Military history

REFERENCE NOTES AND WORKS CONSULTED

Chapter One
PURSUIT OF POLICY CONTRARY TO SELF-INTEREST

REFERENCE NOTES

1. JOHN ADAMS: Letter to Thomas Jefferson, 9 July 1813, in The Adams-Jefferson Letters, ed. L. J. Cappon, Chapel Hill, 1959, II, 351.

2. ENGLISH HISTORIAN, “NOTHING IS MORE UNFAIR …”: Denys A. Winstanley, Lord Chatham and the Whig Opposition, Cambridge, 1912, 129.

3. PLATO ON PHILOSOPHER-KINGS: Republic, V, 473.

4. HISTORIAN ON PHILIP II: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th ed., anon.

5. OXENSTIERNA: Bartlett’s Familar Quotations.

6. REHOBOAM: I Kings 11:43, 12:1 and 4; II Chronicles 9:31, 10:1 and 4.

7. “AMPLE IN FOLLY”: Ecclesiasticus (Book of Sirach) 48:6.

8. MONTEZUMA: William H. Prescott, The Conquest of Mexico, New York, 1843; C. A. Burland, Montezuma, New York, 1973.

9. THIRTEEN MUSKETS: New Cambridge Modern History, I, 442.

10. VISIGOTHS: Dr. Rafael Altamira, “Spain Under the Visigoths,” in Cambridge Medieval History, II, chap. 6.

11. SOLON, “LEARNED SOMETHING NEW”: Plutarch’s Lives.

12. SCHLESINGER, SR., QUOTED: The Birth of a Nation, New York, 1968, 245–6.

13. VOLTAIRE QUOTED: M. A. François, The Age of Louis XIV, Everyman ed., New York, 1966, 408.

14. LOUIS XIV AS GOD’S INSTRUMENT: G.R.R. Treasure, Seventeenth Century France, New York, 1966, 368.

15. DAUPHIN’S CAUTIONS: G. A. Rothrock, The Huguenots: Biography of a Minority, Chicago, 1973, 173.

16. SAINT-SIMON’S COMMENT: Memoires in Sanche de Gramont, The Age of Magnificence, New York, 1963, 274.

17. HUGUENOT OFFICERS JOIN WILLIAM in: Estimate submitted to the King by Marshal Vauban in 1689; Rothrock, op. cit., 179.

18. FRENCH HISTORIAN ON “GREAT DESIGNS”: CPicavet in La diplomatic au temps de Louis XIV, 1930; q. Treasure, op. cit., 353.

19. EMERSON: Journals, 1820–72, Boston, 1909–14, IV, 160.

20. CHARLES x WOULD RATHER BE A WOODCUTTER: Alfred Cobban, A History of Modern France, 2 vols., Penguin ed., 1961, II, 72.

21. 300 FRANCS FOR QUALIFICATION: ibid., II, 77.

22. CHIEF OF STAFF TO CHANCELLOR, “IT WAS MORE LIKELY …”: Fritz Fischer, Germany’s Aims in the First World War, New York, 1967, 184–5.

23. BETHMANN, “INEVITABLY CAUSE AMERICA …”: Speech in Reichstag, 10 Jan 1916, q. Hans Peter Hanssen, Diary of a Dying Empire, Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press, 1955.

24. “GASPING IN THE REEDS …”: in Reichstag, 31 Jan 1917, q. Hanssen, op. cit., 165.

25. HELFFERICH, “LEAD TO RUIN”: Official German Documents Relating to the World War, 2 vols., Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, New York, I, 150.

26. TWO LEADING BANKERS: Max Warburg and Bernhard Dernburg, see Fischer, op. cit., 307.

27. ZIMMERMANN, “TO RISK BEING CHEATED …”: Fischer, op. cit., 299.

28. CONFERENCE OF 9 JAN 1917, ALL QUOTATIONS: A verbatim report of the conference is in German Documents, I, 340, 525; II, 1219–77, 1317–21.

29. BETHMANN, “FINIS GERMANIAE”: q. G. P. Gooch, Recent Revelations of European Diplomacy, London, 1927, 17.

30. RIEZLER, “GERMANY IS LIKE A PERSON …”: q. Fritz Stern, The Responsibility of Power, ed. L. Krieger, and Stern, New York, 1967, 278.

31. ADMIRAL YAMAMOTO QUOTED: Gordon W. Prange, At Dawn We Slept, New York, 1981, 10, 15, 16.

32. ADMIRAL NAGANO DOUBTFUL IF JAPAN WOULD WIN: from the diary of Marquis Kido, Lord Privy Seal, 31 July 1941, q. Herbert Feis, The Road to Pearl Harbor, Princeton, 1950, 252.

Chapter Two
PROTOTYPE: THE TROJANS TAKE THE WOODEN HORSE WITHIN THEIR WALLS

WORKS CONSULTED

APOLLODORUS. The Library [and Epitome]. 2 vols. Trans. Sir James George Frazer. London and New York, 1921.

ARNOLD, MATTHEW. “On Translating Homer” in The Viking Portable Arnold. New York, 1949.

BOWRA, C. M. The Greek Experience. Mentor ed. New York, n.d. (orig. pub. 1957).

DICTYS OF CRETE AND DARES THE PHRYGIAN. The Trojan War. Trans. R. M. Frazer, Jr. Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press, 1966.

DODDS, E. R. The Greeks and the Irrational. Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1951.

EURIPIDES. The Trojan Women. Trans, with notes, Gilbert Murray. Oxford Univ. Press, 1915.

FINLEY, M. I. The World of Odysseus, rev. ed. New York, 1978.

GRANT, MICHAEL, AND HAZEL, JOHN. Gods and Mortals in Classical Mythology. Springfield, Mass., 1973.

GRAVES, ROBERT. The Greek Myths. 2 vols. Penguin ed. Baltimore, 1955.

GROTE, GEORGE. History of Greece. 10 vols. London, 1872.

HERODOTUS. The Histories. 2 vols. Trans. George Rawlinson. Everyman ed. New York.

HOMER. The Iliad. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1951.

____. The Iliad. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. New York, 1974.

____. The Odyssey. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. New York, 1963.

KIRK, G. S. The Nature of Greek Myths. Penguin ed. Baltimore, 1974.

KNIGHT W.F.J. “The Wooden Horse at the Gates of Troy.” Classical Quarterly. Vol. 28, 1933, 254.

MACLEISH, ARCHIBALD. “The Trojan Horse,” in Collected Poems. Boston, 1952.

MACURDY, GRACE A. “The Horse-Training Trojans.” Classical Quarterly (O.S. 1923). Vol. XVII, 51.

QUINTOS OF SMYRNA. The War of Troy. Trans., with intro. and notes, Frederick M. Combellach. Norman, Oklahoma Univ. Press, 1968.

SNELL, BRUNO. The Discovery of the Mind: Greek Origins of European Thought. Cambridge, Mass., 1953.

SCHERER, MARGARET S. The Legend of Troy in Art and Literature. New York and London, 1963.

STEINER, GEORGE, AND FAGLES, ROBERT. Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1962.

VIRGIL. The Aeneid. Trans. Rolfe Humphries. New York, 1951.

REFERENCE NOTES

Note: Numerals in reference notes to the Iliad, Odyssey and Aeneid refer to lines (which vary somewhat according to translation), not to pages.

1. STORYTELLER, “WHAT HAS HAPPENED …”: Powys, preface to “Homer and the Aelther” in Steiner and Fagles, 140.

2. DEMODOCUS’ TALE OF THE WOODEN HORSE: Odyssey, Bk VIII, 499–520.

3. HOMER’S SUCCESSORS: The verse narratives between Homer and Virgil, which exist mainly in fragments or epitomes, are: the Cypria, c. 7th century B.C.; the Little Iliad by Lesches of Lesbos; The Sack of Ilium by Arctinus of Miletus. Post-Aeneid treatments of the Trojan War are: Apollodorus; Hyginus’ Fabulae; Quintus Smyrnaeus’ Posthomerica; Servius on the Aeneid; Dictys the Cretan; and Dares the Phrygian.

4. POSEIDON AND APOLLO AS BUILDERS OF TROY: from Servius, discussed in Frazer’s Notes to Apollodorus, II, 229–35; Murray’s Notes to Euripides, 81.

5. WOODEN HORSE BUILT ON ATHENA’S ADVICE: Aeneid, Bk II, 13–56; Lesches’ Little Iliad, q. Scherer, 110; Graves, II, 331.

6. HORSE SACRED TO TROY, AND SACRED VEIL: Odyssey, Bk VIII, 511 ff.; Little Iliad, q. Knight; Aeneid, Bk II, 234.

7. EPEIUS: Quintus, 221–2, 227.

8. “HALF WAY BETWEEN VICTORY AND DEATH”: Quintus, 227.

9. THYMOETES AND CAPYS: Aeneid, Bk II, 46–55.

10. PRLAM AND COUNCIL DEBATE: Arctinus, Sack of Ilium, q. Scherer, III.

11. CROWD CRIES “BURN IT! …”: Odyssey, Bk VIII, 499; Graves, II, 333.

12. LAOCOON’S WARNING: Aeneid, Bk II, 56–80, 199–231; Hyginus, Fabulae.

13. SINON: Aeneid, II, 80–275; Quintus, 228.

14. SERPENTS: Aeneid, Bk II, 283–315.

15. PLINY ON STATUE: q. Scherer, 113.

16. OTHER PORTENTS: Quintus, 231–2.

17. CASSANDRA: Aeneid, Bk II; Quintus, 232–3; Hyginus and Apollodorus, q. Graves, II, 263–4, 273 Frazer’s Notes to Apollodorus, II, 229–35.

18. “TREMBLING IN THEIR LEGS”: Odysseus reports this to Achilles in Hades, Odyssey, Bk XI, 527.

19. FATE OF TROJANS AFTER THE FALL: Aeneid, Bk II, 506–58.

20. PAUSANIAS AND SIEGE ENGINE: Grote, I, 285; Graves, II, 335.

21. A MILITARY HISTORIAN: Yigael Yadin in World History of the Jewish People, Rutgers Univ. Press, 1970, II, 159; also Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands, London, 1965, 18.

22. HERODOTUS ON HELEN: Bk II, chap. 113–19; “INFATUATED”: ibid., chap. 120.

23. PRIAM, “TO THE GODS I OWE …”: Iliad, Bk III, c. 170.

24. ZEUS, “WHEN IT IS THROUGH BLINDNESS …”: Odyssey, Bk I, 30; on aegisthus: ibid., 32 ff.

25. ATĒ:, appears first in Hesiod, predating Homer; sometimes called Eris or Erinys; sometimes figures as daughter of Eris, Goddess of Discord; in Iliad, Bk IX, 502–12; Bk XIX, 95–135; in various classical dictionaries.

26. FLOOD LEGEND: Kirk, 135–6, 261–4; Graves, II, 269.

27. LITAI: Iliad, Bk IX, 474–80, Fitzgerald translation.

28. AGAMEMNON BLAMES ATĒ: Iliad, Bk XIX, 87–94.

29. BRUTUS’ VISION: Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act. 3, Sc. 1.

Chapter Three
THE RENAISSANCE POPES PROVOKE THE PROTESTANT SECESSION: 1470–1530

WORKS CONSULTED

The most inclusive source for the history of the Papacy in this period, to which all later studies must be indebted, is Ludwig von Pastor’s History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages in 14 volumes, first published in German in the 1880s and ’90s. Jacob Burckhardt’s classic The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, first published in German in his native Switzerland in 1860, is equally indispensable.

Primary sources, on which the following works are based, are the Vatican archives; letters, diplomatic correspondence and reports and other miscellaneous sources collected in Muratori’s Annals; individual chronicles, especially the diary of John Burchard, Vatican Master of Ceremonies under Alexander VI and Julius II; and the major contemporary histories, Guicciardini’s Storia d’Italia, Francesco Vettori’s Storia d’Italia, Machiavelli’s The Prince and The Discourses, Vasari’s Lives of the Painters.

AUBENAS, ROGER, AND RICARD, ROBERT. L’Eglise et la Renaissance. Vol. 15 of Histoire de l’Eglise. Ed. A. Fliehe and V. Martin. Paris, 1951.

BRION, MARCEL. The Medici. Trans. New York, 1969.

BURCHARD, JOHN. “Pope Alexander VI and His Court” (Extracts from the Latin diary of the Papal Master of Ceremonies, 1484–1506). Ed. F. L. Glaser. New York, 1921.

BURCKHARDT, JACOB. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. Vol. I. Colophon ed., New York, 1958.

CALVESI, MAURIZIO. Treasures of the Vatican. Trans. J. Emmons, Geneva, 1962.

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1907–12, and NEW CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1967.

CHADWICK, OWEN. The Reformation. London, 1964.

CHAMBERLIN, E. R. The Bad Popes. New York, 1969.

CHAMBERS, DAVID SANDERSON. “The Economic Predicament of Renaissance Cardinals,” Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History. Vol III. Lincoln, Neb., 1966.

COUGHLAN, ROBERT. The World of Michelangelo: 1415–1564. New York, 1966.

DICKENS, A. G. Reformation and Society in 16th Century Europe. New York, 1966.

ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS. The Praise of Folly. Trans. H. H. Hudson. Princeton, 1941.

FUNCK-BRENTANO, FRANTZ. The Renaissance. Trans. New York, 1936.

GILBERT, FELIX. Machiavelli and Guicciardini. Princeton, 1965.

GILMORE, MYRON P. The World of Humanism, 1453–1517. New York, 1958.

GREGOROVIUS, FERDINAND. History of Rome. 13 vols. Trans. A. Hamilton. London, 1894–1902.

GUICCIARDINI, FRANCESCO. The History of Italy. Trans. S. Alexander. New York, 1969.

HALE, J. R. Renaissance Europe: 1480–1520. Berkeley, 1971.

HIBBERT, CHRISTOPHER. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall. New York, 1975.

HILLERBRAND, HANS J. The World of the Reformation. New York, 1973.

HOWELL, A. G. FERRERS. S. Bernardino of Siena. London, 1913.

HUGHES, PHILIP. A History of the Church. Vol III. New York, 1947.

HUIZINGA, JOHAN. Erasmus and the Age of the Reformation. Trans. New York, 1957.

JEDIN, HUBERT. A History of the Council of Trent. Vol I. Trans. London, 1957.

LEES-MILNE, JAMES. St. Peter’s. Boston, 1967.

LOPEZ, ROBERT s. The Three Ages of the Italian Renaissance. Boston, 1970.

LORTZ, JOSEPH. How the Reformation Came. Trans. New York, 1964.

MACHIAVELLI, NICCOLO. The Prince and The Discourses. Modern Library ed. New York, 1940.

MALLETT, MICHAEL. The Borgias: The Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Dynasty. New York, 1969.

MATTINGLY, GARRETT. Renaissance Diplomacy. Boston, 1955.

MCNALLY, ROBERT E., S.J. Reform of the Church. New York, 1963.

MITCHELL, BONNER. Rome in the High Renaissance: The Age of Leo X. Norman, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1973.

The New Cambridge Modern History. Vol I. The Renaissance: 1493–1520. Cambridge, 1957.

OECHSLI, WILHELM. History of Switzerland, 1499–1914. Trans. Cambridge, 1922.

OLIN, JOHN C. The Catholic Reformation: Savonarola to Ignatius Loyola, 1495–1540. New York, 1969.

O’MALLEY, JOHN. “The Discovery of America and Reform Thought at the Papal Court in the Early Cinquecento,” in Fredi Chiapelli, ed., First Images of America. Vol I. Berkeley, 1976.

____. Praise and Blame in Rome: Renaissance Rhetoric, Doctrine and Reform in the Sacred Orators of the Papal Court, 1450–1521. Durham, N.C. Duke Univ. Press, 1972.

OWST, G. R. Preaching in Medieval England, 1350–1450. Cambridge, 1926.

PARTNER, PETER. “The Budget of the Roman Church in the Renaissance Period,” in Italian Renaissance Studies. Ed. E. F. Jacob. London, 1960.

____. Renaissance Rome, 1500–1559. Berkeley, 1972.

PASTOR, LUDWIG VON. The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages. Vols. V-IX. Trans. Ed. F. I. Antrobus and R. F. Kerr, London and St. Louis, 1902–10.

PORTIGLIATTI, GIUSEPPE. The Borgias. New York, 1928.

PREZZOLINI, GIUSEPPE. Machiavelli. New York, 1967.

RANKE, LEOPOLD VON. History of the Popes … in the 16th and 17th Centuries, 3 vols. Trans. London, 1847.

RIDOLFI, ROBERTO. The Life of Niccolò Machiavelli. Trans. Chicago, 1954.

RODOCANACHI, E. Histoire de Rome: Le pontificat de Jules II. Paris, 1928. Les pontificats d’Adrien VI et de Clément VII. Paris, 1933.

ROUTH, C.R.N., ED. They Saw It Happen in Europe, 1450–1600 (anthology of eyewitnesses’ accounts). Oxford, 1965.

SCHAFF, DAVID s. History of the Christian Church. Vol 6. Grand Rapids, Mich., 1910.

SCHEVILL, FERDINAND. THE MEDICI. New York, 1949.

____. History of Florence. New York, 1961.

TODD, JOHN M. The Reformation. New York, 1971.

DE TOLNAY, CHARLES. The Medici Chapel. Princeton, 1948.

ULLMANN, WALTER. A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages. London, 1972.

VASARI, GIORGIO. Lives of the Artists. Ed. Betty Burroughs. New York, 1946.

YOUNG, G. F. The Medici. Modern Library ed. New York, 1930.

REFERENCE NOTES

The wars, politics and international relations of the Papacy and the Italian states, and the circumstances of Luther’s break and its aftermath, are not annotated below because they are amply recorded in standard secondary histories and studies of the Renaissance and Reformation.

1. “STAKE IN A GAME OF TENNIS”: G. G. Coulton, Social Life in Britain from the Conquest to the Reformation, Cambridge, 1918, 204.

2. “STARVED FOR THE WORD OF GOD”: q. Owst, 31–2.

3. “IF THE PREACHER”: q. Howell, 251–2.

4. “TO TRANSFORM ALL CHRISTIANS”: Todd, 97; Olin, xxi.

5. DOMENICHI’S tractatus: O’Malley, 211–14. “BABYLON, THE MOTHER OF …”: q. ibid., 211. “DIGNITY OF THE CHURCH”: q. ibid., 86, n. 33.

6. MACHIAVELLI, “SUPREME FELICITY”: The Prince, Bk II, chap. II.

7. JACOB THE RICH: Gilmore, 60. AGOSTINO CHIGI: Funck-Brentano, 37.

8. ASSASSINATION OF GIULIANO DE MEDICI: Burckhardt, 78.

9. “CRUELEST, WORST …”: q. ibid., 52.

10. “FULL OF CONTEMPT”: q. ibid., 42.

11. HE “LEFT THE HOSPITAL”: Burchard, 130.

12. PANDOLFO PETRUCCI: Burckhardt, 50. FEDERIGO OF URBINO: ibid., 65.

13. NICHOLAS v, “TO CREATE SOLID …”: q. Lees-Milne, 124, and Mallett, 47.

1. Sixtus IV

1. “THREE EVIL GENIUSES”: New Cambridge, 77.

2. SIXTUS’ CAREER AND CHARACTER: Burckhardt, 123; Hughes, 389–90; Mallett, 53–6; Aubenas, 87–90.

3. SIXTUS MADE 34 CARDINALS: Chambers, 290; Jedin, 88.

4. ARCHEPISCOPAL SEES TO BOYS OF EIGHT AND ELEVEN: Hughes, 442.

5. CARDINAL RIARIO’S BANQUET: Pastor, IV, 243–5.

6. PIUS II’S LETTER TO BORGIA: q. Routh, 83.

7. MANIFESTO EQUATING SIXTUS WITH SATAN: Aubenas, 88, and Pastor, IV, 136, n. 2.

8. PAZZI PLOT: Aubenas, 76–7; Hughes, 393–4.

9. “PLEASE GOD THAT YOUR HOLINESS …”: q. Aubenas, 77.

10. ARCHBISHOP ZAMOMETIC, FORTUNES OF: Jedin, 105.

2. Innocent VIII

1. INNOCENT’S CHARACTER AND HABITS: Pastor, V, 246–70; Burckhardt, 126.

2. BORGIA BRIBES OF 25,000 DUCATS: Mallett, 100. “SO FALSE AND PROUD”: q. Pastor, V, 237.

3. “SEND A GOOD LETTER …”: IBID., 242.

4. MORTGAGED THE PAPAL TIARA: Ullmann, 319.

5. “THE LORD DESIRETH NOT …”: q. New Cambridge, 77.

6. FORGING FIFTY PAPAL BULLS: Hughes, 402.

7. CARDINAL ANTOINE DUPRAT: ibid., 447, n. 1.

8. LIVES OF THE CARDINALS: Pastor, V, 354, 370; Chambers, 291, 304, 307.

9. GIOVANNI DE’ MEDICI’S ECCLESIASTICAL ADVANCEMENT: Chamberlin, 211.

10. LORENZO’S LETTER TO HIS SON: q. Pastor, V, 358–9; Olin, xv; Mallett, 52. First published in Fabroni’s Life of Lorenzo, 1784.

11. GENOA “WOULD NOT HESITATE …”: q. Pastor,V, 246.

12. “PUSILLANIMITY … OF THE POPE”: q. Pastor,V, 269.

13. “GENOESE SAILOR”: q. ibid., 269.

14. “THE BEAST OF THE APOCALYPSE”: q. O‘Malley, 234.

15. “WHAT MORTAL POWER”: q. Hughes, 345.

16. PRINCE DJEM, RIVALRY FOR AND SUBSIDIES: Guicciardini, 70; Aubenas, 140.

17. DJEM’S ARRIVAL IN ROME: Pastor, V, 299.

18. INNOCENT’S DYING WISH: Pastor, V, 320.

3. Alexander VI

1. “FLEE, WE ARE IN THE HANDS …”: q. Mallett, 120. BULLFIGHT: Schaff, 442; Mallett, 108.

2. FOUR MULE-LOADS OF BULLION: Mallett, 115, from Stefano Infessura’s Diario della città di Roma. Borgia’s buying of votes, with sums and promises given to each of the cardinals, is detailed in Pastor, V, 418.

3. CALIXTUS’ SENILITY: Cambridge Medieval History, VIII, 175.

4. BORGIA’S CHARACTER, RICHES AND CONDUCT: Guicciardini, chaps. II and XIII; Routh, 92–3; Mallett, 84–6; Ullmann, 319; Chamberlin, 166–71.

5. “DO UNPLEASANT THINGS”: q. Burckhardt, xix. “TOOK PAINS TO SHINE”: Sigismondo de Conti, q. Burchard, xvii. “BRILLIANTLY SKILLED”: Jacopo Gherardi da Volterra, q. Mallett, 84. “IRON TO A MAGNET”: q. Routh, 93. “UNDERSTOOD MONEY MATTERS”: q. Burchard, xvii.

6. BORGIA’S FAMILY: Guicciardini, 124; Ullmann, 319. VANOZZA REPLACED HER MOTHER: Burchard, xv.

7. PATERNITY OF THE EIGHTH CHILD: Mallett, 181.

8. ALEXANDER’S PROCESSION TO THE LA: teranBurchard, q. Mallett, 120.

9. ELEVEN NEW CARDINALS: Chamberlin, 199.

10. DELLA ROVERE, A “LOUD EXCLAMATION”: Pastor, V, 418.

11. TOTAL OF 43 CARDINALS: Jedin, 88.

12. REFORM THE MOST FREQUENT TOPIC: Chadwick, 20.

13. CHARLES VIII’S PLANS FOR INVASION OF ITALY: Guicciardini, 46–8. INTENTION TO DEPOSE POPE: New Cambridge, 302. CARDINAL DELLA ROVERE’S ROLE: ibid., 348–50.

14. “SO FULL OF VICES”: Guicciardini, 69.

15. “TERRIBLE BEYOND ANYTHING”: ibid., 68.

16. GEORGE MEREDITH: The Egoist.

17. LUDOVICO IL MORO INVITES CHARLES VIN: New Cambridge, 296.

18. “INNUMERABLE CALAMITIES”: Guicciardini, 48.

19. ARMED PARADE OF THE FRENCH IN ROME: Pastor, V, 451–2.

20. “REQUISITIONS ARE FEARFUL”: ibid., 454.

21. SAVONAROLA: Aubenas, 130–36; Schevill, Florence, 433–55.

22. “CAUSED SUCH TERROR”: q. Coughlan, 69. his prophecy: ibid.

23. “POPES AND PRELATES”: Pastor, VI, 14–15.

24. HAILED CHARLES VIII: Schevill, Florence, 444.

25. POPE “NO LONGER A CHRISTIAN”: q. Jedin, 40.

26. 15,000 HEAR ROBERTO DA LECCE: Pastor, V, 177.

27. TWENTY IN FLORENCE ELECT OWN “POPE”: Pastor, V, 115.

28. DEATH OF JUAN, DUKE OF GANDIA: Mallett, 154–5; Chamberlin, 187–90.

29. “THE MOST GRIEVOUS DANGER”: q. Jedin, 126.

30. PROPOSED PROGRAM OF REFORM: Hale, 228; Hughes, 450.

31. LOUIS XII: Guicciardini, 139; Aubenas, 143–4.

32. “Tutto va al contrario”. Marino Sanuto, Diarii, Tom. I, Venezia, 1879, p. 1054, para. 127.

33. PORTUGUESE AND SPANISH ENVOYS: Pastor, VI, 62–4.

34. CESARE’S CAREER: Pastor, VI, 61–8. MURDERS: ibid., 75; Burckhardt, 132. WEARING A MASK: Burchard, xxii.

35. ALFONSO HACKED TO DEATH: Mallett 177–8.

36. BALLET OF THE CHESTNUTS: Burchard, 155. mares and stallions: ibid.

37. 100,000 DUCATS FOR DOWRY: Burchard, 157. EIGHTY NEW OFFICES: Hughes, 413–14.

38. CARDINAL SANGIORGIO: Jedin, 97.

39. GHASTLY TALES: Burchard, 186–7; Jedin, 97; LETTER OF FRANCESCO GONZAGA, 22 dec 1503: q. Routh, 95.

40. “NO LAW, NO DIVINITY”: q. O’Malley, 187, n. 2.

4. Julius II

1. CONCLAVE IN CASTEL SANT’ ANGELO: Pastor, VI, 186.

2. ELECTION OF PICCOLOMINI: ibid., 199–201.

3. PIUS III, “STOREHOUSE OF ALL VIRTUES”: q. ibid, “HIGHEST HOPES”: ibid., 200.

4. “IMMODERATE … PROMISES”: Guicciardini, q. Routh, 99.

5. JULIUS, CHARACTER AND CONDUCT: Pastor, VI, 213;G ilbert, 125–7. LITTLE BELL ON TABLE: Gilbert, 124.

6. IN HELMET AND MAIL: Guicciardini, q. Routh, 100–1. “CERTAINLY A SIGHT VERY UNCOMMON”: ibid.

7. “DETERMINED TO VINDICATE”: Pastor, VI, 329–31. “TO HANG A COUNCIL”: ibid, “TO LEAD AN ARMY TO ROME”: ibid.

8. “THE FRENCH IN ROME …”: q. ibid. “Fuori i barbari!”: Aubenas, 156.

9. MATTHÄUS SCHINNER: Pastor, VI, 325; Oechsli, 33, 54.

10. ERASMUS ON JULIUS: Querela Pads of 1517, q. New Cambridge, I, 82; Aubenas, 243.

11. “A MONK DANCING IN SPURS”: q. Pastor, VI, 360. 96 “OUTSIDE OF ALL REASON”: q. Gilbert, 123.

12. CRITIC QUOTED, “BECAUSE THEY GRIEVED”: q. Young, 276.

13. BUILDING ST. PETER’S: Vasari; Ullmann, 317; Mitchell, 52.

14. Il ruinante. Lees-Milne, 142.

15. JULIUS AND MICHELANGELO: Vasari, chap, on Michelangelo, passim.

16. “PUT A SWORD THERE”: Vasari, 266.

17. REDISCOVERY OF LAOCOON: Pastor, VI, 488; Calvesi, 125; Hibbert, Notes, 325; Coughlan, 103; Lees-Milne, 141; Rodocanachi, Jules II, 58–60.

18. CARDINAL WROTE AN ODE TO IT: Rodocanachi, Jules II, 60, n. 2. FRANCIS I TRIED TO CLAIM IT: Hibbert, 222.

19. JOHN COLET’S SERMON: Olin, 31–9.

20. BOLOGNESE JURIST WARNED: Giovanni Gozzadini, q. Jedin, 40.

21. EGIDIO OF VITERBO’S ORATION: Olin, 44–53; Pastor, VI, 407.

22. PRESERVE HIS ASCETIC PALLOR: Burckhardt, 169.

23. DECREES OF THE FIFTH LATERAN: Hughes, 480; New Cambridge, 92.

24. FRENCH “VANISHED LIKE MIST”: q. Pastor, VI, 416.

25. THANKSGIVING PROCESSION: Aubenas, 165.

26. ERASMUS, Julius Exclusus: q. Hale, 226.

27. “VIRTUE WITHOUT POWER”: q. Pastor, VI, 452.

5. Leo X

1. “LET US ENJOY IT”: Pastor, VIII, 76.

2. LEO’S CHARACTER AND CONDUCT: ibid., 71 ff.; Guicciardini and Vettori, q. Routh, 104–05; Chamberlin, 209–48.

3. LEO’S LATERAN PROCESSION: Gregorovius, VIII, 180–8; Lortz, 92.

4. LEO’S EXPENDITURES: Pastor, VII, 341; VIII, 99–100; Hughes, 434.

5. MARBLE FROM PIETRASANTA: Vasari, 271. “IMPOSSIBLE TO DEAL WITH”: deT olnay, 4.

6. WOULD HAVE MADE RAPHAEL A CARDINAL: Vasari, 231.

7. CHIGI’S BANQUET: Gregorovius, VIII, 244; Pastor, VIII, 117.

8. LEO’S HABITS AND APPEARANCE: Pastor, VII, VIII, passim; Calvesi, 149. PAOLO GIOVIO QUOTED: Chamberlin, 218.

9. MICHELANGELO, “A THOUSAND YEARS FROM NOW”: deTolnay, 68.

10. CARDINAL BIBBIENA: Pastor, VIII, 111–12. “GOD BE PRAISED”: Ranke, I, 54; Mitchell, 14.

11. PROCESSION OF THE WHITE ELEPHANT: Pastor, VII, 75.

12. GREEK “IMMORTALS” INVOKED: Mitchell, 88.

13. “HAVING MADE A TREATY …”: q. Chamberlin, 228.

14. CONCORDAT OF BOLOGNA: Hughes, 448–9.

15. PLANNING TO PALM OFF A COPY: Gregorovius, VIII, 210.

16. LEO’S NEPOTISM: Young, 297, and others.

17. ENVOY SEIZED DESPITE A SAFE-CONDUCT: Chamberlin, 231; WAR ON URBINO: AUBENAS, 182;PASTOR, VIII, 92.

18. PETRUCCI CONSPIRACY: Hughes, 431; Mitchell, 109–14; Schaff, 486.

19. CREATED 31 CARDINALS IN A DAY: Young, 299.

20. BAGLIONI BEHEADED: ibid., 300.

21. LEO’S BULLFIGHT: Pastor, VIII, 173.

22. RISING DISSENT: ibid., VIII, 177; Hughes, 491.

23. CORTESE AND PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA: Pastor, VIII, 407.

24. ERASMUS, “AS TO THESE SUPREME PONTIFFS”: Colloquies, 33, 98–9. “PESTILENCE TO CHRISTENDOM”: q. Huizinga, 141.

25. MACHIAVELLI CASTIGATES CHURCH: Discourses, Bk I, chap. XII.

26. “THIS BARBAROUS DOMINATION”: The Prince, chap. XXVI. “REVERENCE FOR THE PAPACY”: Guicciardini, 149.

27. COLET, CHURCH A MACHINE FOR MAKING MONEY: Hale, 232.

28. INDULGENCES FOR FUTURE SINS: Schaff, 766.

29. TETZEL’S SALES: Dickens, 61. “I HAVE HERE …”: q. Chamberlin, 241–2.

30. LEO MORE CONCERNED BY RAPHAEL’S DEATH: Lees-Milne, 147.

31. “HELL-HOUND IN ROME”: q. Dickens, 23.

32. LEO’S DEATH AND DEBTS: HUGHES, 431, 434; Rodocanachi, Adrian VI, 7; Vettori, from his Storia d’Italia, q. Routh, 104–05. LAMPOON: Mitchell, 122.

33. CARDINALS HISSED: Mitchell, 125.

6. Clement VII

1. CARDINAL SCHINNER MISSED ELECTION BY TWO VOTES: Oechsli, 25.

2. ELECTION OF ADRIAN: Pastor, IX, 25–31, 45; “JUST TO WASTE THE MORNING”: ibid., 329. ATTRIBUTED TO THE HOLY GHOST: Guicciardini, 330. HIS CHARACTER: Mitchell, 126; Burckhardt, 169.

3. “UNDER PAIN OF ETERNAL DAMNATION”: q. Pastor, IX, 91.

4. “THOSE STEEPED IN SIN”: q. ibid., 92.

5. “EVERYONE TREMBLES …”: q. ibid., 94–5.

6. ADRIAN’S MEASURES: Ranke, I, 73–4; Pastor, IX, 52, 70–4 ff. “SACRED THINGS … MISUSED”: q. Lortz, 95. “HOW MUCH … DEPENDS”: Ranke, I, 74; Pastor, IX, 125.

7. CLEMENT’S CHARACTER: Guicciardini, q. Chamberlin, 258; Routh, 104. “GIVES AWAY NOTHING”: Marco Foscari, q. Chamberlin, 260. VETTORI, “FROM A GREAT …”: from his Sommario, q. Gilbert, 252.

8. CHARLES V ON POPE’S DOUBLE DEALING: q. Chamberlin, 265.

9. TWO ENGLISH ENVOYS: q. Lopez, 39.

10. COLONNA UPRISING: Guicciardini, 372.

11. “WE ARE ON THE BRINK OF RUIN”: Giberti, q. Chamberlin, 273.

12. SACK OF ROME: Pastor, IX, 370–429; Partner, Renaissance Rome, 31. “A STONE TO COMPASSION”: Pastor, IX, 399, and n. 4.

13. “HELL HAS NOTHING TO COMPARE”: ibid., 400.

14. COMMENTS OF IMPERIAL ARMY COMMISSARY: Mercurino de Gattinara, q. Routh, 106–09. CAJETAN: q. Hughes, 474, n. 4.

15. CLEMENT’S SIEGE OF FLORENCE: Brion, 167, and others.

16. CLEMENT’S DEATH: Guicciardini, q. Chamberlin, 285. CORPSE HACKED: Brion, 167.

17. “UNABLE TO RECOVER ANYTHING OF MY OWN”: q. Chamberlin, 285.

Chapter Four
THE BRITISH LOSE AMERICA

WORKS CONSULTED

Primary Sources

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BURKE, EDMUND. Correspondence. Ed. C. W. Fitzwilliam and R. Bourke. 4 vols. London, 1844.

____. Speeches and Letters on American Affairs. Ed. Canon Peter McKevitt. London, 1961 (orig. 1908).

____. Writings and Speeches. 12 vols. Boston, 1901.

CHESTERFIELD, PHILIP STANHOPE, 4TH EARL. Letters. Ed. Bonamy Dobrée. 6 vols. London, 1932.

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FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN. Autobiography. Ed. John Bigelow. Philadelphia, 1881.

____. Letters and Papers of Benjamin Franklin and Richard Jackson, 1753–85. Ed. Carl Van Doren. Philadelphia, 1947.

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____. Correspondence of, with Lord North. Ed. W. Bodham Donne. 2 vols. London, 1867.

GRAFTON, AUGUSTUS HENRY, 3RD DUKE. Autobiography and Political Correspondence. Ed. Sir William Anson. London, 1898.

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WALPOLE, HORACE. Memoirs of the Reign of George III. Ed. Denis Le Marchant. 4 vols. London, 1845.

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____. Correspondence. Ed. Wilmarth Lewis. 48 vols. New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1937–83.

Secondary Sources

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BAILYN, BERNARD. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ. Press, 1967.

____. The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson. Harvard Univ. Press, 1974.

BARGAR, B. D. Lord Dartmouth and the American Revolution. Columbia, Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1965.

BEER, GEORGE L. British Colonial Policy, 1754–65. Gloucester, Mass., 1958.

BELOFF, MAX. The Age of Absolutism, 1660–1815. London, 1966 (orig. 1954).

____. The Debate on the American Revolution, 1761–1783. London, 1949.

BONWICK, COLIN. English Radicals and the American Revolution. Chapel Hill, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1977.

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BREWER, JOHN. Party Ideology and Popular Politics at the Accession of George III. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976.

BROOKE, JOHN. King George III. New York, 1972.

BROUGHAM, HENRY, LORD. Historical Sketches of Statesmen in the Time of George III. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1839.

BROWN, WELDON A. Empire or Independence; a Study in the Failure of Reconciliation, 1774–1783. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1941.

BUTTERFIELD, SIR HERBERT. George III and the Historians. New York, 1959 (orig. 1936).

CLARK, DORA MAE. British Opinion and the American Revolution. New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1930.

OPEMAN, DR. W.S.C. A Short History of the Gout. Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1964.

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FEILING, KEITH GRAHAME The Second Tory Party, 1714–1332. London, 1938.

FOSTER, CORNELIUS. Charles Townshend and His American Policy. Providence, R.I., 1978.

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GRIFFITH, SAMUEL B, II. In Defense of the Public Liberty: Britain, America and the Struggle for Independence, 1760–81. New York, 1976.

GUTTRIDGE, G. H. English Whiggism and the American Revolution. Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1942.

HARLOW, VINCENT T. The Founding of the Second British Empire, 1763–1793. Vol. 1. London, 1952.

HINKHOUSE, FRED J. The Preliminaries of the American Revolution as Seen in the English Press, 1763–75. New York, Columbia Univ. Press, 1926.

HOFFMAN, ROSS J. S. The Marquis; a Study of Lord Rockingham, 1730–1782. New York, 1973.

HYAMS, EDWARD. Capability Brown. New York, 1971.

JARRETT, DEREK. England in the Age of Hogarth. New York, 1974.

JESSE, JOHN HENEAGE. Memoirs of the Life and Reign of George III. 3 vols. London, 1867.

KNOLLENBERG, BERNHARD. Origin of the American Revolution: 1759–1766. New York, 1960.

____. Growth of the American Revolution: 1766–1775. New York, 1975.

LABAREE, BENJAMIN w. The Boston Tea Party. New York, 1964.

LAVER, JAMES. The Age of Illusion: Manners and Morals, 1750–1848. New York, 1972.

LECKY, WILLIAM E. H. History of England in the 18th Century. Vols. III & IV. London, 1921 & 1923.

MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON, LORD. “William Pitt, Earl of Chatham,” in two parts, Critical and Historical Essays. Vols. II & III. Boston, 1901.

MACKESY, PIERS. The War for America, 1775–1783. Cambridge, Mass., 1964.

MEAD, WILLIAM E. The Grand Tour in the 18th Century. Boston and New York, 1914.

MILLER, JOHN C. Origins of the American Revolution. Stanford Univ. Press, and London, 1959 (orig. 1943). (All citations from Miller refer to this book unless otherwise noted.)

____. The Triumph of Freedom. Boston, 1948.

MINGARY, G. E. English Landed Society in the 18th Century. London, 1963.

MORGAN, EDMUND S. Birth of the Republic, 1763–89. Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1956.

____. The Gentle Puritan: A Life of Ezra Stiles, 1727–95. New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1962.

____. AND MORGAN, HELEN. The Stamp Act Crisis. Chapel Hill, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1953.

MUMBY, FRANK A. George III and the American Revolution. London, 1923.

NAMIER, SIR LEWIS. The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III. 2nd ed. London, 1957.

____. England in the Age of the American Revolution. London, 1961 (orig. 1930).

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____.AND BROOKE, JOHN. charles townshend. london, 1964.

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PARES, RICHARD. King George III and the Politicians. Oxford Univ. Press, 1953.

PLUMB, J. H. England in the 18th Century, 1714–1815. London, 1950.

____. Chatham. Hamden, Conn., 1965.

____. In the Light of History. Boston, 1973.

RITCHESON, CHARLES R. British Politics and the American Revolution. Norman, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1954.

ROBERTSON, SIR CHARLES GRANT. Chatham and the British Empire. London, 1946.

SACHSE, WILLIAM L. The Colonial American in Britain. Madison, Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1956.

SAINSBURY, JOHN. “The Pro-Americans of London, 1769 to 1782.” William and Mary Quarterly. July 1978, 423–54.

SCHLESINGER, ARTHUR, SR. The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1773–76. New York, 1939.

SHERSON, ERROL H. S. The Lively Lady Townshend. New York, 1927.

THOMAS, PETER D. G. British Politics and the Stamp Act Crisis. Oxford Univ. Press, 1975.

TREVELYAN, SIR GEORGE OTTO. The American Revolution. 3 vols. London, 1921–22.

VALENTINE, ALAN. The British Establishment, 1760–1784; An Eighteenth Century Biographical Dictionary. 2 vols. Norman, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1970.

____. Lord George Germain. Oxford, 1962.

____. Lord North. 2 vols. Norman, Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

VAN DOREN, CARL. Benjamin Franklin. New York, 1952 (orig. 1938).

WATSON, j. steven. The Reign of George III. Oxford Univ. Press, 1960.

WICKWIRE, FRANKLIN B. British Subministers and Colonial America, 1763–1783. Princeton Univ. Press, 1966.

WILLIAMS, BASIL. The Life of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. 2 vols. London, 1966 (orig. 1913).

____. The Whig Supremacy. Oxford Univ. Press, 1962 (orig. 1938).

WINSTANLEY, DENYS A. Lord Chatham and the Whig Opposition. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1912.

REFERENCE NOTES

The well-known events and developments of British politics, of colonial affairs leading to the Revolution and of the War of the Revolution itself are not annotated as they can easily be found in the relevant sources listed above. References are reserved for quotations and for the comparatively less well-known facts and incidents. The source for biographical facts and matters of personality, if not otherwise stated, may be understood to be the DNB or Valentine’s Establishment. Statements in Parliament may be found under the given date in the relevant volumes of Hansard’s Parliamentary History: XVI (Jan 1765–Nov 1770), XVII (Feb 1771–Jan 1774), XVIII (Nov 1774–Oct 1776), XIX (Jan 1777–Dec 1778).

1. Who’s In, Who’s Out

1. BURKE, “THE RETENTION OF AMERICA”: q. Allen, 239.

2. “TO FIX UPON US …”: q. Knollenberg, Origin, 91. “IN PROPER SUBJECTION”: ibid., 92, 318, n. 17.

3. “PARLIAMENTARY CABALS”: q. Brooke, 226.

4. “TORRENT OF IMPETUOUS ELOQUENCE”: JOHN ADAMS, Q. BAILYN, ORDEAL, 56.

5. 1732, “PARLIAMENT WOULD FIND IT …”: q. Morgan, Stamp Act, 4.

6. WALPOLE, “NO! IT IS TOO HAZARDOUS …”: q. Jesse, I, 251.

7. PITT, “THE POOREST MAN”: Hansard, XV, 1307.

8. DASHWOOD, KNOWLEDGE OF FIGURES: Rockingham, Memoirs, I, 117. “PEOPLE WILL POINT AT ME …”: q. Walpole, Memoirs, I, 152.

9. GEORGE III, “LORD NORTH CANNOT SERIOUSLY THINK”: q. Pares, 57.

10. GRENVILLE, “THE ABLEST MAN OF BUSINESS”: Walpole, Memoirs, IV, 188.

11. MRS. ARMSTEAD: Valentine, Germain, 471, n. 3.

12. 23 ELDEST SONS OF PEERS: Namier, Structure, 2.

13. GEORGE SELWYN NEVER WENT TO BARBADOS: Laver, 73.

14. SHELBURNE, “THE ONLY PLEASURE”: q. Fitzmaurice, I, 88.

15. WALPOLE, “PASSION FOR THE FRONT RANK”: Memoirs, II, 164.

16. SHELBURNE, “COME DOWN WITH THEIR LOUNGING OPINIONS”: q. in Grafton, I ntroduction by Anson, xxxiv.

17. LADIES ADVERTISED THEIR CARD PARTIES: Sherson, 44.

18. VILLAGE OF STOWE RELOCATED: Hyams, 15. PLANTINGS AT KNOLE: Valentine, Germain, 5.

19. ROME’S GOVERNMENT “THE WORST POSSIBLE”: q. Mead, 317.

20. DARTMOUTH SAT FOR EIGHTEEN PORTRAITS: Bargar, 6.

21. DR. JOHNSON, “BUT TWO MEN”: q. Lecky, III, 385–6.

22. PITT, “COWED FOR LIFE”: q. Fitzmaurice, I, 72.

23. MANSFIELD, “YOU COULD NOT ENTERTAIN ME”: q. Hoffman, 11.

24. WALDEGRAVE ON GEORGE HI: q. Brooke, 222; Namier, Crossroads, 131.

25. GEORGE III ON KING ALFRED: q. Namier, England, 93.

26. “BLACKEST OF HEARTS” AND “SNAKE IN THE GRASS”: q. Watson, 4.

27. ADMIRAL ANSON, “I MUST NOW BEG”: q. Namier, Structure, 34.

28. LORD NORTH’S INSTRUCTIONS IN ELECTION OF 1774: q. Trevelyan, I, 201.

29. YORKSHIRE M.P. “SAT TWELVE HOURS”: q. Namier, Crossroads, 32.

30. RICHARD JACKSON, “I HAVE ACCESS TO”: Letters and Papers of Franklin and Jackson, 138.

31. BOARD OF TRADE ASKED TO ADVISE ON “LEAST BURTHENSOME”: Beer, 275.

32. GRENVILLE, “ALL MEN WISH NOT TO BE TAXED”: q. ibid., 285.

33. WALPOLE ON GRANBY: Memoirs, IV, 179.

34. FOX, “TEN BOTTLES OF WINE”: q. Trevelyan, I, 205.

35. WALPOLE ON EGREMONT: q. Valentine, Establishment, II, 950.

36. “TO THE INFINITE PREJUDICE”: q. Knollenberg, Origin, 105.

37. 6500 TONS OF FLOUR: T. H. White, Age of Scandal (London, 1950), 32.

38. WOLFE ON AMERICAN SOLDIERS: q. Knollenberg, Origin, I, 120, 330, n. 17. AMHERST ON SAME: ibid., 120. GENERAL MURRAY ON SAME: Letters from America, 1775–80 of a Scots Officer, Sir James Murray, During the War of American Independence, ed. Eric Robson. Manchester University Press, 1951.GENERAL CLARKE, “WITH A THOUSAND GRENADIERS”: q. Benjamin Franklin, Writings, IX, 261.

39. DIFFERENT NATURE OF MILITARY SERVICE: This point, drawn from impressive original research, has been made very persuasively by F. W. Anderson in “Why Did Colonial New Englanders Make Bad Soldiers?,” William and Mary Quarterly, XXXVIII, No. 3, July 1981, 395–414.

40. FOOTNOTE ON FRANKLIN’S MOTIVATION: suggested by Knollenberg, Origin, 155.

41. “IN GOD’S NAME”: Morgan, Stamp Act, 54, n. 3.

42. RESISTANCE TO POLICE FORCE AND CENSUS: Jarrett, 34, 36.

43. THE SPEAKER ON THE CENSUS WAS SIR WILLIAM THORNTON IN PARLIAMENT: Hansard, XIV, 1318–22.

2. “Asserting a Right You Know You Cannot Exert”

1. MACAULAY, “AS LONG AS THE GLOBE LASTS”:I II, 647.

2. HUTCHINSON’S TREATISE: Bailyn, Ordeal, 62–3.

3. FRANKLIN, “A DISGUST OF THESE”: q. Van Doren, 333.

4. GRENVILLE’S DISCUSSIONS WITH THE AGENTS AND THEIR OFFERS: Morgan, Stamp Act, 53–70. MASSACHUSETTS ASSEMBLY: ibid., 60. GARTH’S STATEMENT: ibid., 58, n. 15. INGERSOLL ON “DREADFUL APPREHENSIONS”: ibid., 62. WHATELY, “SOME TAXES”: q. Wickwire, 103. GOVERNOR HOPKINS’S PAMPHLET:Morgan, op. cit., 36.

5. NEW YORK ASSEMBLY: ibid., 37.

6. HEARINGS IN PARLIAMENT, JACKSON, GARTH, TOWNSHEND, BARRE, 6–7 FEB 65: Hansard, XVI. INGERSOI. L’S COMMENT: q. Knollenberg, Origin, 224.

7. TRINITY COLLEGE, “HALF BEAR GARDEN”: q. Valentine, Germain, 10.

8. SECOND READING, CONWAY: 15 Feb 65, Hansard, XVI.

9. STAMP TAX ENACTED, COMMENTS ON: WALPOLE, “LITTLE UNDERSTOOD”: Memoirs, II, 49; WHATELY: q. Knollenberg, Origin, 225; SEDGEWICK, ibid.; HUTCHINSON, “WE ARE ALL SLAVES”: q. Bailyn, Ordeal, 71.

10. “AFRAID OF WHAT?”: ibid.; EZRA STILES’ REPORT: q. Morgan, Stiles, 233.

11. HOMESPUN FLAX “FINE ENOUGH”: Mason, George C., Reminiscences of Newport, Newport, 1884, 358.

12. “SEAS ROLL AND MONTHS PASS”: Burke, in Parliament, 22 Mar 75.

13. ADAMS, “A VENAL CITY”: q. Bailyn, Ideological, 136.

14. “SPAWN OF OUR TRANSPORTS”: q. Miller, Origins, 229. “MONGREL BREED”: q. ibid., 203.

15. “VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION”: Miller, 279.

16. BERNARD’S PLAN: Beloff, Debate, 86–8; Morgan, Stamp Act, 14.

17. HALIFAX’ COMMENT: Morgan, Stamp Act, 19.

18. FRANKLIN, “AWE THE WORLD!”: to Lord Karnes, 3 Jan 60, Writings, IV, 4. “1 AM STILL OF THE OPINION”: Autobiography, Part III, 165.

19. SOAME JENYN’S PAMPHLET: q. Beloff, Debate, 27, 77.

20. CHESTERFIELD, “ASSERTING A RIGHT”: letter of 25 Feb 66, Letters, VI, no. 2410. GENERAL GAGE: q. Burke, in Parliament, 19 Apr 74, Hansard, XVIII.

21. PITT, MADNESS IN FAMILY: Fitzmaurice, I, 71. GOUT: cf. Copeman, 95.

22. “I KNOW I CAN SAVE”: q. Macaulay, II, 272. WALPOLE, “WE ARE FORCED TO ASK”: q. DNB onP itt, “CLUNG TO THE WHEELS”: Macaulay, III, 617. “BEING RESPONSIBLE”: q. Williams, Pitt, II, 113. “UNATTACHED TO ANY PARTY”: q. Robertson, 69. “I CANNOT BEAR”: ibid., 2.

23. “SAGE AND AWFUL”: ibid., 16. “TRIED IT ON PAPER”: Fitzmaurice, I, 76, n.

24. NORTHINGTON, “IF I HAD KNOWN”: q. Feiling, 93. barrington, “some fortune”: q. ibid., 71.

25. GERMAIN, “IF YOU UNDERSTAND”: q. Morgan, Stamp Act, 274.

26. BEDFORD, DEBATE IN THE LORDS: q. Thomas, 365.

27. ORGANIZED PRESSURE FOR REPEAL: Clark, 41, 44–5; Miller, 155. FRANKLIN, “UNLESS COMPELLED … THEY WILL NOT FIND A REBELLION”: inP arliament,H ansard, XVI, 137. “AN OVERWHELMING MAJORITY”: Winstanley, 109.

28. WALPOLE, “RISK LIGHTING UP”: written in 1768, Memoirs, II, 218.

29. CAMDEN, “SOME THINGS YOU CANNOT DO”: q. Allen, 242.

30. “FACE OF AN ANGEL”: DNB, CONWAY, REACTIONS TO REPEAL: Hinkhouse, 74–5; Miller, 159–60; Griffith, 45. ADAMS, “QUIET AND SUBMISSIVE”: q. Trevelyan, I, 2.

3. Folly Under Full Sail

1. “WICKED AND DESIGNING MEN”: q. Bailyn, Ideological, 151.

2. TOWNSHEND, “IF WE ONCE LOSE”: q. Miller, 240.

3. “TO DISMISS MY MINISTRY”: q. Knollenberg, Growth, 35.

4. FRANKLIN ON HILLSBOROUGH: q. Van Doren, 383. BURKE, A “DIVERSIFIED MOSAIC”: in Parliament, 19 Apr 74.

5. CONWAY, “SUCH LANGUAGE”: q. Macaulay, III, 672. CHATHAM ON NEW YORK: q. Ayling, Pitt, 364.

6. “CONTINUOUS CABALS”: Franklin, Autobiography, Part I, 532. GRAFTON “COMES ONCE A WEEK”: Walpole, Memoirs, III, 391. GRAFTON KNEW HIMSELF UNFIT: Brooke, 226.

7. TOWNSHEND, BURKE ON: in Parliament, 19 apr 74. WALPOLE ON, “GREATEST MAN”: q. DNB; “STUDIED NOTHING”: Memoirs, II, 275. NEWCASTLE ON: q. Namier, Crossroads, 195. DAVID HUME ON: ibid.

8. WALPOLE, “NOT THE LEAST MAD”: q. Sherson, 16. “DROPS DOWN IN A FIT”: q. Namier, Crossroads, 195. TOWNSHEND, “TO HAVE NO PARTY”: q. ibid., 201.

9. TOWNSHEND INTRODUCES BUDGET: ibid., 210; Miller, 242, 250.

10. PROPOSES CUSTOMS DUTIES: Winstanley, in. CABINET SUBMITS: Grafton, 126–7, 175–9; Walpole, Memoirs, III, 51, n.; Winstanley, 141, 144; Namier and Brooke, passim.

11. GARTH, “THE FRIENDS OF AMERICA”: Knollenberg, Growth, 301, n. 33.

12. “POOR CHARLES TOWNSHEND”: Sir William Meredith, q. Foster, viii.

13. LADY CHATHAM AND GRAFTON ON CHATHAM’S ILLNESS: Ayling, Pitt, 369; Williams, Pitt, II, 242.

14. AT PYNSENT AND HAYES: Walpole, Memoirs, III, 41–2. THE IRASCIBLE OWNER: Bargar, 16. CAMDEN, “THEN HE IS MAD”: ibid.

15. GOUT AND DR. ADDINGTON: Williams, Pitt, II, 242–3.

16. MADNESS, OTIS: Bailyn, Ordeal, 72; ORFORD: Nicolson, 253. SACKVILLE BROTHERS: Fitzmaurice, I, 343; Valentine, Germain, 466–70; Mackesy, jr. DUCHESS OF QUEENSBERRY: Jack Lindsay, 1764, London, 1959. LORD GEORGE GORDON: Feiling, 136.

17. FEAR OF THE PATRIOTS AS “LEVELLERS”: Knollenberg, Growth, 48.

18. GEORGE III ON HILLSBOROUGH: q. Miller, 261.

19. “TO HAVE A STANDING ARMY!”: Andrew Eliot, q. Bailyn, Ideological, 114.

20. NEWCASTLE PROTESTS USE OF FORCE: q. Knollenberg, Growth, 14.

21. WEYMOUTH, “TO THE TOTAL NEGLECT”: Walpole, Memoirs, III, 135–6; See also Macaulay, III, 600.

22. GEORGE III, “IT WAS THE INDISPENSABLE”: q. by Shelburne to Sir Henry Moore, Governor of New York, 9 Aug 66, q. Mumby, 161.

23. “NOT A HOBNAIL OR A HORSESHOE”: q. Ayling, Pitt, 340.

24. GRADUATING CLASS OF HARVARD AND RHODE ISLAND COLLEGE: Alice M. Earle, Colonial Dames and Goodwives, Boston, 1895, 241.

25. FRANKLIN ON “LAWLESS RIOTS”: Autobiography, II, 10.

26. “THE PERSONS WHO WISH”: q. Sainsbury, 433. COUNCILMEN AND ALDERMEN: ibid.

27. WILLIAM BECKFORD, WALPOLE ON: q. Valentine, Establishment, I, 68.

28. LONDON MAGAZINE AND PUBLIC OPINION: Hinkhouse, 20, 147; Bonwick, 64. RALPH IZARD: q. Miller, 449.

29. GRAFTON’S MISTRESS: Jesse, I, 460; Laver, 72–3.

30. “SO ANTI-COMMERCIAL”: q. Miller, 277. “SO PREPOSTEROUS”: ibid.

31. HILLSBOROUGH RESURRECTS STATUTE OF HENRY VIII: Winstanley, 252.

32. BECKFORD, “A STRANGE PIECE OF POLICY”: 14 Mar 69,H ansard, XVI, 605. POWNALL’S SPEECH: 15 Mar 69, ibid., 612–20.

33. HILLSBOROUGH OMITS “SOOTHING … EXPRESSION”: Valentine, North, I, 176.

34. “IF YOU WOULD BE BUT STEADY”: q. Bailyn, Ordeal, 83–4.

35. BOSTON PRESS REPORTS: Earle, op. cit., 243.

36. CHATHAM, “DISCONTENT OF TWO MILLIONS”: in the Lords, 9 Jan 70, Hansard, XVI, 650. CAMDEN HUNG HIS HEAD IN CABINET: ibid., q. Williams, Pitt, II, 264.

37. YORKE’S SUICIDE: Walpole, Memoirs, IV, 51–2; Feiling, III.

38. NORTH, DESCRIBES A CHIEF MINISTER: q. Brooks, 187.

39. HIS RESEMBLANCE TO GEORGE III: Feiling, 102. ONLY ONE MAN MADE HIM ANGRY: Jesse, II, 208; Robertson, 137. GIBBON ON: q. DNB. “A HUNDRED YEARS TOO SOON”: q. Watson, 149. fox, “HE WAS SO FAR FROM LEADING”: q. Valentine, North.

40. WISH TO REPEAL TOWNSHEND DUTIES: q. Knollenberg, Origin, 244. king gives him £10,000: Valentine, North, I, 460.

41. DEBATES, MARCH-MAY 1770: Hansard, XVI; barré, 709–12; pownall, 856–69; sir william meredith, 872–3.

42. MOTION DEFEATED, 204–142: 873; POWNALL RETURNS TO OFFENSIVE: 8 May 70, 980–5.

43. BURKE, GOLDSMITH ON: q. Lecky, III, 385; DR. JOHNSON ON: q. ibid., WALPOLE ON: q. ibid., 394. IN COMMONS: 9 Jan 70, Hansard, XVI, 672–3, 720–25.

44. 8 MAY 70 RESOLUTIONS: 1001–09. “MALIGNITY OF YOUR WILL”: 1005.

45. RICHMOND: PERIODS OF DEPRESSION: letter of 10 Mar 69, q. Olson, 11.

46. “NO, LET ME ENJOY MYSELF”: q. Trevelyan, I, 130. ON MINISTERIAL CONDUCT: Hansard, XVI, 1009–13.

47. HILLSBOROUGH’S REPLY: ibid., 1016–19.

48. “DOWDESWELL WAS DEVILISH SULKY”: letter of 12 Feb 71, q. Olson, 43.

49. “WITH HOUND AND HORN”: q. Trevelyan, I, 131.

50. COLONIES DISAVOW INDEPENDENCE: Schlesinger, 228.

4. “Remember Rehoboam!”

1. GASPÉEINCIDENT: Wickwire, 142; Miller, 326–9; Morgan, Birth, 54–5.

2. “TEN THOUSAND DEATHS”: q. Morgan, Stiles, 261.

3. THURLOW: Feiling, 81; FOX ON: q. Brougham, I, 116; WEDDERBURN, “EVEN TREACHERY”: attributed to Junius, q. Williams, Pitt, II, 277.

4. DARTMOUTH: Bargar, passim.

5. “WOMEN ARE SUCH SLAVES TO IT”: q. Miller, 343.

6. BARRE, AMERICANS WERE NEGROES: Jesse, II, 400.

7. QUINCY, “IN ALL COMPANIES”: q. Bonwick, 78.

8. HILLSBOROUGH, “INHERENT PRE-EMINENCE”: q. Miller, 206.

9. ROCKINGHAM, “CHILDREN [WHO] OUGHT TO BE DUTIFUL”: q. Valentine, North, I, 170.

10. CHATHAM, “IF THIS HAPPENS”: q. Williams, Pitt, II, 297.

11. CHATHAM, “IF LIBERTY BE NOT COUNTENANCED”: speech of 27 Jan 66, q. Williams, Pitt, II, 198. “A POOR DESERTED DEPLORABLE KINGDOM”: q. Miller, 207. LETTERS TO THE PRESS: Hinkhouse, 106–10.

12. AMERICAN COMMENTS ON TEA DUTY: q. Miller, 342–3.

13. FRANKLIN IN THE COCKPIT: Trevelyan, I, 162. WEARS SAME VELVET SUIT: from Memoirs of William Temple Franklin, q. in Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. William Willcox, New Haven, Yale Univ. Press, 1978. Vol. 21, 41, n. 9.

14. BOSTON PORT BILL DEBATE: Hansard, XVII, 1199–1201, 1210, 1281, 1282–6. JOHNSTONE’S WARNING: q. Gipson, XII, 114.

15. ROARS OF “POPERY”: q. Miller, 375–6; Hinkhouse, 172.

16. JOHNSTONE, “A GREAT DISPOSITION”: debate of 22 Apr 74, Hansard, XVII, 1281.

17. DUNNING, “WAR, SEVERE REVENGE”: q. Labarée, 199. HOWE’S OPINION: q. Trevelyan, I, 262. BURGOYNE, “TO SEE AMERICA CONVINCED”: debate on repeal of the Tea Act, 19 Apr 74, Hansard, XVII, 1271.

18. HENRY LAURENS PROPHESIED: q. Sachse, 180.

19. BURKE’S SPEECH OF 19 APR 74: Hansard, XVII.

20. FRANKLIN, “BY PERSISTING IN A WRONG”: q. Van Doren, 335.

21. “TO SPRINKLE AMERICAN ALTARS”: q. Page Smith, A New Age Now Begins, 1976, I, 391. PUTNAM DROVE 130 SHEEP: W. F. Livingston, Israel Putnam, New York, 1901, 78.

22. JEFFERSON, “DELIBERATE AND SYSTEMATICAL PLAN”: q. Bailyn, Ideological, 120; WASHINGTON ON SAME: ibid.; TOM PAINE ON SAME: Letter to Abbé Raynal on the Affairs of North America.

23. BURKE, “WHAT ENFORCING AND WHAT REPEALING”: Speech of 19 Apr 74, Hansard, XVII.

24. ADAMS, “A HOBGOBLIN”: q. Alfred O. Aldridge, Man of Reason: The Life of Thomas Paine, Philadelphia, 1959, 34.

25. JEFFERSON, “UNION ON A GENEROUS PLAN”: q. Beloff, Debate, 176. GALLOWAY’S PLAN: ibid., 203. FRANKLIN, “EXTREME CORRUPTION”: q. Bailyn, Ideological, 136.

26. GEORGE III, “BLOWS MUST DECIDE”: to North, 18 Nov 75, Correspondence, no. 1556.

27. BARRINGTON’S DISSENT: Trevelyan, I, 113; Barrington, 141, 144–5.

28. TWO AMERICANS AS SHERIFFS OF LONDON: Plumb, Light, 83.

29. DR. JOHNSON, “A RACE OF CONVICTS”: Boswell’s Life, Everyman ed., I, 526.

30. CHATHAM’S MOTION OF 20 JAN 75: Ayling, Pitt, 414. “SLEEPING AND CONFOUNDED MINISTRY”: q. Williams, Pitt, II, 304. “OPPOSITION STARED AND SHRUGGED: Walpole to Conway, 22 Jan 75, Correspondence, IV, 91.

31. CHATHAM’S BILL FOR REPEAL: 1 Feb 75. GOWER’S RESPONSE: Hansard, XVIII, 208.

32. THE “DELUDED PEOPLE”: the phrase was the King’s to Lord North, 18 Aug 75, III, 247. AMHERST DECLINES THE COMMAND: Trevelyan, I, 260.

33. NORTH’S PLAN ELICITS “UNCERTAINTY, SURPRISE”: q. Miller, 406.

34. BURKE, “ABSOLUTE NECESSITY”: 22 Mar 75, known as the Conciliation Speech, Hansard, XVIII.

35. WALPOLE TO MANN, “VICTORY WILL RUIN US”: 7 May 75, Correspondence, XXIV, 98.

36. COLONEL GRANT, AMERICANS “WOULD NOT FIGHT”: Hansard, XVIII, 226; SANDWICH ON SAME: q. Griffith, 154. gower, “LANGUAGE OF THE RABBLE”: Hansard, XVIII, 166.

37. BURGOYNE, “WE TOOK A STEP”: q. Trevelyan, George M., History of England, New York, 1953, III, 73.

38. “THE HORRID TRAGEDY”: Sayre to Chatham, 20 May 75, q. Ritcheson, 191.

39. WESLEY’S LETTER TO DARTMOUTH: full text, Luke Tyerman, Wesley, 1872, III, 197–200. There is dispute as to whether the letter was addressed to Dartmouth or North; Tyerman does not specify. Caleb T. Winchester, in Life of John Wesley (New York, 1906) says that the addressee was North. DNB on Dartmouth claims it was Dartmouth, as does Valentine, North, I, 349.

5. “… A Disease, a Delirium”

1. HARVEY, “AS WILD AN IDEA”: George III, Correspondence, III, xiii.

2. NORTH, “THE ARDOR OF THE NATION”: q. Brooke, 180.

3. TO PROSECUTE “WITH VIGOR”: George III to Lord North, 18 Aug 75, Correspondence, III, 247–8.

4. GERMAIN, “BRINGING THE REBELS TO THEIR KNEES”: q. Valentine, North, I, 390.

5. “I ALWAYS TOLD YOU”: Fitzmaurice, I, 345. ANCESTOR “LIVED IN THE GREATEST SPLENDOUR”: DNB.

6. COLONIES MUST ACKNOWLEDGE “SUPREME AUTHORITY”: q. Valentine, North, I, 409.

7. DR. PRIESTLEY, “ANYTHING LIKE REASON”: q. ibid., 406.

8. REFUSALS TO SERVE, KEPPEL, EFFINGHAM, AND CHATHAM’S SON: Trevelyan, III, 202, 206–7; CONWAY “COULD NEVER DRAW HIS SWORD”: Hansard, XVIII, 998.

9. CAVENDISH, “BURIED IN ONE GRAVE”: q. Miller, 452. RICHMOND, “PERFECTLY JUSTIFIABLE”: q. DNB. PUBLIC SUBSCRIPTION FOR AMERICANS “MURDERED”: Hinkhouse, 193; Feiling, 134.

10. WALPOLE, “COUNTRY WILL BE DESERTED”: to Countess of Ossory, 15 Oct 76, Correspondence, IX, 428. “OH THE FOLLY”: to Conway, 31 Oct 76, ibid., 429.

11. BOSWELL, “ILL-DIGESTED AND VIOLENT”: letters of 18 Mar 75 and 12 Aug 75, Letters, ed. Chauncey Tinker, 2 vols., Oxford, 1924, I, 213, 239. DR. JOHNSON, “EXCEPT AN AMERICAN”: Boswell, Life, II, 209. CARMARTHEN, “FOR WHAT PURPOSE”: debate of 15 Apr 74, Hansard, XVII, 1208.

12. CHATHAM PREDICTED FRENCH ENTRY: q. Donne, editor’s preface to Correspondence of George III with Lord North, II, 9.

13. RICHMOND, “I FEEL VERY LANGUID”: 11 Dec 75, q. olson, 169. TO BURKE ON A FRENCH PEERAGE: Burke, Correspondence, II, 118, 120.

14. FOX, “ON THE ROCKINGHAM WHIGS”: q. ibid., II, 182. BURKE, “PLENTIFUL FORTUNES”: ibid.

15. WASHINGTON, “NOW THE WHOLE FORCE OF NEW ENGLAND”: to General Putnam, Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, USGPO, 1931–1944, IX, 115.

16. CHATHAM SPEECH OF 20 NOV 77: Hansard, XIX, 360–75.

17. FOX, “ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE”: ibid., 431–2.

18. CHATHAM SPEECH OF 11 DEC 77: q. Donne in CORRESPONDENCE OF GEORGE III WITH LORD NORTH, II, 114.

19. “YOU HAVE NO IDEA,” LETTER TO SELWYN: q. Valentine, Germain, 265. “UNIVERSAL DEJECTION”: ibid, GIBBON, “IF IT HAD NOT BEEN FOR SHAME”: Walpole, Last Journals, II, 76.

20. GERMAIN, “WILFUL BLINDNESS”: q. Valentine, Germain, 275.

21. GEORGE III, “I KNOW THAT I AM DOING MY DUTY”: 26 July 75, Correspondence, III, no. 1683.

22. PRAYED HEAVEN “TO GUIDE ME”: ibid., no. 3923.

23. GERMAIN’S CARRIAGE HORSES: Fitzmaurice, I, 358; Valentine, Germain, 284.

24. PEACE COMMISSION PROPOSALS: Hansard, XVIII, 443. “FULL MELANCHOLY SILENCE,” AND “IGNOMINIOUS”: Walpole, Last Journals, II, 200. Dr. Johnson, “Such a Bundle of Imbecility”: q. Robertson, 174. IGNOMINIOUS DAY: Walpole to Mann, 18 Feb 78.

25. ROCKINGHAM AND RICHMOND, “INSTANTLY AND PUBLICLY”: Olson, 172–3.

26. CHATHAM’S LAST SPEECH: Hansard, XIX, 7 Apr 78. HIS DEATH: Plumb, Chatham, 156; Robin Reilly, William Pitt the Younger, New York, 1979, 52; Dr. Addington: Williams, Pitt, II, 242–3.

27. PREDICTIONS OF RUIN: SHELBURNE: q. Miller, 453; RICHMOND TO ROCKINGHAM: 15 Mar 78, q. Olson, 172–3. Walpole, “MISERABLE LITTLE ISLAND”: q. Miller, 396.

28. BURKE, TO ROCKINGHAM: 25 Aug 75, q. ibid., 453.

29. FOX, “IN A MANNER CONSISTENT”: q. Derry, 87. Walpole, “Too Inert”; Correspondence, to Mann, 30 June 79. Fox, “DESPISED EVERYWHERE”: q. Derry, 75.

30. CARLISLE PEACE COMMISSION: q. Brown, 266.

31. HIS LITTLE DAUGHTER CAROLINE: q. Brown, 266; “OUR OFFERS OF PEACE”: ibid., 263; PUBLIC PROCLAMATION OF 3 OCT 78: Stevens, Facsimiles, XI, no. 1171–2;

32. CARLISLE’S FIRST DRAFT: 29 Sept 78, ibid.,V, no. 529; CONGRESS RECOMMENDS PROCLAMATION PUBLISHED: ibid., XII, 1200–01.

33. EDEN, “THIS NOBLE COUNTRY”: Miller, Triumph, 5.TO WEDDERBURN, “IT IS IMPOSSIBLE”: ibid.

34. YORKSHIRE PETITION: Feiling, 135–6. DUNNING RESOLUTION: Trevelyan, I, 216.

35. CONWAY’S MOTION: Jesse, III, 357; Feiling, 141; all sources.

36. GEORGE III, PROPOSED ABDICATION: Namier, Crossroads, 125.

37. ONLY NEGOTIATOR RICHARD OSWALD: Allen, 254 (here erroneously named James).

38. GEORGE HI, “DISMEMBERMENT OF AMERICA”: to Shelburne, 10 Nov 82, Correspondence, VI, no. 3978.

39. ADAMS, “PRIDE AND VANITY”: letter written from Holland in 1782, q. Allen, 255; see also Miller, Triumph, 632.

40. ROCKINGHAM, “TACIT COMPACT”: q. Guttridge, 73–4.

41. IF HAMLET AND OTHELLO HAD BEEN REVERSED: J. G. Adams, q. by William Willcox, Portrait of a General (Sir Henry Clinton), New York, 1964, xi.

Chapter Five
AMERICA BETRAYS HERSELF IN VIETNAM

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WICKER, TOM. JFK and LBJ. New York, 1968.

WILCOX, FRANCIS O. Congress, the Executive, and Foreign Policy. New York, 1971.

PERSONS CONSULTED

GEORGE W. BALL

LESLIE GELB

HARRISON SALISBURY

MC GEORGE BUNDY

DAVID HALBERSTAM

BILL MOYERS

WILLIAM P. BUNDY

MORTON HALPERIN

DAVID SCHOENBRUN

MICHAEL FORRESTAL

CARL KAYSEN

JAMES thomson

J. K. GALBRAITH

ROBERT S. MC NAMARA

 

REFERENCE NOTES

Abbreviations

ARVN Army of the Republic of Vietnam (South)

CCS Combined Chiefs of Staff (Allied in World War II)

CINCPAC Commander in Chief, Pacific

DRV Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North)

FRC (Senate) Foreign Relations Committee

FRUS Foreign Relations of the United States (annual series)

JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff

MAAG Military Assistance Advisory Group

MACV Military Assistance Command Vietnam

NSC National Security Council

PP Pentagon Papers (all references are to the Gravel edition, except where otherwise noted)

SEA Southeast Asia

1. In Embryo

1. ROOSEVELT, “SHOULD NOT GO BACK TO FRANCE”: Hull, II, 1597.

2. THE PRESIDENT “HAS BEEN MORE OUTSPOKEN”: q. Thome, 468.

3. AT CAIRO, “NOT TO GO BACK!”: Stilwell Papers, q. B. W. Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, New York, 1971, 405. trusteeship “for 25 years” and “1 asked chiang kai-shek”: ibid., 410.

4. GEORGES BIDAULT, “WHOLE-HEARTED COOPERATION”: q. La Feber, 1292.

5. FAR EAST DESK URGED INDEPENDENCE: J. C. Vincent Mem. 2 Nov 43, FRUS, 1943, China, 866. See also Fifield, 69 n.

6. “VOLUNTARY” CONSENT OF FORMER COLONIAL POWER: Drachman, 51.

7. ROOSEVELT DID NOT WANT TO GET “MIXED UP”: Mem. for Secretary of State, 1 Jan 45, FRUS, 1945, VI, 293. REVERSED HIMSELF: FRUS, 1944, British Commonwealth and Europe, FDR to Hull, 16 Oct 44. See also Drachman, 80.

8. ROOSEVELT ON “INDEPENDENCE”: to Charles Taussig, Halberstam, 81; Thorne, 630.

9. STETTIN LUS ON FRENCH SOVEREIGNTY: repeated by Grew, FRUS, 1945, VI, 307, 8 May 45. De Gaulle, “IF YOU ARE AGAINST US”: Caffery to Sec. of State, FRUS, 1945, VI, 300.

10. GREW, “ENTIRELY INNOCENT”: Grew to Caffery, FRUS, 1945, VI, 307. See also Grew to Hurley, 2 June 1945, ibid., 312.

11. FRENCH SURVEY OF 1910: Buttinger, I, 450, n. 53.

12. “MORE ILLITERATE THAN THEIR FATHERS”: Jules Harmard, Domination et colonisation, Paris, 1910, 264, q. Buttinger, Smaller Dragon, 425.

13. “REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CONQUERED RACE”: q. Manning, Stage, 109, from Milton Osborne, French Presence in Cochin China and Cambodia, 1859–1905, Ithaca, 1969, 119.

14. OSS AND HO CHI MINH: Smith, 332–4. AMERICA “OPPOSED COLONIALISM”: ibid, OSS DISTRICT CHIEF: Col. Paul Halliwell, q. Shaplen, 33.

15. DECISIONS AT POTSDAM: Leahy, 286, 338, 413; also, CCS to St. Didier, 19 July 45, Vigneras, 398.

16. ACCORDING TO ADMIRAL KING: Thorne, 631.

17. TRUMAN, “NO OPPOSITION” TO RETURN OF THE FRENCH: De Gaulle, III, 910. DE GAULLE TO PRESS CONFERENCE: q. Drachman, 90.

18. BRAZZAVILLE DECLARATION: q. Marshall, 107; see also Smith, 324.

19. “WE WILL KEEP ON FIGHTING”: q. Shaplen, 30.

20. MESSAGE IN NAME OF BAO DAI: q. Hammer, 102.

21. “FACILITATE RECOVERY … BY THE FRENCH”: q. Cooper, 39.

22. FRENCH RETURN ON AMERICAN SHIPS: Dunn; also Hammer, 113; Isaacs, 151–7; “TO EMPLOY AMERICAN FLAG VESSELS”: PP(HR), Bk I, Part I, A, p. A-24, q. Patti, 380.

23. BRITISH USED JAPANESE UNITS: Isaacs, 151;FOOTNOTE QUOTING MOUNT-BATTEN: q. Dunn from one of the following: Lord Mountbatten’s Report to Combined Chiefs of Staff, 1945–45 (London, HMSO, 1951), Post Surrender Tasks, Section E of the above (London, HMSO, 1969);GREAT BRITAIN: Documents Relating to British Involvement in the Indo-China Conflict, 1945–65, Command 2834 (London, HMSO, 1965).

24. GENERAL GRACY’S REMARKS: q. Buttinger, I, 327.

25. WEARING AMERICAN UNIFORMS: Cooper, 41; Isaacs, 161; Smith, 344.

26. “STABLE, STRONG AND FRIENDLY”: PP (Senate), 13. OSS TO OBSERVE “PUNITIVE MISSIONS”: q. Smith, 347.

27. EIGHT APPEALS BY HO TO U.S. UNANSWERED: FRUS, 1946, VIII, 27; also PP, I, 17.

28. ARTHUR HALE REPORT: Gallagher Papers, PP (Senate), Appendix I, 31–6.

29. Christian Science Monitor; by Gordon Walker, 2 Mar 46. state dept., “SERIOUSLY DETERIORATING”: 28 Nov 45, FRUS, 1945, VI, 1388, n. 37.

30. CHARLES YOST REPORT: 13 Dec 45, ibid.; see also Fifield, 69–70.

31. MARSHALL, “DANGEROUSLY OUTMODED”: drafted by the French Desk for Embassy in Paris, PP, I, 31–2. ACHESON TO MOFFAT: ibid., 20.

32. MOFFAT, “FIFTY YEARS FROM NOW”: PP (Senate), 13.

33. AMERICAN CONSUL IN SAIGON, “NO SETTLEMENT”: Charles S. Reed to Sec. of State, 22 Dec 46, FRUS, 1946, VIII, 78–9. LECLERC, “IT WOULD TAKE 500,000”: q. Halberstam, 84, from Paul Mus orally.

34. TRUMAN AND ACHESON ASSURED THE PUBLIC: FRUS, 1945, VI, 313; Thome, 632.

35. FRENCH DESK DIRECTIVE ON INDOCHINA: Feb 1947, PP, I, 31.

2. Self-Hypnosis

1. NSC SEA IS “TARGET”: June, 49, PP, I, 82. “KEY AREA”: ibid., 83.

2. BAO DAI TO PHAN QUANG DAN: PP, I, 71–2. Dan, “WITHOUT IDEOLOGY”: ibid.

3. ROBERT BLUM, “GIVES LITTLE PROMISE”: Shaplen, 87; PP, I, 73.

4. “VITAL TO THE … FREE WORLD”: 24 May 51, q. Gelb, 44.

5. TRUMAN, “MONSTROUS CONSPIRACY”: radio report to the American people, 11 Apr 51, PP, I, 588.

6. NSC “ANTICIPATED” SEIZURE: 27 Feb 50, PP, I, 83. STATE DEPT., NO TRACES OF KREMLIN: ibid., 34.

7. TRUMAN, SPECIAL MESSAGE TO CONGRESS: 24 May 51, PP, I, 589. ACHESON, “REMOVE ANY ILLUSIONS”: q. Gelb, 42.

8. RUSK, “NEW COLONIALISM”: q. Cohen, 75. “TOOL OF THE POLITBURO”: testimony to Senate FRC, 8 June 1950, q. Cohen, 50.

9. NYT EDITORIAL, “IT SHOULD NOW BE CLEAR”: 11 June 52. NSC SEES JAPAN SUCCUMBING: PP, I, 84.

10. OHLY MEMORANDUM: Acheson, 674.

11. U.S. NAVAL AND AIR ACTION IN EVENT OF CHINESE ENTRY: NSC 124, PP, I, 88.

12. WALTER ROBERTSON, “NO REGIME AS MALEVOLENT”: q. Hoopes, 147.

13. KNOWLAND, “SOVIET CONQUEST”: ibid., 203.

14. JOHNSON, “GREAT BEAST”: q. Ball, 404. DULLES, “PASSION TO CONTROL EVENTS”: Hoopes, 140.

15. DULLES, “PACIFIC FRONT … WIDE OPEN”: in Senate, 21 Sept 49, q. Hoopes, 78.

16. “PART OF A SINGLE PATTERN”: ibid., 115.

17. DULLES, “THESE TWO GENTLEMEN”: ibid., 78.

18. AUTHOR OF REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM: Halle, 270. Text in National Party Platforms, compiled D. B. Johnson, I, 496–505, Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1978.

19. DULLES TRIES TO GET KREMLIN PROMISE: Hoopes, 172.

20. GENERAL STAFF, “RE-EVALUATION” IN RELATION TO COST: PP, I, 89.

21. BARRINGTON: q. Barrington, 142–3.

22. ADMIRAL DAVIS, “SHOULD BE AVOIDED”: PP, I, 89.

23. PENTAGON CHIEFS’ ADVICE, CHINA THE ENEMY: q. Cohen, 174.

24. EISENHOWER’S THREE CONDITIONS: PP, I, 94; Mandate, 345.

25. “WILL PROBABLY DETERIORATE”: 4 June 53, PP, I, 391–2.

26. “THE FRENCH BLACKMAILED US”: Acheson interview with Professor Gaddis Smith, NYT Book Review, 12 Oct 69.

27. “THE FREEDOM WE CHERISH”: q. Halle, 286–7.

28. TRAPNELL REPORT: PP, I, 487–9.

29. “A LACK OF ENTHUSIASM”: 3 Feb 54, q. Gelb, 52.

30. “POPULATION SUPPORTED THE ENEMY”: Eisenhower, Mandate, 372–3.

31. U.S. PAYING 80 PERCENT: Hammer, 313, n. 20a.

32. JUSTICE DOUGLAS: North from Malaya, 10, 208.

33. MANSFIELD REPORT: U.S. Congress, Senate FRC, 83rd Congress, 1st Session: see under U.S. Congress, Senate.

34. DULLES’ FEAR OF MC CARTHY: Hoopes, 160.

35. NEW LOOK STRATEGY OF CABINET: Eisenhower, Mandate, 451; Hoopes, chap. 13. HUMPHREY COMMENT: q. ibid., 196.

36. DULLES, “PHONY PEACE CAMPAIGN”: Hoopes, 173.

37. RADFORD POLICY PAPER FOR GENEVA: PP, I, 448–51.

38. DULLES LEFT THE IMPRESSION: Hoopes, 212. Nixon, “if to avoid”: 16 Apr 54, q. Eisenhower, Mandate, 353, n. 4.

39. EISENHOWER, “OUR MAIN TASK”: Mandate, 168.

40. CHINESE SUPPLY 4000 TONS A MONTH: Cooper, 59.

41. ELY MISSION AND OPERATION VULTURE: Roberts, in Raskin and Fall, 57–66; PP, I, 97–106. PROPOSED USE OF ATOMIC BOMBS: FRUS, 1952–54, XIII, 1271. FOOTNOTE, PROVOKING CHINESE RESPONSE: Chalmers Roberts in Washington Post, 24 Oct 71, q. Gelb, 57. MACARTHUR COMMENT:FRUS, op. cit., to Sec. of State 7 Apr 54, 1270–2.

42. DULLES MEETING WITH CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS: Roberts, op. cit.; Hoopes, 210–11.

43. FRENCH CABINET ASKS INTERVENTION: PP, I, 100–04; Roberts; Hoopes, 207–08. EISENHOWER, “NO INVOLVEMENT”: 10 Mar 54, q. Gurtov, 78.

44. GAVIN REPORT: Ridgway, Soldier, 276; also Gavin in Senate FRC Hearings in 1966.

45. EISENHOWER REJECTS UNILATERAL INTERVENTION: Mandate, 373; PP, I, 129.

46. SPECIAL COMMITTEE’S REPORT: 5 Apr 54, PP, I, 472–6.

47. DULLES ON FALL OF DIEN BIEN PHU: 11 May 54, PP, I, 106; also NYT, 24 June 54.

48. MENDES-FRANCE, “DOES MUCH LESS”: q. Hoopes from Le Monde, 12 Feb 54. CEASE-FIRE IN THIRTY DAYS: Ambassador Dillon to Sec. of State, 6 July 54, PP (HR), Bk IX, 612. CONSCRIPTION: ibid.

49. DULLES, “DELIBERATE THREAT”: 11 June 54, q. Hoopes, 230.

50. CHOU EN-LAI’S ADVICE: as told by Chou to Harrison Salisbury, Salisbury to author, 17 Feb 83.

3. Creating the Client

1. FRENCH CASUALTIES: Eisenhower, Mandate, 337.

2. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, “A WAR TO STAY OUT OF”: 5 May 54, and other editorials, May 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 19, 22, 1954. FITZPATRICK CARTOON: ibid., wanted, 8 June 54.

3. REISCHAUER, “AN EXTREMELY INEFFECTIVE”: 178–9; 251–7.

4. DULLES, “SO UNITED, SO STRONG”: q. Hoopes, 242.

5. ADMIRAL DAVIS, “NO BETTER PREPARED”: PP, I, 212.

6. DIEM’S CAREER: Mansfield report to Senate FRC, 15 Oct 54, 83rd Congress, 2nd Session; see also Scheer.

7. JUSTICE DOUGLAS INTRODUCES DIEM: Scheer and Hinckle, “The Viet-Nam Lobby,” in Raskin and Fall, 69.

8. AMERICANS “DIFFERENT” FROM THE FRENCH: William Bundy to author, 18 Feb 81.

9. JOINT CHIEFS, “ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL”: PP, I, 215.

10. JOINT CHIEFS, “NO ASSURANCE”: PP, I, 218.

11. “CHRIST HAS MOVED SOUTH”: q. Cooper, 130.

12. “VIETNAM PROBABLY WOULD HAVE TO BE WRITTEN OFF”: report of the Lansdale Mission, PP, I, 577.

13. FAURE, “NOT ONLY INCAPABLE BUT MAD”: PP, I, 241.

14. MANSFIELD REPORT: U.S. Congress, Senate FRC, 83rd Congress, 2nd Session.

15. EISENHOWER LETTER TO DIEM: PP, I, 253.

16. COLLINS’ REPORT: PP, I, 226. RE-AFFIRMED: Collins, 408.

17. LANSDALE MISSION: PP, I, 573–83.

18. FRENCH “DISPOSED TO EXPLORE”: PP, I, 221. SAINTENY, “ONLY POSSIBLE MEANS”: ibid., 222.

19. NYT, “PROVEN INEPT”: C. L. Sulzberger, 18 Apr 55.

20. DULLES, CHANCES “ONE IN TEN”: Collins, 379.

21. EISENHOWER, “LOTS OF DIFFICULTIES”: q. Cooper, 142.

22. 278 HEATH, “OVER $300 MILLION”: PP, I, 227.

23. SPELLMAN, “ALAS!”: NYT, 31 Aug 54.

24. DIEM DENIAL OF ELECTIONS: PP, I, 245.

25. “OUTRAGEOUS” METHODS: Buttinger, II, 890.

26. “OVERWHELMING MAJORITY”: Leo Cherne in Look, 25 Jan 56; see also Cooper, 132.

27. KENNEDY ON HO’S “POPULARITY”: in Senate, 6 Apr 54, q. Scheer, 15.

28. EISENHOWER “REFUSED TO AGREE”: Ridgway, Foreign Affairs, 585; see also Eisenhower, Mandate, 372. state dept., “we support”: PP, I, 246.

29. PHAM VAN DONG, “WE SHALL ACHIEVE UNITY”: PP, I, 250.

30. A STUDY BY AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENTISTS: one of a series conducted in Vietnam from 1955 to 1962 by Michigan State University under the direction of Professor Wesley Fishel, q. Scheer, 53.

31. GIAP, “WE EXECUTED”: PP, I, 246.

32. AMERICAN EMBASSY, “SITUATION MAY BE SUMMED UP”: PP, I, 258.

33. MANIFESTO OF THE EIGHTEEN AND ARRESTS: Cooper, 159; text of Manifesto in Raskin and Fall, 116–21. “INCAPABLE OF SAVING THE COUNTRY”: ibid., 483; WASHINGTON’S CONGRATULATIONS: ibid.

34. NLF TEN-POINT PROGRAM: text in Raskin and Fall, 216–21.

4. “Married to Failure”

1. “IT WAS SIMPLY A GIVEN”: James Thomson, NYT Books, 4 Oct 70.

2. KENNEDY, “CORNERSTONE … KEYSTONE”: speech on “America’s Stake in Vietnam” to American Friends of Vietnam, June 1956, q. Lewy, 12.

3. MC NAMARA, “WE HAVE THE POWER TO KNOCK”: reportedly said at a Pentagon briefing, Robert D. Heinl, Dictionary of Military and Naval Quotations, Annapolis, 1966, 215.

4. BUNDY, READY TO BE DEAN AT AGE TWELVE: q. Halberstam, 52.

5. THURMOND ON MC CONE: Halberstam, 153.

6. GALBRAITH, “THE DISASTROUS AND THE UNPALATABLE”: Galbraith, 477.

7. “THIS IS THE WORST WE HAVE HAD YET”: Schlesinger, 320; PP, II, 6, 27.

8. LANSDALE PROGRAM: PP, II, 440–1.

9. KENNEDY, “WHITE MAN’S WAR”: Schlesinger, 505, 547.

10. “WELL, MR. SCHOENBRUN”: Schoenbrun to author.

11. LIMITED WAR, “ADVANTAGES OF TERMINATING”: q. Kaplan, 330. KAUFMAN QUOTED: ibid., 199.

12. KENNEDY READ MAO AND CHE GUEVARA: Schlesinger, 341.

13. ROSTOW’S SPEECH AT FORT BRAGG: Raskin and Fall, 108–16.

14. LANSDALE, “A STRONGER APPEAL”: q. Schlesinger, 986.

15. BURKE, “PERSEVERANCE IN ABSURDITY”: speech in Commons of 19 April 1774, Hansard XVIII.

16. PENTAGON DISCUSSIONS ON “SIZE AND COMPOSITION”: Action Memorandum, 11 May 61, PP, II, 642.

17. EISENHOWER BRIEFING: Gelb and Betts, 29.

18. 7TH FLEET TO SOUTH CHINA SEA, AND OTHER MOVEMENTS: Ball, 363.

19. LEMNITZER SUGGESTS NUCLEAR ARMS: Galbraith, 467. KENNEDY SHOCKED: ibid.

20. JOHNSON, “THE WINSTON CHURCHILL”: q. Schlesinger, 541. HIS REPORT: text in PP, II, 55–9; see also Ball, 385.

21. KENNEDY TO RESTON: q. Gelb and Betts, 70. “WE CANNOT AND WILL NOT”: 25 July 61, q. Sorensen, 583 ff. READY TO RISK NUCLEAR WAR: ibid.

22. NITZE, “VALUE TO THE WEST”: Thompson and Frizzell, 6.

23. THEODORE WHITE, “SITUATION GETS WORSE”: q. Schlesinger, 544.

24. MCGARR’S ESTIMATE: Taylor, 220–1.

25. ROSTOW AS DR. PANGLOSS: Macpherson, 258. “BIGGEST COLD WARRIOR”: q. Halberstam, 161.

26. TAYLOR-ROSTOW REPORT: PP, II, 14–15,90–98; Taylor, 227–44.

27. “EXTERNAL AGGRESSION”: q. Cohen, 184.

28. STATE DEPT. ANNEXES: PP, II, 95–7.

29. RUSK, “A LOSING HORSE”: PP, II, 105.

30. “REGIME NOT VIABLE”: in camera testimony to Senate FRC, 28 Feb 61, q. Cohen, iii.

31. MCNAMARA-JCS RESPONSE: PP, II, 108–09. MCNAMARA-RUSK SECOND MEMORANDUM: PP, II, 110–16.

32. KENNEDY TO DIEM: ibid., 805–06.

33. DIEM “SEEMED TO WONDER”: Acting Defense Minister Thuan Nguyen Dinh to Ambassador Nolting, ibid., 121.

34. CASUALTY FIGURES: PP (NYT), 110.

35. REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE: NYT, 14 Feb 62. Kennedy, “WE HAVE NOT SENT COMBAT TROOPS”: PP, II, 808.

36. ME NAMARA, “EVERY QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT”: q. Schlesinger, 549.

37. GALBRAITH’S REPORT: Galbraith, 471–3; PP, II, 122–4. LETTERS OF NOVEMBER, 1961 AND MARCH 1962: Galbraith, 477–9; also PP, II, 670–1. “MARRIED TO FAILURE”: q. Schlesinger, 548.

38. JES, “WELL-KNOWN COMMITMENT”: Lemnitzer for JCS to Sec. of Defense, 13 Apr 62, ibid., 671–2.

39. “WHAT THE NEWSMEN TOOK TO BE LIES”: Mecklin, 100. MANNING MEMORANDUM: Salinger, 328; for the press war, see also Manning, ed. Stakes, 58–61.

40. MANSFIELD, ZEAL WOULD BE THE UNDOING: Macpherson, 45. TOLD THE SENATE: 88th Congress, 1st Session, GPO, Washington, D.C., 1963.

41. MANSFIELD-KENNEDY CONVERSATION: O’Donnell.

42. HILSMAN REPORT: PP, II, 690–726.

43. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE, “SUPPRESS, GLOSS OVER”: I am indebted to Jeffrey Race for bringing this concept to my attention. The quoted passages are from his article in Armed Forces and Society. See also Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Evanston, 111., 1957.

44. KENNEDY HINTS WITHDRAWAL TO MANSFIELD: O’Donnell.

45. INSTRUCTS MICHAEL FORRESTAL: Forrestal to author. “EASY; PUT A GOVERNMENT”: O‘Donnell. “WOULD MEAN COLLAPSE”: q. Schlesinger, 989. “WE ARE GOING TO STAY”: 17 July 63, PP, II, 824.

46. “NO, I BELIEVE IT”: NBC interview with Chet Huntley, PP, II, 828.

47. RUSK, “STEADY MOVEMENT”: q. Schlesinger, 986.

48. NHUS SUSPECTED OF DEALING WITH ENEMY: Ball, 370.

49. “SOME QUITE FANTASTIC ACTION”: State to Lodge, 29 Aug 63, unsigned, PP, II, 738.

50. CONEIN LIAISON: Ball, 371; for U.S. Involvement in Coup, see PP, II, 256–63, Documents, 734–51. lodge, “THIS REPRESSIVE REGIME”: PP, II, 742, para. 8. WASHINGTON’S INSTRUCTIONS: State to Lodge, 24 Aug 63, PP, II, 734; NSC to Lodge, 5 Oct 63, ibid., 257, 766.

51. LODGE, “WE ARE LAUNCHED”: ibid., 738. “ASSASSINATION” OF NHUS: to State from Lodge, 5 Oct 63, ibid., 767.

52. ROBERT KENNEDY, “COMMUNIST TAKE-OVER”: Sept 63, PP, II, 243. Hilsman, 106.

53. BATTLE OF AP BAC: Manning, ed. Stakes, 50–51. COLONEL VANN: Halberstam, 203–05. DOD AND CINCPAC OPTIMISM: Cooper, 480.

54. RUFUS PHILLIPS REPORT: PP, II, 245. JOHN MECKLIN “IN DESPAIR”: Mecklin, X. KATTENBURG CONFERENCE: PP, II, 241; Cohen, 190. KATTENBURG PREDICTION: Halberstam, 370.

55. DE GAULLE SPEAKS: NYT, 30 Aug 63. “AUTHORITATIVE SOURCES”: ibid., from Washington, “WIDE ANNOYANCE”: ibid.

56. “THEIR” WAR; KENNEDY, “IN THE FINAL ANALYSIS”: interview with Walter Cronkite, Sept 1963, q. Wicker, 186.

57. “YOU TWO DID VISIT”: q. PP, III, 23, from Hilsman.

58. PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENT, “BY THE END OF 1965”: text in Raskin and Fall, 128–9.

5. Executive War

1. MADE UP HIS MIND NOT TO “LOSE”: Bill Moyers to author.

2. “I AM NOT GOING TO BE THE FIRST PRESIDENT”: James Reston in NYT, 1 Oct 67. ALTERNATIVE VERSION: Wicker, 205.

3. VIET-CONG BROADCAST SUGGESTING CEASE-FIRE: q. Wicker, 189, from Jean Lacouture, Vietnam: Between Two Truces, 1966, 170. SECOND BROADCAST PICKED UP IN WASHINGTON: Wicker, ibid.

4. GENERAL “BIG” MINH AND SUCCESSORS’ FEELERS OPPOSED BY U.S.: Joseph Kraft, “Washington Insight,” Harper’s, Sept 1965.

5. MCNAMARA, “NEXT TWO OR THREE MONTHS”: PP, II, 193.

6. NYT EDITORIAL: 3 Nov 63.

7. RUSK, “WOULD LEAD TO OUR RUIN”: q. Cohen, 258. “A BILLION CHINESE”: at a press conference, NYT, 13 Oct 67. HANSON BALDWIN: NYT Magazine, 27 Feb 66. SEN. JOSEPH CLARK: at Senate FRC (Fulbright) hearings in 1966.

8. JOHNSON ON “THEIR” WAR: q. Wicker, 231–2.

9. Maddox, “DESTRUCTIVE” ACTION: PP, III, 150–1. NAVAL UNITS: Ball, 379. “DESIST FROM AGGRESSIVE POLICIES”: JCSM em. 19 May 64, PP, III. 511.

10. HONOLULU CONFERENCE: PP, III, 171–7; Ball, 375–9.

11. “ADMISSION THAT THE GAME WAS UP”: q. Gelb, 115.

12. NUCLEAR OPTION: PP, III, 175; Rusk, PP, II, 322; McNamara, PP, III, 238.

13. MCNAMARA, “AT LEAST THIRTY DAYS”: ibid., 176.

14. FULBRIGHT’S MOTIVES FOR TONKIN RESOLUTION: Hoopes, Limits, 25–6. TONKIN DEBATE IN FRC: SEN. NELSON: Wicker, 223; SEN. ERVIN: Austin, 78; SEN. MORSE TIPPED OFF BY PHONE CALL: Austin, 68.

15. MC NAMARA’S DENIAL: ibid.

16. “WELL, THOSE DUMB STUPID SAILORS”: q. Ball, 379.

17. DE GAULLE PROPOSES SETTLEMENT: PP, II, 193; INTERVIEW WITH BALL: Ball, 377–8.

18. U THANT’S PROPOSAL: Kraslow and Loory, 102; Sevareid in Look, 30 Nov 65.

19. “AS THOUGH I WERE ON THE TITANIC”: q. Kraft, Harper’s, Dec 1967, in Raskin and Fall, 315–22.

20. “SHATTER MY PRESIDENCY” AND ALL OTHER REMARKS QUOTED IN THIS PARAGRAPH: Kearns, 253, 257.

21. CIA, “LIKELY THAT NO OTHER NATION”: PP, III, 178.

22. WORKING GROUP’S WARNING: PP, III, 217.

23. BALL’S MEMORANDUM: Ball, 380–6, 390–2.

24. “RAGGEDY-ASS LITTLE FOURTH-RATE COUNTRY”: q. Manning, ed., Stakes, 183.

25. BUNDY’S MEMORANDUM: 7 Feb 65, PP, III, 309, 687–9.

26. TAYLOR, “DEMOLISHED HOMELAND”: Taylor, 403.

27. MCNAUGHTON, “WITHOUT UNACCEPTABLE TAINT”: plan of action addressed to McNamara 24 Mar 65, PP, III, 695.

28. TUESDAY LUNCH: Graff, passim; Evans and Novak, 553–5.

29. PRESIDENT WOULD GET UP AT 3 A.M.: Kearns, 270.

30. MICHIGAN “TEACH-IN” AND 122 CAMPUSES CONNECTED BY TELEPHONE: Powers, 55, 61. BERKELEY FACULTY STATEMENT: ibid., 80.

31. THE WHITE PAPER: 28 Feb 65, PP, III, 728.

32. MCNAMARA, “THE MOST FLAGRANT CASE”: q. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Spec. Supp., D7.

33. COMBAT DISCUSSIONS: PP, III, chap. 3, “Air War in North Vietnam”; chap. 4, “American Troops Enter Ground War.”

34. RUSK NOTE TO NORTH VIETNAM EMBASSY IN MOSCOW: Kraslow, 122.

35. TAYLOR EXPLAINS ATTRITION: Senate FRC hearings, 1966.

36. ON DECLARATION OF WAR: Summers, 21–9; Nitze, in Thompson and Frizzell, 7.

37. MC NAMARA, “WITHOUT AROUSING THE PUBLIC IRE”: q. by Douglas Rosenberg as epigraph for “Arms and the American Way” in Russett, 170. Subsequently quoted in Summers, 18. Mr. Rosenberg lacks record of the original source.

38. NASSER’S REPLY ON LIMITED WAR: q. Roche, Am. Enterprise, Debate, 137, from Mohamed Heikal, Cairo Documents, New York, 1973.

39. PAUL CONRAD CARTOON: Los Angeles Times, 4 Apr 65.

40. SUICIDE SEEMED TOO CRAZED: NYT editorial, 11 Nov 65.

41. AFL-C10 COUNCIL: Hardin, 94.

42. DEARBORN REFERENDUM: NYT, 1 Nov and 10 Nov 66.

43. LIPPMANN DENIES “EXTERNAL AGGRESSION”: Steel, 565.

44. MOYERS NETWORK: Moyers to author; Anderson, 341.

45. EMBASSY PROPOSES “TERMINATING OUR INVOLVEMENT”: Taylor, q. Lake, 297.

46. GALBRAITH, “OVERWHELMING ODDS”: Galbraith, 469, n. 7.

47. SEN. RUSSELL PRIVATELY EXHORTED: William P. Bundy to author; PROPOSES POLL OF VIETNAMESE OPINION: PP, IV, 98.

48. A JOURNALIST RECALLS: Herbert Mitgang to author.

49. CLIFFORD IN PRIVATE LETTER: 17 May 65, q. Gelb, 371, from LBJ papers.

50. MC NAUGHTON, “70 PERCENT TO AVOID”: PP, III, 695.

51. MC NAMARA-WHEELER ON “WINNING”: PP, IV, 290–2.

52. “WORKING THE LEVERS”: Ball, 376.

53. SEVAREID, HANOI HAD AGREED: Sevareid, in Look, 30 Nov 65.

54. St. Louis Post-DispatchON JOHNSON DENIALS: Spec. Supp., D4.

55. ITALIAN MISSION: Kraslow, 130–1. All the foreign missions seeking negotiation are detailed in this book.

56. WARSAW TALKS: Gelb, 152 ff. from 4 vols, of PP dealing with foreign negotiations, unpublished at the time of writing.

57. MCNAUGHTON STATES DILEMMA: PP, IV, 48.

58. $2 BILLION A MONTH: Wicker, 271.

59. 300 ACRES OF RICE: Powers, 224; on extent of defoliation, see Lewy, 258.

60. “HUTS GO UP IN … FLAME”: ibid., 223, quoting Frank Harvey, Air War—Vietnam, New York, 1968.

61. Ladies Home Journal: Jan 1967.

62. CONGRESS “SURPRISINGLY PATIENT”: Taylor, 321.

63. 300 PENTAGON LOBBYISTS: Hardin, 83.

64. HUMPHREY, “IF YOU FEEL AN URGE”: q. Powers, 48.

65. FULBRIGHT REGRETTED TONKIN ROLE: Wilcox, 29.

66. SENATE FRC HEARINGS: see under U.S. Congress, rusk: on 28 Jan and 18 Feb. EISENHOWER DENIAL OF COMMITMENT: NYT, 18 Aug 65, “Military Pledge to Saigon Is Denied by Eisenhower,” p. 1.

67. TAYLOR AT HEARINGS: 17 Feb, 450. FULBRIGHT ON AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 17 Feb, 441. GAVIN: 8 Feb. MORSE-TAYLOR ON “WEAKNESS”: 17 Feb, 454–5. KENNAN: 10 Feb.

68. ROCKEFELLER, “SUPPORT THE PRESIDENT”: NYT, 1 Feb 66.

69. GUNNAR MYRDAL: NYT Magazine, 18 July 65.

70. JASON BOMBING SURVEY: PP, IV, 115–20, 166, 702–66.

71. “WE ANTICIPATED … LIKE REASONABLE PEOPLE”: Warnke, q. Gelb, 139, from oral interview in LBJ papers, ANNUAL RATE OF 500,000 TONS: Hanson Baldwin in NYT, 30 Dec 66.

72. MC NAMARA’S DOUBTS: halberstam, 630. PP (NYT), 510–16. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, NOT WORTH THE COST: PP, IV, 136.

73. SILENT DEPARTURES: Thomson, “Resigning from Government”; see also Graff, 24, and Studs Terkel, “Servant of the State: A Conversation with Daniel Ellsberg,” Harper’s, Feb 1972.

74. “DEAN RUSK IS A RECORDED ANNOUNCEMENT”: Halberstam, 634.

75. LBJ, “WHO KNOWS HOW LONG”: q. Graff, 104.

76. “MINIMUM ESSENTIAL FORCE”: PP, II, 511.

77. PROTEST SEEN AS “ENCOURAGING THE COMMUNISTS”: Harris, 67.

78. JOHNSON’S RATING TURNS NEGATIVE: ibid., 60.

79. “SPIRITUAL CONFUSION”: Beyond Vietnam, 6. NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES: Logue and Patton, 324. KING, “GREATEST PURVEYOR”: NYT, 5 Apr 67.

80. “YOU VOTED IN ‘64 …”: NYT, 6 Nov 66.

81. LIPPMANN, “DECENT PEOPLE NO LONGER SUPPORT”: Steel, 571.

82. JAMES THOMSON LETTER: NYT, 4 June 67.

83. GENERAL SHOUP, “POPPYCOCK”: NYT obit., 16 Jan 83.

84. POLL, 48 YES, 48 NO: Logue and Patton, 326.

85. PHAM VAN DONG, “BASIS FOR SETTLEMENT”: 3 Jan 67, Cooper, 501.

86. AMERICANS AND NORTH VIETNAMESE CONFERRED: Kraslow, 167–74, Cooper, 346–7.

87. TWO AMERICANS TO HANOI: Ashmore and Baggs, Kraslow, 200. U THANT, “CALCULATED RISK”: ibid., 208.

88. LBJ, “MORE THAN OUR PART”: 31 Dec 66. LETTER TO HO CHI MINH: Kraslow, 206.

89. “DEEP CONVICTION IN HANOI”: q. Gelb, 164, from unpublished PP vols.

90. HAROLD WILSON-KOSYGIN NEGOTIATION: Kraslow, 186–98, Herring, 168–9.

91. MC NAUGHTON, “SUCCESSFULLY, OR ELSE”: May 67 Memorandum for President, PP, IV, 477–9.

92. “HE WAS A MISERABLE MAN”: Moyers to author.

93. STENNIS HEARINGS: PP, IV, 199–204; Sharp, ibid., 191–7.

94. MC NAMARA, “DESTROYING THE COUNTRYSIDE”: q. Macpherson, 430–1. COLLEAGUES STARED: ibid.

95. CIA, “SO INTOLERABLE”: q. Cohen, 277. STUDY IN DOLLAR VALUES: PP, IV, 136. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, SUPPLY ROUTES: ibid., 223. “WE ARE UNABLE TO DEVISE”: ibid., 224–5.

96. BOMB TOTAL 1.5 MILLION TONS: PP, IV, 216.

97. AUBRAC-MARCOVICH MISSION: July 67, Kraslow.

98. BURCHETT, “DEEP SKEPTICISM”: Kraslow, 227–8.

99. Saturday Evening Post: 18 Nov 67.

100. “DESTROY THE TOWN IN ORDER TO SAVE IT”: heard by public over TV. The town was Ben Tre. Wall Street Journal. 23 Feb 68.

101. CLIFFORD TASK FORCE: Schandler, 121–76; Clifford, Foreign Affairs.

102. KENNAN, “MEN IN A DREAM”: q. Hoopes, Limits, 178.

103. CLIFFORD’S TOUR OF SEATO NATIONS: ibid., 169–71.

104. DISENCHANTMENT: Clifford, Foreign Affairs; Hoopes, Limits, 186–95. NITZE: ibid., 199.

105. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS: PP, IV, 558.

106. CLIFFORD, “NOT ONLY ENDLESS BUT HOPELESS”: Clifford, Foreign Affairs.

107. SENATOR TYDINGS: Macpherson, 420. DEMOCRATIC COMMITTEE TELEGRAM: q. Powers, 300.

108. CRONKITE BROADCAST: transcript supplied by Mr. Cronkite.

109. “THE SHOCK WAVES”: q. Schandler, 198.

110. Time, “VICTORY IN VIETNAM”: 15 Mar 68.

111. SENATE FRC HEARINGS: NYT, 8 Mar 68. QUESTIONED AUTHORITY OF THE PRESIDENT: Schandler, 211. “WE JUST COULDN’T”: Senator Jackson, q. ibid.

112. ACHESON REVIEW: Hoopes, Limits, 205; Kendrick, 259.

113. SPEECH TO NATIONAL FARMERS UNION: NYT, 19 Mar 68. ROWE REPORTS CALLS: Rowe Mem. to President, 19 Mar 68, q. Schandler, 249.

114. “WISE MEN” CONFERENCE: Ridgway, Foreign Affairs, PP, IV, 266–8; Ball, 407–09.

115. CLIFFORD, “TREMENDOUS EROSION”: Macpherson, 435; Hoopes, Limits, 219.

116. CABLET TO AMBASSADORS: PP, IV, 595.

117. WHEELER TO CINCPAC ON DECREASE OF SUPPORT: q. Schandler, 279.

118. FIELD AGENTS TELEPHONED: Theodore White, 118.

6. Exit

1. “IF THE WAR GOES ON SIX MONTHS”: to Harrison Salisbury; Salisbury to author, “END UP LIKE LBJ”: q. Herring, 219.

2. REISCHAUER, NO GUARANTEE: Beyond Vietnam, 19.

3. RAND RANGE OF OPTIONS: Konrad Kellen, one of the RAND specialists, to author.

4. “ACCEPTABLE INTERVAL”: q. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Spec. Supp., D2.

5. AN AMERICAN SERGEANT, AWOLS: q. Richard Dudman, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Spec. Supp., D10.

6. “NOVEMBER OPTION”: Szulc, 152.

7. “A LITTLE FOURTH-RATE POWER”: q. ibid., 150.

8. “DORMANT BEAST”: Kissinger, 244.

9. ARMS FOR VIETNAMIZATION: G. Warren Nutter, Asst. Sec. of Defense under Nixon, in Am. Enterprise Vietnam Settlement, 71.

10. “LOSE THE WAR IN VIETNAM—BRING THE BOYS HOME”: q. Kissinger, 307. “BUMS”: q. Herring, 232. Mitchell, “LIKE THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION”: q. Kendrick, 296.

11. “SOUGHT TO DESTROY HIM”: Kissinger, 299.

12. “TO END THE WAR IN A WAY”: q. Theodore White, 130.

13. BURKE, “SHOW THE THING YOU CONTEND FOR”: Speech of 19 Apr 1774, Hansard, XVIII.

14. SAINTENY, “HOPELESS ENTERPRISE”: q. Ball, 411.

15. “WITHOUT AGREEMENT WITH HANOI”: Kissinger, 271.

16. “CONTINUATION … LESS ATTRACTIVE”: ibid., 262.

17. SORTIES SYSTEMATICALLY FALSIFIED: Shawcross, 19–35; Kissinger, 253.

18. FBI WIRE-TAPS: Kissinger, 252.

19. “THOSE LIBERAL BASTARDS”: q. Szulc, 158.

20. NIXON’S SPEECH ANNOUNCING CAMBODIA CAMPAIGN: 30 Apr JO. COSVN: KISSINGER, 490, 506.

21. “MILITARY HALLUCINATION”: q. ibid., 511, n.d.

22. 250 STATE DEPT. STAFF MEMBERS: ibid., 513.

23. SAN JOSE INCIDENT: Safire, 325. “WE COULD SEE THE HATE”: q. ibid., 329; St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Spec. Supp., D3.

24. COLSON, “SIEGE MENTALITY”: q. Herring, 233. “GENUINELY BELIEVED”: q. John Roche in Lake, 132. WHITE HOUSE STAFF MEMBER: Thomas Charles Huston, Safire, 297. SEVENTEEN WIRE-TAPS, Kissinger, 252.

25. “RIGHT OUT OF THE OVAL OFFICE”: John Dean’s testimony, q. Congressional Quarterly Service, 991.

26. CONGRESS “A BODY OF FOLLOWERS”: Riegle, diary entry for 9 June 71. On role of Congress on Vietnam in Nixon’s term, see Frye and Sullivan in Lake, 199–209, also Congressional Quarterly Service and of course Kissinger, passim.

27. ARVN, FIGHTING TO ALLOW AMERICANS TO DEPART: Fitzgerald, 416.

28. POLL, “MORALLY WRONG”: Harris, 73.

29. LORD NORTH, “ILL SUCCESS”: in May 1783, q. Valentine, North, II, 313.

30. “THE BASTARDS HAVE NEVER BEEN BOMBED”: q. Herring, 241.

31. “COULD MAKE OR BREAK”: q. Carl Bernstein and Robert Woodward, All the President’s Men, New York, 1974, 265.

32. “RATFUCKING”: ibid., 127–8.

33. MAO, “DO AS I DID”: q. Szulc, 610.

34. NIXON, “MY ABSOLUTE ASSURANCE”: Kissinger, 1412.

35. AIR POWER FROM BASES IN THAILAND: Gelb, 349.

36. KISSINGER BACKED AWAY FROM AGREED TERMS: Herring, 246.

37. “WE HAD WALKED THE LAST MILE”: Paul Warnke, Asst. Sec. of Defense 1967–69, succeeding McNaughton, American Enterprise Debate, 125.

38. DEMOCRATIC CAUCUS: Congress and Nation, III.

39. ULTIMATUM TO THIEU: Kissinger, 1459.

40. “A HOUSE WITHOUT ANY FOUNDATION”: q. Dudman, St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Spec. Supp.,D 10.

41. KISSINGER, “THE BREAKDOWN”: Kissinger, 520.

42. FORD, “CREDIBILITY … ESSENTIAL”: message to Congress, Jan. 75. KISSINGER, “FUNDAMENTAL THREAT”: press conference of 26 Mar 75.

43. RIDGWAY, “IT SHOULD NOT HAVE TAKEN”: in Foreign Affairs.

44. “NO EXPERTS AVAILABLE”: McNamara to author.

45. CONGRESSMAN FROM MICHIGAN: Riegle, entry in diary for 20 Apr 71.

Epilogue
“A LANTERN ON THE STERN”

REFERENCE NOTES

1. “SERVANT OF DIVINE REASON”: Morton Smith in Columbia History of the World, ed. John Garraty and Peter Gay, New York, 1972, 210.

2. PLATO, “GOLDEN CORD,” PUPPETS, DISEASE OF THE SOUL: Laws, I, 644–5, III, 689B.

3. TACITUS, “MOST FLAGRANT”: Annals, Bk XV, chap. 53.

4. JEFFERSON, “WHENEVER A MAN”: to Tench Coxe, 1799, q. Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 3rd ed., 1980, 272, no. 11. ADAM SMITH, “AND THUS PLACE”: Theory of Moral Sentiments I, iii, 2, q. Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 509, no. 8.

5. SENATOR NORRIS: Wayne S. Cole, Senator Gerald P. Nye and American Foreign Relations, Minneapolis, 1962, 67. EISENHOWER, “EVERYONE IS TOO CAUTIOUS”: Diaries, for 11 June 51.

6. PLATO, “THE WORST OF DISEASES”: Laws, III, 691D.

7. “INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL”: Kissinger, 54.

8. COLERIDGE, “IF MEN COULD LEARN”: Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 157, no. 20.

9. “HE HAD NO CHOICE”: Schlesinger, 538.

10. “MAGNANIMITY IN POLITICS”: Speech on Conciliation, 22 Mar 1775, Hansard, XVIII.

11. “CRIMESTOP”: I owe the citation of this passage to Jeffrey Race, “The Unlearned Lessons of Vietnam,” Yale Review, Winter 1977, 166.

12. STORY OF DARIUS: Herodotus, Bk III, chaps. 82–6.

13. MONTAIGNE, “RESOLUTION AND VALOR”: Complete Essays, trans. Donald M. Frame, Stanford, 1965, II, 36.

14. LILLIPUTIANS “HAVE MORE REGARD”: Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, Part One, chap. 6.

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