Notes

INTRODUCTION: THE WORLD’S BOMB

1. US Strategic Bombing Survey, Japan’s Struggle to End the War, excerpted in Barton J. Bernstein, ed., The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues (Boston: Little, Brown, 1976), 56.

2. Thomas Powers, Heisenberg’s War: The Secret History of the German Bomb (New York: Knopf, 1993), 437.

3. Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 735—6; Paul Boyer, By the Bomb’s Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (New York: Pantheon, 1985), 193; Mahatma Gandhi, ‘The Atom Bomb and Ahimsa’, in Kai Bird and Lawrence Lifschultz, eds., Hiroshima’s Shadow (Stony Creek, CT: Pamphleteer’s Press, 1998), 258-9.

4. Margaret Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy 1939—1945 (New York: St Martin’s, 1964), 386.

CHAPTER ONE: THE WORLD’S ATOM

1. J. Bronowski, ‘ABC of the Atom’, in Hiroshima Plus 20, prepared by New York Times, intro. John W Finney (New York: Delacorte Press, 1965), 138; Margaret Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy 1939—1945 (New York: St Martin’s, 1964), 1.

2. Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 5; Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995 [1971), 75; Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 41—2.

3. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 42, 44.

4. Ibid. 50—1; John W Dower, Japan in Wjr and Peace: Selected Essays (New York: New Press, 1993), 64.

5. Laura Fermi, Atoms for the World: United States Participation in the Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 42; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 165.

6. Bronowski, ‘ABC of the Atom’, 143.

7. Kevles, The Physicists, 271; Philip L. Cantelon, Richard G. Hewlett, and Robert C. Williams, eds., The American Atom: A Documentary History of Nuclear Policies from the Discovery of Fission to the Present, 2nd edn. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 5; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 24.

8. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 35.

9. Ibid. 34.

10. Robert Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, trans. James Cleugh (San Diego: Harcourt, 1958), 5—6, 8—9; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 104—33; Dower, Japan in War and Peace, 64.

11. Fermi, Atoms for the World, 42.

12. R. E. Peierls, Atomic Histories (Woodbury, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1997), 45.

13. Victor Lefebure, The Riddle of the Rhine: Chemical Strategy in Peace and War (New York: Chemical Foundation, 1923), 31; Amos A. Fries and Clarence J. West, Chemical Warfare (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1921), 13.

14. L. F. Haber, The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 24—7, 34.

15. Otto Hahn, My Life: The Autobiography of a Scientist, trans. Ernst Kaiser and Eithne Wilkins (New York: Herder and Herder, 1970), 118-19, 128-30; Edward M. Spiers, Chemical Warfare (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1986), 14.

16. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 92—3; Lefebure, Riddle of the Rhine, 68; Hahn, My Life, 120; Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 24, 107, 192—3.

17. Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 22—3, 45, 51—3, 290.

18. Fries and West, Chemical Warfare, 6, 38, 141; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 100—1; Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 134; Lefebure, Riddle of the Rhine, 176—7.

19. Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 239, 292—4, 307—8; Spiers, Chemical Warfare, 38.

20. Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 235—6; Spiers, Chemical Warfare, 22; Fries and West, Chemical Warfare, 127; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 94.

21. Spiers, Chemical Warfare, 39—40; Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 248—9, 299; Fries and West, Chemical Warfare, 371.

22. Spiers, Chemical Warfare, 4, 17; Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 292.

23. Hahn, My Life, 118; Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 2, 126, 138; Lefebure, Riddle of the Rhine, 237—41.

24. Kevles, The Physicists, 146—7; Hahn, My Life, 131—2.

25. Hahn, My Life, 131—2; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 95.

26. Haber, Poisonous Cloud, 26; http://www.energyquest.ugov/scientists/curie/ html, accessed 28 Sept. 2005.

27. Etel Solingen, ed., Scientists and the State: Domestic Structures and the International Context (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994), 6.

28. David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939— 1956 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), 10.

29. Paul R. Josephson, ‘The Political Economy of Soviet Science from Lenin to Gorbachev’, in Solingen, Scientists and the State, 146—51.

30. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 39—40.

31. Ibid. 40—4, 47; Josephson, ‘Political Economy’, 151 —2. See also Thomas B. Cochran, Robert S. Norris, and Oleg Bukharin, Making the Russian Bomb: From Stalin to Yeltsin (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995).

32. Kevles, The Physicists, pp. ix, 112, 118—31, 138; Robert Gilpin, American Scientists and Nuclear Weapons Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), 22.

33. Kevles, The Physicists, 132-3, 148.

34. Ibid. 173-5.

35. Ibid. 238-9, 250-1.

36. Marshall Cohen, ‘Moral Skepticism and International Relations’, in Charles R. Beitz, Marshall Cohen, Thomas Scanlon, and A. John Simmons, eds., International Ethics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985), 3-5. See also Robert Westbrook, Why We Fought: Forging American Obligations in World War II (Washington: Smithsonian Books, 2004).

37. Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 21.

38. Gilpin, American Scientists, 26.

39. Ibid. 27-8; R. W. Clark, The Greatest Power on Earth: The International Race for Nuclear Supremacy (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), 44; Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 201; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 675.

40. Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars, 264-5.

CHAPTER TWO: GREAT BRITAIN: REFUGEES, AIR POWER, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF THE BOMB

1. H. G. Wells, The World Set Free (Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1914).

2. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus (London: Oxford University Press, 1969); Edward Bulwer-Lytton, The Coming Race (London: G. Routledge and Sons, 1874); Alexandra Aldridge, The Scientific World View in Dystopia (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984), 10-11.

3. Szilard to Sir Hugo Hirst, 17 Mar. 1934, in Philip L. Cantelon, Richard G. Hewlett, and Robert C. Williams, eds., The American Atom: A Documentary History of Nuclear Policies from the Discovery of Fission to the Present, 2nd edn. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 7-8; Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 14-17, 21-5; Gerard J. DeGroot, The Bomb: A History of Hell on Earth (London: Pimlico, 2005), 5-6.

4. Robert Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, trans. James Cleugh (San Diego: Harcourt, 1958), 7; Charles Weiner, ‘New Site for the Seminar’, in Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn, eds., The

Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930—1960 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969), 194-5.

5. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 53—6; J. W. Boag, P E. Rubinin, and D. Shoenberg, eds., Kapitza in Cambridge and Moscow: Life and Letters of a Russian Physicist (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1990), 195.

6. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 34—6; Jean Medawar and David Pyke, Hitler’s Gift: Scientists who Fled Nazi Germany (London: Piatkus, 2000), 3, 9, 26—7; Frank R. Pfetsch, ‘Germany: Three Models of Interaction—Weimar, Nazi, Federal Republic’, in Etel Solingen, ed., Scientists and the State: Domestic Structures and the International Context (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994), 198—9.

7. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 37; Medawar and Pyke, Hitler’s Gift, 21; Pfetsch, ‘Germany’, 199.

8. Medawar and Pyke, Hitler’s Gift, 26, 33—46, 85—7; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 185—6, 192.

9. Medawar and Pyke, Hitler’s Gift, 87—9; L. F. Haber, The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 306, 312.

10. Medawar and Pyke, Hitler’s Gift, 80—5, 220—1; Margaret Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy 1939-1945 (New York: St Martin’s, 1964), 46—8.

11. Leo Szilard, ‘Reminiscences’, in Fleming and Bailyn, Intellectual Migration, 94— 141. See also Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 20—1, 192—3; Medawar and Pyke, Hitler’s Gift, 213—15.

12. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 568; id., Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 56—7; Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 187.

13. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 54—5; Lansing Lamont, Day of Trinity (New York: Atheneum, 1965), 29—30.

14. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 55 —7; Lamont, Day of Trinity, 30; Ronald W Clark, The Greatest Power on Earth: The International Race for Nuclear Supremacy (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), 106.

15. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 57—8.

16. Medawar and Pyke, Hitler’s Gift, 85.

17. Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Pantheon, 1978), 259.

18. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 48, 71.

19. Baldwin quoted in Horst Boog, ‘Harris: A German View’, in Sir Arthur T. Harris, Despatch on Wjr Operations, 23rd February, 1942, to 8th May, 1945 (London: Frank Cass, 1995), p. xli.

20. DeGroot, The Bomb, 2; Charles Messenger, ‘Bomber’ Harris and the Strategic Bombing Offensive, 1939—1945 (New York: St Martin’s, 1984), 13; Robin Neillands, The Bomber War: The Allied Air Offensive against Nazi Germany (Woodstock and New York: Overlook Press, 2001), 12.

21. Neillands, Bomber Wjr, 12—13; Messenger, ‘Bomber’ Harris, 13.

22. Andrew Boyle, Trenchard (London: Collins, 1962), 221—2.

23. Ibid. 223—4, 229; Dudley Saward, Bomber Harris: The Story of Sir Arthur Harris (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1985), 17-18.

24. Boyle, Trenchard, 56-62, 97, 115-16, 137-41.

25. Ibid. 166, 186-8, 239, 311-12.

26. Ibid. 299; Messenger, ‘Bomber’ Harris, 16-18; Michael S. Sherry, The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 19, 24, 34-5; David R. Mets, The Air Campaign: John Warden and the Classical Airpower Theorists (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press, 1999), 11 -12.

27. Boyle, Trenchard, 354, 365-9; Boog, ‘Harris: A German View’, p. xl.

28. Boyle, Trenchard, 369, 388-91; Saward, Bomber Harris, 24-31; Sir Arthur Harris, Bomber Offensive (New York: Macmillan, 1947), 19-23; Priya Satia, ‘The Defense of Inhumanity: Air Control and the British Idea of Arabia’, American Historical Review, 111 /1 (Feb. 2006), 16-51.

29. Messenger, ‘Bomber’ Harris, 8; Saward, Bomber Harris, 3, 8-11; Harris, Bomber Offensive, 16.

30. Saward, Bomber Harris, 16, 21, 24-31; Harris, Bomber Offensive, 18-23.

31. Documents accessed at http://en.wikipedia.org/Wiki/Terror_bombing, 11 Nov. 2005.

32. Saward, Bomber Harris, 58-61, 67; Harris, Bomber Offensive, 23-31.

33. Messenger, ‘Bomber’ Harris, 26; Neillands, Bomber War, 31, 35.

34. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 93; Neillands, Bomber War, 44, 52-4.

35. Harris, Bomber Offensive, 33; Messenger, ‘Bomber’ Harris, 41-2, 47-8; Harris, Despatch on War Operations, 7; Ronald Schaffer, Wings of Judgment: American Bombing in World War II (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 36.

36. Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 107-9; http://www.ww2guide.com/bombs. shtml#bombs, accessed 15 Nov. 2005.

37. This account of the discovery of fission draws on Laura Fermi, Atoms in the Family: My Life with Enrico Fermi (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954), 97-104; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 233-75; Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 59-70; Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 21-8.

38. Szilard to Strauss, 25 Jan. 1939, in Cantelon, Hewlett, and Williams, The American Atom, 8 -9.

39. Harold Nicolson, Public Faces (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1933).

40. Margaret Gowing, Independence and Deterrence: Britain and Atomic Energy, 1945— 1952, i. Policy Making (London: Macmillan, 1974), 1.

chapter three: Japan and Germany: paths not taken

1. Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 118; Robert D. Nininger, Minerals for Atomic Energy: A Guide to Exploration for Uranium, Thorium, and Beryllium (New York: D. Van Nostrand and Co., 1954), 44—6; Martin Lynch, Mining in World History (London: Reak-tion Books, 2002), 22, 40.

2. Thomas Powers, Heisenberg’s War: The Secret History of the German Bomb (New York: Knopf, 1993), 10; David Irving, The German Atomic Bomb: The History of Nuclear Research in Nazi Germany (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), 34—7, 50—5. In the light of what Irving has become—a Nazi apologist and Holocaust denier jailed in Austria in early 2006—it is a bit worrisome to rely, as I have done, on this book. Most scholars of the German bomb nevertheless consider it to be based on sound scholarship.

3. Nininger, Minerals, 43—4; Lennard Bickel, The Deadly Element: The Story of Uranium (New York: Stein and Day, 1979), 48—51, 53.

4. Lynch, Mining, 288—9; Bickel, Deadly Element, 56—8.

5. Robert Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, trans. James Cleugh (San Diego: Harcourt, 1958), 107—8.

6. Ronald W Clark, The Greatest Power on Earth: The International Race for Nuclear Supremacy (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), 58—60.

7. Arthur Holly Compton, Atomic Quest: A Personal Narrative (New York: Oxford University Press, 1956), 96—7; Peter Wyden, Day One: Before Hiroshima and After (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), 57—8.

8. The novelist Robert Wilcox claims, in Japan’s Secret War, that the Japanese did indeed find uranium in occupied northern Korea, and used it to make an atomic weapon, which they tested successfully on 10 Aug. 1945. The bomb obviously came too late to reverse Japanese fortunes. What evidence of the program they could not destroy fell into Soviet hands. North Korea does have uranium, though its quality is unknown and most sources suggest that it was not discovered until 1964. See, but do not take seriously, Robert K. Wilcox, Japan’s Secret War (New York: William Morrow, 1985).

9. Wyden, Day One, 86; John W. Dower, ‘ “NI” and “F”: Japan’s Wartime Atomic Bomb Research’, in John W Dower, Japan in War and Peace: Selected Essays (New York: New Press, 1993), 64-5.

10. Walter E. Grunden, Secret Weapons and World War II: Japan in the Shadow of Big Science (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2005), 56.

11. Dower, ‘ “NI” and “F”, ’, 171; Grunden, Secret Weapons, 70, 81.

12. Dower, ‘ “NI” and “F” ’, 84—5; Grunden, Secret Weapons, 71; Wyden, Day One, 87 -8 .

13. The foregoing paragraphs are based on Grunden, Secret Weapons, 48—82; Dower, ‘ “NI” and “F” ’, 55—100; Wyden, Day One, 86—8; Kenji Hall, ‘Japan’s A-Bomb Goal Still Long Way off in ’45’, Japan Times, 7 Mar. 2003; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 580—2.

14. Jeremy Bernstein, Hitler’s Uranium Club: The Secret Recordings at Farm Hall (Woodbury, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1996), 399—400.

15. Powers, Heisenberg’s War, p. vii; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 115—16; David C. Cassidy, Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1992), 172-3.

16. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 130—3; Cassidy, Uncertainty, 228—9, 3Z3,

324.

17. For Heisenberg’s visit to the United States, see Powers, Heisenberg’s War, 3—8; Cassidy, Uncertainty, 411—13.

18. Cassidy, Uncertainty, 303, 310, 394—6.

19. Ibid. 342—5, 377—93; Powers, Heisenberg’s War, 40—3.

20. Cassidy, Uncertainty, 394—6, 412—13.

21. Irving, German Atomic Bomb, 31—7.

22. Ibid. 42—6; David C. Cassidy, ‘Introduction’, to Bernstein, Hitler’s Uranium Club, pp. xviii—xix.

23. Irving, German Atomic Bomb, 55—6, 62—4, 68, 76—7; Cassidy, ‘Introduction’, p. xxii; Powers, Heisenberg's War, 95—7.

24. See Michael Frayn, Copenhagen (London: Methuen, 1998); Mark Walker, Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb (New York: Plenum Press, z995), 243—68; Cassidy, Uncertainty, 436—42; Powers, Heisenberg’s War, 120—8; Paul Lawrence Rose, Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project: A Study in German Culture (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, z998), 155 —7; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 383—6; Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 98—104.

25. Irving, German Atomic Bomb, 56; Powers, Heisenberg’s War, 98; Cassidy, ‘Introduction’, pp. xxiii—xxv.

26. Cassidy, Uncertainty, 307; Irving, German Atomic Bomb, 77, 126—7.

27. Cassidy, Uncertainty, 455—7; Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich, trans. Richard and Clara Winston (New York: Macmillan, 1970), 300—3.

28. Irving, German Atomic Bomb, 143—70, 187, 193—4, z98, 200—1; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 455—7, 513—17; Powers, Heisenberg’s War, 337—9.

29. Leslie R. Groves, Now it Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1962), 187; Nicholas Dawidoff, The Catcher Was a Spy: The Mysterious Life of Moe Berg (New York: Pantheon, 1994); Powers, Heisenberg’s War, 382—93.

30. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 156—64; Wyden, Day One, 108—9; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 606—7.

31. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 168—70; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 609—10; Cassidy, Uncertainty, 497—500; Cassidy, ‘Introduction’, p. xiv; Powers, Heisenberg’s War, 421—4.

32. Bernstein, Hitler’s Uranium Club, 24, 138 —43; Rose, Heisenberg, 9.

33. Cassidy, Uncertainty, 509; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 140; Wyden, Day One,

97—9.

34. Cassidy, Uncertainty, 484—5; Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 81, 170; Bernstein, Hitler’s Uranium Club, 64.

35. Leo Szilard, ‘Reminiscences’, in Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn, eds., The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930—1960 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969), 106-7.

36. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 75—8; Wyden, Day One, 30; Martin J. Sherwin, A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (New York: Knopf, 1975), 23—4.

37. Wyden, Day One, 34—5; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 16—17; Albert Einstein to Franklin D. Roosevelt, 2 Aug. 1939, in Philip L. Cantelon, Richard G. Hewlett, and Robert C. Williams, eds., The American Atom: A Documentary History of Nuclear Policies from the Discovery of Fission to the Present, 2nd edn. (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 9—10.

38. Wyden, Day One, 35—8; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 314—17.

39. Margaret Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy 1939—1949 (New York: St Martin’s, 1964), 40—2, 389—93.

40. Ibid. 43; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 329—31.

CHAPTER FOUR: THE UNITED STATES I

1. Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 340—1; Margaret Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy 1939—1945 (New York: St Martin’s, 1964), 54, 67; Otto R. Frisch, ‘ “Somebody Turned on the Sun with a Switch” ’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 30/4 (Apr. 1974), 12—18.

2. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 359, 362; James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993), 146—7; Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 66—7; Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson Jr., The New World, 1939—1946 (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962), 37.

3. ‘The MAUD Report, 1941’, in Philip L. Cantelon, Richard G. Hewlett, and Robert C. Williams, eds., The American Atom: A Documentary History of Nuclear Policies from the Discovery of Fission to the Present (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 16—20; Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 76, 104—5; Hewlett and Anderson, The New World, 42—3.

4. Peter Wyden, Day One: Before Hiroshima and After (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), 37; Martin J. Sherwin, A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (New York: Knopf, 1975), 28—33; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 372.

5. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 372—4; Wyden, Day One, 43—4; Hewlett and Anderson, The New World, 43; Gregg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (New York: Henry Holt, 2002), 39—40.

6. Arthur Holly Compton, Atomic Quest: A Personal Narrative (New York: Oxford University Press, 1956), 6—7.

7. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 143—5; Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995 [1971), 271-2.

8. Hershberg, James B. Conant, 8—9; Compton, Atomic Quest, 6—7.

9. Compton, Atomic Quest, 6; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 363—4; Wyden, Day One, 44—5.

10. The foregoing paragraphs are based on Compton, Atomic Quest, 7—9; Wyden, Day One, 45; Hershberg, James B. Conant, 149; Kevles, The Physicists, 325; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 30—1, 36—7.

11. On ‘big physics’, see Kevles, The Physicists, 286.

12. Franklin D. Roosevelt, ‘Roosevelt Delivers his War Message to Congress, 1941 ’, in Dennis Merrill and Thomas G. Paterson, Major Problems in American Foreign Relations, ii. Since 1914 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005), 132—3.

13. Leslie Groves, Now it Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project (New York: Harper and Bros., 1962), 265.

14. Sherwin, A World Destroyed, pp. xiv, 13; J. Samuel Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs against Japan (Chapel Hill, NC: University ofNorth Carolina Press, 1997), 9; Barton J. Bernstein, ‘The Atomic Bomb and American Foreign Policy: The Route to Hiroshima’, in Barton J. Bernstein, ed., The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues (Boston: Little, Brown, z976), 94—7; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 265; Winston S. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 639.

15. Wyden, Day One, 46—7; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 387—9, 398; Compton, Atomic Quest, 78.

16. Compton, Atomic Quest, 80—2; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 399—400.

17. Compton, Atomic Quest, 84—5; Wyden, Day One, 48; Laura Fermi, Atoms in the Family: My Life with Enrico Fermi (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

1954), 174.

18. For the creation and success of the Met Lab pile, see Compton, Atomic Quest,

87—8, 136—45; Wyden, Day One, 51 —4; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 428—42; Fermi, Atoms in the Family, 190—8.

19. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 3, 8, 17—19, 26, 33.

20. Ibid. 45, 50; Compton, Atomic Quest, 75—7; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 487—8.

21. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 10, 12; David. C. Cassidy, J. Robert Oppenheimer and the American Century (New York: Pi Press, 2005), 1—2, 11, 16, 63, 83—4,

88—9; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 450—1; Alice Kimball Smith and Charles Weiner, eds., Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980), 1—2; Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York: Knopf, 2005), 29, 84.

22. Cassidy, Oppenheimer, 91, 94—5, 100—3, 111, 122—3; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 34.

23. Cassidy, (Oppenheimer, 160—1; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 9—10; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 444—5; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 11 -15, 32.

24. Cassidy, Oppenheimer, 173—80.

25. John Adams and Peter Sellars, comps., Dr Atomic (opera); Thomas Powers, ‘An American Tragedy’, New York Review of Books, 22 Sept. 2005, 73—9; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 331—2; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 11; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 443—4; id., Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 205. On the revocation of Oppenheimer’s security clearance, see Philip M. Stern, with Harold P Green, The Oppenheimer Case: Security on Trial (New York: Harper and Row, 1969); and Priscilla J. McMillan, The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the Birth of the Modern Arms Race (New York: Viking, 2005).

26. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 29—31; Cassidy, Oppenheimer, 185—8; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 135—42.

27. Powers, ‘An American Tragedy’, 73; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 135—6; Cassidy, Oppenheimer, 119, 192—5; Oppenheimer to Francis Fergusson, 17 July 1923, in Smith and Weiner, Robert Oppenheimer, 32—3.

28. Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 63; Robert S. Norris, Racing for the Bomb: General Leslie R. Groves, the Manhattan Project’s Indispensable Man (South Royalton, VT: Steerforth Press, 2002), 242.

29. Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 176—8; Wyden, Day One, 56—7; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 2I.

30. Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 179—82; Wyden, Day One, 57—9; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 36—7.

31. Wyden, Day One, 59—60; Compton, Atomic Quest, 112—15; Groves, Nowit Can Be Told, 39—41.

32. Wyden, Day One, 60—1.

33. Ibid. 61—2, 66—7; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 71; Cassidy, Oppenheimer, 224—6; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 185—7.

34. Wyden, Day One, 68—9; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 450—2; Fermi, Atoms in the Family, 205.

35. Robert Serber, The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build an Atomic Bomb, ed. Richard Rhodes (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992), 3—4; Wyden, Day One, 67; Cassidy, Oppenheimer, 232—3; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 140; Fermi, Atoms in the Family, 226; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 58—63.

36. Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 180—4; Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 326—9.

37. Compton, Atomic Quest, 150—2; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 68—9; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 486—92.

38. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 489—96.

39. Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 69; Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 214—15.

40. Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 221—3; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 499; Compton, Atomic Quest, 186—7; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 90—3.

41. Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 224—6; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 497—9, 558-9; Kevles, The Physicists, 328-9.

42. Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 364—71.

43. Lansing Lamont, Day of Trinity (New York: Atheneum, 1965), 47; Robert Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, trans. James Cleugh (San Diego: Harcourt, 1958), 133 —4; Fermi, Atoms in the Family, 207.

44. Wyden, Day One, 93—4; Fermi, Atoms in the Family, 207; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 564—7.

45. Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 180—4; Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 326—9; Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 122—3; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 38.

46. Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 262, 266—8; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 522—3; Fermi, Atoms in the Family, 208—9.

47. Henry DeWolf Smyth, Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940—1945 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989 [1945]), 210, 212; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 241—9; Wyden, Day One, 98—9, 103—5; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 260; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 84.

48. Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 151—3; Lamont, Day of Trinity, 74—5, 84; Harlow W Russ, Project Alberta: The Preparation of the Atomic Bombs for Use in World War II (Los Alamos, NM: Exceptional Books, 1990), 8; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 566—7; Kevles, The Physicists, 330; R. R. Wilson, ‘A Recruit for Los Alamos’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 31 /3 (Mar. 1975), 41—7.

49. Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 201—2; Lamont, Day of Trinity, 226; Robert R. Wilson, ‘The Conscience of a Physicist’, in R. S. Lewis and June Wilson, eds., Alamogordo plus Twenty-Five Years: The Impact of Atomic Energy on Science, Technology, and World Politics (New York: Viking Press, 1970), 72—3; Fermi, Atoms in the Family, 242.

50. Wyden, Day One, 50—1, 207, 212—13; Gerard J. DeGroot, The Bomb: A History of Hell on Earth (London: Pimlico, 2005), 58.

51. Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 86—7, 104—5; Hewlett and Anderson, The New World, 206—7; DeGroot, The Bomb, 58; Leslie R. Groves, ‘Some Recollections of July 16, 1945’, in Lewis and Wilson, Alamogordo Plus Twenty-Five Years, 54.

52. Wyden, Day One, 16, 98; Interim Committee Minutes, 31 May 1945, in Cantelon, Hewitt, and Williams, American Atom, 43 ; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 269.

53.    Gowing, Britain and Atomic Energy, 382—6; Hewlett and Anderson, The New World, 206—7.

54. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 86—7, 184—5; Lamont, Day of Trinity, 85 —6.

chapter five: the united states II

1. Robert R. Wilson, ‘The Conscience of a Physicist’, in Richard S. Lewis and Jane Wilson with Eugene Rabinowitch, eds., Alamogordo plus Twenty-Five Years: The Impact of Atomic Energy on Science, Technology, and World Politics (New York: Viking, 1970), 73.

2. Samuel McCrea Cavert to Harry S. Truman, 9 Aug. 1945, and Truman to Cavert, 11 Aug. 1945, in Dennis Merrill, ed., Documentary History of the Truman Presidency, i. The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb on Japan (Washington: University Publications of America, 1995), 213—14.

3. Both quotations, conjoined as if from the same source, appear twice in Gar Alperovitz, Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam (expanded and updated edn., New York: Penguin, 1985 [1965]), 14, 284-5.

4. Such is the nub of Alperovitz’s argument for ‘atomic diplomacy’. Note that both Eisenhower statements were made, and thus both recollections came, long after the bombs had been dropped; see Barton J. Bernstein, ‘Ike and Hiroshima! Did He Oppose It?’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 10/3 (Sept. 1987), 377-89.

5. Henry L. Stimson, ‘The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb’, Harper’s (Feb. 1947), 97-107.

6. Michael S. Sherry, The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 39; Ronald Schaffer, Wings of Judgment: American Bombing in World Wjr II (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 36.

7. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 57—60, 67; Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 32, 36—7; William O’Neill, A Democracy at Wjr (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 306. There is some evidence that Germans distinguished between American and British bombing strategy early in the war, and had greater regard for the former. See Conrad Crane, Bombs, Cities, and Civilians: American Airpower Strategy in World War II (Lawrence, KS: University ofKansas Press, 1993), 11.

8. Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 37—8; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 100; Tami Davis Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914—1945 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 208—9.

9. Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 38—9; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 151.

10. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 152—4; W G. Sebald, On the Natural History of Destruction, trans. Anthea Bell (New York: Modern Library, 2004), 26—30; Jorg Friedrich, The Fire: The Bombing of Germany, 1940—1945, trans. Allison Brown (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006), 167; Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 471— 5; A. C. Grayling, Among the Dead Cities: The History and Moral Legacy of the WWII Bombing of Civilians in Germany and Japan (New York: Walker, 2006), 271—3.

11. Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 56, 66—8; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 155—6; Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality, 245; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 472.

12. Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 97; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 260— 1; Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality, 254—6; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 592—3; Charles S. Maier, ‘Targeting the City: Debates and Silences about the Aerial Bombing of World War II’, International Review of the Red Cross, 87/859 (Sept. 2005), 429—44; Stephen A. Garrett, Ethics and Airpower in World War II: The British Bombing of German Cities (New York: St Martin’s, 1993), 138, 206; Frederick Taylor, Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945 (New York: HarperCollins, 2004), 417. See also Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Slaughterhouse-Five: Or, the Children’s Crusade, a Duty-Dance with Death (New York: Delacorte Press, 1969).

13. Saburo Ienaga, The Pacific War, 1931—1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan’s Role in World Wjr II (New York: Pantheon, 1978), 138-9; John W Dower, War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific Wjr (New York: Pantheon, 1986), 104; Ronald H. Spector, Eagle against the Sun: The American Wjr with Japan (New York: Free Press, 1985), 148.

14. Spector, Eagle against the Sun, 158—63, 166—78, 190—201, 205—14; Ienaga, Pacific War, 144.

15. Spector, Eagle against the Sun, 502—3.

16. Spector, Eagle against the Sun, 532—40; Robert Leckie, Okinawa: The Last Battle of World War II (New York: Penguin, 1995), 161; Thomas W. Zeiler, Unconditional Defeat: Japan, America, and the End of World War II (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Press, 2004), 161—73; Minutes of a Meeting on

18 June 1945, in Merrill, Documentary History, 92.

17. Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire (New York: Random House, 1999), 80—1.

18. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 109, 114, 116, 122—3; Frank, Downfall, 54—6.

19. Frank, Downfall, 51 —7, 62—5; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 226—7; Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 63 ; Kenneth P. Werrell, Blankets of Fire: US Bombers over

Japan during World War II (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996), 150—6.

20. Frank, Downfall, 65—6; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 273—4; Crane, Bombs, Cities, and Civilians, 132; Werrell, Blankets of Fire, 160—3; Gordon Daniels, ‘The Great Tokyo Air Raid, 9—10 March 1945’, in W G. Beasley, ed., Modern Japan: Aspects of History, Literature and Society (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1975), 124—6.

21. Daniels, ‘Tokyo Air Raid’, 119, 121, 123—4; Robert Guillain, I Saw Tokyo Burning: An Eyewitness Narrative from Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima, trans. William Byron (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981), 174, 184.

22. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 277—9; Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 134—6; Guillain, I Saw Tokyo Burning, 184—8; Daniels, ‘Tokyo Air Raid’, 125—9; Frank,

Downfall, 74; Kyoko Selden and Mark Selden, ‘Introduction’, in Kyoko Selden and Mark Selden, eds., The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989), pp. xiv-xv.

23. Guillain, I Saw Tokyo Burning, 184, 187; Daniels, ‘Tokyo Air Raid’, 129. Guillain gives a figure of 197,000 dead or missing, which seems inflated.

24. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 275; Guillain, I Saw Tokyo Burning, 182.

25. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 277—8; Schaffer, Wings ofJudgment, 151 —2; Frank, Downfall, 48, 67.

26. Quoted in Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 217.

27. James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993), 211; Peter Wyden, Day One: Before Hiroshima and After (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), 140.

28. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 524; Leo Szilard, ‘Reminiscences’, in Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn, eds., The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America, 1930—1960 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969), 123—5.

29. Szilard, ‘Reminiscences’, 126—8.

30. Ibid. 128—9; Wyden, Day One, 144—5; Robert S. Norris, Racing for the Bomb: General Leslie R. Groves, the Manhattan Project’s Indispensable Man (South Royalton, VT: Steerforth Press, 2002), 526; Arthur Holly Compton, Atomic Quest: A Personal Narrative (New York: Oxford University Press, 1956), 233—5; Gregg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence and Edward Teller (New York: Henry Holt, 2002), 133.

31. The Franck Committee Report, 11 June 1945, in Michael B. Stoff, Jonathan F. Fanton, and R. Hal Williams, eds., The Manhattan Project: A Documentary Introduction to the Atomic Age (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), 140—7.

32. Szilard, ‘Reminiscences’, 130—2; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 326—7; Martin J. Sherwin, A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (New York: Knopf, 1975), 217-19, 305-6.

33. Barton J. Bernstein, ‘Truman and the A-Bomb: Targeting Noncombatants, Using the Bomb, and his Defending the “Decision” ’, Journal of Military History, 62/3 (July 1998), 561—2; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 304—5; Ralph Bard, ‘Memorandum on the Use of S-1 Bomb’, 27 June 1945, repr. in Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 307—8; Fletcher Knebel and Charles W Bailey II, No High Ground (New York: Harper and Row, 1960), 123.

34. Hershberg, James B. Conant, 226; Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 885; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 169—70.

35. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 317; ‘Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting, Thursday, May 31, 1945’, in Merrill, Documentary History, 22—38.

36. Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson Jr., The New World 1939/1946: Volume I of a History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (University

Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962), 358; Compton, Atomic Quest, 238-9.

37. In Merrill, Documentary History, see ‘Notes of the Interim Committee Meeting’, 1 June 1945 (pp. 39-48), 21 June 1945 (pp. 94-101), 6 July 1945 (pp. 106-10), 19 July 1945 (pp. 137-44).

38. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 618-20.

39. ‘Notes of Interim Committee Meeting’, 31 May 1945, in Merrill, Documentary History, 32-3; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 138, 224, 238.

40. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 617-18, 624-5; Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 74; Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 386-8; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 197.

41. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 642-3; Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 197; J. Samuel Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs against Japan (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), 61; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power,294; Stimson, ‘The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb’.

42. Bernstein, ‘Truman and the A-Bomb’, 558-9; Frank, Downfall, 258.

43. Lansing Lamont, Day of Trinity (New York: Atheneum, 1965), 97-9, 210-11.

44. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 202-3; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 128-9; Lamont, Day of Trinity, 135, 138-41.

45. Lamont, Day of Trinity, 168-79; Wyden, Day One, 208-12; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 663-70.

46. Lamont, Day of Trinity, 180-4; Kenneth T. Bainbridge, ‘A Foul and Awesome Diplay’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 31 /5 (May 1975), 40-6; Leslie R. Groves, Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1962), 296-301; ‘Groves: Report on Alamogordo Atomic Bomb Test’, 18 July 1945, repr. in Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 308-14.

47. Lamont, Day of Trinity, 187-8, 192-4; ‘Groves: Report on Alamogordo’, 310.

48. Lamont, Day of Trinity, 186, 195; Hershberg, James B. Conant, 234; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 298.

49. Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction, 53-4; Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), 130-3.

50. Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction, 56-8; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 13640; Arnold A. Offner, Another Such Victory: President Truman and the Cold War, 1945-1953 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002), 72-3.

51. Offner, Another Such Victory, 74-6; Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction, 59, 63-4; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 138.

52. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 154-5; Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction, 67; Ralph E. Weber, ed., Talking with Harry: Candid Conversations with President Harry S. Truman (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Press,

2001), 3.

53. Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction, 69-72; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 155-60; Leon V Sigal, Fighting to a Finish: The Politics of War Termination in the

United States and Japan, 1945 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988), 154— 7; ‘Proclamation Defining Terms for the Japanese Surrender, July 26, 1945’, in Stoff, Fanton, and Williams, The Manhattan Project, 215—16.

54. John W Dower, War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York: Pantheon, 1986), 80—1; Ronald Takaki, Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995), 71-100; John D Chappell, Before the Bomb: How America Approached the End of the Pacific Wjr (Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1997), 16, 18; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power,

141.

55. Dower, War without Mercy, 79; Chappell, Before the Bomb, 27—8, 107; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 134; E. B. Sledge, With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), 120, 152, 155 —6, 259. See also Francis B. Catanzaro, With the 41st Division in the Southwest Pacific: A Foot Soldier’s Story (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2002), 50, 88, 129; and Patrick K. O’Donnell, Into the Rising Sun: In their own Words: World Wjr Il’s Pacific Veterans Reveal the Heart of Combat (New York: Free Press, 2002), 113—14, 127—8, 212, 236—7.

56. Takaki, Hiroshima, 96; Richard Rhodes, Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 21; Groves, Now it Can Be Told, 324; Truman Diary Entry, 25 July 1945, in Merrill, Documentary History, 156.

57. See, e.g., Alperovitz, Atomic Diplomacy; id., The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (New York: Knopf, 1995); Kai Bird and Lawrence Lifschultz, ‘The Legend of Hiroshima’, in Bird and Lifschultz, eds., Hiroshima’s Shadow: Writing on the Denial of History and the Smithsonian Controversy (Stony Creek, CT: Pamphleteer’s Press, 1998), xxxi—lxxvii.

58. Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 187, 190—1, 224—5; Alperovitz, Atomic Diplomacy, 160; Forrestal Diary Entry, 28 July 1945, in Stoff, Fanton, and Williams, The Manhattan Project, 217.

59. Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 198; Barton J. Bernstein, ‘Roosevelt, Truman, and the Atomic Bomb, 1941—1945: A Reinterpretation’, Political Science Quarterly (Spring 1975), 23—62; Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction, 94—5; Sherry, Rise ofAmerican Air Power, 340.

60. Bernstein, ‘Roosevelt, Truman, and the Atomic Bomb’; Sigal, Fighting to a Finish, 175; Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 376.

61. Crane, Bombs, Cities, and Civilians, 11, 28—9; Frank, Downfall, 46, 257; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 292—7, 320—3.

62. Chappell, Before the Bomb, 80; O’Neill, Democracy at Wjr, 414—17; Frank, Downfall, 138—45; Minutes of a Meeting held at the White House on June 18, 1945, in Merrill, Documentary History, 76—93. For the debate concerning estimates of American casualties on Kyushu, see John Ray Skates, The Invasion of Japan: Alternatives to the Bomb (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994), 76—82; Barton J. Bernstein, ‘Reconsidering Truman’s Claim of‘Half a Million American Lives’ Saved by the Atomic Bomb: The Construction and

Deconstruction of a Myth’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 22/1 (Mar. 1999), 54—95; D M. Giangreco, ‘ “A Score of Bloody Okinawas and Iwo Jimas”: President Truman and Casualty Estimates for the Invasion of Japan’, Pacific Historical Review, 72/1 (Feb. 2003), 93—132; J. Samuel Walker, ‘Recent Literature on Truman’s Atomic Bomb Decision: A Search for Middle Ground’, Diplomatic History, 29/2 (Apr. 2005), 311 -34.

63. Barton J. Bernstein, ‘Understanding the Atomic Bomb and the Japanese Surrender: Missed Opportunities, Little-Known Near Disasters, and Modern Memory’, in Michael J. Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 38—79.

64. Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 73, 300; O’Neill, Democracy at War, 316; Paul Boyer, By the Bomb’s Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (New York: Pantheon, 1985), 219; Mahatma Gandhi, ‘The Atom Bomb and Ahimsa’, in Bird and Lifschultz, Hiroshima’s Shadow, 258—9; Hanson W Baldwin, ‘Atomic Bomb Responsibilities’, New York Times, 12 Sept. 1945; Schaffer, Wings of Judgment, 171—2; Memo by Eben Ayers, 6 Aug. 1951, in Merrill, Documentary History, 509; Bernstein, ‘Truman and the A-Bomb’, 569.

65. David McCullough, Truman (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), 442.

66. Franck Report, 11 June 1945, in Stoff, Fanton, and Williams, The Manhattan Project, 143—4; Bernstein, ‘Truman and the A-Bomb’, 563; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 312; Sigal, Fighting to a Finish, 164—9; Chappell, Before the Bomb, 92—5; Skates, Invasion of Japan, 84, 92—7.

67. Sigal, Fighting to a Finish, 164—5. Radiation, of course, killed like gas, from the inside out. Despite warnings from the Frisch—Peierls memorandum and clear indications in the Trinity test, policymakers dismissed or denied the extent to which radioactivity was a killing agent of atomic bombs. All that said, as John Ray Skates points out, had it come to an invasion of Japan, the use of gas against ensconced defenders might have been difficult to resist. See Skates, Invasion of Japan, 97.

68. Bernstein, ‘Truman and the A-Bomb’, 562.

69. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 130—1.

chapter six: Japan: the atomic bombs and war's end

1. John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Knopf, 1946), 9, 49; Michihiko Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary: The Journal of a Japanese Physician, August 6-September 30, 1945, trans. Warner Wells (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press,

1955), 4; Kenzaburo Oe, Hiroshima Notes, trans. David J. Swain and Toshi Yonezawa (New York: Grove Press, 1996 [1965]), 19—20, 175—7.

2. Ronald H. Spector, Eagle against the Sun: The American War with Japan (New York: Free Press, 1985), 241—2; Haruko Taya Cook and Theodore F Cook, Japan at War: An Oral History (New York: New Press, 1992), 259, 267—76.

3. Cook and Cook, Japan at War, 281—92.

4. Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (New York: Harper-Collins, 2000), 484; Cook and Cook, Japan at War, 354—63.

5. John W Dower, ‘ “NI” and “F”: Japan’s Wartime Atomic Bomb Research’, in John W Dower, Japan in War and Peace: Selected Essays (New York: New Press,

1993), 55—!00; Kenji Hall, ‘Japan’s A-Bomb Goal Still Long Way off in ’45’, Japan Times, 7 Mar. 2003; Peter Wyden, Day One: Before Hiroshima and After (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), 185-7, 323.

6. Bix, Hirohito, 24; Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire (New York: Random House, 1999), 91—3; Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), 48—9.

7. Bix, Hirohito, 10—15, 424, 437; id., ‘Japan’s Delayed Surrender: A Reinterpretation’, in Michael J. Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 80—115; Frank, Downfall, 87—9.

8. Bix, Hirohito, 491—3; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 45—8.

9. Frank, Downfall, 94—5, 112—15; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 91—7.

10. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 106—11; Bix, Hirohito, 491; John W Dower, ‘Sensational Rumors, Seditious Graffiti, and the Nightmares of the Thought Police’, in Dower, Japan in War and Peace, 138—45.

11. Frank, Downfall, 222—30; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 124—6; Bix, Hirohito, 493—4.

12. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 38; Frank, Downfall, 85 —6, 164—96; John Ray Skates, The Invasion of Japan: Alternative to the Bomb (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1994), 130—2, 148; Bix, Hirohito, 480.

13. Skates, Invasion of Japan, 190—1; Frank, Downfall, 117—18, 194; Bix, Hirohito, 496; Fletcher Knebel and Charles W. Bailey II, No High Ground (New York: Harper and Row, i960), 9.

14. Bix, Hirohito, 334—5, 364; Cook and Cook, Japan at War, 187—92, 199—202; Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (New York: Basic Books, 1997); Saburo Ienaga, The Pacific War, 1931—1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan’s Role in World Wjr II (New York: Pantheon, 1978), 187—9.

15. Ienaga, Pacific War, 183; Cook and Cook, Japan at War, 305—13; Skates, Invasion of Japan, i08—i0.

16. Robert H. Ferrell, ed., Dear Bess: The Letters from Harry to Bess Truman, 1910—

1959 (New York: W W Norton, 1983), 519; id., ed., Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S. Truman (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), 54; Wyden, Day One, 236—7.

17. Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, i986), 583—6; Charles W. Sweeney, with James A. Antonucci and Marion K. Antonucci, War’s End: An Eyewitness Account of America’s Last Atomic Mission (New York: Avon Books, 1997), 94—9.

18. Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 638—9; Wyden, Day One, 192, 237; William Bradford Huie, The Hiroshima Pilot (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1964), 21— 2; Harlow W Russ, Project Alberta: The Preparation of Atomic Bombs for Use in World War II (Los Alamos, NM: Exceptional Books, 1990), 48, 52.

19. The foregoing paragraphs are based on Wyden, Day One, 237—47; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 699—711; Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 146—74, 205—6; Huie, Hiroshima Pilot, 21—4; Russ, Project Alberta, 62; Hanson W Baldwin, ‘Hiroshima Decision’, in Hiroshima Plus 20, prepared by New York Times, intro. John W Finney (New York: Delacorte Press, 1962), 40—1; Norman F. Ramsey, ‘August 1945: The B-29 Flight Logs’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 38/10 (Dec. 1982), 33-5.

20. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 210—12.

21. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 2—3, 229; Wyden, Day One, 286—9; Robert S. Norris, Racing for the Bomb: General Leslie R. Groves, the Manhattan Project’s Indispensable Man (South Royalton, VT: Steerforth Press, 2002), 418—19.

22. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 39—40; US Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS), The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1946), 6; Pacific War Research Society (PWRS), The Day Man Lost: Hiroshima, 6 August 1945 (Palo Alto: Kodansha International, 1972), 220—1.

23. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 41, 180; USSBS, Effects of Atomic Bombs, 6; Wyden, Day One, 274; Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings,trans. Eisei Ishikawa and David L. Swain (New York: Basic Books, 1981), 461, 468—9, 475—83.

24. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 41, 180; Robert J. Lifton, Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), 17—18.

25. Lifton, Death in Life, 16—17; Wyden, Day One, 201; PWRS, The Day Man Lost, 220—1.

26. Lifton, DEATH IN LIFE, 19; Knebel and Bailey, NO HIGH GROUND, 180—1; PWRS, THE DAY MAN LOST, 252; Hachiya, HIROSHIMA DIARY, 1; Toyofumi Ogura, LETTERS from the End of the World: A Firsthand Account of the Bombing of Hiroshima, trans. Kisaburo Murakami and Shigeru Fujii (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1997), 15—17; Hersey, Hiroshima, 78—9; Cook and Cook, Japan at War, 382—3; Arata Osada, ed., Children of Hiroshima (Tokyo: Publishing Committee for Children of Hiroshima, 1980), 14, 127.

27. Kyoko Selden and Mark Selden, eds., The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989), p. xix; Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 183; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 80—1; Kenzaburo Oe, Hiroshima Notes, 171—2; Ogura, Letters, 73; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 715; Osada, Children of Hiroshima, 176; Lifton, Death in Life, 27.

28. Osada, Children of Hiroshima, 179—80; Ogura, Letters, 65, 67; Hersey, Hiroshima, 54; PWRS, The Day Man Lost, 275.

29. USSBS, Effects of Atomic Bombs, 6; Ogura, Letters, 71, 142—3; Lifton, Death in Life, 58-9.

30. Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary, passim; Wyden, Day One, 273.

31. Cook and Cook, Japan at War, 387—91.

32. Osada, Children of Hiroshima, 127—30.

33. Wyden, Day One, 279—81.

34. Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary, 3, 52; Lifton, Death in Life, 50—3; Ogura, Letters, 10—11; Selden and Selden, Atomic Bomb, pp. xx—xxi.

35. Lifton, Death in Life, 28, 31; Ogura, Letters, 41, 54. There were exceptions to this emotional numbness: see Katsuzo Oda, ‘Human Ashes’, in Kenzaburo Oe, ed., The Crazy Iris and Other Stories of the Atomic Aftermath (New York: Grove Press, 1995), 71—2.

36. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects, 106—7.

37. Hersey, Hiroshima, 30; Wyden, Day One, 253, 267; Ogura, Letters, 148—9.

38. Michael S. Sherry, The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 344; Lifton, Death in Life, 22—; Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary, 114—15, 208.

39. Hersey, Hiroshima, 91; Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects, 86.

40. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground, 188—93, 198—9; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 184; Frank, Downfall, 268—9. In his diary that day, however, Anami acknowledged the likelihood that an atomic bomb had been used on Hiroshima.

41. Knebel and Bailey, No High Ground; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 185; Frank, Downfall, 271—2.

42. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 185—6; Frank, Downfall, 271—2; Bix, Hirohito, 502— 3; Leon V Sigal, Fighting to a Finish: The Politics of War Termination in the United States and Japan, 1945 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988), 225.

43. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 189—91, 195—6; David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939—1956 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), 127—8.

44. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 197—201, 203—4; Frank, Downfall, 288—91; Bix, Hirohito, 512; Sigal, Fighting to a Finish, 226—7.

45. Frank, Downfall, 284; Sweeney, War’s End, 179, 185—9, 200; Russ, Project Alberta, 68.

46. Frank, Downfall, 284—7; Sweeney, War’s End, 203—26; John W Dower, War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific Wjr (New York: Pantheon, 1986), 298; Rhodes, Making of the Atomic Bomb, 739—42; Ramsey, ‘August 1945’, 35; Terai Sumie, ‘White Nagasaki: A Haiku Sequence’, in Lequita Vance-Watkins and Aratani Mariko, eds. and trans., White Flash, Black Rain: Women of Japan Relive the Bomb (Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions, 1995), 13.

47. This account of the Japanese debate over the terms of surrender is based on Robert J. C. Butow, Japan’s Decision to Surrender (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1954), 166—88; Edwin P Hoyt, Hirohito: The Emperor and the Man (New York: Praeger, 1992), 139-45; Bix, Hirohito, 511 -18; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 203—14; Frank, Downfall, 288—96.

48. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 217—27; Frank, Downfall, 300—3; Sigal, Fighting to a Finish, 249—52; Walter LaFeber, The Clash: US—Japanese Relations throughout History (New York: W W Norton, 1997), 252—3; Diary of Henry Wallace, 10 Aug. 1945, in Michael B. Stoff, Jonathan F Fanton, and R. Hal Williams, The Manhattan Project: A Documentary Introduction to the Atomic Age (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), 245.

49. This account of the Japanese decision to surrender is based on Butow, Japan's Decision to Surrender, 189—227; Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 227—51; Frank, Downfall, 308—21; Bix, Hirohito, 519—28; Dower, War without Mercy, 300—1; Sigal, Fighting to a Finish, 252—81; Robert Guillain, I Saw Tokyo Burning: An Eyewitness Narrative from Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima, trans. William Byron (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981), 257—69.

50. Frank claims that the Emperor also made explicit reference to the atomic bomb at this meeting. Hasegawa is doubtful, pointing out that only one of the six accounts of Hirohito’s statement mentioned the bomb, and that one was second-hand. See Frank, Downfall, 295 —6, and Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 346 n. 90.

51. Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy, 240, 242, 249; Frank, Downfall, 295—6, 315, 320; John W Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World Wjr II (New York: W W Norton, 1999), 36.

52. Wyden, Day One, 309; Sigal, Fighting to a Finish, 279; Bix, Hirohito, 509; USSBS, Effects of Atomic Bombs, 23.

53. Wyden, Day One, 298—9, 302—3, 307; Robert Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, trans. James Cleugh (San Diego: Harcourt, 1958), 210—14; John W. Dower, ‘The Bombed: Hiroshimas and Nagasakis in Japanese Memory’, in Hogan, Hiroshima in History and Memory, 119.

54. Wyden, Day One, 321—5, 345; Norris, Racing for the Bomb, 438—41; Sherry, Rise of American Air Power, 346; Hersey, Hiroshima, 95—7.

55. Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary, 139—40.

56. USSBS, Effects of Atomic Bombs, 15, 19; Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects, 217—23, 260, 270, 449—50; Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed, Effects of A-Bomb Radiation on the Human Body (Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1995), 16—20; Lifton, Death in Life, 103—5.

57. Frank, Downfall, 285—7; Dower, War without Mercy, 298; Effects of A-Bomb Radiation, 8.

58. Lifton, Death in Life, 69; Monica Braw, The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Japan, 1945—1949 (Lund, Sweden: Liber, 1986); Richard H. Minear, ed. and trans., Hiroshima: Three Witnesses (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 36, 138-42; Dower, Embracing Defeat, 413-15.

59. Dower, ‘The Bombed’, 128; Lifton, Death in Life, 329; Wyden, Day One, 327-8.

60. Lifton, Death in Life, 80—1, 97, 319—21; Hersey, Hiroshima, 117; Oe, Hiroshima Notes, 9; Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary, 87; Ogura, Letters, 121; Dower, Embracing Defeat, 493.

61. Yoko Ota, ‘Residues of Squalor’, in Selden and Selden, The Atomic Bomb, 55-85.

62. Selden and Selden, The Atomic Bomb, 143, 147.

63. Eisaku Yoneda, ‘Standing in the Rains’, in Lifton, Death in Life, 446.

64. Kurihara Sadako, ‘Ruins’, in Kurihara Sadako, When We Say ‘Hiroshima’: Selected Poems, trans. with an intro. by Richard H. Minear (Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 1999), 16-17.

65. Wyden, Day One, 335.

66. Osada, Children of Hiroshima, 35-6.

67. Ogura, Letters, 109-10.

68. Hanson W Baldwin, ‘The Atomic Bomb: The Penalty of Expediency’, in Barton J. Bernstein, ed., The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues (Boston: Little Brown, 1976), 33-40.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE SOVIET UNION: THE BOMB AND THE COLD WAR

1. Prue Torney-Parlicki, ‘ “Whatever the Thing May Be Called”: The Australian News Media and the Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki’, Australian Historical Studies, 31 /114 (Apr. 2000), 55-6; ‘Atom Bomb, Red Move, Seen Ending War Soon’, Shanghai Evening Post, 10 Aug. 1945; ‘La Bombe atomique, engin de guerre ou de paix?’ L’Autorite, 18 Aug. 1945; ‘Britons Awed by Atomic Bomb’, Rhodesia Herald, 11 Aug.1945; ‘A New Age’, Palestine Post, 8 Aug. 1945; Regis Cabral, ‘The Mexican Reactions to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tragedies of 1945’, Quipu,4/1 (Jan.-Apr. 1987), 88; ‘Heard Round the World’, New York Times, 7 Aug. 1945; Paul Boyer, By the Bomb’s Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (New York: Pantheon, 1985), 6.

2. Pascal, ‘La Part du Canada dans la bombe atomique’, L’Autorite, 11 Aug. 1945; ‘Desintegration’, Le Populaire, 14 Aug. 1945; ‘Ce que dissent les journaux’, La Croix, 16 Aug. 1945; Stuart Gelder, ‘The Bomb is a Menace to Humanity’s Future’, Statesman, 13 Aug. 1945; ‘Britons Awed by Atomic Bomb’, Rhodesia Herald, 11 Aug. 1945; ‘World Hopes Atomic Bomb Is not a Frankenstein’, Trinidad Guardian, 8 Aug. 1945; ‘Controlling the New Power’, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 Aug. 1945.

3. ‘La Bombe atomique’, Montreal-Matin, 8 Aug. 1945; ‘Unbelievable Force Let Loose’, Albertan, 8 Aug. 1945; ‘A New Age’, Palestine Post, 8 Aug. 1945; Hanson W Baldwin, ‘The Atomic Weapon’, New York Times, 7 Aug. 1945; ‘Eternal Enemy of Humanity’, Hong Kong News, 9 Aug. 1945; ‘Japan Submits’, Free Press Journal, 13 Aug. 1945; E. L. De Saint-Just, ‘La Bombe atomique met entre les mains de l’homme une force qui peut le detruire’, La Patrie du Dimanche, 12 Aug. 1945; ‘World Hopes Atomic Bomb Is not a Frankenstein’, Trinidad Guardian, 8 Aug. 1945.

4. Harry S. Truman to Richard B. Russell, 9 Aug. 1945, in Dennis Merrill, ed., Documentary History of the Truman Presidency, i. The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb on Japan (Washington: University Publications of America, 1995), 210; ‘Everyman’, New York Times, 18 Aug. 1945; The Complete War Memoirs of Charles de Gaulle, iii. Salvation 1944—1946, trans. Richard Howard (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968), 926.

5. Cabral, ‘Mexican Reactions’, 82; Robert J. Lifton, Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), 73; Rhodesia Herald, 8 Aug. 1945; ‘World Hopes’, Trinidad Guardian, 8 Aug. 1945; ‘The ‘Jap-atomiser’, Pretoria News, 8 Aug. 1945.

6. Lifton, Death in Life, 29. Mary McCarthy criticized John Hersey’s writing on Hiroshima for representing the bombing as a ‘natural catastrophe’. Quoted in Boyer, Bomb’s Early Light, 206.

7.    Gregg Herken, The Winning Weapon: The Atomic Bomb in the Cold Wjr 1945— 1950 (New York: Random House, 1981), 23, 48; Henry L. Stimson, ‘Memorandum for the President’, 11 Sept. 1945, in Merrill, Documentary History, 222— 7; Richard Rhodes, Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 205; Henry A. Wallace, Diary, 10 Aug. 1945, in Michael B. Stoff, Jonathan F. Fanton, and R. Hal Williams, eds., The Manhattan Project: A Documentary Introduction to the Atomic Age (New York: McGraw-Hill,

1991), 245.

8. William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman, Based on his Notes and Diaries Made at the Time (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950), 441—2; Gar Alperovitz, Atomic Diplomacy: Hiroshima and Potsdam (expanded and updated edn., New York: Penguin, 1985 [1965]), 1; Boyer, Bomb’s Early Light, 314—15; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 21—2; John W Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (New York: W W Norton, 1999), 375.

9. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 205—6; Boyer, Bomb’s Early Light, 138, 212; Robert Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, trans. James Cleugh (San Diego: Harcourt, 1958), 227; ‘Truman is Urged to Bar Atom Bomb’, New York Times, 20 Aug. 1945.

10. Morris L. Kaplan, ‘Atom Bomb Fails to Excite Savants’, New York Times, 25 Aug. 1945; Gregg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (New York:

Henry Holt, 2002), 153; Boyer, Bomb’s Early Light, 116; Allan M. Winkler, Life under a Cloud: American Anxiety about the Atom (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 28; Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,

1995 [1971]), 368-70.

11. Kevles, The Physicists, 369, 376.

12. Boyer, Bomb’s Early Light, 10—13, 182—4; Winkler, Life under a Cloud, 27—8.

13. Winkler, Life under a Cloud, 67; Herken, Winning Weapon, 98—9, 230—2; Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstel, Bombshell: The Secret Story of America’s Unknown Atomic Spy Conspiracy (New York: Times Books, 1997), p. xiii.

14. Arnold Kramish, Atomic Energy in the Soviet Union (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959), 4—6, 19; Thomas B. Cochrane, Robert S. Norris, and Oleg A. Bukharin, Making the Russian Bomb: From Stalin to Yeltsin (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 2—4; David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939—1956 (New Haven: Yale University Press,

1994), 8—48.

15. Kramish, Atomic Energy, 22—32; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 49—75.

16. Kramish, Atomic Energy, 35, 40—i;J. W Boag, P. E. Rubinin, andD. Shoenberg, eds., Kapitza in Cambridge and Moscow: Life and Letters of a Russian Physicist (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1990), 351—3; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 82—

4, 89—95.

17. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 82—3; John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 1—7.

18. Webster's Deluxe Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd edn. (New York: Simon and Schuster, i979), 5ii, i439.

19. Jerrold Schecter and Leona Schecter, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History (Washington: Brassey’s, 2002), 52; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 55, 118, 137—8; Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell, 6, 63, 66, 76; Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America: The Stalin Era (New York: Random House, 1999), 195, 199—200.

20. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 153; Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell, 119—23; Weinstein and Vassiliev, Haunted Wood, 195—6; Nigel West, Venona: The Greatest Secret of the Cold War (London: HarperCollins, 1999), 124—8. Two other atomic spies, codenamed Fogel and Quantum, are implicated by Venona but have never been identified; see Haynes and Klehr, Venona, 16.

21. Albright and Kunstel, Bombshell, i24—6; Cochrane, Norris, and Bukharin, Making the Russian Bomb, 15; Schecter and Schecter, Sacred Secrets, 78; Alexander Feklisov and Sergei Kostin, The Man behind the Rosenbergs (New York: Enigma Books, 200i), 20i. Kurchatov did not think that Fuchs’s information helped the Soviets build a hydrogen bomb, though that is often alleged; see James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993), 878 n. 104.

22. Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB: The Inside Story of its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev (New York: HarperCollins, 1990), 378; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 221—2; Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov, ‘The Khariton Version’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 49/4 (May 1993). The story about Stalin and the plutonium comes from Andrew and Gordievsky. Holloway has the incident occurring in 1949, at the chemical separation plant at Chelynbinsk-40, and between different parties altogether; see his Stalin and the Bomb, 203.

23. Kramish, Atomic Energy, 40—1; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 220—2; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 215—17; Haynes and Klehr, Venona, 321—2.

24. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 222—3; Khariton and Smirnov, ‘The Khariton Version’.

25. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 117, 128—9, z32; Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), 44; Cochran, Norris, and Bukharin, Making the Russian Bomb, 10.

26. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 213, 223; Andrew and Gordievsky, KGB, 376; Kaptisa to J. V Stalin, 25 Nov. 1945, in Boag, Rubinin, and Shoenberg, Kapitza in Cambridge and Moscow, 372; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 138—42, 147—9.

27. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 214, 314—17, 331—2; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 176—7, 180-3, 186-9.

28. Kramish, Atomic Energy, 60; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 364—7; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 196—201, 213—17.

29. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 367—8; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 217—18.

30. Thomas G. Paterson, On Every Front: The Making and Unmaking of the Cold War, rev. edn. (New York: Norton, 1992), 63—4; Walter LaFeber, America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945—2000, 9th edn. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002), 42—4.

31. Gar Alperovitz and Kai Bird, ‘The Centrality of the Bomb’, Foreign Policy (Spring 1994), 3—18; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 253, 258—63.

32. Herken, Winning Weapon, 99; Daniel Yergin, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War (New York: Penguin, 1990 [1977]), 123, 135 —7.

33. Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: W. W Norton, 1969), 151—4; Herken, Winning Weapon, 98, 153—8; Melvyn P Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold Wjr (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), 114.

34. Acheson, Present at the Creation, 154—6; Herken, Winning Weapon, 158—91, 224— 5; Leffler, Preponderance of Power, 114—16; Yergin, Shattered Peace, 237—1; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 261—2; James Chace, ‘Sharing the Atomic Bomb’, Foreign Affairs, 75/1 (Jan.—Feb. 1996), 129—44.

35. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 320—1; Chace, ‘Sharing the Atomic Bomb’, 142.

36. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 225—7; Hershberg, James B. Conant, 253—6.

37. Herken, Winning Weapon, 219; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 132—3.

38. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 287; Hershberg, James B. Conant, 253; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 133; Khariton and Smirnov, ‘The Khariton Version’.

39. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 371—4; Kai Bird and Martin J. Sherwin, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York: Knopf, 2005), 416-17.

40. Gerard J. DeGroot, The Bomb: A History of Hell on Earth (London: Pimlico,

2005), 116—17, 147; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 377—8; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 200-1.

41. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 246—9; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 86—7; DeGroot, The Bomb, 162—3.

42. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 86, 152—5; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 418.

43. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 202—4, 211; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 417—19; Hershberg, James B. Conant, 468—72; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 386—8.

44. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 206—10; Hershberg, James B. Conant, 473—8; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 420—3; Rhodes, Dark Sun,

395—403.

45. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 404—5; Bird and Sherwin, American Prometheus, 423—4; Acheson, Present at the Creation, 348.

46. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 406—7; Arnold Offner, Another Such Victory: President Truman and the Cold War, 1945—1953 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press,

2002), 363; Herken, Winning Weapon, 320—1; Acheson, Present at the Creation, 349; Harry S. Truman, Memoirs: Years of Trial and Hope (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1956), 309.

47. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 416—19; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 222—3.

48. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 296—7; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 256—7.

49. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 297—8; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 332—3; Andrei Sakharov, Memoirs, trans. Richard Lourie (New York: Random House, 1990), 96—8.

50. Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 298—9; Rhodes, Dark Sun, 334—5; DeGroot, The Bomb, 167, 171; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 173, 186; Sakharov, Memoirs, 92, 102—6.

51. Rhodes, Dark Sun, 463, 478, 498—510; Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 222—4; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 302—3; DeGroot, The Bomb, 174—6.

52. Vladislav Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 151 —2; Sakharov, Memoirs, 166—7; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 303—7; Khariton and Smirnov, ‘The Khariton Version’.

53. Sakharov, Memoirs, 188—93; DeGroot, The Bomb, 194—9; Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb, 303.

54. Gerhard L.Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World Wjr II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 562—3; Robert A. Divine,

Blowing on the Wind: The Nuclear Test Ban Debate 1954—1960 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 169-70.

55. Michael R. Beschloss, Mayday: Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair (New York: Harper and Row, 1986), 148; John H. Barton and Lawrence D. Weiler, eds., International Arms Control: Issues and Agreements (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976), 54—5.

56. Barton and Weiler, International Arms Control, 55—6.

57. Zubok and Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War, 192; Gareth Porter, Perils of Dominance: Imbalance of Power and the Road to War in Vietnam (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005), 3—7.

58. William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and his Era (New York: W W Norton,

2003), 359, 380, 404—5, 504—6.

59. On the missile crisis, see Taubman, Khrushchev, 529—77; Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd edn. (New York: Longman, 1999); Sheldon M. Stern, Averting ‘The Final Failure’: John F. Kennedy and the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis Meetings (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003); James G. Blight and Philip Brenner, Sad and Luminous Days: Cuba’s Struggle with the Superpowers after the Missile Crisis (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002), 1—31.

60. Taubman, Khrushchev, 578—9, 602; Barton and Weiler, International Arms Control, 106—8.

chapter eight: the world's bomb

1. Robert Gilpin, American Scientists and Nuclear Weapons Policy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962), 65; Robert Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, trans. James Cleugh (San Diego: Harcourt, 1958), 244; Memorandum to Members of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments from Advisory Committee Staff, 5 Apr. 1995, http://www.gwu.edu/nsarchiv/radiation, accessed 13 Dec. 2006.

2. Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995 [1971]), 379; Laura Fermi, Atoms for the World: United States Participation in the Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 1; Paul Boyer, By the Bomb’s Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (New York: Pantheon, 1985), 80; Leo Szilard, ‘The Mined Cities’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 17/10 (Dec. 1961), 407—12; Niels Bohr, ‘For an Open World’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 6/7 (July 1950), 213—19; Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986), 784—8.

3. Robert A. Divine, Blowing on the Wind: The Nuclear Test Ban Debate 1954—

1960 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), 90; id., Eisenhower and the

Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981), 112—13; ‘Atomic Bomb Shudders’, New York Times, 8 Aug. 1945.

4.    Three books by Margaret Gowing are authoritative; see Britain and Atomic Energy 1939—1945 (New York: St Martin’s, 1964); Independence and Deterrence: Britain and Atomic Energy, 1945—1952, i. Policy Making, ii. Policy Execution (London: Macmillan, 1974). Also valuable is Brian Cathcart, Test of Greatness: Britain’s Struggle for the Atom Bomb (London: John Murray, 1994). See also C. P Snow, The New Men (London: Macmillan, 1960 [1954]); E. M. Fitzgerald, ‘Allison, Attlee and the Bomb: Views on the 1947 British Decision to Build an Atom Bomb’, Journal of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 122/1 (1977), 49—56; Graham Spinardi, ‘Aldermaston and British Nuclear Weapons Development: Testing the “Zuckerman Thesis” ’, Social Studies of Science, 27 (1997), 547—82. Regarding wartime collaboration between Britain and the United States, see Martin J. Sherwin, A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance (New York: Knopf, 1975), 67—89, 108—14; Gregg Herken, The Winning Weapon: The Atomic Bomb in the Cold War 1945—1950 (New York: Random House, 1981), 147; Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar Anderson Jr., The New World 1939/1946, i. A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962), 458.

5. This account is based on Bertrand Goldschmidt, Atomic Rivals, trans. Georges M. Temmer (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990); Spencer R. Weart, Scientists in Power (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, z979), esp. 191—267; Jules Gueron, ‘Atomic Energy in Continental Western Europe’, in Richard S. Lewis and Jane Wilson, with Eugene Rabinowitch, eds., Alamogordo plus Twenty-Five Years: The Impact of Atomic Energy on Science, Technology, and World Politics (New York: Viking, 1970), 140—3; Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 159; CIA, ‘Current Intelligence Bulletin’, 29 May 1957, http://www.gwu.edu/nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB184/FR09.pdf, accessed 7 June 2007; CIA, ‘Current Intelligence Weekly Summary’, 28 Jan. 1960, http://www.gwu.edu/nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB184/FR12.pdf, accessed 7 June 2007.

6. This account is based almost entirely on Avner Cohen’s Israel and the Bomb (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998). See also Meirion Jones, ‘Britain’s Dirty Secret’, New Statesman, 13 Mar. 2006, and Howard Kohn and Barbara Newman, ‘How Israel Got the Bomb’, Rolling Stone,12 Jan. 1977. For US policy towards Israel and the Middle East, see Douglas Little, American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since 1945 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), and Peter L. Hahn, Trapped in the Middle East: US Policy toward the Arab—Israeli Conflict, 1945-1961 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

I am grateful to Daniel Bertrand Monk for the story of the Davidka mortar.

7. Sources on the South African nuclear program include J. D. L. Moore, South Africa and Nuclear Proliferation: South Africa’s Nuclear Capabilities and Intentions in the Context of International Non-Proliferation Policies (New York: St Martin’s, 1987); Barbara Rogers and Zdenek Cervenka, The Nuclear Axis: Secret Collaboration between West Germany and South Africa (New York: Times Books, 1978); Waldo Stumpf, ‘Birth and Death of the South African Nuclear Weapons Programme’, http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/rsa/nuke/stumpf.htm, accessed 19 Dec. 2006; David Albright, ‘South Africa and the Affordable Bomb’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 50/4 (July—Aug. 1994), 37— 47; id., ‘South Africa’s Nuclear Weapons Program’, 14 Mar. 2001, http://web.mit.edu/seminars/wed_archives_01spring/albright.htm, accessed

19 Dec. 2006; Thomas B. Cochran, ‘Highly Enriched Uranium Production for South African Nuclear Weapons’, Science and Global Security, 4 (1994), 161—76.

8. This section is based principally on John Wilson Lewis and Xue Litai, China Builds the Bomb (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988). For specialized subjects, see also Ming Zhang, China’s Changing Nuclear Posture: Reactions to the South Asian Nuclear Tests (Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999), 2—7; Rana Mitter, A Bitter Revolution: China’s Struggle with the Modern World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 194—8; Divine, Eisenhower and the Cold War, 55—66; William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and his Era (New York: W W Norton, 2003), 391-2; Mark Oliphant, ‘Over Pots of Tea: Excerpts from a Diary of a Visit to China’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 22/5 (May 1966), 36-43.

9. This section relies heavily on George Perkovich, India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1999). See also Itty Abraham, The Making of the Indian Atomic Bomb: Science, Security, and the Postcolonial State (London: Zed Books, 1998); Karsten Frey, India’s Nuclear Bomb and National Security (London: Routledge,

2006); Pratap Bhanu Mehta, ‘India: The Nuclear Politics of Self-Esteem’, Current History (Dec. 1998), 403—6; Andrew J. Rotter, Comrades at Odds: The United States and India, 1947—1964 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000), 287—90; Ashok Kapur, India’s Nuclear Option: Atomic Diplomacy and Decision Making (New York: Praeger, 1976); Spencer R. Weart, Nuclear Fear: A History of Images (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), 211.

10. Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 263; Lansing Lamont, Day of Trinity (New York: Atheneum, 1965), 225—30; Jungk, Brighter than a Thousand Suns, 288; Gregg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller (New York: Henry Holt,

2002), 151; Boyer, Bomb’s Early Light, 219; Dwight Macdonald, ‘The Decline to Barbarism’, in Kai Bird and Lawrence Lifschultz, eds., Hiroshima’s Shadow: Writings on the Denial of History and the Smithsonian Controversy (Stony Creek, CT: Pamphleteer’s Press, 1998), 264.

11. Lawrence S. Wittner, The Struggle against the Bomb, i. One World or None: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement through 1953 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993), 82, 105; P M. S. Blackett, ‘The Decision to Use the Bombs’, in Bird and Lifschultz, Hiroshima’s Shadow, 78—89; The Collected Philosophical Papers of G. E. M. Anscombe, iii. Ethics, Religion, and Politics (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1981), 58-65; Wilfred Burchett, ‘The First Nuclear War’, in Bird and Lifschultz, Hiroshima’s Shadow, 63—77; Mahatma Gandhi, ‘The Atom Bomb and Ahimsa’, in ibid. 258—9.

12. Albert Camus, ‘Between Hell and Reason’, in Bird and Lifschultz, Hiroshima’s Shadow, 260—1; Wittner, One World or None, 108—54.

13. Lawrence S. Wittner, The Struggle against the Bomb, ii. Resisting the Bomb: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement 1954—1970 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997); iii. Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement 1971 to the Present (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003).

epilogue

1. William J. Broad and David E. Sanger, ‘With Eye on Iran, Rivals Also Want Nuclear Power’, New York Times, 15 Apr. 2007.

2. Richard Sale (UPI), ‘Israel Finds Radiological Backpack Bomb’, 14 Oct. 2001, http://www.papillonsartpalace.com/israelf.htm, accessed 14 Apr. 2007; Abby Goodnough and Matthew L. Wald, ‘Marshals Shoot and Kill Passenger in Bomb Threat’, New York Times, 8 Dec. 2005.

3. ‘Board Statement: 5 Minutes to Midnight’, Bulletin Online, 17 Jan. 2007; http://www.thebulletin.org/minutes-to-midnight/board-statements.html, accessed 23 Apr. 2007. See also Walter Pincus, ‘Pentagon Revises Nuclear Strike Plan’, Washington Post, 11 Sept. 2005, online, accessed 17 Apr. 2007.

4. Stuart Jeffries, ‘Fanning the Flames’, Guardian, 23 Dec. 2006.

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