Bibliography

This book is based primarily on about two hundred interviews conducted between the autumn of 2001 and the summer of 2003 with American, Afghan, Pakistani, and Saudi participants in the events described. Many of these interviews were conducted entirely or partially on the record. Many others were held under ground rules designed to protect the identity of the source interviewed.Where these "background" rules were used, they were necessary usually because the material under discussion was highly classified or otherwise sensitive. All the interviews relied upon are indicated in the chapter notes. Where an interview was on the record, the chapter notes also indicate when and where it took place, and whether it was conducted by the author, Griff Witte, or both of us. The chapter notes also attempt to connect background interview sourcing with open material such as declassified documents and congressional hearings, as well as with previously published work by journalists and scholars. That material is inventoried below. Most of the American government documents describing the CIA's role in Afghanistan and its campaign against al Qaeda are likely to remain classified for many years, however. Saudi and Pakistani documents may never be available. In the chapter notes and here, my aim is to make as much material as possible transparently available to readers and researchers, given the constraints, in the hope that future writers will be able to correct and add to the preceding narrative.

BOOKS

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---. Saudi-Iranian Relations 1932-1982. London: Centre for Arab and Iranian Studies and Echoes, 1993.

Baer, Robert. See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. New York: Crown, 2002.

Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America's Most Secret Intelligence Organization. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.

Bearden, Milt. The Black Tulip: A Novel of War in Afghanistan. New York: Random House, 1998.

Bearden, Milt, and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. New York: Random House, 2003.

Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. The Age of Sacred Terror. New York: Random House, 2002.

Bergen, Peter L. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden. New York: The Free Press, 2001.

Bernstein, Carl, and Marco Politi. His Holiness: John Paul II and the Hidden History of Our Time. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

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Borovik, Artyom. The Hidden War: A Russian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan. New York: Grove Press, 1990.

Brisard, Jean-Charles, and Guillaume Dasquié. Forbidden Truth: U.S.-Taliban Secret Oil Diplomacy and the Failed Hunt for bin Laden. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press/Nation Books, 2002.

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Caroe, Olaf. The Pathans. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, 1958.

Casey, William J. Scouting the Future: The Public Speeches of William J. Casey. Comp. Herbert E. Meyer. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1989.

Clarridge, Duane R., with Digby Diehl. A Spy for All Seasons: My Life in the CIA. New York: Scribner, 1997.

Coll, Steve. On the Grand Trunk Road: A Journey into South Asia. New York: Random House, 1994.

Collins, Aukai. My Jihad: The True Story of an American Mujahid's Amazing Journey from Usama BinLaden's Training Camps to Counterterrorism with the FBI and CIA. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press, 2002.

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Cordesman, Anthony H. After the Storm: The Changing Military Balance in the Middle East. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press; London: Mansell, 1993.

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Cronin, Audrey K., and James M. Ludes, eds. The Campaign Against International Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2003.

Dobbs, Michael. Down with Big Brother: The Fall of the Soviet Union. New York: Knopf, 1997.

Duncan, Emma. Breaking the Curfew: A Political Journey Through Pakistan. London: Arrow Books, 1989.

Durrani, Mahmud Ali. India and Pakistan: The Cost of Conflict, the Benefits of Peace. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Foreign Policy Institute, 2000.

Dycus, Stephen, et al. National Security Law. Boston: Little, Brown, 1990.

Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley and Los Angeles, Calif.: University of California Press, 2002.

Elliot, Jason. An Unexpected Light: Travels in Afghanistan. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Ewans, Martin. Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Fandy, Mamoun. Saudi Arabia and the Politics of Dissent. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Farr, Grant M., and John G. Merriam, eds. Afghan Resistance: The Politics of Survival. Lahore, India: Vanguard, 1988.

Fullerton, John. The Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan. Hong Kong: Far Eastern Economic Review, ca. 1983.

Ganguly, Sumit. The Crisis in Kashmir: Portents of War, Hopes of Peace. Cambridge, England: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Gates, Robert M. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Gauhar, Altaf, ed. The Challenge of Islam. London: Islamic Council of Europe, 1978.

Goodson, Larry P. Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

Grau, Lester W., and Michael A. Gress, trans. and ed. The Soviet-Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost: The Russian General Staff. Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas, 2002.

Griffin, Michael. Reaping the Whirlwind: The Taliban Movement in Afghanistan. London: Pluto Press, 2001.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Halberstam, David. War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. New York: Scribner, 2001.

Hiro, Dilip. The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. London: Grafton, 1990.

Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Horwitz, Tony. Baghdad Without a Map and Other Misadventures in Arabia. New York: Plume, 1991.

Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. London: Faber and Faber, 1991.

Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations: Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Jalali, Ali Ahmad, and Lester W. Grau. Afghan Guerrilla Warfare: In the Words of the Mujahideen Fighters. St. Paul, Minn.: MBI, 2001.

Jones, Owen Bennett. Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002.

Junger, Sebastian. Fire. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001.

Kaiser, Robert G. Why Gorbachev Happened: His Triumphs and His Failures. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Keddie, Nikki R., and Mark J. Gasiorowski, eds. Neither East nor West: Iran, the Soviet Union, and the United States. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.

Kepel, Gilles. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2002.

Korany, Bahgat, Paul Noble, and Rex Brynen, eds. The Many Faces of National Security in the Arab World. London: Macmillan, 1993.

Kux, Dennis. The United States and Pakistan, 1947-2000: Disenchanted Allies. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2001.

Lacey, Robert. The Kingdom: Arabia and the House of Sáud. New York: Avon Books, 1981.

Lake, Anthony. 6 Nightmares: Real Threats in a Dangerous World and How America Can Meet Them. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.

Laquer,Walter. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Loeffler, Reinhold. Islam in Practice: Religious Beliefs in a Persian Village. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.

McChesney, R. D. Central Asia: Foundations of Change. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press, 1996.

Macrory, Patrick. Kabul Catastrophe: The Invasion and Retreat, 1839-1842. London: Prion, 1966.

Maley, William, ed. Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. London: Hurst, 1988.

Maraniss, David. First in His Class: The Biography of Bill Clinton. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Masters, John. Bugles and a Tiger: A Volume of Autobiography. New York: Viking, 1956.

Miller, Charles. Khyber: British India's North West Frontier. New York: Macmillan, 1977.

Miller, John, and Michael Stone, with Chris Mitchell. The Cell: Inside the 9/11 Plot, and Why the FBI and CIA Failed to Stop It. New York: Hyperion, 2002.

Mylroie, Laurie. The War Against America: Saddam Hussein and the World Trade Center Attacks, a Study of Revenge. 2d ed., rev. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

Persico, Joseph E. Casey: From the OSS to the CIA. New York: Viking, 1990.

Pillar, Paul R. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2001.

Prendergast, John. Prender's Progress: A Soldier in India, 1931-1947. London: Cassell, 1979.

Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000.

---. The Resurgence of Central Asia: Islam or Nationalism? Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press; London: Zed Books, 1994.

Raza, M. Hanif. A Souvenir of Peshawar. Islamabad, Pakistan: Colorpix, 1994.

Reisman, Michael W., and James E. Baker. Regulating Covert Action: Practices, Contexts, and Policies of Covert Coercion Abroad in International and American Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Roy, Olivier. Afghanistan: From Holy War to Civil War. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press, 1995.

---. Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

---. The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Rubin, Barnett R. The Search for Peace in Afghanistan: From Buffer State to Failed State. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995.

---. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System. 2d ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1995.

Rubin, Barry. Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. London: Macmillan, 1990. Scales, Robert H., Jr. Future Warfare Anthology. Rev. ed. Carlisle Barracks, Penn.: U.S. Army War College, 2001.

Sinclair, Gordon. Khyber Caravan: Through Kashmir, Waziristan, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Northern India. Lahore, Pakistan: Sang-E-Meel Publications, 1978.

Singh, Khushwant. Train to Pakistan. New Delhi, India: Ravi Dayal, 1988.

Stewart, James B. Blood Sport: The President and His Adversaries. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Sullivan, Joseph G., ed. Embassies Under Siege: Personal Accounts by Diplomats on the Front Line. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 1995.

Swinson, Arthur. North-West Frontier: People and Events, 1839-1947. London: Corgi Books, 1967.

Tanner, Stephen. Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the Fall of the Taliban. New York: Da Capo Press, 2002.

Teitelbaum, Joshua. Holier Than Thou: Saudi Arabia's Islamic Opposition.Washington,D.C.:Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2000.

Vassiliev, Alexei. The History of Saudi Arabia. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Weaver, Mary Anne. A Portrait of Egypt: A Journey Through the World of Militant Islam. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.

---. Pakistan: In the Shadow of Jihad and Afghanistan. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.

Wilkinson-Latham, Robert. North-West Frontier, 1837-1947. London: Osprey, 1977.

Woodward, Bob. Shadow: Five Presidents and the Legacy of Watergate. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.

---. Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA, 1981-1987. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.

Yergin, Daniel. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Yousaf, Mohammad. Silent Soldier: The Man Behind the Afghan Jehad, General Akhtar Abdur Rahman Shaheed. Lahore, Pakistan: Jang, 1991.

Yousaf, Mohammad, and Mark Adkin. The Bear Trap: Afghanistan's Untold Story. Lahore, Pakistan: Jang, 1992.

JOURNAL ARTICLES AND MANUSCRIPTS

"Afghanistan, Crisis of Impunity: The Role of Pakistan, Russia, and Iran in Fueling the Civil War." Human Rights Watch 13, no. 3 (July 2001): 3-58.

Al-Khatlan, Saleh M. "Saudi Foreign Policy Toward Central Asia." Journal of King Abdulaziz University 14, no. 1 (2000): 19-31.

Al-Zawahiri, Ayman. Knights Under the Prophet's Banner. Excerpts as printed in Al-Sharq al- Awsat, trans. FBIS. December 2, 2001.

Azzam, Maha. "Islamic Oriented Protest Groups in Egypt 1971-1981: Theory, Politics, and Dogma." Thesis, Oxford University, 1989.

Bearden, Milton. "Afghanistan, Graveyard of Empires." Foreign Affairs 80, no. 6 (November/ December 2001): 17-30.

Beg, Mirza Aslam. "Taliban's Military Successes, 1995-2000." National Security (ca. 2001): 1-44.

Benjamin, Daniel, and Steven Simon. "A Failure of Intelligence?" The New York Review of Books (December 20, 2001): 76-80.

---. "America and the New Terrorism." Survival 42, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 59-75.

Cogan, Charles G. "Partners in Time: The CIA and Afghanistan Since 1979."World Policy Journal 10, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 73-82.

---. "Shawl of Lead: From Holy War to Civil War in Afghanistan." Conflict 10 (1990): 189-204.

Deutch, John, Ashton Carter, and Philip Zelikow. "Catastrophic Terrorism: Tackling the New Danger." Foreign Affairs 77, no. 6 (November/December 1998): 80-94.

Dowell, William. "With Massoud's Rebels." The Washington Quarterly 5, no. 4 (Autumn 1982): 209ff.

Gates, Robert. "From the Shadows Manuscript." Vols. 1 and 2. Kennedy School Library. Examined and typed April 27, 2002.

Hyman, Anthony. "Propaganda Posters of the Afghan Resistance." Central Asian Survey Incidental Papers Series, no. 3 (January 1985): 1-55.

Jalali, Ali A. "Afghanistan: The Anatomy of an Ongoing Conflict." Parameters 31, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 85-98.

Judah, Tim. "The Taliban Papers." Survival 44, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 69-80.

Katzman, Kenneth. "Counterterrorism Policy: American Successes." The Middle East Quarterly 5, no. 4 (December 1998): 45-52.

Khalilzad, Zalmay. "Anarchy in Afghanistan." Journal of International Affairs 51, no. 1 (Summer 1997): 37-56.

Khalilzad, Zalmay, and Daniel Byman. "Afghanistan: The Consolidation of a Rogue State." The Washington Quarterly 23, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 65-78.

Kline, David. "The Conceding of Afghanistan." The Washington Quarterly 6, no. 2 (Spring 1983): 130ff.

Kuperman, Alan J. "The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan." Political Science Quarterly 114, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 219-63.

Lundberg, Kirsten, Philip Zelikow, and Ernest May. "Politics of a Covert Action: The U.S., the Mujahideen, and the Stinger Missile." Kennedy School of Government Case Program, Harvard University, 1999.

Obaid, Nawaf E. "Improving U.S. Intelligence Analysis on the Saudi Arabian Decision Making Process." Master's degree thesis, Harvard University, 1998.

Riedel, Bruce. "American Diplomacy and the 1999 Kargil Summit at Blair House." Center for Advanced Study of India, University of Pennsylvania, Policy Paper Series, 2002.

Rubin, Barnett. "Afghanistan: The Forgotten Crisis." UNHCR Refugee Survey Quarterly 15, no. 2 (1996).

Saikal, Amin. "The Role of Outside Actors in Afghanistan." Middle East Policy 7, no. 4 (October 2000): 50-57.

Tomsen, Peter. "A Chance for Peace in Afghanistan." Foreign Affairs 79, no. 1 (January/February 2000): 179-82.

---. "Geopolitics of an Afghan Settlement." Perceptions, Journal of International Affairs 5, no. 4 (December 2000/February 2001): 86-105.

Weaver, Mary Anne. "Of Birds and Bombs." APF Reporter 20, no. 4 (2001): http://www.alicia patterson.org.

CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS

Armitage, Richard. Joint House and Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on Events Surrounding the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 ("Joint Inquiry Committee"). September 19, 2002.

Berger, Samuel. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 19, 2002.

Black, Cofer. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 26, 2002.

Cannistraro, Vincent M. Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near East and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Terrorism and the Middle East Peace Process. March 19, 1996.

---. House International Relations Committee Hearing on al Qaeda and the Global Reach of Terrorism. October 3, 2001.

Collins, James F. House International Relations Committee Hearing on Central Asia. November 14, 1995.

Freeh, Louis. Joint Inquiry Committee. October 8, 2002.

Gee, Robert W. Statement to House International Relations Committee: Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific. February 12, 1998.

Hayden, Michael. Joint Inquiry Committee. October 17, 2002.

Heslin, Sheila. Senate Governmental Affairs Committee Hearing on Finance Reform. September 17, 1997.

Hill, Eleanor. Hearings: Joint Inquiry Committee. September 18, 2002; September 20, 2002; September 24, 2002; October 1, 2002; October 8, 2002; October 17, 2002.

---. Staff Statements: Joint Inquiry Staff Statement. September 18, 2002.

---. The Intelligence Community's Knowledge of the September 11 Hijackers Prior to September 11, 2001. September 20, 2002.

---. The FBI's Handling of the Phoenix Electronic Communication and Investigation of Zacarias Moussaoui Prior to September 11, 2001. September 24, 2002.

---. Counterterrorism Information Sharing with Other Federal Agencies and with State and Local Governments and the Private Sector. October 1, 2002.

---. Proposals for Reform Within the Intelligence Community. October 3, 2002.

---. On the Intelligence Community's Response to Past Terrorist Attacks Against the United States from February 1993 to September 2001. October 8, 2002.

---. Joint Inquiry Staff Statement. October 17, 2002. Inderfurth, Karl F. Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Afghanistan. July 10, 1997.

---.Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Events in Afghanistan. October 22, 1997.

---.Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Events in Afghanistan. October 8, 1998.

---. Senate Appropriations Committee: Foreign Operations Subcommittee Hearing on Afghanistan. March 9, 1999.

---.Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on the Crisis in Afghanistan. April 14, 1999.

---. Senate Foreign Relations Committee: East Asian and the Pacific Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Pakistan. October 14, 1999.

---. House International Relations Committee: East Asian and the Pacific Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Regional Security in South Asia. October 20, 1999.

---.Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Afghanistan. July 20, 2000.

Karzai, Hamid. Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Afghanistan. July 20, 2000.

Khalilzad, Zalmay. Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Events in Afghanistan. October 22, 1997.

---.Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Events in Afghanistan. October 8, 1998.

Lake, Anthony. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 19, 2002.

Leno, Mavis. Senate Appropriations Committee: Foreign Operations Subcommittee Hearing on Human Rights Abuses Against Women in Afghanistan. March 9, 1999.

Massoud, Ahmed Shah. Letter Submitted to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Events in Afghanistan. October 8, 1998.

Mueller, Robert S. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 26, 2002; October 17, 2002.

Pillar, Paul. Joint Inquiry Committee. October 8, 2002.

Powell, Colin. Senate Appropriations Committee: Foreign Operations Subcommittee Hearing on Afghanistan. May 15, 2001.

Raphel, Robin. Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Current Events in South Asia. February 4, 1994.

---.Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Afghanistan. June 6, 1996.

Rolince, Michael. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 24, 2002.

Rubin, Barnett. Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Events in Afghanistan. October 8, 1998.

---.Senate Foreign Relations Committee: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on the Crisis in Afghanistan. April 14, 1999.

Santos, Charles. House International Relations Committee Hearing on al Qaeda and the Global Reach of Terrorism. October 3, 2001.

Scowcroft, Brent. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 19, 2002.

Tenet, George. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on the Nomination of George Tenet as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence. June 14, 1995.

---. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. February 5, 1997.

---. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on the Nomination of George Tenet as Director of Central Intelligence. May 6, 1997.

---. Senate Appropriations Committee Hearing on Counterterrorism. May 13, 1997.

---. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. January 28, 1998.

---. Senate Armed Services Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. February 2, 1999.

---. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. February 2, 2000.

---. Senate Armed Services Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. February 3, 2000.

---. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. February 7, 2001.

---. Senate Armed Services Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. March 8, 2001.

---. Senate Select Intelligence Committee Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats. February 6, 2002.

---. Joint Inquiry Committee. October 17, 2002.

Tomsen, Peter. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations: Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs Subcommittee Hearing on Afghanistan. July 20, 2000.

---. House Committee on International Relations Hearing on the Future of Afghanistan. November 7, 2001.

Watson, Dale. Senate Foreign Relations Committee Hearing on the Report of the National Commission on Terrorism. June 15, 2000.

---. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 26, 2002.

White, Mary Jo. Joint Inquiry Committee. October 8, 2002.

Wolfowitz, Paul. Joint Inquiry Committee. September 19, 2002.

Zinni, Anthony. Senate Armed Services Committee Hearing on Afghanistan. February 29, 2000.

CONGRESSIONAL REPORT

Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, "Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001," final report prepared December 2002, redacted and released August 2003.

COMMISSION REPORT

"The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States," released July 2004. Also, interim staff statements no. 1-17.

SPEECHES

Al-Faisal, Turki, Prince. "Special Address at Georgetown University." February 3, 2002, Washington, D.C.

Berger, Samuel. "Remarks to the National Academy of Sciences." January 22, 1999, Washington, D.C.

Clinton, Bill. "Remarks to Staff of the CIA and Intelligence Community." July 14, 1995, McLean, Virginia.

---. "On the Work Force Investment Act of 1998." August 7, 1998, Washington, D.C.

---."Remarks to the National Academy of Sciences." January 22, 1999,Washington, D.C.

---. "Speech at Georgetown University." November 7, 2001, Washington, D.C.

---. "Speech at Labour Party Conference." October 3, 2002, Blackpool, England.

---."Remarks to Democratic Leadership Council at New York University." December 6, 2002, New York, New York.

Clinton, Hillary. "Remarks to United Nations Economic and Social Council." December 10, 1997, New York, New York.

Inderfurth, Karl F. "Statement by Karl Inderfurth." July 19, 1999, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Simons, Thomas W., Jr. "The Evolving American Approach to World Affairs and the Emerging Pakistan-U.S. Relationship: Works in Progress." (Speech presented to Association of Retired Ambassadors.) September 22, 1996, Islamabad, Pakistan.

---. "Regional Stability in South Asia: U.S. Views." (Speech presented to United Service Institution.) November 27, 1996, New Delhi, India.

---. "Pakistan-U.S. Relations: A Personal Perspective." (Speech presented to English Speaking Union of Karachi.) June 3, 1998, Karachi, Pakistan.

Tenet, George. "Remarks at Swearing-in Ceremony by Vice President Gore." July 31, 1997, Washington, D.C.

---. "Speech at the University of Oklahoma." September 12, 1997, Norman, Oklahoma.

---. "Acceptance of the Ellis Island Medal of Honor." November 6, 1997, New York, New York.

---. "Does America Need the CIA?" November 19, 1997, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

---. "Remarks at Intelligence Community Awards Ceremony." December 11, 1997, McLean, Virginia.

---."Remarks to CIA Employees on Strategic Direction."May 5, 1998, McLean, Virginia.

---."Oscar Iden Lecture at Georgetown University." October 18, 1999,Washington,D.C.

SELECTED U.S. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS

"Afghan Policy-U.S. Strategy." State Department Cable, September 26, 1991.

"Afghanistan Settlement-Analysis and Policy Recommendations." State Department Cable, June 1997.

"Afghanistan: The Revolution After Four Years." CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, July 1982. Released July 1999 by the National Security Archive.

"Afghanistan: Trends for 1992." State Department Cable, December 16, 1991.

"Afghanistan-U.S. Interests and U.S. Aid." State Department Memorandum, December 18, 1992.

"Biography of Mohammed Omar." CIA fact sheet, December 21, 1998.

"Central Asia, Afghanistan and U.S. Policy." State Department Memorandum, February 2, 1993.

"The Costs of Soviet Involvement in Afghanistan." CIA, Office of Soviet Analysis, February 1987. Released 2000.

"Démarche to Pakistan on Hekmatyar and Sayyaf Gulf Statements." State Department Action Memorandum, January 28, 1991. Released April 6, 2000.

"Executive Order 12947." Federal Register, January 25, 1995.

"Implications of a Continued Stalemate in Afghanistan." State Department Cable, February 5, 1993.

"Memorandum of Conversation Between HRH Prince Turki and Senator Bill Bradley." Memorandum, April 13, 1980.

"Ramzi Ahmed Yousef: A New Generation of Sunni Islamic Terrorists." FBI assessment, 1995.

"Report of the Accountability Review Boards: Bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania on August 7, 1998." Released January 8, 1999.

"SE Tomsen Meeting with Shura of Commanders Oct. 6." State Department Cable, October 10, 1990.

"The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: Five Years After." CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, May 1985.

"Special Envoy to the Afghan Resistance." State Department Action Memorandum, April 19 1989. Released March 23, 2000.

"Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy." Congressional Research Service, September 13, 2001.

"Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress." Congressional Research Service, January 30, 2001.

"To SecState WashDC Priority, Dissent Channel." State Department Cable, June 21, 1989.

"Usama bin Laden: Islamic Extremist Financier." CIA Assessment, 1996.

"U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism." Presidential Directive-39, June 21, 1995.

"USSR: Withdrawal from Afghanistan." Director of Central Intelligence, Special National Intelligence Estimate, March 1988.

DOCUMENT SETS

The Cold War International History Project at the Woodrow Wilson Center. "Toward an International History of the War in Afghanistan, 1979-1989." Comp. Christian F. Ostermann and Mircea Munteanu. Conference in association with The Asia Program and The Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies at the Woodrow Wilson Center, The George Washington Cold War Group at The George Washington University, and the National Security Archive. Washington, D.C.: April 29-30, 2002.

---. "Excerpt from a report of 40th Army HQ."

---. Gromov, Boris. "Limited Contingent." Progress, Moscow, 1994.

---. Likhovskii, A. A. "The Tragedy and Valor of the Afghani." GPI "Iskon," Moscow, 1995.

---. Lyakhovski, Aleksandr A. "New Russian Evidence on the Crisis and War in Afghanistan." Working paper no. 41.

---. Mitrokhin, Vasiliy. "The KGB in Afghanistan." English ed., working paper no. 40.

---. Politburo records provided by Anatoly Chenyaev and translated by the Gorbachev Foundation.

---. "Special National Intelligence Estimate on Pakistan." November 12, 1982.

The National Security Archive. "The September 11th Sourcebooks: National Security Archive Online Readers on Terrorism, Intelligence and the Next War."

---. Volume I: Terrorism and U.S. Policy. Jeffrey Richelson and Michael L. Evans, eds. September 21, 2001.

---. "The Soviet Experience in Afghanistan: Russian Documents and Memoirs." Volume II: Afghanistan: Lessons from the Last War. John Prados and Svetlana Savranskaya, eds. October 9, 2001.

---. Volume IV: The Once and Future King?: From the Secret Files of King Zahir's Reign in Afghanistan, 1970-1973. William Burr, ed. October 26, 2001.

---. Volume VII: The Taliban File. Sajit Gandhi, ed. September 11, 2003.

COURT DOCUMENTS

United States of America v. Ibrahim A. el-Gabrowny et al., S(2) 93 Cr. 181 (S.D. New York, 1993).

United States of America v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef et al., S 93 Cr. 180 (S.D. New York, 1993).

United States of America v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef et al., S(10) 93 Cr. 180 (S.D. New York, 1995).

United States of America v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef et al., S(12) 93 Cr. 180 (S.D. New York, February 1996).

United States of America v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef et al., S(12) 93 Cr. 180 (S.D. New York, August 1996).

United States of America v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef et al., S(12) 93 Cr. 180 (S.D. New York, August 1997).

United States of America v. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef et al., S(12) 93 Cr. 180 (S.D. New York, October 1997).

United States of America v. Usama bin Laden et al., S 98 Cr. 539 (S.D. New York, 1998).

United States of America v. Ali Mohamed, S(7) 98 Cr. 1023 (S.D. New York, 2000).

United States of America v. Usama bin Laden et al., S(7) 98 Cr. 1023 (S.D. New York, February 5, 2001).

United States of America v. Usama bin Laden et al., S(7) 98 Cr. 1023 (S.D. New York, February 6, 2001).

NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, AND BROADCAST NEWS

Newspapers: Aerospace Daily, Al-Sharq al-Awsat, Arab News, The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, The Boston Herald, Chicago Tribune, The Christian Science Monitor, The Daily Telegraph, Defense Daily, The Financial Times, The Guardian, The Independent(London), Los Angeles Times, The Muslim (Islamabad), New York Daily News, The New York Times, The News (Islamabad), Newsday (New York), Platt's Oilgram News, The Seattle Times, The Toronto Star, USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Washington Times.

Magazines: Air Force Magazine, Asiaweek, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Business Week, The Economist, Financial Times, Fortune, Le Monde Diplomatique, Le Nouvel Observateur, National Journal, The New York Times Magazine, The New Yorker, Newsweek, Nida'ul Islam, Popular Science, Time.

News Agencies: AAP Newsfeed, Agence France Presse, Associated Press, Bulletin Broadfaxing Network, Federal News Service, Intelligence Newsletter, MBC, Reuters, United Press International.

Broadcast News: ABC News, ABC's Nightline, al Jazeera, BBC, CNN, Fox News, The News Hour With Jim Lehrer, Orbit, PBS's Frontline.

FILMS, TELEVISION, AND VIDEOTAPES

Afghan Warrior: The Life and Death of Abdul Haq, Touch Productions, London, 2003.

Ahmed Badeeb 2002 Interview with Orbit Television, supplied to the author by Badeeb, translated by The Language Doctors, Inc. See note 1, chapter 4.

Ahmed Shah Massoud with Abdul Haq and Peter Tomsen, June 24, 2001, Dushanbe, Tajikistan, informal video and transcript of meeting.

Ahmed Shah Massoud with Otilie English, April 27, 2001, Khoja Bahuddin, Afghanistan, informal video of meeting.

Hunting bin Laden, produced and directed by Martin Smith, aired as an episode of Frontline, Public Broadcasting System, March 21, 2000.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
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