (“spies”: 227); “Order of Battle,” Oct. 1, 1963, AHEC/MACV.

66 Currey, Victory, 234, claims Lansdale concocted “Vietcong,” but Lansdale’s associate Rufus Phillips believes the claim is false: Phillips, email to author, Aug. 21, 2011.

67 U.S. Department of Defense, Pentagon Papers, 2.126; Phillips, Vietnam, 121.

68 Lansdale to Robert Komer, May 30, 1971, HIA/EGL, box 4, file 106.

69 “Subterranean”: Schlesinger, Days, 340. Reading: Sorenson, Kennedy, 632; Hilsman, Move, 415.

70 U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations: Vietnam 1961, 1.13–28 (“wolf,” “player”: 19); U.S. Department of Defense, Pentagon Papers, 2.440–43; Hilsman, Move, 419; Jones, Death, 23–24.

71 Currey, Unquiet, x.

72 Mongoose: U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations: Cuba, 1958–1960, 1116 (“warm”); Bohning, Obsession (“nutty”: 92; toilet paper: 102); NARA/CREST; Freedman, Kennedy’s Wars, 153–61; Nashel, Landsdale’s War, 72–76; Weiner, Ashes, 184–88 (“fast”: 186); McClintock,Statecraft, 203–7; “Interview II,” Sept. 15, 1981, HIA/EGL, box 79, file 285 (“suicidal,” “bona fides”).

73 http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/.

74 Taylor, Trumpet.

75 Duncan, New Legions, 146.

76 Krepinevich, Army, 53.

77 Lansdale to McNamara, April 7, 1962, HIA/EGL, box 96, file 1.

78 Krepinevich, Army, 37; Blaufarb, Era, 80.

79 U.S. Defense Department, U.S.-Vietnam, 11.5.

80 “Interview II,” Sept. 15, 1981, HIA/EGL, box 79, file 285.

81 Bui Diem, Jaws, 91.

82 U.S. Department of Defense, U.S.-Vietnam, 11.8; U.S. Department of Defense, Pentagon Papers, 2.26.

83 Time, Dec. 26, 1969.

84 H. A. F. Hohler to Foreign Secretary, Jan. 30, 1963, NA/BRIAM.

85 Thompson, Insurgency, 140.

86 Gibson, Perfect War, 95.

87 Sorley, Westmoreland, 67.

88 Krepinevich, Army, 197; Sorley, Westmoreland, 218.

89 Gibson, Technowar, 319; Sorley, Better War, 83; Clodfelter, Statistics, 225.

90 Krepinevich, Army, 205.

91 16 million: Smith, Handbook, 60. 90 percent: Krepinevich, Army, 167.

92 Duiker, Ho, 551.

93 Karnow, Vietnam, 617.

94 Lansdale, “Viet Nam.”

95 Krepinevich, Army, 180.

96 U.S. Department of Defense, Pentagon Papers, 4.303, 4.403; “Order of Battle,” Oct. 1, 1963, AHEC/MACV; Sorley, Westmoreland, 188 (CIA estimate).

97 New York Times, April 23, 1995.

98 Directive, April 28, 1971, DPC #2150901041, April 1971; Duiker, Ho, 552, 557.

99 “Latitude”: Sorley, Westmoreland, 73. “Attrition”: 90.

100 “Dropped”: Phillips, Vietnam, 251. “Blunt”: New York Times, Aug. 21, 1965.

101 “Miracles”: Washington Post, Aug. 20, 1965. “Legend”: Ibid., Feb. 25, 1966.

102 Washington Post, Sept. 29, 1968.

103 “Team Assignments,” Oct. 8, 1965. HIA/EGL, box 96, file 6.

104 Washington Post, Aug., 20, 1965.

105 “Genocide”: LBJ/POL. “Rice roots,” “ills”: LBJ/B1967.

106 Lansdale, “Viet Nam.”

107 Lansdale to Leo Dowatch Jr., March 13, 1974, HIA/EGL, box 70, biographical file/memoranda.

108 Tet: Braestrup, Big Story; Oberdorfer, Tet; Westmoreland, Reports, 310–34 (casualties: 332); Duiker, Road, 288–97 (“decisive”: 289); Davidson, At War, 473–529; Duiker, Ho, 557; Ang, Other Side, 113–40; Lansdale to “The Old Team,” Feb. 10, 1968, HIA/EGL, box 73, file 2 (“bangs”).

109 Washington Post, Nov. 22, 1967.

110 http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/speeches.hom/680331.asp.

111 New York Times, April 1, 1968.

112 Sorley, Better War, xiii.

113 Colby, Lost Victory, 303–6.

114 Peace treaty: Berman, No Peace; Karnow, Vietnam, 671 (150,000 men); Kissinger, Ending; Nguyen, Palace File; Kimball, War Files.

115 Duiker, Ho, 512.

116 Le Duan: Asselin, “Le Duan”; Currey, Victory, 229; Duiker, Ho, 548 (“rabbit”); Ang, Other Side.

117 New York Times Magazine, Aug. 10, 1997.

118 “Guerrilla”: Summers, Strategy, 127. “Root”: 173.

119 Duiker, Ho, 546; Zhai, China (170,000: 135).

120 Lansdale, “Viet Nam.”

121 Landing: Franqui, Diary (“shipwreck”: 124; “rough”: 123); Guevara, Reminiscences (“tragic”: 14; (“collapse”: 17; “hail”: 18; “lost”: 19); Castro, My Life; Szulc, Fidel (“trigger”, “controlled”: 32; “slight”: 29; “crazy”: 34); Anderson, Che; Taibo, Guevara; Quirk, Castro; Thomas, Cuba(“rabbits”: 899); Cesar Gomez interview, HIA/GAG, box 9, file 27; Perez, “Granma” (“bobbing”).

122 Young Castro: Szulc, Fidel (“assassination”: 289); Castro, My Life (25,000 acres: 29; “six”: 41; For Whom: 209; Chevy: 108); Castro, Struggle (“absolve”: 220–21); Castro, Prison Letters; Quirk, Castro (whip: 9; school/prison: 12; “hatred”: 18; “gangster”: 27); Geyer, Prince (no milk: 72; mistress letter: 130); Casuso, Cuba (“hoodlum”: 115; “approval”: 174; “mistress”: 172); HMP; Thomas, Cuba; Emilio Caballero interview, HIA/GAG, Box 7, File 48 (“talking politics”); Rafael Díaz-Balart interview, HIA/GAG, box 8, file 29 (“monologist”); Waldo Díaz-Balart, HIA/GAG, box 8, file 30 (“primitive”); Armando Llorente interview, HIA/GAG, box 11, file 4 (“loco,” “charming”); Ramon Mestre interview, HIA/GAG, box 11, file 29 (bathed); Jose Rasco interview, HIA/GAG, box 12, file 32 (“manners”).

123 Young Guevara: Anderson, Che (Argentino: 184; richest men: 4; rugby shirt: 37; “twin evils”: 52; “frozen stif”: 76; “octopuses”: 121; divorce: 382); Guevara, Motorcycle Diaries (“blanket”: 77) and On the Road (“pirate”: 63; “fun”: 80; “hit it off”: 99); Debray,Praised Be, 96 (“no interest”); Gadea, My Life (“black eyes”: 24; Sartre and Freud: 60–61); Granado, Traveling; Taibo, Guevara (“Stalin”: 31); Castañeda, Compañero (Kerouac: 46; “Stalin”: 62; “disastrous,” “boring”: 95); Siao-yu, Beggars, 148 (“money”).

124 Anderson, Che, 229; Taibo, Guevara, 112; Castañeda, Campañero, 102.

125 The Matthews articles appeared on Feb. 24–26, 1957. See HMP; Matthews, Cuban Story; DePalma, Man (marching in circles: 84); Felipe Pazos and Javiar Pazos interviews, HIA/GAG, box 12, files 14–15.

126 Wickham-Crowley, Guerrillas, 191.

127 Sweig, Revolution, 111.

128 Batista offensive: Szuc, Fidel, 445–49; Washington Post, Sept. 14, 1958 ( “steep,” “shin”); Castro, Struggle, 399–415; Batista, Betrayed, 80 (“panic”); Franqui, Diary, 316–86; Taibo, Guevara, 170–78; Quirk, Castro, 182–94; Thomas, Cuba, 996–1004; Castañeda, Campañero, 116.

129 Batista, Betrayed, 80.

130 Santa Clara: Guevara, Reminiscences, 267–69; Anderson, Che, 348–53; Franqui, Diary, 474–78; Taibo, Guevara, 237–49; Castañeda, Campañero, 133–38.

131 CIA: Weiner, Ashes, 155; Anderson, Che, 259–61; Szuc, Fidel, 427–29; Geyer, Prince, 183.

132 Batista, Betrayed, 135.

133 New York Times, Jan. 2, 1959.

134 Ibid.

135 Thomas, Cuba, 1042; Wright, Era, 16.

136 Castañeda, Campañero, 137; Thomas, Cuba, 1040.

137 Casuso, Cuba, 137.

138 “Infiltration”: Washington Post, Sept. 15, 1958. See also New York Times, April 18, 1959; U.S. News & World Report, March 16, 1959.

139 Guevara, Motorcycle Diaries, 164.

140 Rene Monserrat interview, HIA/GAG, box 11, file 39.

141 Anderson, Che, 458.

142 Rojo, My Friend, 181–82; Anderson, Che, 599.

143 Anderson, Che, 538; Castañeda, Campañero, 236.

144 “Saint Karl”: Guevara, Road, 114. “Roman Empire”: Debray, Praised Be, 98. “Imperialism”: Anderson, Che, 584. “Vietnams”: Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare, 175.

145 “Underwear”: Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare, 53. “Create”: 7. “Decisive”: Debray, Revolution, 119.

146 Childs, “Historical Critique.”

147 Congo: Guevara, African Dream (“parasitic”: 26; “drinking”: 28; “running”: 49; “rifle,” “perspective,” “truck”: 26; “poorest”: 226-27; “runs”: 135); Anderson, Che; Hoare, Mercenary; Kelly, America’s Tyrant; Schatzberg, Mobutu; Taibo, Guevara; Gleijeses,Conflicting, 101–23.

148 Bolivia: Guevara, Bolivian Diary, 144 (“nonexistent”), 248 (“effectiveness”); James, Bolivian Diaries; Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare, 10–11 (“reformer,” “countryside,” “full help”), 8 (“vote”), 116 (“secrecy”); Salmon, Defeat of Che (peak strength: 71; Shelton: 86; “bandits”: 168); Villegas,Pombo (“torrential”: 141); Debray, Praised Be, 104 (“murderous”); Rojo, My Friend; NSA/DCG (esp. “Activities of 2nd Ranger Battalion,” Nov. 28, 1967; “Debriefing of Felix Rodriguez,” June 3, 1975); LBJ/CSP; Castro,Revolution, 136–46; Wright, Era, 68 (billion dollars; expectations), 8–87; Anderson, Che, 637–710 (“mess”: 705; “shoot”: 710); Taibo, Guevara, 472–562 (100 Rangers: 548; “shoot”: 561); Rodriguez, Shadow (“tattered”: 10; “courage”: 11); Ryan, Fall (Korea, Laos: 90); Gary Prado interview, HIA/GAG, box 12, file 28.

149 Casey, Afterlife.

150 Latin insurgents: Wright, Era; Wickham-Crowley, Guerrillas (“glorious”: 31); Ratliff, Castroism; Scheina, Latin America’s Wars, vol. 2; Castro, Revolution; Gott, Rural Guerrilla; Kohl, Urban Guerrilla.

151 Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare, 7.

152 “Ennobles”: Marighella, Minimanual, 20. See also Flynn, Brazil; Skidmore, Military Rule; Williams, “Carlos Marighela”; New York Times Magazine, Nov. 15, 1970.

153 Nicaragua: Wickham-Crowley, Guerrillas, 7, 271–81; Kagan, Twilight; Kinzer, Blood.

154 Marchak, God’s Assassins; Timerman, Prisoner.

155 Sanford, Buried; Commission, “Memory.”

156 Boot, “Miracle.”

157 Burleigh, Blood, ch. 6.

158 Gero, Flights, 8.

159 Andrew, Sword, 380–82; Andrew, World, 246–55.

160 Entebbe: Betser, Soldier (“surprise”: 328; “shattered”: 329); Maj. Gen. (ret.) Uri Sagi and Maj Gen. (ret.) Ephraim Sneh, part of the rescue team, interviews with author, March 1, 2011; Dunstan, Lightning; Pedahzur, Secret Services, 53–62; Netanyahu, Entebbe; Ben-Porat, Rescue; Williams, Diary; Rabin, Memoirs (15 or 20: 287); Peres, Battling; Kurzman, Soldier; McRaven, Spec Ops; Harclerode, Secret; Follain, Jackal, 107 (kill Jews); Thomas, Gideon’s Spies, 142–45; Katz, Elite; Stevenson, 90 Minutes; Williamson,Counterstrike; Klein, Striking, 205–8 (chocolates);New York Times, Sept. 13, 1972 (“six million Jews”);

161 Wolf, Face, 279.

162 Sixties radicals: Gitlin, Sixties; Suri, Power; Berman, Utopias.

163 Weathermen: Varon, War Home; Stern, With.

164 SLA: Graebner, Patty’s (“insect”: 15); Hearst, Secret; Payne, SLALos Angeles Times, May 18, 1994.

165 RAF: Aust, Baader-Meinhof (total killed); Varon, War Home; Meinhof, Everybody; Baumann, How; Cockburn, One Point, 1–6 (nuclear munitions); Andrew, Mitrohkin Archive, 511–12 (East German support); Carr, Infernal, 138 (“six”); Wolf, Man. The 2008 German film The Baader-Meinhof Complex also presents an accurate portrayal of the group’s rise and fall.

166 Arafat: Rubin, Arafat (“Tom and Jerry”: 224; mattress: 39); Walker, Arafat (“activity”: 11; Algeria: 31; Beetle: 37; “richest”: 130); Abu Iyad, My Home (“discreet”: 29; “unprepared”: 81); Sayigh, Struggle; Hart, Arafat; Morris, Victims (1948–56 deaths: 270; parcel bomb: 288; Karameh: 268–69; “fascist”: 78; refuge in Israel: 80); Time, Dec. 13, 1968 (“Viet Cong”; “everyone”); Strong, “Playboy Interview” (“I fought”; “big lie”); Black, Secret Wars, 279 (“relentless”); Yaari, Strike; Raviv, Every Spy, 163 (bed still warm); Abu-Sharif, Tried (use of permits to recruit informers: 151); Byman, Price; Friedman, From (“dashing”: 107); New York Times, Nov. 12, 2004 (2,000 killed); Allman, “Road” (shaving, Rolex, “bric-a-brac”).

167 Pedahzur, Secret Services, 26–28; Morris, Victims, 288; Byman, Price, 25.

168 Black September: Dobson, Black September; Walker, Arafat (U.S., Saudi threats: 101–2); Klein, Striking; Jonas, Vengeance; Black, Secret Wars; Pedahzur, Secret Services, 40–46; Abu Iyad, My Home (“butchers”: 97); Raviv, Prince, 184–94; Abu-Sharif, Tried.

169 Lebanon: Schiff, Lebanon War; Rabinovich, War; Sayigh, Struggle, 522–43; Rubin, Arafat (suicide: 88; “Fiji”: 93); Morris, Victims (650 dead: 558); Cobban, Palestinian; Byman, Price (15,000 strong: 67).

170 First Intifada: Morris, Victims; Black, Secret Wars; King, Revolution; “Fatalities” (casualties); “China: Tiananmen” (Tiananmen Square deaths); Catignani, Intifadas; Peretz, Intifada (18,000 arrests: 64); Sayigh, Struggle, 607–37; Raviv, Prince, 379–404; Yigal Hankin, interview with author, Feb. 28, 2011 (“pants down”); Byman, Price (600 killed: 73).

171 Author’s meeting with Arafat: Wall Street Journal, Dec. 14, 1998.

172 Byman, Price, 104.

173 Schweitzer, “Suicide Bombing.”

174 Second Intifada: Eiland, “Second Intifada” (March toll, “continue”); Schweitzer, “Suicide Bombing” (attacks in 2002; attacks and attempted attacks in 2009); PLO: Captured Documents; Morris, Victims; “Intifada Toll” (casualties); Catignani, Intifadas; Byman,Price (casualties: 152–54); Lt. Gen. (ret.) Moshe “Bogie” Ya’alon (“safe havens,” 2010 attacks), Brig. Gen. (ret.) Yossi Kuperwasser (“like Gaza”), Brig. Gen. Noam Tibon, Brig. Gen. (ret.) Michael Herzog (“clueless”), interviews with author, Feb. 27–March 3, 2011.

175 Abu Iyad, My Home, 34.

176 Merari, Terrorism, 107.

177 Gorenberg, “Mahatma.”

178 “Intifada Toll.”

BOOK VIII: GOD’S KILLERS:
THE RISE OF RADICAL ISLAM

1 Origins of jihadism: Kepel, Jihad; Stout, Terrorist Perspectives; Wright, Looming; Habeck, Knowing; Sivan, Radical Islam.

2 Hostage crisis: Bowden, Guests; Coughlin, Ghost; Rubin, Anti-American, 107 (“damn”); Bill, Eagle, 295–304; and hostages’ memoirs (e.g., Queen, Inside; Koob, Guest; Kennedy, Ayatollah; Daugherty, Shadow).

3 Mecca: Trofimov, Siege (“cinemas”: 31; “heretical”: 32; 1,000 lives: 225); Coll, Ghost Wars, 28 (“dissolute”); Lacey, Inside, 16–36; Wright, Sacred Rage (dog food: 155); Bergen, Holy War, 59 (“riyalpolitik”).

4 Islamabad: Trofimov, Siege, 109–16 (“magnificent”: 116); Coll, Ghost Wars, 29-37; Sullivan, Under Siege, 71–89; Washington Post, Nov. 27, 1994; Time, Dec. 3. 1979.

5 Invasion of Afghanistan: Lyakhovskiy, “Soviet Invasion” (80 percent outside control: 4; vodka: 50; “alive”: 57; “soaked”: 65); Grau, “Take-Down”; CWIHP/SIA; Mitrokhin, “KGB”; Tanner, Afghanistan, 235–38; Feifer, Gamble, 55–85; Girardet, Afghanistan, 114 (mosques closed); Helsinki Watch, “Tears”; Kalinovsky, Goodbye, 16–54; Tanner, Afghanistan, 231 (flag), 235 (ammunition, batteries); Urban, War, 27–50; Rubin, Fragmentation, 111–22; Cordovez, Out, 13–49; Russian General Staff, War, 11–12; Mendelson, Changing Course, 39–64. Lyakhovskiy, “Soviet Invasion,” 64, reports five KGB men killed in the palace assault along with five other Red Army soldiers; Mitrokhin, “KGB,” 97–98, claims, “Over 100 of the KGB were killed.”

6 The official figure for Soviet fatalities during the entire war was 13,833. The real figure was closer to 26,000. See Russian General Staff, War, 43.

7 Massoud: Girardet, Afghanistan, 30 (“wasps”), 83 (“trenches”); Russian General Staff, War, 74–83; Coll, Ghost Wars, 107–24 (Massoud background); Feifer, GambleWashington Post, Oct. 17, 1983 (“blue-green”), Oct. 18, 1983 (“30 followers”; Volga sedan); Grad, Massoud (American Revolution: 29; “energy”: 104; “compassion”: 120; “washed”: 20; food: 199; “toes”: 18; chess: 30; “cool”: 105; “smiling”: 244); Christian Science Monitor, June 22, 1982 (“vantage point,” machine-gun position), June 28, 1982 (“caves”); Gall, Russian Lines; Tanner, Afghanistan, 251–52, 257–61; Urban, War, 101–5; Kaplan, Soldiers, xv (“ornery”), xix (“greatest”); Roy, Afghanistan, 72–75; Bergen, Osama bin Laden, xxii (“fragility”); Junger, Fire, 199–222; Rowan, Trail; former CIA officer Reuel Gerecht, email to author, April 27, 2012 (forgotten French).

8 Russian General Staff, War, 91.

9 Abuses: Helsinki Watch, “Tears” (“conceivable”: 4; “shocks”: 10; 200 killed: 35; strafed: 54; toy mines: 60; mosques: 82).

10 $3 billion: Westad, Cold War, 350. Advisers: Kalinovsky, “Blind.” Hospitals: Feifer, Gamble, 146.

11 Troop strength, casualties: Rubin, Fragmentation, 1, 131–33; Feifer, Gamble, 255; Girardet, Afghanistan, 53–54; Kaplan, Soldiers, 11, 18; Russian General Staff, War, 88.

12 Red Army: Feifer, Gamble (diseases: 142; rotten potatoes: 179; “dedy”: 142); Borovik, Hidden War (“caught”: 185; “blood”: 183; “animal”: 186); Heinamaa, Soldiers’ Story, 26 (“slaughtered,” “shoot”), 16 (“jackals,” “moral”), 26 (“destroy”); Yousaf, Bear Trap, 54–56; Russian General Staff, War, 302 (hospitalized); Christian Science Monitor, June 28, 1982 (“imperialism”); Alexievich, Zinky Boys; Tamarov, Afghanistan.

13 Yousaf, Bear Trap, 49.

14 Kaplan, Soldiers, 16.

15 Ibid., 69.

16 Reuel Gerecht, email to author, April 27, 2012.

17 Coll, Ghost Wars, 153.

18 U.S. aid: Lundberg, “Covert Action”; Coll, Ghost Wars, 147–53 (aid spending: 151); Feifer, Gamble ($30 million: 130); Crile, Charlie Wilson’s War, 419 (“directly”); Russian General Staff, War, 222 (“appreciable”); Cordovez, Out, 194–201; Yousaf, Bear Trap, 174–89; Gates, Shadows, 348–50; Tanner, Afghanistan, 267 (270 shot down); Westad, Cold War, 355–56; Bearden, Main Enemy, 207–54; Mendelson, Changing Course, 95–100; Michael Pillsbury, email to author, Oct. 27, 2010; globalsecurity.com (Hind specs).

19 Cordovez, Out, 202; Kalinovsky, Goodbye, 84.

20 “chilly”: Westad, Cold War, 377. 11:55: New York Times, Feb. 16, 1989.

21 Rise of Taliban: Rashid, Taliban; Goodson, Endless War; Tanner, Afghanistan.

22 Beirut bombing: Geraghty, Peacekeepers (quiet, “shards”: 91; “gone”: 92; “mangled”: 99; PET: 185-186); Hammel, Root (“presence”: 38; “bright”: 295); Dolphin, 24 MAU (youthful: 19); Wright, Sacred Rage (“roar”: 70); U.S. Commission, “Report.”

23 Hezbollah origins: Jaber, Hezbollah; Norton, Hezbollah (PLO training: 32); Cambanis, Privilege; Nasr, Revival, 142–43; Coughlin, Ghost, 210–18; Qassem, Hizbullah; Harik, Hezbollah; Norton, Amal; Baer, No Evil, 130–31 (PLO connection); Wright, Sacred Rage; Byman, Price, 209–21.

24 Mughniyeh: Hammel, Root, 432 (“Castro”); Independent, Feb. 23, 2010 (killed settler, plastic surgery); Jaber, Hezbollah, 115–20; Diaz, Lightning, 61–68; Bergman, Secret War (“creative”: 67); New York Times, Sept. 2, 2008 (museum).

25 Norton, Amal, 170–71.

26 Nasr, Revival, 132.

27 Suicide bombers: Cambanis, Privilege, 9 (loves”); Nasrallah, Voice, 206 (“fearful”); Pape, Dying; Pedahzur, Suicide; Bloom, Kill.

28 Nasrallah, Voice, 54.

29 Hostages: Ranstorp, Hizb’allah (100 seized: 1); Coughlin, Hostage; Baer, No Evil.

30 Nasrallah, Voice, 54.

31 Bergman, Secret War, 78.

32 Morris, Victims, 558.

33 “Find”: Norton, Hezbollah, 39. “Entity”: Nasrallah, Voice, 95.

34 Khobar: Clarke, All Enemies, 114; National Commission, “9/11 Report,” 60.

35 Training Al Qaeda: National Commission, “9/11 Report,” 68; Bergen, Osama bin Laden, 143; Wright, Tower, 173–74.

36 Nasrallah: Cambanis, Privilege, 180 (humor), 188 (son’s death); Nasrallah, Voice.

37 $100 million: Cambanis, Privilege, 15; Norton, Hezbollah, 110.

38 Exum, “Explaining Victory,” 152.

39 Luft, “Israel’s Security Zone.”

40 Exum, “Explaining Victory,” 154–55.

41 “Victory”: Nasrallah, Voice, 233. “Cobwebs”: Harel, 34 Days, 38.

42 Hoffman, “Conflict.”

43 Mansoor, Hybrid.

44 Second Lebanon War: Based on the author’s visits to Israel in August 2006 and February 2011, which included interviews with Israeli soldiers and policymakers while the war was going on and afterward, and to Lebanon in 2009. See also Harel, 34 Days(“scalded”: vii); Boot, “Second Lebanon War”; Biddle, Lebanon Campaign; Cambanis, Privilege (human shields: 89, 91); Cordesman, Lessons (15,000 troops: 5); “Winograd Commission Final Report”; Exum, “Assessment” (decentralized); Exum, “Explaining Victory” (from local areas: 88); Nasrallah, Voice, 393 (never expected); Arkin, Divining (100 buildings: xx; ambulances: 50; 12,000 bombs: 64; 15,000 Hezbollah fighters: 74); Byman, Price, 251–65.

45 New York Times, Oct. 6, 2010.

46 “Ending”: Nasrallah, Voice, 63. “A-Team”: Richard Armitage, CBS News, April 18, 2003.

47 Evans, Algeria, xiv.

48 Chechnya: Babchenko, Soldier’s War; Smith, Allah’s Mountains (casualties: xviii); Hughes, Chechnya; Politkovskaya, Hell; Akhmadov, Struggle; Goode, “Force.”

49 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1998.html.

50 Nexis/Lexis.

51 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/terrorism/international/fatwa_1996.html.

52 Ibid.

53 Young Bin Laden: Bergen, Osama bin Laden (TV: 14, 21; “model”: 17; Jihad magazine: 33; height: 182; “flame”: 75; “sand”: 168; “components”: 116; “bureaucratic”: 402; questionnaire: 402–7; “Big Satan”: 197); Bergen, Longest War; Bergen, Holy War; Bin Laden, Growing Up (learned English: 108; “good if Islam”: 50; “corrupted”: 43; no toys: 43; no drugs: 60; no laughter: 62; “crisp”: 27; “women”: 84; BBC: 199); Wright, Tower; National Commission, Report ($30 million a year: 170; cost of 9/11: 172); Coll,Bin Ladens ($1 million/year: 351); Bin Laden, Inside; Stout,Perspectives, 19 (caliphate), 124 (guerrilla history); Time, Jan. 11, 1999 (“cowardly”); Independent, March 22, 1997 (“paper tiger”); Nasiri, Jihad (weapons training: 142); Benjamin, Sacred Terror; Bin Laden, Messages; Ibrahim, Al Qaeda; Cullison, “Hard Drive”; Randal, Osama; Cronin,Terrorism, 276 (cost of bombings); Scheuer, Osama bin Laden; Kepel, Own Words; Richardson, Terrorists, 88 (3 R’s); Bin Laden to Zawahiri, 2002, Harmony Database, CTC, AFGP-2002-600321 (“media war”).

54 9/11: In addition to the sources previously cited for Bin Laden, especially the 9/11 Commission Report, see Bernstein, Blue, and McDermott, Perfect.

55 $500 billion: Bergen, Longest War, 91. Bankrupt America: Bin Laden, Growing Up, 177.

56 Bergen, Osama, 322.

57 Waterboarded 183 times: Bergen, Longest War, 115. 800 at Gitmo: 106. 28 interrogated: 111. For the debate over such measures, compare Mayer’s Dark Side with Yoo’s War.

58 Lacey, Global Jihad, 40.

59 Jenkins, Go Nuclear?, 101.

60 Najaf bomb: Washington Post, Aug. 30, 2003; Independent, Aug. 30 (crater); Los Angeles Times, Aug. 30 (“reeked”).

61 Zarqawi: Weaver, “Zarqawi”; Bergen, Osama bin Laden; Bergen, Longest WarTime, June 11, 2006; New York Times, July 13, 2004; Michael, “Legend”; Napoleoni, Insurgent; Brisard, Zarqawi (“burn”: 97).

62 More suicide attacks: Moghadam, Globalization, 41, 251. “By April”: Bergen, Longest War, 167.

63 Pape, Dying, 23.

64 Fishman, Bleedout, 6.

65 Zarqawi letter, 2004, at www.globalsecurity.org.

66 Zawahiri to Zarqawi, July 9, 2005, at www.globalsecurity.org.

67 Bahney, “Economic Analysis”; Fishman, Bombers.

68 Bowden, “Ploy”; Alexander, Break.

69 Based on the U.S. military’s official database published by WikiLeaks. See Guardian, Oct. 23, 2010.

70 Bergen, Longest War, 169.

71 McWilliams, Awakening, 2.46.

72 Boot, “Vietnam War.”

73 Petraeus: Based on the author’s numerous conversations and emails with Petraeus since 2003 and on Cloud, Fourth Star (Bigeard: 37, 64); Bowden, “Professor” and “Winning Streak”; Broadwell, All In; Giron, “General Motors”; Petraeus, “American Military” (“unavoidable”: 309; “prepared”: 307); Robinson, Tell Me; Gericke, Petraeus; Sennott, “Good Soldier”; Coll, “Dilemma.”

74 “Guerrilla war”: New York Times, June 28, 2003. “Dependency”: CNN.com, Sept. 10, 2003. “Dead-enders”: Bergen, Longest War, 158.

75 Boot, “Reconstructing Iraq.”

76 Washington Post, May 16, 2003.

77 Petraeus, email to author, Aug. 7, 2011.

78 O’Hanlon, “Iraq Index.”

79 Cloud, Fourth Star, 181.

80 Petraeus, “Surge of Ideas” (“pasture,” “zone,” 1.5 million).

81 “Objective”: U.S. Army, Counterinsurgency, 37. “Unity”: 39. “Environment”: 40. “Political”: 39. “Appropriate: 45. “Weapons”: 49. “Protect”: 48. “Humanely”: 245.

82 Petraeus, email to author, Aug. 7, 2011.

83 Petraeus, email to author, Jan. 4, 2011.

84 Petraeus, “Guidance.”

85 Petraeus, email to author, Aug. 7, 2011.

86 www.icasualties.org.

87 Figures based on the Guardian, Oct. 23, 2010, and the Brookings Iraq Index: www.brookings.edu/iraqindex.

88 The surge: Primarily based on the author’s eight visits to Iraq since 2003, which included extensive conversations with Iraqi and American leaders, including Petraeus, Odierno, and Crocker, as well as “battlefield circulations,” before, during, and after the surge. See also Ricks, Gamble; Robinson, Ends; Cloud, Fourth Star; West, Strongest Tribe; McWilliams, Anbar Awakening; Kagan, Surge.

89 Hafez, Suicide Bombers, 243–49.

90 http://pewglobal.org/database/.

91 Time, Jan. 11, 1999.

92 Boot, “Treading Softly.”

EPILOGUE: MEETING IN MARJAH

1 Based on the author’s personal observations.

2 Santayana, Soliloquies, 102.

IMPLICATIONS: TWELVE ARTICLES

1 Heilbrunn, Partisan.

2 Brig. Gen. Noam Tibon, interview with author, Feb. 27, 2011.

3 Kalyvas, Logic, 171.

4 Luttwak, “Dead End”; Merom, Democracies Lose.

5 Berman, “Hearts and Minds.”

6 Kalyvas, Logic, 119.

7 Sheehan, Shining Lie, 67.

8 Truong Chinh, Writings, 102.

9 Thompson, Communist Insurgency, 169.

10 Vann, “Memorandum for the Record,” March 16, 1966, AHEC/JPVP.

11 Templer to Lyttelton, Dec. 22, 1953, TEMP.

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