Section VI. COMBAT TROOPS (FECHTENDE TRUPPEN)

1. General

This section consists of a list of the more important types of combat units in the German armed forces, of the status of regiments and below with particulars on their organization. They are arranged according to the arms and services (Waffengattungen), divided into organic units (integral parts of divisions) and General Headquarters units (Heerestruppen) (units held in the General Headquarters pool from which they are allotted to army groups, armies, and corps and sub-allotted temporarily to divisions for specific operations).

2. Organic Infantry Units

a. GENERAL.

For the purpose of clarity we are including under this paragraph all units which are infantry units in accordance with the American conception. The Germans consider security troops (Sicherungstruppen) a separate category of units of the field army, but in reality they consist principally of infantry. Similarly, the Germans consider armored infantry (Panzergrenadiere) as belonging to the armored arm and not to the infantry.

On the other hand, the Germans include reconnaissance and other former cavalry units as a part of the infantry arm which are listed in this section under paragraph 19, Reconnaissance Units. The designation of the infantry regiment was changed to Grenadierregiment in 1942 by special order of Hitler to honor the infantry arm. The same applies to the infantry battalion now called Grenadierbataillon and to the infantry company Grenadierkompanie.

b. INFANTRY REGIMENT.

(1) Old Type Regiment.

The infantry regiments of the Infantry Division, Old Type, may be considered the basic type of German infantry regiments, as their organization remained for all practical purposes unchanged from the beginning of 1940 until the end of 1943. Each of the three regiments of the Infantry Division, Old Type, consisted of three infantry battalions, a thirteenth infantry howitzer company, and a fourteenth antitank company. In spite of the fact that the Infantry Division, Old Type, will not be encountered any more, it is believed that this type of regiment has formed the basic pattern and tradition for most of the infantry regiments now in the field.

Figure 29.—Infantry Regiment, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 2,008.

* Referred to by the traditional designation: "13" Co. † Referred to by the traditional designation: "14" Co. ‡ Including six officials.

(2) 1944 Type Regiment.

The above type of regiment has been superseded by the infantry regiment in the Infantry Division, 1944 Type, which consists also of three regiments, but each regiment has only two battalions in addition to the infantry howitzer and antitank companies. (See Figures 29 to 39.)

(3) Three-Battalion Regiment.

In addition to the type of infantry regiment mentioned in subparagraph (2), another type may be encountered which is similar to the basic one mentioned in subparagraph (1). It is the three-battalion regiment of the infantry division, two-regiment type. However, it is believed that there is a trend toward reorganizing that type of division on a three-regiment, two-battalion basis. After such a reorganization, the regiment probably will be similar to the Infantry Regiment, 1944 Type.

Figure 30.—Infantry Regiment, Infantry Division, 1944 Type.

Figure 31.—Regimental Headquarters Company, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 198.

* The Mtd Plat may be replaced by a Bcl Plat with 29 Bcls and 2 Hs.† Including two officials.

Figure 32.—Infantry Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type.

Figure 33.—Infantry Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 708.

* Including two officials.

Figure 34.—Infantry Battalion Headquarters, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 77.

* Including two officials.

Figure 35.—Rifle Company, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 142.

Figure 36.—Rifle Platoon, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 33.

* Only the 1st Plat of the R Co is commanded by an officer; the 2d and 3d Plats are commanded by NCOs, and consequently the number of NCOs in these two platoons increases from three to four.

Figure 37.—Heavy Weapons Company, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 205.

Figure 38.—Infantry Howitzer Company, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 184.

Referred to by the traditional designation: "13th" Co.

Figure 39.—Antitank Company (partly mortorized), Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 186.

Referred to by the traditional designation: "14th" Co.

(4) Volks Grenadier Regiment.

The infantry regiment in the Volks Grenadier Division shows a completely new organization. The infantry company and battalion trains are merged to a supply platoon on a battalion level. The infantry company consists of two sub-machine gun platoons and a rifle platoon. The heavy-weapons company of the infantry battalion includes an infantry howitzer platoon. The regimental infantry howitzer company is equipped with 120-mm mortars and 75-mm infantry howitzers only, and the regimental antitank company has been replaced by a bazooka company equipped with 72 bazookas. (See Figures 40 to 50.)

Figure 40.—Infantry Regiment, Volks Grenadier Division.

Figure 41.—Infantry Regiment, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 1,854.

* Referred to by the traditional designation: "13th" Co.† Referred to by the traditional designation: "14th" Co.‡ Including four officials.

Figure 42.—Regimental Headquarters Company, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 187.

Figure 43.—Infantry Battalion, Volks Grenadier Division.

Figure 44.—Infantry Battalion, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 642.

Figure 45.—Infantry Company, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 119.

Figure 46.—Submachine gun Platoon, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 33.

Only the 1st Plat of the Gren Co is commanded by an officer; the 2d (Sub-MG) and 3d (R) Plats are commanded by NCOs and consequently the number of NCOs in these Plats increases by three to four.

Figure 47.—Rifle Platoon, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 33.

Figure 48.—Heavy weapons Company, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 194.

Figure 49.—Infantry Howitzer Company, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 197.

Referred to by the traditional designation: "13th" Co.

Figure 50.—Bazooka Company, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 167.

* Referred to by the traditional designation: "14th" Co.† In reserve.

(5) Volks Grenadier Bicycle Regiment.

One of the three infantry regiments in the Volks Grenadier Division is an infantry regiment (bicycle). That regiment includes one infantry battalion (bicycle), and one normal infantry battalion, a regimental infantry howitzer company, and a regimental bazooka company as shown in sub-paragraph (4). This infantry regiment (bicycle) may be employed in the same way as the other two battalions of the Volks Grenadier Division or may be used as a mobile reserve. (See Figures 51 to 54.)

The newest type of standard German infantry regiment is the Infantry Regiment of the Division, Type 45, which is believed to have become the pattern for all German infantry regiments (see Figures 55 and 56)

Figure 51.—Infantry Regiment (bicycle), Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 1,911.

* Referred to by the traditional designation: "13th" Co.† Referred to by the traditional designation: "14th" Co.‡ Including four officials.

Figure 52.—Infantry Battalion (bicycle), Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 699.

* Including one official.

Figure 53.—Infantry Company (bicycle), Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 128.

Figure 54.—Heavy Weapons Company (bicycle), Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 211.

Figure 55.—Infantry Regiment of Infantry Division 45, total strength 1,849.

Figure 56.—Infantry Battalion of Infantry Division 45, total strength 644.

* Hilfswilliger (Hiwi) is a Foreign Auxiliary, usually an Ex-pw.

(6) SS Infantry Regiment.

In the SS Infantry Division the infantry regiment is similar to the Infantry Regiment, 1944 Type.

(7) Mountain Infantry Regiment.

There are usually two regiments per mountain division organized especially for mountain warfare by making each of the three battalions self-sufficient. The normal infantry howitzer company is lacking, but mountain infantry howitzers are organic in each battalion. (See Figures 57 to 59.)

Figure 57.—Mountain Infantry Regiment.

Figure 58.—Mountain Infantry Regiment, total strength 3,064.

Figure 59.—Mountain Infantry Battalion, total strength 877.

(8) The Light Infantry Regiment.

Light divisions usually have two regiments organized similarly to the Army Mountain Division but have slightly more motorization.

(9) The SS Mountain Infantry Regiment.

The two infantry regiments per SS Mountain Division are organized similarly to the Army Mountain Regiment; however, they have either a fourth battalion or additional regimental companies.

(10) The Motorized Infantry Regiment (Grenadier regiment (Mot)).

Normally there are two regiments to the Motorized Division, consisting of three motorized infantry battalions, heavy infantry howitzer company (self-propelled), and an antitank company. The motorized infantry battalions originally were organized similarly to normal infantry battalions; however, in 1944 they were reorganized along the lines of the armored infantry battalions (Panzergrenadierbataillons) of the Armored Division. (See Figures 60 and 61.)

Figure 60.—Motorized Infantry Regiment, Panzer Grenadier Division.

Figure 61.—Motorized Infantry Regiment, Panzer Grenadier Division, total strength 3,043.

(11) The SS Motorized Infantry Regiment (SS-Panzer Grenadier Regiment).

Two regiments per SS Motorized Division are organized similarly to the army motorized regiment; however, it has an additional antiaircraft company.

(12) The Panzer Grenadier Regiment.

The two regiments of the Armored Division are composed of only two battalions, a heavy infantry howitzer company (self-propelled), and an engineer company. One of the four battalions in the division is designated armored (Gepanzert or Gp.). because it is equipped with armored personnel carriers with mounted arms enabling the crews to fight from their vehicles. The other three battalions of the division are motorized only. The regiment, of which the armored battalion is a component, also is designated armored. The other regiment which contains two motorized battalions is designated motorized. (See Figures 62 to 75.)

(13) The SS Armored Infantry Regiment (SS Panzer Grenadier Regiment).

There are two per SS Armored Division, each consisting of one armored and two motorized Panzer Grenadier battalions, a heavy infantry howitzer company (self-propelled), an engineer company (halftrack), and an antiaircraft company. Components of the regiment are organized like those of the Army Panzer Grenadier Regiment. (For the Panzer Grenadier Regiment see Figure 76; for the breakdown of the components see Figures 64 and 65.)

Figure 62.—Panzer Grenadier, Army Armored Division.

Figure 63.—Panzer Grenadier Regiment, Army Armored Division, total strength 2,294.

* Including eight officials.† Including 125 Armd Pers carriers.

Figure 64.—Panzer Grenadier Battalion, Army Armored Division.

Figure 65.—PanzerGrenadier Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 867.

* Including three officials.† Including 87 Armd vehicles

Figure 66.—PanzerGrenadier Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 183.

* Including 21 Armd pers carriers.

Figure 67.—Heavy Weapons Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 100.

* Including 17 Armd vehicles.

Figure 68.—Engineer Company (half-tracked), Panzer Grenadier Regiment, total strength 254.

* Including 28 Armd vehicles.

Figure 69.—Panzer Grenadier Regiment (motorized), Army Armored Division, total strength 2,258.

* Including eight officials.

Figure 70.—Panzer Grenadier Battalion (motorized), Army Armored Division.

Figure 71.—PanzerGrenadier Battalion (motorized), Army Armored Division, total strength 868.

* Including three officials.

Figure 72.—PanzerGrenadier Company (motorized), Army Armored Division, total strength 197.

Figure 73.—Heavy Weapons Company (motorized), Army Armored Division, total strength 104.

Figure 74.—150-mm Infantry Howitzer Company (self-propelled), Army Armored Division, total strength 172.

Figure 75.—Engineer Company (motorized), Army Armored Division, total strength 217.

Figure 76.—SS Panzer Grenadier Regiment, SS Armored Division, total strength 3,242.

* Including 11 officials.† Including 89 Armd vehicles.

(14) The Parachute Rifle Regiment.

Three per Parachute Rifle Division, these consist of three parachute rifle battalions, a 120-mm mortar or a light gun company, and an antitank company. These regiments usually are employed as crack infantry. They include some men trained for airborne operations, but most of the so-called parachutists are well trained infantrymen only. The equipment includes a high proportion of small automatic weapons, bazookas, and antitank rocket pistols. (See Figures 77 to 82.)

Figure 77.—Parachute Rifle Regiment, Air Force Parachute Division.

Figure 78.—Parachute Rifle Regiment, Air Force Parachute Division, total strength 3,206.

* Including 12 officials.

Figure 79.—Parachute Rifle Battalion, Air Force Parachute Division, total strength 853.

* Including three officials.

Figure 80.—Parachute Rifle Company, Air Force Parachute Division, total strength 170.

Figure 81.—Parachute Machine-Gun Company, Air Force Parachute Division, total strength 205.

Figure 82.—Parachute 120-mm Mortar or Light Gun Company, Air Force Parachute Division, total strength 163.

Note: Some Prcht Regts may have 75-mm or 105-mm Light (Recoilless) Guns instead of the 120-mm Morts.

c. FIELD REPLACEMENT BATTALION (Feldersatzbataillon).

Field replacement battalions consist of three to five companies containing replacement elements for the various arms and divisional combat school. They may be found in all types of divisions and are a training unit as well as a field reserve for the entire division. Their personnel may be drawn from other divisional units or may consist of fresh reserves from the rear areas. Figures 83 and 84 show the Field Replacement Battalions of the Infantry Division, 1944 Type, and of the Army Armored (Panzer) Division, but their organization in other types of divisions is very similar.

Figure 83.—Field Replacement Battalion, Infantry Division 1944 type, total strength 925.

* Including one official.† Including 20 SARs.

Figure 84.—Field Replacement Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 973.

* Including one official.† Various types of armored vehicles may be attached for demonstration purposes.

d. INFANTRY ANTIAIRCRAFT COMPANY (Inf. Fla-Kp.)

The infantry antiaircraft company is organic in all types of infantry divisions and is usually self propelled. It is subordinated for administrative purposes to the divisional antitank battalion, but receives all tactical directives from the division. It is equipped with 20-mm and 37-mm antiaircraft guns. It may be employed for both antiaircraft and antitank defense. Similarly organized antiaircraft companies organic in the armored division are believed to belong to the armored arm while most of the non-organic light antiaircraft companies belong to the air force.

3. General Headquarters

a. FORTRESS BRIGADE (Festungsbrigade).

Independent static infantry brigades.

b. FORTRESS REGIMENT (Festungsregiment).

Regimental staffs controlling fortress battalions.

c. FORTRESS BATTALIONS (Festungsbataillon).

Static infantry battalions employed in the defense of fixed fortifications. It consists largely of Landesschützen personnel. It often is attached for tactical purposes to divisions operating in the same combat area.

d. PERMANENT FORTRESS BATTALION (Festungsstammabteilung).

Formed as a cadre personnel, it is attached to corps manning fortifications in coastal sectors and now is found in the Westwall defenses. The battalions carry the Roman numeral of the corps to which they are attached, but also have been identified with Arabic numbers in the 300 series. These units may occur as Festungsstammregimenter (permanent fortress regiments) or as Festungsstammkompanie (permanent fortress companies) depending on the size of the sector to which they are assigned.

e. MACHINE-GUN BATTALION (Maschinengewehrbataillon).

The independent machine-gun battalion consists of three companies equipped with heavy machine guns and bazookas and a heavy weapons company. It probably has been redesignated fortress machine-gun battalion.

f. FORTRESS MACHINE-GUN BATTALION (Festungs-Maschinengewehrbataillon).

These static machine-gun battalions are composed largely of Landesschützen personnel. Their organization is similar to a Maschinengewehrbataillon except for the mobility.

g. SUPER-HEAVY MACHINE-GUN BATTALION (Überschweres Maschinengewehrbataillon).

Organization of this battalion is probably similar to that of the Maschinengewehrbataillon. It is equipped with 20-mm and 37-mm antiaircraft guns and bazookas.

h. LIGHT ANTIAIRCRAFT BATTALION (Flabataillon).

This consists of light antiaircraft companies organized similarly to those found organically in the infantry divisions. It is believed that many light antiaircraft battalions have been reformed and redesignated super-heavy machine-gun battalions and are being employed as mobile defense units of fortified zones.

i. TANK DESTRUCTION BATTALION (Panzerverstörer Bataillon).

This battalion is equipped with bazookas and other infantry antitank weapons.

j. HEAVY MORTAR BATTALION (Schweres Granatwerferbataillon).

This consists of three companies. Each company has twelve heavy mortars (120-mm).

k. ALPINE INFANTRY BATTALION (Hochgebirgsbataillon).

The personnel of this battalion is especially trained for warfare in high terrain and mountain climbing.

l. LOCAL DEFENSE (Landesschützen) REGIMENT AND BATTALION.

A local defense regiment controls a varying number of battalions which are composed of two to six companies. The average company strength is 150, and total battalion strength may vary between 400 and 900. These units originally were employed for guard duties at vital installations and as support for the military administration in occupied territories.

m. SECURITY REGIMENT AND BATTALION (Sicherungsregiment).

Numerous Landesschützen battalions have received additional transportation and equipment and been redesignated security battalions (Sicherungsbataillone). While the strength of these battalions varies, similarly to that of the local defense battalions, Figures 85 and 86 show an average security battalion as it may be encountered in the field.

Several such battalions may be controlled by a security regiment which usually is attached to commanders of army groups or army rear areas.

n. For a complete list of all infantry and security units see the "Order of Battle of the German Army", March 1945 edition.

Figure 85.—Security Battalion, total strength 508-546.

* Including one official.† A reduced Bn has a T/O strength of 11-78-419 and accordingly less fire power and transportation.

Figure 86.—Security Company, Security Battalion, total strength 161.

4. Armored Organic Units

Armored troops (Panzertruppen), created as an arm in April 1943, include many units which, according to the American conception, belong to other arms. This refers specifically to the Panzer Grenadier units which the Germans include in the armored troops arm, while we consider them as belonging to the infantry; tank destroyer units; and armored reconnaissance units, each of which we consider as belonging to their appropriate arm while the Germans include them under armored troops.

a. THE ARMY TANK (Panzer) REGIMENT.

This consists of two tank battalions of three companies each, but a fourth, an assault gun company, frequently may be encountered. It is believed that the tables of organization specify 14 tanks for each of the companies, distributed as follows: two in company headquarters, and four in each of the three platoons. One battalion usually is equipped with Pz. Kpfw. V tanks, and the other with Pz. Kpfw. IV tanks. (See Figures 87 to 96.)

Figure 87.—Tank Regiment, Army Armored Division.

Figure 88.—Tank Regiment, Army Armored Division, total strength 1,661.

* May be replaced by a flame-thrower Tk Plat with six flame-thrower Pz. Kpfw. III's.† Including seven officials.‡ Including ten Armd vehicles.

Figure 89.—Tank Regiment Headquarters Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 109.

Figure 90.—Pz. Kpfw. V (Panther) tank battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 664.

* Including two officials.† Including five Armd vehicles.

Figure 91.—Tank Battalion Headquarters Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 135.

* Long-barreled in Pz. Kpfw. IV; superlong-barreled in Pz. Kpfw. V.† Including five Armd vehicles.

Figure 92.—Pz. Kpfw. V (Panther) Tank Battalion Supply Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 277.

* Including two officials.

Figure 93.—Tank Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 79.

* Long-barreled in Pz. Kpfw. IV; superlong-barreled in Pz. Kpfw. V.

Figure 94.—Pz. Kpfw. IV Tank Battalion Supply Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 181.

* Including two officials.

Figure 95.—Pz. Kpfw. IV, Tank Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 567.

* Including two officials.† Including five Armd vehicles.

Figure 96.—Tank Maintenance Company, Army Armored Division, total strength 230.

* Including three officials.

b. THE SS TANK (Panzer) REGIMENT.

This regiment is organized similarly to the Army Tank (Panzer) Regiment except that the tank companies are believed to consist of 17 instead of 14 tanks. They are distributed as follows: two in company headquarters and five in each of the three platoons. The SS tank regiment has therefore more strength and fire power than the Army Tank Regiment. (See Figures 97 to 101.)

Figure 97.—SS Tank Regiment, SS Armored Division, total strength 1,771.

* May be replaced by a flame-thrower Tk Plat with six flame-thrower Pz. Kpfw. III's.† Including seven officials.‡ Including ten Armd vehicles.

Figure 98.—Pz. Kpfw. V, Tank Battalion, SS Armored Division, total strength 716.

* Including two officials.† Including five Armd vehicles.

Figure 99.—Tank Battalion Headquarters Company, SS Armored Division, total strength 145.

* Long-barreled guns in Pz. Kpfw. IV, superlong in Pz. Kpfw. V.† Including five Armd vehicles.

Figure 100.—SS Tank Company, SS Armored Division, total strength 93.

* Long-barreled guns in Pz. Kpfw. IV, superlong in Pz. Kpfw. V.

Figure 101.—Pz. Kpfw. IV, SS Tank Battalion, SS Armored Division, total strength 619.

* Including two officials.† Including five Armd vehicles.

c. THE TANK BATTALION.

In the Army Motorized Division this battalion is organized similarly to the tank battalions in the Army Armored Division; it sometimes may be replaced by an assault gun battalion.

d. THE TANK BATTALION.

In the SS Motorized Division it is organized similarly to the tank battalions in the Armored Division.

e. THE SS TANK COMPANY.

In the SS Mountain Division this is organized similarly to the SS tank companies in the SS Armored Division; it may be replaced sometimes by an assault gun company.

f. FLAME-THROWER TANK PLATOONS.

These consist of six flame-throwing Pz. Kpfw. II tanks, and are frequently organic in the tank regiment (Army and SS). They are either a part of the regimental headquarters company or are assigned directly to the regimental headquarters.

5. Armored General Headquarters Units

a. THE GENERAL HEADQUARTERS Pz. Kpfw. VI (Tiger) BATTALION.

This type of tank battalion frequently allotted to corps is the heaviest tank battalion in the German Armed forces. (See Figures 102 to 103.)

Figure 102.—GHQ Pz. Kpfw. VI, (Tiger) Battalion, total strength 649.

* Including two officials.† Including eight Armd vehicles.

Figure 103.—Heavy Tank Company (Tiger) (FKL) (Remote Control), total strength 188.

b. THE GENERAL HEADQUARTERS Pz. Kpfw. V (Panther) BATTALION.

This is organized similarly to the Pz. Kpfw. VI (Tiger) battalion except that some may have 17 tanks per company instead of 14.

c. THE TANK FLAME-THROWER BATTALION.

This is an independent battalion, normally found employed under armored corps. It consists of three companies of flame-thrower tanks, either Pz. Kpfw. II, which has two flame throwers, or with Pz. Kpfw. III, which has only one flame thrower, but of greater range. Pz. Kpfw. II tank platoons originally were organic in the flamethrower tank battalion, but it is believed that they have been withdrawn because of their light weight and armament.

d. THE HEAVY TANK COMPANY (Tiger) (FKL) (REMOTE CONTROL TANK).

This company is usually found allotted from General Headquarters but may also be found organic in crack armored divisions. It has 14 Tiger tanks and 36 remote controlled B-IV tanks. (See Figure 104.)

Figure 104.—Heavy Tank Company (Tiger) (FKL) (Remote Control), total strength 188.

6. Organic Artillery Units

In the German Army much of the field artillery and all the Army coast artillery and railway artillery belong to the General Headquarters pool. The coastal artillery is in peace time exclusively the responsibility of the Navy, but in war time the Army also has formed coast artillery units principally for the protection of coasts in occupied areas. Coast artillery, Naval or Army, normally is assigned to the sector command in which it is located. Units are allotted from this pool to army groups or armies according to operational needs. They then may be sub-allotted to corps or divisions, in which case they usually are placed under the control of special artillery commanders and staffs. Divisional artillery is frequently reinforced by General Headquarters artillery, army antiaircraft artillery, and projector units. (See Figures 105-121.)

a. ARTILLERY REGIMENT (Artillerieregiment).

One to a division, this regiment varies in composition according to the type of the division. Several types exist.

(1) In Infantry Division, Type 1944.

Four battalions (I, II, and III equipped with 105-mm gun-howitzers and IV with 150-mm howitzers.

(2) In Volks Grenadier Division.

Four battalions (I equipped with 75-mm AT guns, II and III with 105-mm gun/howitzers, and IV with 150-mm howitzers).

Figure 105.—Artillery Regiment, Infantry Division, 1944 Type.

Figure 106.—Artillery Regiment, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 2,451.

* Including ten officials.

Figure 107.—Medium Artillery Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 685.

* Including two officials.

Figure 108.—Light Artillery Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 552.

* Including two officials.

Figure 109. Artillery Regiment (Reduced Strength and Fire Power), Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 2.013.

* Including ten officials.

Figure 110.—Artillery Regiment, Volks Grenadier Division.

Figure 111.—Artillery Regiment, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 1,744.

* Including ten officials.

Figure 112.—Artillery Regiment, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 513.

* Including two officials.

Figure 113.—105-mm Gun-Howitzer Battalion, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 371.

* Including two officials.

Figure 114.—150-mm Howitzer Battalion, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 379.

* Including two officials.

(3) In Armored and Motorized Divisions.

Three battalions (I normally equipped with two batteries of 105-mm gun/howitzers and one battery of 150-mm howitzers all self-propelled, II equipped with 105-mm gun howitzers, and III with 150-mm howitzers). Panzer and Panzer Grenadier divisions also have a separate Army antiaircraft artillery battalion as an organic divisional component. In SS Panzer divisions a heavy artillery battalion, usually equipped with 170-mm guns, is added as the fourth battalion in the artillery regiment.

(4) In Light and Mountain Divisions.

It has four battalions—I and II equipped with 75-mmmountain howitzers and III with 105-mm gun-howitzers. The organization of IV may vary but it normally is equipped with 150-mm howitzers.

All the types of artillery battalions organic in divisions may be found with some variations in the General Headquarters pool.

b. THE ARMY ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY BATTALION (Heeresflakartillerieabteilung).

One to a Panzer and a motorized division, consisting of two 88-mm antiaircraft batteries and one 20-mm antiaircraft battery.

c. THE ASSAULT-GUN BATTALION (Sturmgeschützabteilung).

This sometimes replaces the antitank battalion in Panzer Grenadier divisions. Those in company strength, but designated battalions organic in infantry, light, and mountain divisions, were renamed Panzerjägerkompanie in the fall of 1944. Most of those in the General Headquarters pool were renamed Assault Gun Brigades, however, a few General Headquarters assault gun battalions are believed to have kept their designation.

Figure 115.—Armored Artillery Regiment, Army Armored Division.

Figure 116.—Armored Artillery Regiment, Army Armored Division, total strength 1,649.

*Including eleven officials.†Including 27 Armd vehicles.

Figure 117.—Artillery Regiment Headquarters Battery, Armored Division, total strength 73.

* Including two officials.

Figure 118.—Mixed Self-Propelled Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 558.

* Including three officials.† Including 27 Armd vehicles.

Figure 119.—Light Artillery Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 480.

* Including three officials.

Figure 120.—Medium Artillery Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 518.

* Including three officials.

Figure 121.—Antiaircraft Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 764.

*Including four officials.†The twelve 20-mm AA guns may be sometimes replaced by nine 37-mm AA guns.

7. General Headquarters Artillery Units

a. THE ARTILLERY DIVISION.

This consists of a divisional staff controlling several artillery regiments. Such divisions were encountered on the Eastern Front in the beginning of 1944 but it is believed that such a concentration of fire power may also occur in other theaters. (See Figure 122.)

Figure 122.—Artillery Division.

b. ARTILLERY BRIGADE (Artilleriebrigade).

This is an independent artillery brigade consisting of a varying number of artillery batteries. All or most artillery brigades have been converted to Volksartilleriekorps.

c. THE ASSAULT GUN BRIGADE (Sturmgeschützbrigade).

This is a redesignated General Headquarters assault gun brigade. The strength and fire power of the Assault Gun Battalions, which were greater than those of ordinary battallions may have warranted this differentiation in nomenclature from organic assault gun battalions which were actually only of battalion strength, but the redesignation also may have been motivated by the aim to raise the morale. The guns of assault gun brigades are sometimes referred to as Sturmartillerie.

d. THE VOLKS ARTILLERY CORPS (Volksartilleriekorps).

This corps is an independent General Headquarters unit which has been converted from artillery brigades. The corps is probably composed of six battalions which may be equipped with 75-mm antitank guns, 105-mm howitzers, and 150-mm and 170-mm howitzers.

e. THE FORTRESS ARTILLERY REGIMENT (Festungsartillerieregiment).

This controls several fortress artillery battalions.

f. THE FORTRESS ARTILLERY BATTALION (Festungsartillerieabteilung).

These are static artillery battalions organized in the summer of 1944, equipped with German and captured guns.

g. THE ARMY COAST ARTILLERY REGIMENT (Heereskustenartillerieregiment).

This normally controls two or three army coast artillery battalions and possibly any number of independent batteries.

h. THE ARMY COAST ARTILLERY BATTALION (Heereskustenartillerieabteilung).

This battalion varies in composition. It may be organized as a regular battalion with three batteries or as battalion staff controlling a larger number of independent batteries.

i. THE NAVAL COAST ARTILLERY BATTALION (Marineartillerieabteilung).

This battalion, which varies in composition, belongs to the German Navy but may come under the Army coast command in which it is located.

j. ARTILLERY ANTITANK GUN BATTALION (Artillerie-Pak-Abteilung).

Equipped with 75 or 88-mm antitank guns.

k. MAPPING AND SURVEYING UNITS (Kartenund Vermessungseinheiten).

Mapping and surveying units belong to the artillery although German orders have at times referred to them as a separate arm.

(1) The Artillery Observation Battalion (Beobachtungsabteilung).

Normally allotted to corps, but often attached to divisional artillery regiments, it contains a sound-ranging battery, light-ranging battery, and meteorological platoon.

(2) Light-ranging battery (Lichtessbatterie).

Normally one to an observation battalion.

(3) Sound-ranging battery (Schallmessbatterie).

Normally one to an observation battalion.

(4) Army or Corps Map Reproduction Center (Armee or Korpskartenstelle).

Previously known as Armee-or Korpskartenlager.

(5) Printing and Survey Battalion (Druck-und Vermessungsabteilung).

Probably similar to a Vermessungs-und Kartenabteilung.

(6) Map Printing Battalion (Karten-Druckereiabteilung).

(7) Survey and Mapping Battalion (Vermessungs-und Kartenabteilung).

In General Headquarters, to be allotted to army groups or armies, obtains topographical information and prints maps and photos which are used for operational purposes.

(8) Astronomical Survey Platoon (Astronomischer Messzug).

(9) Observation Battalion Battery (Ballonbatterie).

(10) Magnet Survey Battery (Magnet-Messbatterie).

(11) Velocity Measurement Platoon (Velozitatsmesszug).

(12) Meteorological Platoon (Wetterpeilzug).

Makes air analyses for artillery units but does not engage in weather forecasting.

8. Antitank Units (Panzerjäger)

Most of the antitank units are considered by the Germans as part of the armored (Panzer) arm. It should be noted, however, that the personnel of the antitank companies in infantry regiments and the personnel in the antiaircraft companies in the antitank battalions belong to the infantry arm.

Almost all German divisions include antitank battalions in their organic components. These battalions usually consist of three companies, of which two are always antitank companies, while the third is either an antitank or an antiaircraft company. (See Figures 123 to 125.)

Figure 123.—Antitank Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 484.

* Including three officials.

Figure 124.—Antitank Battalion, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 460.

* Including three officials.

Figure 125.—Antitank Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 513.

* Frequently referred to as Assault Gun Co.† Including three officials.

It should be noted that the majority of all heavy antiaircraft guns are dual-purpose guns, and units equipped with them therefore may be employed for the support of the antitank units.

Similarly, artillery units, particularly those equipped with artillery antitank guns or light cannons, at any time may be employed as antitank units. In addition, there is a clear trend to equip almost every unit in the German Armed Forces with a generous allotment of bazookas and rocket antitank pistols. The allotment of these small anti-tank weapons, however, has been so irregular that they had to be omitted in many of the tables of organization listed herein.

9. General Headquarters Antitank Units

Numerous types of motor-drawn and self-propelled antitank gun units may be allotted from the General Headquarters pool to corps or divisions in accordance with tactical needs. Self-propelled General Headquarters units sometimes have been referred to as assault gun battalions or brigades. The strongest type of General Headquarters antitank battalions is the Tiger-P antitank battalion. It consists of three companies of fourteen 88-mm antitank guns mounted on the Tiger-P chassis. (See Figures 126 to 129.)

Figure 126 —The Tiger-P Antitank Battalion.

Figure 127.—Tiger-P Antitank Battalion, total strength 915.

*Including three officials.† It is believed that various changes in the T/O recently have been made to economize on manpower. These include the merging of the Co Tns and Maint Secs into a Bn Sup Co and result in a reduction of the total strength of the Bn to about 700.

Figure 128.—Battalion Headquarters Company, Tiger-P Antitank Battalion, total strength 297.

* Including three officials.

Figure 129.—Antitank Company, Tiger-P Antitank Battalion, total strength 201.

The Fortress Antitank Gun Battalion (Festungs-Pak-Bataillon) is similar to ordinary antitank battalions except that it has very limited transport facilities.

The Fortress Antitank Gun Command (Festungs-Pak-Verband) is a staff controlling several independent fortress antitank gun companies in a given sector.

The Fortress Antitank Gun Company (Festungs-Pak Kompanie) is an independent static antitank gun company attached for administrative purposes to a fortress antitank gun command and for tactical purposes to the field unit which mans the sector. It is equipped with 76.2 (Russian) and 88-mm antitank guns.

10. Chemical Warfare Units (Nebeltruppen)

Chemical warfare battalions are organic in Armored Divisions, and possibly in some correspondingly strong Army or Air Force divisions. Usually, however, they are allotted from General Headquarters to armies, corps, and divisions. The standard tactical units of the chemical warfare troops are:

a. ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTALION (MOTORIZED) (Werferabteilung (mot.)).

b. HEAVY ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTALION (MOTORIZED (Schwere Werferabteilung (mot.)).

c. MOUNTAIN ROCKET PROJECTOR BATTALION (Gebirgswerferabteilung).

The first two types of battalions are usually components of rocket-projector regiments, normally three battalions per regiment. A rocket-projector battalion is designated heavy when it has more than one heavy-projector battalion (210, 300 or 280/320-mm). Two rocket-projector regiments usually compose a rocket-projector brigade, one of which has been identified as Volkszverferbrigade with all its components adding the prefix "Volks" to their unit designation. Rocket-projector units until now have been employed in firing high explosive, incendiary, and smoke rockets, but all of them also are equipped and trained for gas warfare. All rocket-projector battalions also are equipped and their personnel trained for street and road contamination as well as decontamination.

d. In addition to the above listed projector battalions, there is also an independent armored projector company (Panzerwerferbatterie) which is an independent unit of two platoons, each equipped with four 150-mm armored rocket projectors. This is a 10-barrelled projector mounted on a medium armored carrier. The company may be employed either attached to a projector battalion or as an independent company. (For details on rocket projector regiment [motorized] see Figures 130 to 132.)

Figure 130.—Rocket Projector Regiment (motorized).

Figure 131.—Rocket Projector Regiment (motorized), total strength 1,876.

A Rkt projector Regt (Mtz) consists of either two 150-mm projector Bns plus one Hv projector Bn (210 or 280/320-mm), or three 150-mm projector Bns. A Hv projector Regt (Mtz) consists of two Hv projector Bns (210 or 280/320-mm), plus one 150-mm projector Bns.

Figure 132.—Rocket Projector Battalion (motorized), total strength 555.

The following two units are not included by the Germans in the chemical warfare arm but are considered parts of the medical services.

e. TROOP DECONTAMINATION COMPANY (Truppenentgiftungskompanie).

This unit is composed of medical personnel attached to the General Headquarters pool. It is motorized and is sent wherever high gas casualties occur. The company is capable of decontaminating personnel, clothing, and equipment. It carries supplies of replacement clothing, and is said to be able to decontaminate and reclothe 150 men per hour.

f. TROOP DECONTAMINATION PLATOON (Truppenentgiftungszug).

It is reported that one or two of this type of unit may be found in any type of division. They are medical troops, equipped with gas protective clothing and responsible for the establishment of decontamination centers and, presumably, for the care of gas casualties.

g. HORSE DECONTAMINATION UNIT (Pferdentgiftungstrupp).

This is a veterinary unit, formed within veterinary companies and veterinary hospitals from the personnel and with the equipment already within these units. It is motorized and can be sent wherever needed. The capacity of this unit is stated to be 10 to 20 horses per hour.

h. AIR DEFENSE BATTALION (Luftschutzabteilung).

This is an Air Force unit, used to clear up the results of enemy air attacks on important installations. It is equipped for decontamination of terrain, streets, clothing, and equipment.

i. GAS PROTECTION WITHIN THE ARMED FORCES.

Each headquarters down to battalion level has a gas officer, and each company has a gas noncommissioned officer. They are charged with instructing their units in proper gas protective measures and with periodic inspection of all gas protective equipment.

Found at all levels and in all units of a division are the Gas Detection Squads (Gasspürtrupps) and the Decontamination Squads (Entgiftungstrupps). They are fighting troops with additional gas training. Gas Detection Squads consist of one noncommissioned officer and three privates. The duties of the squad are simple gas detection and, upon occasion, minor decontamination. The squad is equipped with light protective clothing, gas detectors, and gas warning devices. Decontamination Squads consist of one noncommissioned officer and six privates. They are equipped for decontamination of personnel, terrain, weapons, and equipment.

11. Organic Engineer Units

This arm includes the regular combat engineers, as well as fortress engineers, construction engineers, and regional engineers. On the other hand, the engineer arm does not include railway engineers and railway operating troops, and these therefore are listed separately. (See paragraph 13, below.)

It should be noted that the personnel of engineer platoons in organic divisional units (other than the organic engineer battalion) belong to the arm of the unit which they are serving and not to the engineer arm, although they are trained to perform minor engineer functions.

Engineer units often form small detachments within their unit for special missions (such as flame-thrower detachments and mine-detection detachments).

An engineer battalion (Pionierbataillon) is organic in every German division, varying in strength and composition according to the type of division. (See Figures 133 to 135.)

Figure 133.—Engineer Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 620.

* Including three officials.

Figure 134.—Engineer Battalion, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 442.

* Including three officials.

Figure 135.—Armored Engineer Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 885.

* May be replaced by a similar Br Clm, Type J.†Including five officials.‡ Including 31 Armd vehicles.

The engineer battalion in the Two-Regiment Infantry Division is similar to that in the Volks Grenadier Division except that its components are slightly weaker.

The armored engineer battalion in the Motorized Division is very similar to the armored battalion in the Army Armored Division.

The armored engineer battalion in the SS Armored Division is similar to the armored engineer battalion in the Army Armored Division. It has, however, two bridge columns instead of only one.

A mountain engineer battalion is approximately equal in strength to an armored engineer battalion; however, it includes mountain climbing devices and trestle bridge equipment.

The parachute engineer battalion is believed to be organized similarly to the engineer battalion in the Infantry Division, 1944 Type.

Bridge columns were, until 1943, an organic component of the engineer battalions in all types of divisions. At the time of the major reorganization of German divisions the bridge columns were withdrawn to corps from all but the armored divisions. The different types of bridge columns are designated by various capital letters, i.e., "B," "J," "K," and "T," each of which represents the type of bridge-building equipment used. Of these, the bridge column "B" has sufficient equipment for building longer bridges than does column "K." However, bridges built by column "B" are of wood, while those built by column "K" are steel.

Armored engineer platoons, Goliath, about 35 men strong, may be included in any type of engineer battalion. These platoons specifically are equipped for the handling of the cable-controlled, small, armored demolition-charge carrier, the Goliath (not to be confused with the large radio controlled demolition carrier, B-IV, which is employed by the Tiger (FKL) Company and the crew of which belongs to the armored arm, while the Goliath crew belongs to engineers).

12. General Headquarters Engineers

As the reorganizations of German divisions of 1943 and 1944 have greatly reduced the strength of most types of organic engineer battalions, the General Headquarters engineer units have gained considerably in their importance.

Engineer bridging battalions consisting of four bridging companies and an engineer park company, with a total strength of about 900, may be allotted from the General Headquarters pool.

Various types of bridge columns listed under paragraph 11, sub-paragraph g, are usually allotted to corps.

Various types of engineer battalions, sometimes controlled by regimental staffs, may be employed in the support of the division engineers according to tactical requirements.

The construction engineers belonged formerly to a separate arm of inferior status known as construction troops (Bautruppen). They were reclassified as engineers in the fall of 1943, and included in the designation of their regiments and various types of battalions their new arm: engineers (Pioniere).

For a complete list of identified engineer units see "Order of Battle of the German Army," March, 1945, edition,

13. Railway Engineers

Railway Engineers (Eisenbahnpioniere or Eisenbahntruppen) constitute a separate arm. All railway engineer units are allotted by the General Headquarters pool.

The railway engineer regiments (Eisenbahnpionierregiment) consist of two battalions of four companies each. The companies operate independently, and frequently make use of prisoner-of-war labor. Their main work is the maintenance and repair of tracks and the building of railway bridges.

Railway Construction Companies (Eisenbahnpionierbaukompanien) are specialist companies engaged in various types of railway construction work.

14. Railway Operating Troops

Railway Operating Troops (Eisenbahnbetriebstruppen) (formerly part of the railway engineers) were created as a separate arm in November, 1943, and include all railway operating units.

They are responsible for the operation of military traffic; for providing engineers, guards, and antiaircraft protection for military trains, and for supervising the repair of bomb damage to railroads.

15. Organic Signal Troops (Nachrichtentruppen)

It should be noted that the personnel of signal platoons and organic divisional units other than the organic signal battalion belong to the arm of the units in which they serve, although they are trained to perform minor signal tasks. The propaganda troops, which formerly belonged to the signal troops, are now a separate arm. (See paragraph 17 below.)

A Signal Battalion (Nachrichtenbataillon) is organic in every German division, varying in strength and composition according to the type of division. (See Figures 136 to 138.)

The signal battalions in all German divisions are composed of a telephone company, a radio company, and a light signal column or a battalion supply platoon. Their equipment and strength, however, vary considerably in accordance with their type of employment.

Figure 136.—Signal Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 379.

* Including three officials.

Figure 137.—Signal Battalion, Folks Grenadier Division, total strength 305.

* Including three officials.

Figure 138.—Armored Signal Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 515.

* Including three officials.† Including 20 Armd vehicles.

16. General Headquarters Signal Units

These are allotted to all echelons of the German Armed Forces, from the Armed Forces High Command itself down to corps and divisions.

The Armed Forces Signal Regiment (Führungsnachrichtenregiment) is under direct control of the Armed Forces High Command. Its primary mission is to maintain signal communications between Hitler's headquarters (Führerhauptquartier), army groups, and army headquarters, as well as among the three branches of the armed forces.

The Armed Forces Signal Command (Wehrmachtnachrichtenkommandantur) is an inter-service signal headquarters which supervises operations of permanent signal installations.

The Army Group or Army Signal Regiment (Heeres- or Armeenachrichtenregiment) is found with either an army group or an army.

The Field Signal Command (Feldnachrichtenkommandantur) is found in each army. It is a static signal headquarters responsible for the permanent signal installations in the army area.

The Corps Signal Battalion (Korpsnachrichtenabteilung) is found with each corps.

The Railway Signal Regiment (Eisenbahnnachrichtenregiment) controls a varying number of railway signal battalions.

The Women's Auxiliary Signal Battalion (Nachrichtenhelferinnenabteilung) is engaged in signal work, such as radio, telephone, and telegraph operation.

Independent specialist companies are engaged in various types of signal work. Their function usually is shown by their title. For a complete list of identified signal units see "Order of Battle of the German Army", March, 1945 edition.

17. Propaganda Troops (Propagandatruppen)

Formerly belonging to the signal troops, these became a separate arm in the beginning of 1943. They consist mainly of news reporters, photographers, film camera men, and radio commentators. Their main function is front line reporting, but they also conduct propaganda addressed to the enemy as well as to German troops. The basic unit is the propaganda company. (See Figure 139.)

Figure 139.—Propaganda Company, total strength 210.

* Including eight officials.

18. Organic Reconnaissance Units

Most types of German field divisions include an organic reconnaissance battalion, and the remainder have strong reconnaissance companies. The following are the basic types of the divisional reconnaissance units:

The reconnaissance battalion of the Infantry Division, Old Type, consisted of a horse cavalry troop, a bicycle troop, and a heavy weapons troop. For many years it was the basic reconnaissance unit of the German Army. Since the end 1943, however, it has been replaced by the Füsilier battalion.

The Füsilier battalion of the Infantry Division, 1944 Type, consists of three rifle companies and a heavy weapons company. This battalion may be employed either on reconnaissance missions or as a crack divisional reserve unit. (See Figure 140.)

Figure 140.—Füsilier Battalion, Infantry Division, 1944 Type, total strength 708.

* Including two officials.

When, at the end of 1944, the tables of organization for the newly formed Volks Grenadier divisions were issued, the reconnaissance unit for that type of division was specified to be a strong Füsilier company, highly mobile through a large allotment of bicycles. (See Figure 141.)

Figure 141—Füsilier Company, Volks Grenadier Division, total strength 200.

* May be replaced by a Fus Bn similar to the Inf Bn (Bcl).

Front reports indicate, however, that there is a trend toward increasing the strength of the Füsilier battalion again.

The armored reconnaissance battalion, after many reorganizations in recent years, became a very strong and highly mobile standard type of reconnaissance unit in most types of German armored and motorized divisions. (See Figures 142 and 143.)

Figure 142.—Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, Army Armored Division, total strength 942.

* Including three officials.† Including 124 Armd vehicles.

Figure 143.—Heavy Weapons Company, Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, total strength 158.

* Including 25 Armd vehicles.

The Mountain Battalion (Aufklärungsabteilung) is organic in army and SS mountain divisions and in light divisions. It consists of three bicycle companies and a heavy weapons company.

One of the bicycle companies, however, sometimes may be replaced by a motorcycle company. For the strength and equipment of the mountain reconnaissance battalion, see Section V, Paragraph 3.

The Mobile Battalion (Schnelle Abteilung) was formed in 1943 by merging the reconnaissance and antitank battalions. A considerable number of infantry divisions adopted that type of a reconnaissance unit. Early in 1944, however, the mobile battalions started to revert to their former status of a separate antitank battalion and a separate reconnaissance battalion. At that time the latter was reformed and redesignated Füsilier battalion.

19. General Headquarters Reconnaissance Units

The Mobile Battalion (Schnelle Abteilung) is a component of the Mobile Brigade (Schnelle Brigade). It normally is composed of a mounted troop, two bicycle troops, and a heavy weapons troop. It also may contain organic antitank units.

The Mounted Regiment (Reiterregiment) recently has been identified. A new table of organization for cavalry regiments exists, however, and new units may be formed.

The Motorcycle Company (Kradschutsenkompanie) still may be found in organic reconnaissance units in mountain and light infantry divisions and also a component of a General Headquarters motorcycle battalion.

In addition to reconnaissance units mentioned in this paragraph, there are also numerous regimental and battalion reconnaissance platoons and squads, but the personnel in these units belongs to the arm of the regiment in which they are serving.

20. Air Force Antiaircraft Field Units and Air Force Antiaircraft Units in the Zone of the Interior

a. MOBILE UNITS.

The composition of antiaircraft units larger than batteries varies greatly in accordance with local conditions, as already indicated in Section V, paragraph 17. Normally an antiaircraft battalion consists of three to five batteries, with a maximum of eight. An antiaircraft regiment normally consists of from three to four battalions, with a maximum of six. Divisions have three or four regiments.

Motorized antiaircraft units have a smaller number of components than do non-motorized units. In accordance with their type of motorization they are designated:

Motor-drawn (mot. or mot. Z); mounted on half-tracks (mot. G1); self-propelled (mot. s.).

Non-motorized units are designated:

Mobile (v for verlegefähig); or Static (o for ortsfest).

The personnel strength of motorized units is usually approximately double that of non-motorized ones.

Mobile antiaircraft units have large numbers of trailers but very little motorization and depend for mobility on separate transportation units, as already stated in Section V, paragraph 17. Static units usually are employed for the protection of specific targets.

For the difference in German designations of antiaircraft units and antiaircraft units in the Zone of the Interior, see Figure 145.

Figure 144.—Heavy Searchlight Regiment (non-motorized), total strength 2,043.

* Including ten officials.

Figure 145.

Figure 146.—Heavy Searchlight Battalion (non-motorized), total strength 662.

* Including two officials.

Figure 147.—Antiaircraft Regiment (non-motorized), total strength 2,448.

* Including ten officials.

Figure 148.—Barrage Balloon Battalion, total strength 693.

* Including two officials.

Figure 149.—Light Antiaircraft Battalion (non-motorized), total strength 677.

* Including two officials.

Figure 150.—Heavy Antiaircraft Battalion (non-motorized), total strength 511.

* Including two officials.† Some Hv AA Bns may consist of four 105-mm Btries with a total of 16 guns.

The main components of the non-motorized antiaircraft division described in Section V, paragraph 17, are one heavy searchlight regiment and three antiaircraft regiments (see Figures 144 to 150). Any of the above units may also be encountered as motorized antiaircraft with corresponding higher strength. However, the basic tactical motorized antiaircraft units are the mixed antiaircraft battalion, the light antiaircraft battalion, and the heavy searchlight battalion. Any combination of these units totaling three or four battalions may be components of a motorized antiaircraft regiment, but most frequently regiments of three mixed antiaircraft battalions probably will be encountered. (See Figures 151 to 154.)

Figure 151.—Antiaircraft Regiment (motorized), total strength 4,216.

* Including ten officials.

Figure 152.—Mixed Antiaircraft Battalion, Antiaircraft Regiment (motorized), total strength 1,350.

* In some Bns replaced by a 37-mm Btry with nine guns.† Including two officials.

Figure 153.—Light Antiaircraft Battalion (motorized), total strength 800.

* Including two officials.† Some light AA Bns may have four Btries and about 1,000 men.

Figure 154.—Heavy Searchlight Battalion (motorized), total strength 740.

* Including two officials. Some Hv SL Bns may have four Btries and about 950 men.

The Germans designate antiaircraft units equipped with 20-mm or 37-mm guns as light; antiaircraft units equipped with 88-mm, 105-mm, 128-mm, or 150-mm as heavy (or, in the case of the latter, possibly super-heavy); and antiaircraft units including both these types of equipment as mixed. Similarly, they designate units with 60-cm searchlights as light, and with 150-cm or 200-cm searchlights as heavy. The following types of antiaircraft battalions frequently may be encountered:

Mixed antiaircraft battalions (three heavy and two or three light batteries). Light antiaircraft battalion (three or four-light batteries).Searchlight antiaircraft battalion (three or four heavy searchlight batteries).Motorized BattalionsNon-motorized and Static BattalionsMixed antiaircraft battalion (four heavy and two light batteries).Light antiaircraft battalion (three light batteries).Heavy antiaircraft battalion (four heavy batteries).Searchlight antiaircraft battalion (four heavy searchlight batteries).Barrage balloon battalion (four to six barrage balloon batteries).

The German Air Force has the main responsibility for antiaircraft defense of the Zone of the Interior and of the Field Army. For the employment of antiaircraft units with the latter, see Figure 145,

b. RAILWAY ANTIAIRCRAFT (Eisenbahnflak).

Railway antiaircraft regiments consist of three heavy or two heavy and one light antiaircraft battalions. Each railway antiaircraft battalion consists of three to four batteries which are the tactical units in the employment of the railway antiaircraft guns. Railway batteries usually consist of single- or four-barrelled 20-mm, 37-mm, 88-mm, 105-mm, or 128-mm guns mounted on railway cars,

c. TOWER MOUNTED ANTIAIRCRAFT BATTALIONS (Turmflakabteilung).

Tower mounted antiaircraft battalions are equipped with 20-mm (single-barrelled, and four-barrelled) and 105-mm and 128-mm double-barrelled antiaircraft guns. The guns are mounted on one or two platforms of concrete antiaircraft towers constructed in the vicinity of vital installations and of large cities.

d. ARMY ANTIAIRCRAFT BATTALION (Heeresflak).

Army antiaircraft battalions are found organically in all armored, motorized, and parachute divisions, as well as in all types of SS divisions. They are discussed in paragraph 6, as they belong to the artillery arm.

e. LIGHT ARMY ANTIAIRCRAFT BATTALION (Fla Bataillon).

Light army antiaircraft battalions are found in General Headquarters. They are discussed in paragraph 3, as they belong in the infantry arm.

f. LIGHT ARMY ANTIAIRCRAFT COMPANY (Fla Kompanie).

Light army antiaircraft companies are found with most types of ground personnel, mostly antiaircraft personnel. The strength of the regiment is about 3,000 men, and it is believed to have three or four battalions of three or four batteries each. Each battery of about 150 men probably operates three launching sites, so that the battalion may operate between nine and twelve and the regiment between 27 and 48 launching sites.

g. NAVAL ANTIAIRCRAFT UNITS (Marine Flak).

The following are the three types of naval antiaircraft units:

Antiaircraft guns mounted on board of ships and manned by the ship's crew.

Antiaircraft units manning guns for the protection of shore installations (usually static batteries).

Antiaircraft batteries mounted on barges for the protection of approaches to vital naval installations.

21. Miscellaneous Combat Units

a. FORMATION OF TASK FORCES.

It is the purpose of this section to explain briefly how the various elements of the German Armed Forces are combined to form effective combat teams. Figures 1-4 should be consulted in conjunction with this text.

The Navy, the Air Force, and the Armed SS (Waffen-SS), like the Army, are composed of many different types of units. The Navy includes battalions of coast artillery, naval antiaircraft artillery, naval aviation units, and the various types of combat fleet units. In addition to its regular aviation units the German Air Force has different types of antiaircraft units; aircraft warning service organizations; and communications, engineer, balloon barrage, and administrative units.

All types of units in the German Army, Navy, Air Force, and Armed may be considered as groups or pools. Unit organizations are withdrawn from these pools to form task forces, which then function as teams for specific missions.

Normally the commander is selected from the service which predominates in the task force or whose interests are paramount.

Since missions and circumstances vary, each task force is likely to be composed differently from any other. German organizations above the division should be regarded as basic command frameworks, with a minimum of organically assigned combat and administrative units; task forces are formed around these frameworks.

An effort always is made to retain a maximum number of combat units in the various types of General Headquarters pools. Consequently, when a large German unit, such as a corps or a division, is engaged in combat it almost always will be reinforced by units from the General Headquarters pools. When the amount of reinforcement is large, additional commanders and staffs also will be attached. The great influence which General Headquarters reinforcements can have on the combat power of a standard organization, such as a division, should not be overlooked.

The German system as thus outlined is both rigid and flexible. It is rigid in the sense that all the units in any single pool are as nearly alike as possible; it is flexible because the principle of combining units from the various pools is utilized to obtain any sort of combat organization which may be required for a given purpose.

Every German task force assigned to a mission is tactically and administratively an independent and self-contained organization. Coordination with other units is arranged in advance. The force never is required to depend on other units to carry out its mission.

The German system of organization for combat is both economical and effective. It enables the commanders to concentrate combat power at the most vulnerable points without changing basic dispositions. The method also is deceptive to the enemy, as it prevents an easy estimate of German strength in any particular situation.

The administrative organization for supply and evacuation is arranged in a manner similar to that of the combat organization and is employed in conformity with the principle that the administrative plan must support the tactical or strategical plan. Like the tactical organization, the German administrative organizations differ with the situation.

One of the outstanding characteristics of the German military system is unity of command. All units engaged on a single mission are under one commander, who is charged by one authority with responsibility for the success of the mission. As a corollary, two or more German commands never are assigned the same mission simultaneously. Units from the Air Force, the Navy, the Army, and the Armed SS all serve together under a commander chosen from any of the four branches. Likewise, in basic training great emphasis is placed on cooperation among the services and among different branches of the same service.

To sum up, it always should be borne in mind when confronting any situation involving German forces that the predominating note in all German military thought is the combination of all arms and services necessary for any specific mission into a task force (or combat team) under a single commander.

This holds true for all German task forces from the highest echelons down to the reinforced regiments, battalions, and companies. (See Figures 155 to 163.)

Figure 155.—-Example of a Large Combat Team.

* This CT has been formed int he field from the remnants of two Inf Divs. Three more Arty Bns, one more Sig Bn, an Assault Gun Bn, two more Med Cos and two more Amb Cos were planned to be included into this CT, but only the listed units were the actual components of the time of the report.

Figure 156.—Example of a Large Combat Team, total strength 8,119.

Figure 157.—Example of a Medium Combat Team.

* A reinforced Bcl Regt similar to a U S R C T† In this case also C1 Hq.

Figure 158.—Example of a Medium Combat Team, total strength 2,568.

Figure 159.—Bicycle Regiment, Medium Combat Team, total strength 1,834.

Figure 160.—Example of a Small Combat Team, total strength 189.

Figure 161.—Heavy Weapons Company, Small Combat Team, total strength 56.

Figure 162.—Rifle Company, Small Combat Team, total strength 87.

Figure 163.—Antitank Company, Small Combat Team, total strength 45.

b. THE ARMORED BRIGADES (Panzerbrigaden).

These were formed in the summer of 1943 with the following components:

Brigade headquarters.Brigade headquarters company.Tank battalion.Panzer Grenadier Division (armored).Armored engineer company.Sixty-ton column.Medium maintenance platoon.

Several armored brigades, however, were encountered in the field with two Panzer Grenadier battalions and two tank battalions. Almost all armored brigades located on the Western Front have been incorporated into armored divisions, which were badly in need of replacements.

c. ARMORED TRAINS (Eisenbahnpanzerzüge).

Armored trains have been employed by the Germans successfully since the outbreak of the war with the objective of surprising the enemy by the sudden occupation of a strategically located railroad station or to protect vital lines of communication against partisan and guerrilla attacks. Armored train, Type EP-42, consists of six armored, infantry, artillery, and antiaircraft railway cars. The train is armed with two 105-mm gun-howitzers mounted on special cars; two antiaircraft cars, each with one four-barrelled, 20-mm antiaircraft gun, one 76.2-mm Russian gun; and two infantry railway cars with two 81-mm mortars, one heavy machine gun, and 22 light machine guns. The total strength of that armored train is about 113.

d. MILITIA (Volkssturm) UNITS.

In October, 1944 a decree was issued by Hitler calling up all able-bodied German men between the ages of 16 and 60 for the defense of the Fatherland. That decree calls for the creation of a people's militia (Volkssturm) under the leadership of Himmler in his function as Commander-in-Chief of the Replacement Training Army.

It is believed that the Party in general, and the Storm Troop Organization (SA) and the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) in particular, have been charged with the part time training of these men who are to remain on their jobs until a direct threat endangers their area. In such an emergency they will be called to the ranks, come under the command of the army, and be issued weapons, brassards with the inscription "Deutscher Volkssturm Wehrmacht" and identification papers as members of the German Armed Forces. Their employment probably is limited to defensive fighting in trenches, woods, and streets, since their units are equipped with small automatic weapons, machine guns, and bazookas only, but it is possible that light and medium mortars will be added later.

It is difficult to determine definitely the tables of organization for militia units as these will vary greatly in accordance with local conditions and the manpower and weapons available, but indications from the front lines point toward the following average tables of organization for the basic militia unit, the Militia Battalion. (See Figures 164 to 167.)

In some cases several militia battalions may be combined in a militia regiment.

Figure 164.—Militia (Volkssturm) Battalion.

Figure 165.—Militia (Volkssturm) Battalion, total strength 416-688.

* With companies of maximum strength the Bn total may increase to 1-6-21-90-570 or 688 men and the firepower accordingly

Figure 166.—Militia (Volkssturm) Company, total strength 102-170.

* With four Plats of four Sqds each the Co strength may increase to 1-5-22-142 and the fire power accordingly.

Figure 167.—Militia (Volkssturm) Platoon, total strength 32-41.

* With four Sqds per Plat the Plat strength may increase to 1-5-35 and the fire power accordingly.

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