Notes

*All references to archive documents are taken from the National Archives, Kew, unless otherwise stated.

Notes to Introduction: A Special Relationship

1 Psalm 48:12, the injunction to which Mansergh was apparently mindful when undertaking his study; Nicholas Mansergh, Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs: Problems of Wartime Cooperation and Post-War Change, 1939-1952 (London, 1958), p. xvi.

2 Mansergh, Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs: Problems of External Policy, 1931-39 (London, 1952); Mansergh, Documents and Speeches on British Commonwealth Affairs 1931-1952: Vols. 1&2 (London, 1953); W. K. Hancock, 'Nicholas Mansergh: Some Recollections and Reflections' in Norman Hillmer (ed.), The First British Commonwealth: Essays in Honour of Nicholas Mansergh (London, 1980), pp. 3-9; Ronald Hyam, '(Philip) Nicholas Seton Mansergh (1910-1991)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; Kenneth E. Miller, 'Book Review, The Journal of Politics (Vol. 21, No. 3; August 1959), pp. 549-51; K. C. Wheare, International Affairs (Vol. 35, No. 2; April 1959), p. 227.

3 John Darwin, 'A Third British Empire? The Dominion Idea in British Politics' in Judith M. Brown and Wm. Roger Louis (eds), The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume IV- The Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1999), pp. 64-87 [hereafter 'OHBE4']; W. David McIntyre, 'The Strange Death of Dominion Status' in Robert D. King and Robert Kilson (eds), The Statecraft of British Imperialism: Essays in Honour of Wm. Roger Louis (London, 1999) pp. 193-5; Fred Nash, '"Salutem adferre reipublicae" (Cicero): The Dominion Concept and the Empire', BISA/PSA Political Science Group Workshop Conference, July 1998.

4 John Darwin, 'The Fear of Falling: British Politics and Imperial Decline Since 1900', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (Vol. 36, 1986), pp. 28-9.

5 A. P. Thornton, 'The Transformation of the Commonwealth and the "Special Relationship"' in Wm. Roger Louis and Hedley Bull (eds), The 'Special Relationship': Anglo-American Relations since 1945 (Oxford, 1986), p. 367.

6 Bill Nasson, Britannia's Empire: Making a British World (Stroud, 2004), pp. 164-70.

7 John Gallagher, The Decline, Revival and Fall of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2004), p. 141.

8 'Migration within the Empire', 24 May 1944, House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 81), pp. 931-41.

9 H. Duncan Hall, 'The British Commonwealth of Nations', The American Political Science Review (Vol. 47, No.4; December 1953), pp. 997-1015.

10 Denis Judd, 'Britain: Land Beyond Hope and Glory?', History Today (April 1999), pp. 18-24; David Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire (London, 2002); Cannadine, 'Ornamentalism', History Today (May 2001), pp. 12-19; Bernard Porter, The Absent-Minded Imperialists: Empire, Society and Culture in Britain(Oxford, 2004); Porter, 'What Did They Know of Empire', History Today (October 2004), pp. 42-8.

11 Clair Wills, That Neutral Island (London, 2007); T. Ryle Dwyer, Irish Neutrality and the USA, 1939-1947 (Dublin, 1977); Donal O'Drisceoil, 'Neither Friend nor Foe? Irish Neutrality in the Second World War' (Book Review), Contemporary European History (Vol. 15, No. 2; 2006), pp. 245-53.

12 'Constitutional Relations between the United Kingdom and the Dominions', Note prepared by Charles Dixon, August 1946, DO35/1112.

13 Dierdre McMahon, 'Ireland and the Empire-Commonwealth, 1900-1948', in OHBE4, pp. 155-8; Mansergh, Problems of External Policy, pp. 270-328.

14 'The Neutrality of Eire', Memorandum by Eden, 16 September 1939, CAB66/1.

15 'All In', Time, 18 September 1939.

16 Andrew Baker, 'Anglo-Irish Relations, 1939-1941: A Study in Multilateral Diplomacy and Military Restraint', Twentieth Century British History (Vol. 16, No. 4; 2005), pp. 359-81.

17 Denis Judd, The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj (Oxford, 2004), pp. 148-65; Judith M. Brown, 'India' in OHBE4, pp. 421-46; Robin J. Moore, 'India in the 1940s', in Robin W. Winks (ed.), Historiography: Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. 5 (Oxford, 1999), pp. 231-42.

18 Empire Information Service, Origins and Purpose: A Handbook on the British Commonwealth and Empire (London, 1946), pp. 66-8.

19 E. M. Andrews, The British Commonwealth and Aggression in the East, 1931-1935 (Sydney, 1987), p. xi.

20 Anne Thurston, Records of the Colonial Office, Dominions Office, Commonwealth Relations Office and Commonwealth Office (London, 1995), pp. 57-9, 63-7.

Notes to Chapter 1: The Great Experiment

1 W. Y. Elliot, 'The Riddle of the British Commonwealth', Foreign Affairs (Vol. 8, No. 3; 1930), pp. 442-64; W. K. Hancock, Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs: Problems of Nationality, 1918-1936 (London, 1937); K. C. Wheare, The Statute of Westminster and Dominion Status (London, 1942); D. K. Fieldhouse, 'Autochthonous Elements in the Evolution of Dominion Status: The Case of New Zealand', Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies (Vol. 1; 1961-1963), pp. 85-7.

2 Wheare, The Constitutional Structure of the Commonwealth (London, 1960), pp. 10-11.

3 J. D. Latham speaking in the Australian federal parliament in 1931; cited in W. R. Brock, Britain and the Dominions (Cambridge, 1951), pp. 415-16.

4 Viscount Bennett, 'The British Commonwealth of Nations: Its Constitutional Development', United Empire (Vol. 35, No. 2; March-April 1944), p. 43.

5 Lord Blanesburgh, 'The Statute of Westminster', Lecture at Royal United Service Institution, 18 January 1933.

6 Joseph Chamberlain, House of Commons Debate on Commonwealth of Australia Bill, 14 May 1900; Handwritten Note on 'Inter Commonwealth Relations', Patrick Duncan, n.d., (Duncan Papers, University of Cape Town), A15.4 (BC294).

7 Mansergh, South Africa 1906-1961: The Price of Magnanimity (London, 1962), pp. 15-35; Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience (London, 1969), pp. 84-9; D. Judd and P. Slim, The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, 1902-1980 (London, 1982), pp. 11, 21; Donald Gordon, The Dominion Partnership in Imperial Defense, 1870-1914 (Baltimore, 1965), p. 194.

8 Martin Kitchen, The British Empire and Commonwealth (London, 1996), pp. 61-3; Judd, Empire: The British Imperial Experience (London, 1996), pp. 214-25; James Joll, The Origins of the First World War (London, 1985), pp. 148-54; Robert Holland, Britain and the Commonwealth Alliance, (London, 1981), pp. 1-4; James Williamson,Great Britain and the Commonwealth (London, 1965), pp. 178-80; BBC Research Manuals, 'Number 4, The Development of Self-Government in the British Empire', Abrams Papers (Churchill College, Cambridge), ABMS1/7/9, p. 3.

9 Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience, p. 21.

10 Hyam, 'The British Empire in the Edwardian Era' in OHBE4, pp. 56-7.

11 Paul Hayes, 'British Foreign Policy and the Influence of Empire, 1870-1920', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. 12; 1984), pp. 113-14.

12 Max Beloff, Imperial Sunset, Vol. 1: Britain's Liberal Empire, 1897-1921 (New York, 1970), pp. 191-3.

13 Judd and Slim, The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, pp. 39-40; Porter, Britain, Europe and the World, (London, 1987), p. 79; Porter, The Lion's Share, (London, 1975), p. 228.

14 C. P. Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict Vol. 1 (Toronto, 1983), pp. 203-11; R. C. Brown, Robert Laird Borden (Ottawa, 1975), p. 85; I. M. Cumpston, The Evolution of the Commonwealth of Nations, 1900-1980 (Canberra, 1997), pp. 4-5; Heather Harvey, Consultation and Cooperation in the Commonwealth: A Handbook on Methods and Practice (London, 1952), pp. 90-2; Sir Percival Griffiths, Empire into Commonwealth (London, 1969), p. 250.

15 Judd and Slim, The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, pp. 38-40; Holland, 'The British Empire and the Great War,' in OHBE4, pp. 127-30.

16 The speech in January 1884 included the comment that 'there is no need for any nation, however great, leaving the Empire, because the Empire is a commonwealth of nations'. He is subsequently said to have forgotten the phrase but in his Rectorial address in Glasgow on 'Questions of Empire' delivered in November 1899 he used 'commonwealth' three times as a synonym for Empire which he acknowledged had acquired 'some taint of disagreeable association'. Adopted by Liberals and Fabians for similar reason from this point the term became freely used. Smuts also pointed to his reference to 'the British Commonwealth of Nations' in a 1917 address to the members of the House of Commons in London, a descriptive term which was subsequently endorsed by Imperial Conferences. This, he argued, became the official name for 'Britain plus the free Dominions' but it was not officially used until 1921 when it featured in the Irish Treaty; Hancock, Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs: Vol. 1, Problems of Nationality, 1918-1936 (London, 1937), p. 54; Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience, pp. 7, 122; Duncan Hall, 'The Genesis of the Balfour Declaration', Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies, pp. 169-70; 'The British Colonial Empire', Life, 28 December 1942.

17 Brian Farrell, 'Coalition of the Usually Willing: the Dominions and Imperial Defence, 1856-1919' in Greg Kennedy (ed.), Imperial Defence, 1856-1956: The Old World Order (London, 2007), pp. 251-302.

18 Frank Underhill, The British Commonwealth (London, 1956), pp. 46-53.

19 'Memorandum by General Smuts on Constitutional Relations', 1921, DO117/33.

20 Darwin, 'The Dominion Idea in Imperial Politics' in OHBE4, pp. 67-9; Robert Holland, The Pursuit of Greatness, Britain and the World Role, 1900-70 (London, 1991), pp. 87-120; Norman Hillmer, 'The Foreign Office, the Dominions and the Diplomatic Unity of the Empire, 1925-29' in David Dilks (ed.), Retreat From Power, Vol. 1 (London, 1981), pp. 64-5.

21 Cited in 'Whitehall and the Commonwealth: The Distribution of Department Responsibility, The Round Table, (Vol. 45; 1954/1955), p. 234.

22 'Lord Elgin's Despatch on CO Reorganization', September 1907, Cd.3795; Cross, Whitehall and the Commonwealth (London, 1967), pp. 14-16; Holland, Britain and the Commonwealth Alliance, pp. 40-5.

23 The latter had been created in 1904 as a purely advisory body headed by the British prime minister, its role being 'to investigate, report [and] recommend' on matters which affected the Empire; Cecil Hurst (et al.), Great Britain and the Dominions (Illinois, 1928), pp. 39-41.

24 Frederick Madden and John Darwin (eds), Select Documents on the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth, Vol. VI, The Dominions and India since 1900 (London, 1993), pp. 16-26; I. R. Hancock, 'The 1911 Imperial Conference', Historical Studies (Vol. 12, No. 47; October 1966), pp. 156-172.

25 Philip Wigley, 'Whitehall and the 1923 Imperial Conference', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. 1; 1972-1973), pp. 223-36.

26 David Walder, The Chanak Affair (London, 1969), pp. 215-16, 229-30, 353; Mark Arnold-Forster, 'Chanak Rocks the Empire: The Anger of Billy Hughes', The Round Table (Vol. 58; 1968), pp. 169-77.

27 'The Dominions and Colonial Offices—Proposals for Reorganisation', Memorandum prepared by Amery, 20 February 1925, DO121/1.

28 L. S. Amery, My Political Life: Vol. II, War and Peace 1914-1929 (London, 1953), p. 335.

29 'Report by R. R. Scott, H. P. Hamilton and R. V. Nind-Hopkins to Baldwin', 20 February 1925, DO121/1.

30 Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, pp. 398-401; Joe Garner, The Commonwealth Office (London, 1978), pp. 10-12; John Rimington, 'Sir Warren Fisher's Civil Service', The Source Public Management Journal (19 January 2000).

31 For example Amery to General Sir C. Ferguson, 19 March 1925, DO121/1; ibid., Amery to Bruce and Massey, 19 March 1925; Wm. Roger Louis, In the Name of God Go! Leo Amery and the British Empire in the Age of Churchill (London, 1992), pp. 88-9.

32 Sir Walter Runciman cited in Gerald Palmer, Consultation and Cooperation in the British Commonwealth (London, 1934), p. 24.

33 Memorandum prepared by Robinson (CO),12 May 1937, CO886/32.

34 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 15.

35 Amery to Baldwin, 23 May 1925, DO121/1.

36 Parkinson, The Colonial Office from Within (London, 1947), pp. 12-13; Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 15-16;The Buildings of the FCO', http://193.114.50.10/directory/dynpage. asp?Page=61.

37 Amery to Baldwin, 23 May 1925, DO121/1.

38 'Memorandum prepared on the Building of the Colonial Office by Sir Frank Baines, Office of Works, 9 October 1925', CO886/32.

39 'Memorandum prepared by Ministry of Works', January 1938, DO35/548D.

40 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 26.

41 Typical of such sentiments were those offered by the Canadian High Commissioner Vincent Massey in March 1936: 'The machinery of the DO instead of keeping us in close touch with foreign crises at present seems somehow to provide an obstacle or rather delay in getting news which we could get and sometimes do receive informally from the FO. What good purpose does the DO serve?'; Vincent Massey, What's Past is Prologue (Toronto, 1963), p. 236.

42 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 137.

43 Lester B. Pearson, Through Diplomacy to Politics: Memoirs, 1897-1948 (London, 1973), p. 108.

44 Hubert Montgomery to Foreign Secretary, 23 July 1926, FO372/2216.

45 H.V. Hodson, 'British Foreign Policy and the Dominions', Foreign Affairs (Vol. 17; July 1939), pp. 762-3.

46 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 26.

47 Patrick Walker, The Commonwealth (London, 1962), pp. 97-116.

48 Amery to Colonel Sykes, 13 October 1941, Amery Papers (Churchill College, Cambridge), AMEL2/1/33; Ridgway F. Shinn Jr, 'The King's Title, 1926: A Note on a Critical Document', English Historical Review (Vol. 48, No. 387; April 1983), pp. 350-2.

49 A. Berriedale Keith, Speeches and Documents on the British Dominions, 1918-1931 (London, 1932), pp. 16-47; B. E. Dugdale, Arthur James Balfour, First Earl of Balfour, 1906-30 (London, 1936), p. 381; Mansergh, Problems of External Policy, pp. 1-88; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, pp. 11-16; Heather Harvey,Consultation and Cooperation in the Commonwealth (London, 1952), pp. 1-10.

50 'Constitutional Relations between the United Kingdom and the Dominions', Note prepared by Charles Dixon, August 1946, DO35/1112.

51 Speech at Edinburgh, 27 January 1927, cited in George Bennett (ed.), The Concept of Empire (London, 1953), pp. 398-402.

52 'Constitutional Legislation Affecting Commonwealth Relations since 1931', Central Office of Information, London (March 1952), pp. 1-2.

53 Darwin, 'The Dominion Idea in Imperial Politics' in OHBE4, pp. 66-7.

54 Darwin, 'Imperialism in Decline? Tendencies in British Imperial Policy between the Wars', Historical Journal (Vol. 23, No. 3; 1980), pp. 661-6.

55 Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict, p. 117.

56 House of Commons debate cited in Mansergh, Problems of External Policy, p. 18.

57 Martin Chanock, Unconsummated Union: Britain, Rhodesia and South Africa, 1900-1945 (London, 1977), p. 13; 'South Africa: The British', The National Review (No. 116; January 1941), pp. 23-4; G. H. Calpin, 'South Africa and the War', The Nineteenth Century (September 1940), p. 266.

58 Stanley to Thomas, 11 October 1932, DO121/101.

59 W. K. Hancock, Smuts, The Fields of Force, 1919-1950 (London, 1968), pp. 318-25; C. M. Van der Heever, General J.B.M. Hertzog (Johannesburg, 1946), pp. 278-83.

60 W. H. Clark, 'Race Relations and Political Trends in the Union of South Africa, 1935-1940', April 1940, Clark Papers (University of Cape Town).

61 Mansergh, Problems of External Policy, pp. 381-2.

62 Angus Ross, 'Reluctant Dominion or Dutiful Daughter? New Zealand and the Commonwealth in the Inter-war Years', Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies (Vol. X; 1972), pp. 28-44.

63 W. B. Sutch, 'New Zealand and World Affairs', International Affairs (Vol. 16, No. 5; September 1937), p. 721; this article was written by Walter Nash's secretary-economist.

64 'Notes on Mr Amery's Tour in Australia and New Zealand', 8 February 1928, CAB24/192.

65 Garner, Commonwealth, p. 49.

66 'Comments by William Jordan at meeting of Dominion delegates at Geneva', 12 September 1938, DO114/94.

67 Walter Phelps Hall, Empire to Commonwealth (New York, 1928), pp. 165-82; Edward Porrit, The Fiscal and Diplomatic Freedom of the British Overseas Dominions (London, 1922), pp. 141-8.

68 D. K. Fieldhouse 'The Metropolitan Economics of Empire', in OHBE4, pp. 98-102.

69 Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (London, 1972), pp. 117-20.

70 P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, British Imperialism: Crisis and Deconstruction, 1914-90 (London and New York, 1993), pp. 96-135; Judd and Slim, The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, pp. 73-78; L. E. Davis and R. A. Huttenback, Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire. The Political Economy of British Imperialism, 1860-1912(Cambridge, 1986), pp. 160-3, 189-91, 303-6.

71 Walter Nash, 'New Zealand and the Commonwealth', United Empire (Vol. 28, No. 1; January 1937), p. 31; McKinnon, Independence and Foreign Policy pp. 23-6.

72 Keith Sinclair, Walter Nash (Auckland, 1977), p. 137.

73 John O'Brien, 'Conditional Loyalties: Australia, Ireland and the Decline of the Dominions Office', Institute of Commonwealth Studies Seminar Paper (1990), p. 2.

74 Keith Middlemas, 'The Effect of Dominion Opinion on British Foreign Policy, 1937-1938', Institute of Commonwealth Studies Seminar Paper (1971), p. 47.

75 David Carlton, 'The Dominions and the Gathering Storm', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. 6, No. 2; January 1978), pp. 172-5; Max Beloff, Dream of Commonwealth, 1921-42 (London, 1989), pp. 270-98; Ritchie Ovendale, 'Why the British Dominions Declared War' in Robert Boyce and Esmonde Robertson (eds), Paths to War: New Essays on the Origins of the Second World War (New York, 1989), pp. 276-96; Ovendale, Appeasement and the English Speaking World (Cardiff, 1975), pp. 38-63.

Notes to Chapter 2: War Again

1 John Hilliker, Canada's Department ofExternal Affairs, Vol. One (Montreal, 1990), pp. 111-213; R. G. Neale (ed.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949: Vol. II, 1939 (Canberra, 1976), pp. 13-14; Paul Hasluck, Diplomatic Witness: Australian Foreign Affairs 1941-1947 (Melbourne, 1980), pp. 3-16; Lorna Lloyd, 'Loosening the Apron Strings: The Dominions and Britain in the Inter-War Years', The Round Table (No. 369, 2003), pp. 279-303.

2 MacDonald to Halifax, 23 March 1938, DO35/576; Keith Sinclair, A History of New Zealand (London, 1959), p. 277; F. L .W. Wood, 'The Dominion of New Zealand at War' in Duncan Hall and William Elliot (eds), The British Commonwealth at War (New York, 1943), pp. 407-12; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, p. 16.

3 Dixon to Batterbee, 14 December 1937, DO35/543/28/5; ibid., letter from Malkin to Bushe, 18 February 1937, DO35/543/28/2.

4 Ann Trotter, 'The Dominions and Imperial Defence: Hankey's Tour in 1934', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. 2; 1974), pp. 318-32.

5 Bushe to Malkin, 8 February 1937, DO35/543/28/2.

6 Ibid., Malkin to Bushe, 18 February 1937.

7 Ibid., minute by Harding, 18 September 1937; Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 20.

8 Dixon to Batterbee, 14 December 1937, DO35/543/28/5; ibid., 'Memorandum prepared by Batterbee', December 1937; Sir Charles Dixon, 'Memoirs on Service in the Colonial Office, the Commonwealth Relations Office and the Commonwealth Office from 1911 to the 1970s', (n.d.), Sir Harry Batterbee Papers (Rhodes House Library, Oxford), Box 20/5; Dixon to Malkin, 23 December 1937, DO35/543/28/4; Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 91-3; in comparing his account of events with that contained within the DO's original correspondence files, Garner, who had no involvement in the preparation of these documents, seems to have become a little confused in his narrative, at least in the earlier stages.

9 'Memorandum prepared by Batterbee', December 1937, DO35/543/28/5; ibid., 'Note prepared by Dixon—"Position of the Dominions on the Event of War"', December 1937 .

10 Ibid., Batterbee to MacDonald, 7 January 1938.

11 Ibid., minute by MacDonald, 21 January 1938; ibid., Malkin to Dixon, 11 January 1938; as part of the ongoing review process of internal files adopted by the DO, in 1957 the majority of files D28/6 to D28/20 contained within DO35/543, covering approximately one year of the memorandum's progress, were deemed to be of insufficient historical interest to merit not being destroyed; see Anne Thurston, Records of the Colonial Office, Dominions Office, Commonwealth Relations Office and Commonwealth Office (London, 1995), pp. 62-4.

12 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 94.

13 John A. Cross, Whitehall and the Commonwealth: British Departmental Organisation for Commonwealth Relations, 1900-1966 (London, 1967), p. 52; G. M. Carter, British Commonwealth and International Security (Toronto, 1947), pp. 300-2; MacDonald to Halifax, 10 April 1938, CAB123/246; MacDonald, 'Interview to the Oxford Colonial Records Project' (Rhodes House Library), p. 3.

14 R. A. C. Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement: British Policy and the Coming of the Second World War (London, 1993), pp. 156-82; Keith Middlemas, The Diplomacy of Illusion (London, 1972), pp. 21-3; Duncan Hall, Commonwealth (London, 1971), pp. 753-62; Middlemas, 'The Effect of Dominion Opinion on British Foreign Policy',Collected Seminar Papers on the Dominions between the Wars (Institute of Commonwealth Studies; October 1970-March 1971), pp. 51-4; Barnett, The Collapse of British Power, pp. 228-9; Holland, The Commonwealth Alliance, pp. 200-2; Ovendale, Appeasement and the English Speaking World, pp. 210-11; Michael Graham Fry, 'Agents and Structures: The Dominions and the Czechoslovak Crisis, September 1938', Diplomacy and Statecraft, (Vol. 10, Nos. 2 and 3; 1999); 'The Influence of the Commonwealth on British Foreign Policy: The Case of the Munich Crisis' in D. C. Watt, Personalities and Policies (London, 1965), pp. 162-3; Duncan Hall and Elliot, The Commonwealth in War and Peace, p. 13; The Earl of Halifax, Fullness of Days (London, 1957), pp. 197-8; Robert J. Beck, 'Munich's Lessons Reconsidered', International Security (Vol. 14, No. 2; Autumn, 1989), pp. 161-91.

15 Bridges to Machtig, 28 September 1944, DO35/1482; ibid., Machtig to Bridges, 30 October 1944; Bridges to Woodward, 17 November 1944.

16 DO to British High Commissioners, 28 September 1938, DO35/543/28/8.

17 Liesching to Batterbee, 28 July 1938, Batterbee Papers, Box 9/1.

18 Minutes and correspondence regarding supply of papers to the UK High Commissioner in New Zealand, October/November 1938, DO35/548F.

19 'Hankey, whose mother was Australian and who, unlike most of the British politicians who paid lip service to the idea, genuinely desired participation by the Dominions in Imperial policy making'; P. G. Edwards, 'The Rise and Fall of the High Commissioner: S. M. Bruce in London, 1933-45', in A. F. Madden and W. H. Morris (eds), Studies in Commonwealth Politics and History: Australia and Britain (London, 1986), p. 54; Batterbee to MacDonald, 7 January 1938, DO35/543/28/5.

20 Batterbee to Clark, 4 January 1939, Clark Papers (London School of Economics); 'Note of a meeting on 5 January 1939', DO35/543/28/21; although it is not within the remit of this study, Harding's warning extended as far as to also keeping the information from the Irish authorities.

21 Donald Lammers, 'From Whitehall After Munich: The Foreign Office and the Future Course of

British Policy', The Historical Journal (Vol. 16, No. 4; 1973), p. 832; Malkin to Dixon, 10 January 1939, DO35/543/28/21.

22 Ibid., minute by Stephenson, 26 January 1939; Bridges to Dixon, 24 January 1939.

23 Harding to Campbell/Clark, 1 February 1939, DO35/543/28/21.

24 Clark to Harding, 20 February 1939, DO35/543/28/23; Whiskard to Inskip, 16 March 1939, DO121/46; Campbell to Inskip, 24 March 1939, F0800/310.

25 Bridges to Harding, 13 February 1939, DO35/543/28/21; Harding to Batterbee, 18 February 1939, Batterbee Papers, Box 6/4; Halifax to Inskip, 2 March 1939, FO372/3315.

26 Bridges to Minister, 1 March 1939, CAB21/488.

27 Dixon Memoirs, Batterbee Papers, Box 20/5; Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement, pp. 201-2; P. M. H. Bell, The Origins of the Second World War (London, 1986), pp. 252-4.

28 During the Munich crisis MacDonald had found himself obliged to agree to requests by the hitherto largely dormant London-based Dominion high commissioners for meetings, 'sometimes more than once a day', to brief them fully on developments. These daily gatherings were in addition to the overwhelming flow of messages and telegrams already being provided by the DO to the Dominion governments. And, requiring a good deal of advance preparation by a variety of officials, not to mention actual attendance by others, they accounted for much valuable time; Dixon Memoirs, Batterbee Papers; Malcolm MacDonald, Titans and Others (London, 1972), pp. 80-1.

29 Minute by Harding, 2 May 1933, DO35/100.

30 High Commissioner's Meeting (hereafter 'HCM'), 21 March 1939, DO121/5; Campbell to Inskip, 24 March 1939, FO800/310.

31 HCM, 30 March 1939, DO121/5.

32 Smuts to Duncan, 25 April 1939, Sir Patrick Duncan Papers (University of Cape Town); Smuts to Gullet, 6 April 1939, Jan Smuts Papers (National Archives, Pretoria); Mackenzie King Diary, 31 March 1939, Mackenzie King Papers (Library and Archives Canada, Ottawa), MG26, J13, Fiche 129-130; J. L. Granatstein and R. Bothwell, 'A Self-Evident National Duty: Canadian Foreign Policy, 1935-39', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. 3, No. 2; January 1975), p. 228.

33 Harding to Bridges, 6 April 1939, DO35/548D/1/57; Harding to Creedy (WO), 19 April 1939, CAB104/19; he would soon be hospitalised by an attack of piles which may well have been the cause of his apparent distraction, Harding to Batterbee, 6 August 1939, Batterbee Papers, Box 6/4.

34 Op. cit., 'Memorandum', April 1939; Campbell to Stephenson, 19 April 1939, DO35/543/28/23; ibid., Clark to Harding, 20 February 1939; Clark to Harding, 28 April 1939, CAB104/19.

35 Clark to Harding, 20 February1939, DO35/543/28/23; Clark to Harding, 13 March 1939, CAB104/19.

36 Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement, pp. 216-46; John Charmley, Chamberlain and the Lost Peace (London, 1989), pp. 180-5.

37 HCM, 23 May 1939, DO121/5; 'Position of the Dominions in the Event of War', May 1939, DO35/543/28/32.

38 Minute by Dixon, 24 May 1939, DO35/543/28/32; ibid., minute by Stephenson, 27 May 1939.

39 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 88-9.

40 Minute by Harding, 25 May 1939, DO35/543/28/32; ibid., minute by Inskip, 25 May 1939. Just a month earlier Harding had written to his brother-in-law in Wellington and referred to the Secretary of State as 'not having the knowledge or the temperament [for the job]', Harding to Batterbee, 16 April 1939, DO35/543/28/32.

41 Australia, it was felt, would not be far behind with a similar request for help. Carl Bridge, 'Poland to Pearl Harbor' in Carl Bridge (ed.), Munich to Vietnam: Australia's Relations with Britain and the United States since the 1930's (Melbourne, 1991), pp. 39-41; Lloyd Ross, John Curtin (Melbourne, 1977), p. 41; Cain and Hopkins, British Imperialism, pp. 511-14; Minute by Machtig, 25 February 1939, DO35/548A; Sinclair, Walter Nash, p. 177; T. K. Bewley, 'Memorandum on New Zealand', n.d., CAB21/489.

42 Beloff, Dream of Commonwealth, pp. 284-5.

43 Hancock, Smuts: The Fields of Force, pp. 318-25; Van Der Heever, General J.B.M.Hertzog, pp. 278-83.

44 The DID virtually ceased to exist 'in the stress of war' and by mid-1940 it no longer provided any real coverage of events; minute by Sir Basil Newton, 25 November 1942, DO35/1002/52/10; handwritten comment, 'Foreign Affairs', 17 July 1942, DO35/998/7/48.

45 Minute by Hadow, 19 April 1939, FO372/3314; ibid., minute by F. H. Cleobury, 26 January 1939, FO372/3314; minute by Cleobury, 6 April 1939.

46 Ibid., minute by Hadow, 24 May 1939; minute by Cadogan, 31 May 1939, FO800/310; Ovendale, Appeasement and the English Speaking World, p. 275.

47 Batterbee to DO, 23 May 1939, CAB104/19; Fairburn to Earl de la Warr, 9 May 1939, DO121/46.

48 'Index of HC Meetings', DO121/5.

49 'Minutes of a meeting to discuss security', 5 August 1939, DO35/548D/3/126.

50 Inskip to Lord Chatfield, 23 August 1939, CAB21/2464.

51 HCM, 22 August 1939, DO121/5; Dairy, 23 August 1939, Lord Hankey Papers (Churchill College) HNKY1/7; Diary, 25 August 1939, Sir Thomas Inskip Papers (Churchill College) INKP; 'Index of HC Meetings', DO121/5; 'Germany and Great Britain, Settlement', note by Massey, 31 August

1939, Massey Family Papers (Library and Archives Canada).

52 Clark to Harding, 24 August 1939, DO114/98; minute by Hadow, 9 August 1939, FO371/23964.

53 Andrew Crozier, Appeasement and Germany's Last Bid for Colonies (London, 1988); D. C. Watt, 'South African Attempts to Mediate Between Britain and Germany, 1935-1938' in Bourne and Watt (eds), Studies in International History (London, 1967); Albert Grundlingh, 'The King's Afrikaners? Enlistment and Ethnic Identity in the Union of South Africa's Defence Force During the Second World War, 1939-45', Journal of African History (Vol. 40; 1999), pp. 353-4; Van der Heever, Hertzog, pp. 278-3.

54 Minute by Scott, 31 August 1939, FO371/23965.

55 Deneys Reitz, No Outspan (London, 1943), p. 237.

56 A document discovered in Berlin in 1945 by Allied investigators revealed that Hertzog had considered accepting German offers to negotiate about the future of South West Africa in 1937/38. Although he had kept the DO informed, the post-war department was worried about what effect the news might have on imperial relations and suppressed the information; DO35/1517/211/1.

57 Chamberlain to Clark (Telegram), 3 September 1939, FO371/23964.

58 Smuts to Gillett, 28 September 1939, cited in Hancock, Smuts, p. 314.

59 High Commission (Pretoria) to DO, 29 August 1939, FO371/23964.

60 Thornton, The Imperial Idea and its Enemies (London, 1959), p. 323.

61 Andrew Stewart, 'The South African Neutrality Crisis', English Historical Review (Vol. CXXIII, No. 503; August 2008); Duncan was left distraught at what had happened and what it would mean for his country. Smuts had prevailed but the Dominion was now split on racial and political lines. When the Governor-General died only a few year's later, tributes from all sides of the political spectrum were sincere and fulsome, but for some months after the crisis he had been publicly reviled by the worst elements within the Nationalist ranks. This was because as the King's agent he remained firmly loyal to the Crown he represented despite his previous political career and natural allegiances. Duncan to Lady Duncan, 4 September 1939, Duncan Papers; The Round Table (No. 117, December 1939), pp. 200-14; Harlech to DO, 20 July 1943, DO35/1120.

62 Chamberlain's old friend in Cape Town, Abe Bailey, wrote to him twice in the first part of 1940 in extravagant praise of Smuts, 'he has proved the saviour of South Africa—goodness only knows what would have happened here'. The answer to his question would come some years later following the war's end. Sir Abe Bailey to Chamberlain, 3 February 1940, Neville Chamberlain Papers (University of Birmingham), NC7/11/33/15; ibid., Sir Abe Bailey to Chamberlain, 1 April

1940, NC7/11/33/16.

63 H. V. Hodson, 'British Foreign Policy and the Dominions', Foreign Affairs (Vol. 17; July 1939), pp. 753-63; H. V. Hodson, 'Collective Security and Empire Defence', United Empire (Vol. 30; 1939), pp. 745-7; Eric Siepmann, 'The Neutrality of South Africa', The Nineteenth Century (September 1939), pp. 279-94; Duncan Hall, 'The British Commonwealth of Nations at War' in Duncan Hall and Elliot, The British Commonwealth at War, pp. 19-27; ibid., Lucretia Ilsley, 'The Union of South

Africa in the War', pp. 426-32; Geoffrey Cox, 'The Commonwealth' in Arnold Toynbee and Veronica Toynbee (eds), Survey of International Affairs 1939-1946: The Initial Triumph of the Axis (London, 1958), pp. 300-3; Ovendale, The English Speaking Alliance, p. 5; Ovendale, 'Britain, the Dominions and the Coming of the Second World War, 1933-9' in Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Lothar Kettenacker (eds), The Fascist Challenge and the Policy of Appeasement (London, 1983), p. 335.

64 Nicholas Mansergh, Problems ofExternalPolicy, 1931-39 (London, 1952), p. 379; Andrew Stewart, '"The Liquidator": Sir Harry Batterbee and the British Wartime High Commission in New Zealand' in Chris Baxter and Andrew Stewart (eds), Diplomats at War (Leiden, 2008), pp. 171-94; Inskip to Chamberlain, 1 September 1939, PREM1/300; Lewis Gann, 'South Africa and the Third Reich',The International History Review (Vol. 14; 1992), p. 518.

65 W. G. Stevens, 'Recall Without Repining', W. G. Stevens Papers (Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington), 84-006-2/3, p. 147.

66 'Diary of a Crisis: Sunday, 3rd September 1939', Batterbee Papers, Box 9/5.

Notes to Chapter 3: Controlling the Alliance

1 D. C. Watt, How War Came (London, 1989) pp. 601-4; Parker, Chamberlain and Appeasement, pp. 337-42.

2 Holland, The Commonwealth Alliance, pp. 198-199; Diary, 17 January 1939, Inskip Papers INKP1/2; Inskip to Simon, 31 January 1939, Sir John Simon Papers (Bodleian Library, Oxford), Box 85; publicly it was understood that Inskip had been made the scapegoat for increasing dissatisfaction over government policies. Privately though it appears that much of the reason for his demotion was because he had come to believe that war was now certain to happen, leaving him at odds with Chamberlain; Sean Greenwood, 'Caligula's Horse Revisited: Sir Thomas Inskip as Minister for the Coordination of Defence, 1936-1939', Journal of Strategic Studies, (Vol. 17, No. 2; June 1994), pp. 17-38; 'Cato', Guilty Men (London, 1940), p. 79.

3 Earl of Avon, The Eden Memoirs: Vol. 3, The Reckoning (London, 1965), pp. 62-8; V. Rothwell, Anthony Eden: A Political Biography (London, 1992), p. 51; David Carlton, Anthony Eden: A Biography (London, 1981), pp. 151-3.

4 War Cabinet 7(39), 12 September 1939, CAB65/1 (hereafter 'WCM'); Yates to Tucker, 3 September 1939, PREM1/384; he exercised this right a total of 27 times during his period at the DO.

5 'Relative strengths of each of the Dominion Armed forces at the outbreak of war, September 1939', prepared by Miss Y. Streatfield, n.d. (1945?), CAB101/275; Cox, 'The Commonwealth' in Toynbee and Toynbee (eds), The Initial Triumph of the Axis, pp. 304-6.

6 R. G. Neale (ed.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-49, Vol. 2,1939 (Canberra, 1976), p. 232 (hereafter 'DAFP'); 'Action taken by the Dominions', 6 September 1939, WP(R)(39)5, CAB67/1; Campbell to DO, 20 September 1939, DO35/1003/3/1/2; Whiskard to DO, 12 September 1939, DO35/1003/3/2/3.

7 'Canadian Cooperation-Report by Chiefs of Staff Committee', 4 September 1939, WP(39)4, CAB66/1.

8 The Land Forces Committee consisted of Hoare, Chatfield, Burgin, Churchill and Hore-Belisha, CAB65/1, 23(39), 22 September 1939; J. R. M. Butler, Grand Strategy: Vol. 2 (London, 1957), p. 32.

9 'An Australian Army of 100,000', Daily Telegraph, 20 September 1939; Most Secret Cablegram, 8 September 1939, DAFP, p. 249.

10 'Action taken by the Dominions', WP(R)(39)50, 17 October 1939, CAB68; there were 6,600 troops earmarked in the first instance but it was later confirmed that the intention was to send an expeditionary force of a fully equipped division to any theatre within eight months, the British identifying France, Burma, India, Singapore or Fiji as the best locations. The New Zealand Navy's assets were placed under the Admiralty's command and RNZAF personnel in Britain were permitted to serve in the RAF adding 500 to its numbers with an order for 30 Wellington bombers also being waived; Fraser to Jordan, 3 October 1939 (National Archives, Wellington) EA1 63/2/2 pt.1; W. David McIntyre, New Zealand Prepares for War (Canterbury, 1988), pp. 337-54.

11 WCM(39)50, 19 October 1939, CAB65/1; WCM(39)75-78, 8-10 November 1939, CAB65/2; telegram from R. Campbell, 25 November 1939, CAB21/952; Michael Dockrill, 'The Foreign Office and France During the Phoney War, September 1939-May 1940' in M. L. Dockrill and B. McKercher (eds), Diplomacy and World Power, Studies in British Foreign Policy 1890-1950 (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 181, 192; the fact that these divisions would require armament from British supplies has added credence to the argument that the Dominions were a burden on Britain. This was the case at this stage of the war but the long-term benefits of the Dominions' support were plainly considerable; G. C. Peden, 'The Burden of Imperial Defence and the Continental Commitment Reconsidered', The Historical Journal (Vol. 27, No. 2; 1984), pp. 405-23; Michael Howard, The Continental Commitment (London, 1972), pp. 123-49.

12 Bewley to Machtig, 26 October 1939, CAB21/490.

13 Price to Dykes, 25 October 1939, CAB21/677; ibid., Antrobus to Porter, 25 October 1939; General Smuts had suggested that a total of two army divisions and fourteen air force squadrons be raised and trained for service in Northern or Eastern Africa.

14 Andrew Stewart, 'The British Government and the 1939 Negotiations for the Empire Air Training Plan', The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs (Vol. 377; October 2004), pp. 739-54; Cecil Edwards, Bruce of Melbourne: Man of Two Worlds (London, 1965), pp. 277-80; Butler, Grand Strategy, pp. 39-40; William Stevenson, The Origins of the British Commonwealth Air Training Scheme from 1923 to December 1939 (University of London, 1981) unpublished manuscript; F. J. Hatch, The Aerodrome of Democracy: Canada and the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, 1939-45 (Ottawa, 1983), pp. 1-12; W. A. B. Douglas, The Creation of a National Air Force: The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Vol. 2 (Ottawa, 1986), pp. 200-4.

15 WCM(39)49, 10 October 1939, CAB65/1.

16 Halifax had informed Eden of a report he had from the Washington Embassy of comments by Herridge, the Canadian minister in Washington. 'Everything [in Canada] had become rather drab. Volunteers had been told they were not immediately required, no stirring appeal had been made to deeper Canadian feeling that wished to be convinced that it was engaged upon a holy war. Herridge told me that the Canadian contribution to the Air Force made little popular appeal. The great majority of his friends would prefer conscription'; Report no. W15706/10478/68, 30 October 1939, FO371/23966.

17 WCM(39)58, 24 October 1939, CAB65/1.

18 Pearson, Through Diplomacy to Politics, p. 140.

19 WCM(39)68, 2 November 1939, CAB65/2.

20 Sir Llewellyn Woodward, British Foreign Policy in the Second World War, Vol. 1 (London, 1970), pp. 20-2.

21 WCM(39)68, 2 November 1939, CAB65/2; French tension over Britain's contribution was still increasing as witnessed in the tone of the telegrams being despatched by Ronald Campbell, the British ambassador in Paris, 'the French estimate that the French Empire is bearing a burden of war expenditure equal to that of the British Empire although it is only one third as wealthy ... the fear persists that Great Britain will insist upon a peace which will contain what France would not consider adequate political and military guarantees against any further threat', Campbell to FO, 25 November 1939, CAB21/952.

22 Report no. F11951/4108/23, 18 November 1939, FO371/23572; Cavendish Bentinck, reading the relevant telegrams in the FO, complained that, 'the Australians remain terrified of the Japanese, refuse to give any undertakings as regards an expeditionary force, and are concentrating to an excessive extent on home defence'; Report no. W14977/14472/68, 18 October 1939, FO371/23967.

23 Dominion High Commissioners Wartime Meeting (69), 22 November 1939, DO121/6 (hereafter 'HCWM'); High Commissioner, Canberra to DO (No. 301), 24 November 1939, FO371/23967.

24 As he wrote to his sister, 'As you know, I have always been more afraid of a peace offer than of an air raid, but I did feel that if Hitler made it himself it would almost certainly be in such a form as to be plainly acceptable', Chamberlain to Ida, 10 October 1939; cited in Iain Macleod, Neville

Chamberlain (London, 1961); Christopher Hill, Cabinet Decisions on Foreign Policy (London, 1991), pp. 100-45.

25 'Views of the Dominions', The Times, 9 October 1939.

26 WCM(39)43, 10 October 1939, CAB65/1; ibid., WCM(39)46, 13 October 1939; HCWM(29), 10 October 1939, DO121/6; Diary, Wednesday 11 October 1939, Lord Avon Papers (University of Birmingham), AP20/1/19.

27 Mansergh, The Commonwealth and the Nations (London, 1948), pp. 32-46.

28 MacDonald, 'Interview to the Oxford Colonial Records Project' (Rhodes House Library), p. 1.

29 Minutes by Lord Halifax and Cadogan, 11 February 1939, FO372/3315; Hankinson to Harvey,

28 March 1939, FO800/310.

30 Minute by Hadow, 12 September 1939, FO371/23966; Hankinson to Jebb, 7 September 1939, DO35/548D/3/128.

31 Notes by Norman Archer, 29 May 1962, Avon Papers, 27/1.

32 Diary, 14 September 1939, Lester Pearson Papers (Library and Archives Canada), MG 26, N8; the majority of the information comes from Norman Archer who worked as Eden's secretary and helped him with the relevant section of his memoirs. As a young naval officer he had served with the Russian fleet during the First World War and entered the DO as part of the post-war reconstruction stream. In his post-war correspondence with his former boss he refers to 'personal and secret letters which you used to write to Mr Chamberlain on matters arising out of the high commissioners meetings' but it has proven impossible to trace copies of these; Archer to Eden,

29 May 1962, Avon Papers, 27/1/62A.

33 Telegram to Dominion governments, 7 September 1939, DO35/548D; HCWM, 8 September 1939, DO121/6.

34 WP(G)(39)10, 14 October 1939, point 3, CAB21/874.

35 The Committee also agreed that the Dominions should not be invited to attend meetings of the Supreme War Council, restricting discussion to just themselves and the French. For a description of the War Council see Butler, Grand Strategy, p. 9.

36 WCM(39)17, 16 October 1939, CAB65/1; there were some reservations, most notably that meetings with the high commissioners should not take place very frequently 'in view of the heavy pressure on the members'.

37 Price to Barnard (Board of Trade), 14 October 1939, CAB104/247.

38 Thomas to Eden, 20 September 1939, CAB104/247; ibid., Graham (WO) to Jacob (Cabinet Secretariat), 16 September 1939.

39 Clark to DO (No. 162), 15 September 1939, CAB104/247.

40 Report no. W13797/9831/68, 20 September 1939, FO371/23963.

41 Minute by Hadow, 17 September 1939, FO371/23963; minute by Hadow, 12 September 1939, FO371/23966.

42 Minute by Cadogan, 27 September 1939, FO371/23963.

43 Barnard to Price, 17 September 1939, CAB104/247; Patrick Howarth, Intelligence Chief Extraordinary (London, 1986), p. 145.

44 Massey, What's Past is Prologue, pp. 297-98, 303-6; Garner cited in I. M. Cumpston, Lord Bruce of Melbourne (Melbourne, 1989), p. 159; Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience, p. 283; Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 90; Holland, Britain and the Commonwealth Alliance, p. 204; Edwards, Bruce of Melbourne, pp. 277-80; Lorna Lloyd, Diplomacy with a Difference: the Commonwealth Office of High Commissioner, 1880-2006 (Leiden, 2007), pp. 63-74.

45 HCWM(2), 8 September 1939, DO121/6.

46 Eden attended all of them with the exception of six in November, when he was conducting the Dominion minister's meeting to France. Of the Dominion high commissioners, the two most regular attendees were Massey, the Canadian representative, and Bruce from Australia who missed only one meeting.

47 Diary, 29 October 1940, Sydney Waterson Papers (University of Cape Town).

48 HCWM(5), 12 September 1939, DO121/6—it was recorded the day after discussion; WCM(39)15, 14 September 1939, CAB65/1; Ismay to Simon, 15 September 1939, CAB104/247.

49 'Question by the Rt. Hon. Ellis-Smith to the Prime Minister', 21 September 1939, CAB21/874; the issue was also debated in the Dominions, Whiskard, high commissioner in Canberra, warned Whitehall that Menzies had told him, 'there was a growing opinion amongst his colleagues that the supply of information was very meagre ... things were happening and would happen which vitally concerned Australia but about which they knew nothing until afterwards'. Surprisingly Lester Pearson viewed them as 'admirable for information'; 'Wartime Inter-governmental Consultation and Communication', n.d. (1940?), Pearson Papers, MG26, Vol. 71.

50 Duncan Hall, 'The British Commonwealth of Nations at War' in Duncan Hall and Elliot, The British Commonwealth at War, pp. 29-32; W. David McIntyre, The Commonwealth of Nations: Origins and Impacts, 1869-1971 (London, 1977), p. 177; Madden and Darwin (eds), The Dominions and India since 1900, pp. 34-49; A. J. Stockwell, 'The War and the British Empire' in John Turner (ed.),Britain and the First World War (London, 1988), pp. 36-48; Beloff, Imperial Sunset, pp. 218-220; Maurice Hankey, The Supreme Command, 1914-18, Vol. 2 (London, 1961), pp. 657-63; Hall, Commonwealth, pp. 160-76.

51 Op. cit., Hall, pp. 21-5; Judd, Empire, pp. 214-25; Porter, The Lion's Share, pp. 134-40.

52 Holland, The Commonwealth Alliance, pp. 1-151, 167-209.

53 Diary, 21 September 1939, Mackenzie King Papers.

54 Wilson to Chamberlain, 12 September 1939, DO35/1003/3/16.

55 Minute by Cavendish Bentinck, 4 October 1939, FO371/23963; WP(G)(39)10, 14 September 1939, CAB21/874.

56 Bickersteth to Euan Wallace, 1 October 1939, Hankey Papers; Campbell to DO, 5 October 1939, FO371/23967; DO to High Commissioners in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, 4 October 1939, CAB21/489.

57 'Meetings with Dominion Ministers', November 1939, CAB99/1; Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 197-8; there were six Canadians, two each from Australia and New Zealand and a single South African.

58 'Minutes of First Meeting', 1 November 1939; ibid., 'Minutes of Eighth Meeting', 20 November

1939. One of the delegates described his experiences of the meetings: 'The British are a phlegmatic race . it might have been the meeting of some suburban county council discussing the rates', Reitz, No Outspan, p. 248.

59 Diary, 2 November 1939 in Nigel Nicolson (ed.), Harold Nicolson, Diaries and Letters 1939-45, (New York, 1967), p. 41.

60 'Questions relating to Canadian War Finance', 1 December 1939 CAB21/490; 'I wrote in my diary, "So now it's to be a fight between a monopoly seller in Canada and a monopoly buyer here. Bad business this in wartime. Both sides are to blame"', Pearson, p. 145; London's suspicions seem not to have been misplaced in light of the following: 'It is not always wrong to turn other person's misfortune to one's personal advantage. And by the same token, it is not wrong for Canadian enterprises to turn to profitable account their advantageous position and opportunity in respect of the current war . our enterprises would be blameworthy if they failed to use the present opportunity to sell, to the maximum of possibility all they can ... and to sell at prices established by the law of supply and demand', J. C. Kirkwood, 'The War and Business', The Quarterly Review of Commerce (No. VII; Autumn, 1939).

61 'A Discussion between the Chancellor, the Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs and Bruce and Casey', 24 November 1939, CAB21/490.

62 Diary, 11 October 1939, Avon Papers.

63 'Debate on the Address', 30 November 1939, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 355), pp. 405-8, 761-2, 1, 341-2.

64 Peake (FO News Department) to Eden, 1 February 1940, Avon Papers, AP20/8/286; 'Research Draft prepared by Mrs Agnew', August 1945, CAB102/33; Diary, 24 April 1940, Pearson Papers.

65 Minute by Dixon, 26 January 1940, FO371/25224; ibid., minutes by Bentinck, 12 and 26 January

1940.

66 Minute by Dixon, 21 February 1940, DO35/1003/3/4/32; minute by Dixon, 26 January 1940, FO371/25224; ibid., minute by Bentinck, 26 January 1940.

67 Winston Churchill, The Gathering Storm (London, 1948), pp. 373, 569; S. Roskill, The Navy at War, 1939-1945 (London, 1960), pp. 59-61; William Manchester, Winston Churchill: The Caged Lion (London, 1988), p. 572; David Reynolds, 'Churchill in 1940: The Worst and Finest Hour' in Roger Blake and Wm. Roger Louis (eds), Churchill,(London, 1993) pp. 241-5; Churchill to Chamberlain, 25 December 1939, Neville Chamberlain Papers; Clive Ponting, Churchill (London, 1994), pp. 416-28; Richard Collier, The Years of Attrition (London, 1993), pp. 18-32, 34-48; Martin Gilbert, Finest Hour: Winston S. Churchill, 1939-1941 (London, 1983), pp. 127-284; David Irving,Churchill's War, Vol. 1 (Australia, 1987), pp. 205-54; Campbell to Machtig, 27 February 1940, DO35/1072/276/124; Whiskard to Eden, 22 February 1940, DO121/111.

68 HCWM, 22-29 February1940, DO121/7;'October 1939', Lord Bruce's War Papers (National Archives of Australia, Canberra) AA1969/275/1; DO Minute, 16 March 1940, DO35/1000/1/101.

69 Machtig to Eden, 2 April 1940, DO121/66; ibid., Chamberlain to Mackenzie King, 8 April 1940.

70 Earl of Avon, The Eden Memoirs, pp. 95-6.

71 Minute by Dixon, 13 March 1940, FO371/25222; ibid., minute by Dixon, 20 March 1940.

72 Minute by Mason, 7 April 1940, FO371/25224; HCWM, 10/11 April 1940, DO121/7; J. W. Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record: Vol. 1, 1939-44 (Toronto, 1960), pp. 77, 107.

73 Diary, 10 April 1940, Waterson Papers; Waterson had been an early beneficiary of Smuts' victory in September 1939 and his decision to take control of the External Affairs Department in Pretoria and purge the officials with a pronounced anti-British outlook who had dominated it pre-war. Another former minister turned diplomat, much as was the norm for Dominions who lacked a professional cadre of such officials, he was moved from Paris to London and it was made clear to the British government that the new man could be trusted; Evening News, n.d. (September 1939?), Waterson Papers; minute by Dixon, 6 March 1940, FO371/25224.

74 Diary, 3 April 1940, Waterson Papers; HCWM, 22 April 1940, DO121/7; 'Note on Supreme War Council', 16/24 April 1940, DO35/998/7/13; WM(39)15, 14 September 1939, CAB65/1; Gilbert, Finest Hour, p. 250; Diary, 24 April 1940, Pearson Papers.

75 HCWM, 1 May 1940, DO121/7; ibid. 4 May 1940; ibid., 6 May 1940.

76 Eden to Halifax, 9 May 1940, DO35/1000/1/110.

77 John Colville, The Fringes of Power: Vol. 1 (London, 1985), pp. 139-44; John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory (London, 1993), pp. 395-434; Robert Blake, 'How Churchill Became Prime Minister' in Blake and Roger Louis (eds), Churchill, pp. 257-74; Sir John Wheeler-Bennett (et al.), Action this Day: Working with Churchill (London, 1968), pp. 203-4; Diary, 8 May 1940, Waterson Papers.

Notes to Chapter 4: Standing Alone

1 Ronald Hyam, 'Churchill and the British Empire' in Blake and Roger Louis (eds), Churchill, pp. 167-86; Watt, Personalities and Policies, p. 162; Machtig had 'some most interesting stories' about Churchill's relationship with the Dominions but he could not be induced to share them, instead preferring to keep them to himself, even after Churchill's death, Dixon to Batterbee, 21 March 1968, Batterbee Papers, Box 20; Gilbert, Finest Hour, p. 81; Sir Evelyn Wrench, 'Churchill and the Empire' in Charles Eade (ed.), Churchill by His Contemporaries (London, 1953), p. 288.

2 Alfred Emmott (Churchill's fellow MP at Oldham in the 1900 parliament) to Asquith, 20 May 1915, cited in Roy Jenkins, Churchill (London, 2001), p. 275.

3 Leo Amery, My Political Life: Vol. 1, England Before the Storm (London, 1953), p. 196. Although they were friends of a sort, the two men often clashed. So much so the individual who can take much of the credit for creating the DO would later complain that the wartime prime minister, 'Congenitally Little England' as he once referred to him, 'never really possessed an "imperial" or "commonwealth" intellect'; Roger Louis, In the Name of God Go!, p. 89; Roger Louis, 'Churchill and Egypt' in Blake and Roger Louis (eds), Churchill, p. 486.

4 Winston Churchill, 'The Mystery of Empire', The Sunday Dispatch, 17 March 1940 [N.B. written before the outbreak of war] Chartwell Papers (Churchill College), CHAR8/666.

5 Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay: The United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire (London, 1978), p. 16; Churchill to Amery, 7 December 1924, DO121/1.

6 Winston Churchill, 'The Statute of Westminster', (n.d.) Chartwell Papers, CHAR8/565.

7 Martin Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill (Vol. 5, 1922-39) (London, 1976), p. 584.

8 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 13, 55, 153.

9 Sir Ian Jacob cited in Lord Normanbrook (ed.), Action this Day: Working with Churchill (London, 1968), p. 204.

10 'Winston Churchill', The Round Table (March 1965), p. 104.

11 Diary, 3 November 1942, Waterson Papers.

12 I. Stewart, The Struggle for Crete (London, 1966), p. 51.

13 'Memoir written for the Mackenzie King colloquium at University of Waterloo 1975', MacDonald Papers, 109/7/48; Roland Quinault, 'Churchill and Australia 1899-1945', War and Society, (Vol. 6, No. 1; May 1988), pp. 41-9; Robert Menzies, 'Churchill and the Commonwealth' in Sir James Marchant (ed.), WSC: Servant of Crown and Commonwealth (London, 1954), p. 92.

14 Typical were his comments to a Foreign Press Association lunch in March 1940 at the Savoy, when he had told his audience that the scope and significance of the Dominions' support had 'no parallel in history' and would prove decisive when it was fully developed; 'Dominions' Own Cause', The Times, 14 March 1940. The FO had been enthusiastic supporters of what was viewed as an opportunity to be seen to be more visibly supportive of the Dominions' effort. The DO were uncertain as to whether this would be such a good idea in light of the Canadian's recent obstructions and did their best to stall; it was perhaps fortunate therefore that the German attack against Norway and the change in government this precipitated should have forced a cancellation; Charles Peake (head of FO News Dept.) to Eden, 1 February 1940, Avon Papers, AP20/8/286; ibid., 'Handwritten note by Eden', n.d. (1962?), 27/1/62B; Notes by Archer, 29 May 1962; Chamberlain to Mackenzie King, 2 April 1940, DO121/66; ibid., Machtig to Eden, 2 April 1940; Stephenson to Eden and Machtig, 30 March 1940, DO35/998/7/1; ibid., Machtig to Eden, 2 April 1940; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, p. 40.

15 Diary 17 April 1940, Waterson Papers; ibid., 17 April 1940; 'Conversation with Neville Henderson', 13 October 1939, Bruce Papers.

16 'Eden leaves us for the WO. I'm sorry: it has been most interesting and agreeable working with him for eight months, seeing him every day. He is a delightful fellow and I should say certain to be PM one day. In about 10 years time he will make an ideal Conservative peacetime PM. He is able, receptive, liberal and I think quite incapable of any kind of intrigue or dirty work—the type of man an Englishman likes—but he is not ruthless or tough enough for war'; Diary 11 May 1940, Waterson Papers; Diary, 12 May 1940, Avon Papers.

17 Oliver Stanley to Churchill, 13 May 1940, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/11/62-64.

18 Ben Pimlott (ed.), The Second World War Diary of Hugh Dalton, 1940-45 (London, 1986), pp. 190-1.

19 Memoirs, May 1940-April 1943, p. 6, Sir John Martin Papers (Churchill College) MART.

20 Minute by Garner, 18 September 1940, DO35/1012/40/1; this was an apparently common difficulty, during a September 1940 High Commissioner meeting he had gone to sleep 'peacefully' whilst the DW telegrams were being read; Diary 30 September 1940, Waterson Papers.

21 HCWM, 17 May 1940, DO121/8; Diary 15 May 1940, Waterson Papers; ibid., Diary 17 May 1940; Diary 3 June 1940; Diary, 23 June 1940; HCWM, 25 June 1940, DO121/8; Diary, 15 May 1940, Massey Papers (University of Toronto); Dairy, 15 May 1940, Pearson Papers; Bruce to Menzies, 15 May 1940, in R. G. Neale (ed.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, Vol. 3,1940(Canberra, 1979) (hereafter 'DAFP III').

22 HCWM, 4 May 1940, DO121/8; Bentinck to Dixon, 1 May 1940, FO371/25218.

23 Ibid., Parkinson to Cadogan, 7 May 1940; Cadogan to Bentinck, 7 May 1940.

24 Parkinson to Batterbee, 16 May 1940, Batterbee Papers, Box 7/3.

25 Ibid., Cadogan to Bentinck, 9 May 1940; David Dilks (ed.), The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, 1938-1945 (London, 1971), pp. 276-86.

26 Minute by Bentinck, 13 May 1940, FO371/25222.

27 Menzies to DO, 23 May 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/1/1B; Churchill to Dominion Prime Ministers, 23 May 1940, PREM4/43B/1; WCM(40)140, 26 May 1940, CAB65/13.

28 Whiskard to DO, 27 May 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/1/1B; ibid., Batterbee to DO, 27 May 1940; Harding to DO, 27 May 1940; John Robertson and John McCarthy, Australian War Strategy 1939-1945 (Brisbane, 1985), pp. 75-80; Diary, 24 May 1940, Mackenzie King Papers; 'We Shall be Together', Time, 27 May 1940.

29 Hill, Cabinet Decisions on Foreign Policy, pp. 156-63, 169-73; HCWM, 28 May 1940, DO121/8; 'Memorandum', May 1940, DO35/548E/22/9/3.

30 Harding to Batterbee, 5 June 1940, Batterbee Papers, Box 6/4.

31 P. G. Edwards, 'R.G.Menzies Appeals to the United States, May-June 1940', Australian Outlook (No. 28; 1974), pp. 64-70; P. G. Edwards, 'S.M. Bruce, R.G. Menzies and Australia's War Aims and Peace Aims, 1939-1940', Historical Studies (Vol. 17, No. 66; 1976/77), pp. 10, 11.

32 Eden to Inskip, 3 June 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/1/1B; ibid. WO to Archer, 30 May 1940; New Zealand troops were reported to have cheered when they were told of Italy's entry into the war as it 'put an end to a trying period of uncertainty'; 'Reaction in the Dominions', The Times, 13 June 1940.

33 'Memorandum by the First Lord of the Admiralty on Australian and New Zealand Naval Defence', WP135(39), 23 November 1939, CAB67/3; WCM(39)92, 23 November 1939, CAB65/2.

34 Dixon to Ronald (FO), 10 June 1940, DO35/1003/8/13; ibid. minute by Garner, 13 June 1940; minute by Stephenson, 14 June 1940; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, pp. 43-4.

35 WCM(40)141, 27 May 1940, CAB65/13; Edwards, Bruce of Melbourne, pp. 286-99; Gilbert, Finest Hour, p. 435.

36 Telegram to Dominions, 12 June 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/1/1B; Telegram for Dominion Prime Ministers only, 14 June 1940; P. M. H. Bell, A Certain Eventuality (London, 1974), p. 31-54; HCWM, 12 June 1940, DO121/8; WCM(40)165, 13 June 1940, CAB65/7; ibid., WCM(40)165, 13 June 1940; HCWM, 13 June 1940, DO121/8; Chiefs of Staff Report, June 1940, WP168(40), CAB66/7; Chiefs of Staff Report, June 1940, WP201(40), CAB66/8; Dairy, 3 June 1940, Waterson Papers.

37 Robert Menzies, Afternoon Light (London, 1967), pp. 17-19; Whiskard to Eden, 22 February 1940, DO121/11; Menzies to DO, 16 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/3/3; ibid., FO to DO, 19 June 1940; Menzies to Bruce, 17 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/3/4; ibid., Churchill to Menzies, 23 June 1940; Menzies to DO, 18 June 1940, DO35/1003/1/3/7; ibid., DO to Whiskard, 21 June 1940.

38 Batterbee to DO, 15 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/4/1; Governor-General to Caldecote, 15 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/4/2; ibid., Machtig to Phillips, 22 June 1940; Batterbee to DO, 18 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/4/4. Wellington's support was welcomed within the FO: 'On the night of 15 June [1940], heart-warming messages reached 10 Downing Street from Australia and New Zealand. Both offered their unconditional support. "If HM Government in the United Kingdom decide to fight on" said the telegram from Wellington, "we pledge this Dominion to remain with them to the end, and we are confident this policy is unchangeable in the Dominion ... whatever the decision ... in these most difficult circumstances, it will be understood, accepted and supported by us to the end". Churchill replied at 3.30am: "I am deeply touched by your message, which is only in keeping with all that the Mother Country has ever received in peace or war from New Zealand"', David Dilks (ed.), The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, pp. 302-3.

39 Caldecote to Batterbee, 26 July 1940, Batterbee Papers, Box 6/1; Mason to Garner, 19 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/4/2; ibid., Garner to Stephenson, 20 June 1940; Machtig to Caldecote, 21 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/4/4; Anne Orde, The Eclipse of Great Britain, The United States and British Imperial Decline, 1895-1956 (London, 1996), pp. 130-1.

40 Harding to DO, 19 June 1940, DO35/1004/11/5/3.

41 Smuts to Churchill, 12 July 1940, DO35/1003/11/1/36; ibid., Churchill to Smuts, 13 July 1940; A. J. Marder, From the Dardanelles to Oran (London, 1974), pp. 206-88; Bell, A Certain Eventuality, pp. 38, 152-6; Warren Tute, The Deadly Stroke (London, 1973), pp. 36-62; Churchill, Their Finest Hour, p. 573.

42 Winston S. Churchill (ed.), Never Give In!: The Best Of Winston Churchill's Speeches (Pimlico, 2004), 'This Was Their Finest Hour', 18 June 1940, p. 227.

43 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 201.

44 Minute by Liesching, 17 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/1/4.

45 David Day, Menzies and Churchill at War (New York, 1988), pp. 25-7; Churchill, Finest Hour, p. 214.

46 Batterbee to Whiskard, 6 July 1940, Batterbee Papers, Box 7/5; ibid., Whiskard to Batterbee, 22 July 1940.

47 Ibid., Batterbee to Whiskard, 6 July 1940; HCWM, 6-18 July 1940, DO121/9.

48 Harding to DO, 19 June 1940, DO35/1004/11/5/3.

49 Halifax to Massey, 23 June 1940, DO121/8.

50 Diary, 23 June 1940, Waterson Papers; HCWM, 25 June 1940, DO121/8.

51 Diary, 28 June 1940, Waterson Papers.

52 Ibid., Waterson to Smuts, 26 July 1940.

53 Ibid., Diary, 26 July 1940.

54 WCM(40)214, 29 July 1940, CAB65/14.

55 HCWM, 31 July 1940, DO121/9.

56 'Note of a Meeting', 31 July 1940, DO35/1000/1/124; Robertson and McCarthy, Australian War Strategy, pp. 146-9.

57 'Progress of the War', 20 August 1940, House of Lord Official Report (Vol. 67), pp. 272-3.

58 HCWM, 8 August 1940, DO121/9; The Memoirs of Lord Ismay (London, 1960), p. 192.

59 HCWM, 23 August 1940, DO121/9; ibid. 26 August 1940; ibid., 29 August 1940.

60 Eden to Churchill, 18 September 1940, PREM3/63/13; ibid. Eden to Churchill, 20 September 1940.

61 Gilbert, Finest Hour, pp. 747-52, 787-90, 804-10; Irving, Churchill's War, pp. 385-6, 420-4; Churchill, Finest Hour, pp. 390-4, 569-72; HCWM, 24 September 1940, DO121/9; WCM(40)259, 26 September 1940, CAB65/16.

62 Churchill, Finest Hour, pp. 389-90; minute by Holmes, 1 October 1940, DO35/1003/11/1/74.

63 Bruce to Menzies, 26 September 1940, DAFP III; ibid., Menzies to Churchill, 29 September 1940; 'Minute', September 1940, Lord Bruce's War Files, AA1969/275/1; HCWM, 26 September 1940, DO121/9; Churchill to Menzies, 2 October 1940, DO35/1003/11/1/74; ibid., 'Note by Bruce of talk with Churchill', 2 October 1940; ibid., Bruce to Menzies, 2 October 1940; ibid., minute by Holmes, 1 October 1940; Diary, 3 October 1940, Waterson Papers.

64 Ibid., Diary, 25 September 1940.

65 HCWM, 1 October 1940, DO121/9; Menzies to Churchill, 4 October 1940, DAFP III; Whiskard to DO, 1 October 1940, DO35/1003/11/1/74.

66 Churchill to Menzies, 6 October 1940, PREM3/63/13.

67 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 199; Machtig to Batterbee, 28 August 1940, DO35/1000/1/24; ibid., Liesching to Batterbee, 3 September 1940; Machtig to Batterbee, 28 August 1940; Diary, 2 September 1940, Avon Papers; Machtig to Batterbee, 28 August 1940, Batterbee Papers, Box 7/2.

68 Caldecote to Batterbee, 26 July 1940, Batterbee Papers, Box 6/1; Churchill to Caldecote, 15 August 1940, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/13/8.

69 Ibid., Churchill to Caldecote, 2 October 1940; he would now be the Lord Chancellor's effective deputy, serving as the second most senior judge in the country after Lord Simon.

70 Diary, 31 October 1940, Lord Woolton Papers (Bodleian Library, Oxford), M. S. Woolton.

71 Duncan to Lady Selbourne, 8 October 1940, Duncan Papers.

72 A. R. Peters, Anthony Eden at the Foreign Office, 1931-1938 (New York, 1986), pp. 258-60; Lord Todd, 'Robert Arthur James Gascoyne Cecil, Fifth Marquess of Salisbury, 1893-1972', Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society (Vol. 19; Dec. 1973), pp. 621-7.

73 Amery to Smuts, 16 October 1940, cited in Jean Van der Poel (ed.), Smuts Papers, Vol. 6 (Cambridge, 1973), p. 256; Pimlott, Diary of Hugh Dalton, p. 53; 'Neville [Chamberlain] was in a rage yesterday and in the morning whilst he was going over questions he delivered himself of an angry tirade against the "Glamour Boys". More particularly, Bobbety Cranborne who is the most dangerous of the lot. "Beware" he said "of rampant idealists. All Cecils are that"'; 5 May 1939, cited in Robert Rhodes James, Chips: The Diaries of Sir Henry Channon (London, 1967), p. 244.

74 In being appointed as leader of the House of Lords he took an office which both his father and grandfather had held before him. An article in Commonwealth and Empire Review some years later commented not just on this unique family record but also the manner in which he resembled his most celebrated ancestor, Sir Robert Cecil; 'Commonwealth Consultations', Commonwealth and Empire Review (March-May 1945), pp. 37-8.

75 John Colville, Winston Churchill and His Inner Circle (New York, 1981), p. 223; if there was the potential for family animosity, from an early age, Churchill had nonetheless established what would prove to be a lasting friendship with Lord Hugh Cecil, 'the most intimate friend he ever had' and his best man at his wedding; Rene Kraus, The Men around Churchill (New York, 1941), pp. 72-4; Colville, The Fringes of Power: Vol. 1, p. 382.

76 Churchill, The Gathering Storm, p. 222.

77 Colville, Inner Circle, p. 227.

78 Churchill to Randolph, 18 April 1944, Chartwell Papers, CHAR1/381/21-31.

79 Churchill to Halifax, 28 July 1940, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/13/8.

80 Punch, 17 July 1940.

Notes to Chapter 5: Coalition United

1 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 193-4; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, pp. 45-6.

2 Ronald Tree, When the Moon was High (London, 1975) pp. 54-5.

3 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 163, 176-9.

4 Stirling to Department of External Affairs, Canberra, 5 October 1940 in W. J. Hudson and H. J. W. Stokes (eds), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949: Vol. 4, July 1940-June 1941 (Canberra, 1980), p. 206 (hereafter 'DAFP IV').

5 Cranborne to Waterson, 17 October 1940, Waterson Papers.

6 Ibid., Diary, 3 October 1940; Diary, 4 November 1940; Diary, 3 October 1940, Massey Papers; Bruce to Menzies, 3 October 1940, Bruce Papers.

7 Cranborne to Halifax, 24 October 1940, FO371/25224.

8 Skelton to Wrong, 2 March 1939, Pearson Papers.

9 Note by Costley-White, May 1940, DO35/998/7/11.

10 Menzies to Bruce, 17 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/3/4; ibid., Churchill to Menzies, 23 June 1940.

11 Day, Menzies and Churchill at War, pp. 30-4.

12 Whiskard to DO, 20 September 1939, DO121/46.

13 Whiskard to DO, 23 October 1940, DO35/998/7/11.

14 Sir Frederic Eggleston to Mackay, 8 October 1940, Eggleston Papers (National Library of Australia), MS423/1/143.

15 DO to Dominion Governments, 22 April 1940, DO35/998/7/1; Garner to Parkinson, 16 May 1940, DO35/998/7/9; DO to PM, 20 May 1940, PREM4/43A/11; Peck (PM's Office) to Costley-White, 27 May 1940, DO35/998/7/9; ibid., Machtig to Secretary of State, 31 May 1940; ibid., DO to Peck, 6 June 1940; Machtig to Cranborne, 24 October 1940, DO35/998/7/11.

16 Note prepared by Costley-White, May 1940, DO35/998/7/11.

17 Ibid., memorandum by Stephenson, 26 October 1940; ibid., memorandum by Cranborne (for War Cabinet), 28 October 1940.

18 Josiah Wedgewood MP to Churchill, 25 October 1940, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/8/122. This he had been advised to strongly reject on the grounds that '[the Dominions] would get swelled head; we are the Power House and pander to them enough already'.

19 'The War Situation', 8 October 1940, House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 67), pp. 402-8, 453-6; ibid., Lord David Davies, Question 'Dominions and the War', 8 August 1940, p. 161; Elibank to Churchill, 10 October 1940, PREM4/43/A/13; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, p. 93.

20 Churchill, Finest Hour, pp. 422-38; Gilbert, Finest Hour, pp. 876-90.

21 Stephenson to Machtig, 30 October 1940, DO35/998/7/13.

22 Mackenzie King to Churchill, 31 October 1940, DO35/998/7/13; ibid., Prime Minister's Personal Minute (No. M282), copied to Cranborne, 4 November 1940; ibid., Cranborne to PM, 8 November

1940.

23 Ibid., PM to Cranborne, 10 November 1940.

24 Cranborne to PM, 11 November 1940, DO35/998/7/13; ibid., Bridges to Cranborne, 11 November 1940; PM to Cranborne, 13 November 1940.

25 Cranborne to Churchill, 21 December 1940, CHAR20/11/114-116. Suggestions that he would be moved to Washington persisted into the following year and were clearly a source of annoyance to Cranborne: 'What an absurd idea about my going to Washington! I am glad to hear that there is nothing in it. Apart from everything else, it would be the greatest possible mistake for Edward to throw up the sponge after less than six months. Every ambassador takes at least a year to settle down to a new post. He cannot expect to be known and liked before that. And especially in this time for Edward, who is by nature shy and fastidious. I hope we shall hear no more of such nonsense'; Cranborne to Emrys-Evans, 31 July 1941, Emrys-Evans Papers (British Library), Add. MSS 58240.

26 'Information for the Dominions', 5 June 1940, WP192(40), CAB66/8.

27 Colonel Bishop to Holmes, 15 December 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/25.

28 Bishop to Machtig, 10 December 1940 within 'Information for the Dominions', WP466(40), December 1940, CAB66/14.

29 Machtig to Cranborne, 20 December 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/25; Pimlott, Diary of Hugh Dalton, pp. 120-2.

30 Churchill to Cranborne, 12 November 1940, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/13/8; ibid., Churchill to Cranborne, 1 December 1940; Churchill to Cranborne, 21 December 1940.

31 Ibid., Cranbourne to Churchill, 23 December 1940.

32 Ibid., Churchill to Cranborne, 25 December 1940.

33 Note by Bruce of conversation with Churchill, 18 December 1940, Bruce Papers.

34 Churchill to Cranbourne, 7 January 1941, DO121/119.

35 Minute by Holmes, 30 December 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/25; ibid., minute by Stephenson, 1 January 1941; ibid., Machtig to Cranboune, 9 January 1941; Cranbourne to Churchill, 8 January

1941, DO121/10A; minute by Cranbourne, 12 January 1941, DO35/1003/2/11/25.

36 Diary, 11 January 1941, Menzies Papers (National Library of Australia), MS4936.

37 Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, p. 90.

38 Day, Menzies and Churchill at War, pp. 33-40, 63-171; Daily Telegraph, 22 February 1941 and Sunday Times, 23 February 1941; an excellent account of the visit made to Britain by Menzies can be found in Galen Roger Perras, 'Hurry Up and Wait: Robert Menzies, Mackenzie King, and the Failed Attempt to Form an Imperial War Cabinet in 1941', Working Papers in Military and International History (No. 3, September 2004), Centre for Contemporary History and Politics, University of Salford, pp. 2-42.

39 Diary, 22 February 1941, Menzies Papers.

40 Menzies to Fadden, 25 February 1941, DAFP IV; ibid., Fadden to Menzies, 26 February 1941; Menzies to Fadden, 4 March 1941.

41 Ismay to Brooke-Popham, 15 June 1941, Brooke-Popham Papers (Liddell Hart Archives), V/1/13.

42 Major-General I.S.O. Playfair et al., Official History of the Second World War: The Mediterranean and Middle East Vol. 2: The Germans Come to the Help of Their Ally, 1941 (London, 1956), pp. 1-40, 153-72; Martin van Creveld, 'Prelude to Disaster: the British Decision to Aid Greece, 1940-41', Journal of Contemporary History (Vol. 9, No. 3; 1974), pp. 65-92; Field Marshal Earl Wavell, 'The British Expedition to Greece, 1941', The Army Quarterly (Vol. 59, No. 2; January 1950), pp. 178-85; David Day, The Great Betrayal, Britain, Australia and the Onset of the Pacific War 1939-42 (Melbourne, 1988), pp. 110-41; David Horner, Inside the War Cabinet (NSW: Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1996), pp. 48-59; Sheila Lawlor, Churchill and the Politics of War, 1940-41 (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 167-259; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, pp. 96-101; General Freyberg to Churchill, 25 March 1949, Sir G.S. Cox Papers (Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington) 2003-005-15/10; Callum MacDonald, The Lost Battle: Crete, 1941 (London, 1993) pp. 87-113, 186-307; Antony Beevor, Crete: The Battle and the Resistance (London, 1991), pp. 30-82, 82-226; Brigadier A. T. J. Bell, 'The Battle for Crete—The Tragic Truth', Australian Defence Force Journal (No. 88, May/June 1991), pp. 15-18.

43 Sir Percy Joske, Sir Robert Menzies: A New, Informal Memoir (Sydney, 1978), p. 115; Diary, 17 April 1941, Pearson Papers.

44 'The Empire and the War', 2 April 1941, House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 118), pp. 952-73.

45 Diary, 30 April 1941 and 1 May 1941, Hankey Papers; Irving, Churchill's War: Vol. 1, pp. 550-6.

46 'Curtin Falls on Menzies', Reynolds Illustrated News, 27 April 1941.

47 Gilbert, Finest Hour, pp. 1083-4.

48 Cranborne to Churchill, 12 May 1941, PREM4/43A/12; ibid., Churchill to Cranborne, 13 May 1941.

49 Churchill to Cranborne, 25 March 1941, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/13/8; minute by Holmes, 13 April 1941, DO35/1012/28/1/1.

50 Churchill to Mackenzie King, 11 May 1941 in Churchill, The Second World War: Vol. 3, The Grand Alliance (London, 1949), p. 595.

51 Ibid., Churchill to Mackenzie King, 10 May 1941; Day, The Great Betrayal, p. 134.

52 Cranborne to Churchill, 12 May 1941, PREM4/43A/12; Mackenzie King to Lord Davies, 19 May 1941, DO35/999/8/3; ibid., Mackenzie King to Cranborne, 20 May 1941.

53 Churchill to Foreign and Dominion Secretaries, 30 May 1941, PREM4/43A/12; ibid., Cranborne to Churchill, 30 May 1941.

54 Cranborne to MacDonald, 31 May 1941, Malcolm MacDonald Papers (University of Durham), 14/4/13.

55 Cranborne to Churchill, 3 June 1941, PREM4/43A/12; ibid., Cranborne to Churchill, 6 June 1941; Minutes of Advisory War Council Meeting, Canberra, 28 May 1941, cited in Horner, Inside the War Cabinet, p. 62.

56 Halifax to FO, 12 June 1941, FO371/27575; Menzies had told his colleagues in Canberra upon his eventual return, 'Mr Churchill has no conception of the British Dominions as separate entities. Furthermore, the more the distance from the heart of the Empire, the less he thinks of it'; cited in Christopher Thorne, Allies of a Kind: The United States, Britain and the War against Japan, 1941-1945(London, 1978), p. 63.

57 Diary, 5 June 1941, Hankey Papers; General Ismay to Brooke-Popham, 15 June 1941, Ismay Papers, V/1/13; Cranborne to Churchill, 6 June 1941, PREM4/43A/12; Diary, 6 June 1941, Hankey Papers; General Auchinleck to Ismay, 29 September 1941, Ismay Papers, IV/Con/1/1A; Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 203; this idea was, indirectly, forwarded to King George VI but his reaction was not recorded—Diary, 20 October 1940, Colville Papers (Churchill College), CLVL.

58 Diary, 5 June 1941, Waterson Papers.

59 WHC, 8 July 1941, DO121/11; Diary, 10 July 1941, Waterson Papers.

60 Casey to Menzies, 30 May 1940, DAFP III, p. 361; Bruce to Menzies, 29 June 1940, Bruce Papers; ibid., 'Speech given by Bruce at a dinner for Sir Ronald Cross', 18 May 1941; Cranborne to Churchill, 5 June 1941, DO35/1009/446/1/21.

61 Churchill to Smuts, 13 June 1941, PREM4/43A/16; Waterson to Smuts, 11 June 1941, Waterson Papers; ibid., Smuts to Waterson, 16 June 1941; Smuts to Duncan, 16 June 1941, Duncan Papers; Cranborne to Churchill, 17 June 1941, DO35/99/8/2.

62 Cranborne to Churchill, 17 June 1941, PREM4/43A/12.

63 Colville Diary, 21 June 1941/p. 480.

64 Churchill to Cranborne, 17 June 1941, PREM4/43A/12; Colville to Garner, 18 June 1941, DO35/999/8/2; Colville, His Inner Circle, pp. 174-5.

65 Cranborne to Churchill, 18 June 1941, PREM4/43A/12; ibid., Churchill to Dominion Prime Ministers, 21 June 1941.

66 Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, pp. 216-17.

67 Minute by P. Mason, 15 October 1940, FO371/25224.

68 Mackenzie King to Churchill, 22 June 1941, PREM4/43A/12; ibid., Statement to the House of Commons by Churchill, 24 June 1941.

69 MacDonald to Cranborne, 1 August 1941, DO121/68; ibid., 'Note No. 1', 1 August 1941.

70 In the draft of his memoirs, the British high commissioner later asserted that, in his view, Churchill generally regarded his Canadian counterpart as 'a pygmy [and] with a touch of contempt'; Draft Memoirs, n.d., MacDonald Papers, 121/10/10.

71 Diary, 16 July 1941, Mackenzie King Papers; Garner to Martin, 14 July 1941, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/27/36; ibid., Churchill to Cranborne, 18 July 1941, CHAR20/27/38; ibid., 'Note No. 2', 1 August 1941; Mackenzie King to Menzies, 2 August 1941, DO121/68; ibid., Cranborne to MacDonald, 11 August 1941; Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, p. 235.

72 The Times, 13 August 1941; Menzies to Bruce, 8 August 1941 in W. J. Hudson and H. J. W. Stokes (eds), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949: Vol. 5, July 1941-June 1942 (Canberra, 1982) (hereafter 'DAFP V').

73 Diary, 14 April 1941, Menzies Papers; Diary, 17 April 1941, Pearson Papers; Diary, 1 May 1941, Hankey Papers; DO to Eden, 14 August 1941, FO954/4; Diary, 15 August 1941, Harvey Papers (British Library, London), ADD.MD.56398.

74 'Extracts of a telegram dated 2 August 1941', MacDonald Papers, 14/5/11-16; Orde, The Eclipse of Great Britain, pp. 135-6.

75 Churchill to Attlee, 7 August 1941, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/48/2; Bridges to Churchill, 5 August 1941, PREM3/485/3; MacDonald to Cranborne, 19 August 1941, MacDonald Papers, 14/5/9.

76 Batterbee to Cranborne, 29 April 1941, Batterbee Papers, 6/1; Diary, 30 June 1941, Waterson Papers; Diary, 22 August 1941, Mackenzie King Papers.

77 Smuts to Churchill, 23 August 1941, DO35/1009/446/1/38; Attlee to Churchill, 14 August 1941, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/23.

78 Churchill to Menzies, 18 August 1941, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/38/112.

79 Diary, 20 August 1941, Harvey Papers; DO to Eden, 14 August 1941, FO954/4; Diary, 25 August 1941, Mackenzie King Papers.

80 J. J. Dedman, 'Defence Policy Decisions Before Pearl Harbor', Australian Journal of Politics and History, No. 13 (1967), pp. 343-4; Australian Cabinet Minutes (Vol. 7), 19 August 1941, (National Archives, Canberra) CRS A2697; Paul Hasluck, The Government and the People (Canberra, 1973) pp. 495-6.

81 Diary, 22 August 1941, Mackenzie King Papers; ibid., Diary, 24 August 1941; Diary, 5 September 1941; HCWM, 22 August 1941, DO121/11.

82 Cross to Cranborne, 13 August 1941, CAB120/20; A. W. Martin, Robert Menzies, A Life: Vol. 1 (Melbourne, 1993), pp. 364-5, 373-8; Menzies, Afternoon Light (London, 1967), pp. 14, 52-4.

83 Churchill to Menzies, 29 August 1941, DO121/19; Waterson to Smuts, 30 August 1941, Waterson Papers.

84 Diary, 5 September 1941, Mackenzie King Papers; ibid., 16 October 1941; Churchill to Athlone, 12 September 1941, PREM4/44/10.

85 Diary, 22 August 1941, Massey Papers; Massey to Pearson, 12 September 1941, Pearson Papers.

86 Cranborne to Emrys-Evans, 31 August 1941, Emrys-Evans Papers.

Notes to Chapter 6: Pacific Test

1 Fadden to Bruce, 29 August 1941, DAFP V; Martin, Menzies, pp. 364-5.

2 Sir Earle Page, Truant Surgeon (London, 1963), p. 298.

3 Hasluck, The Government and the People, pp. 505-7.

4 Cross to Cranborne, 20 January 1942, Emrys-Evans Papers.

5 Bruce to Fadden, 29 August 1941, Bruce Papers.

6 Cross to Cranborne, 13 January 1944, DO121/11; Bruce to Fadden, 29 August 1941, DAFP V.

7 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 211.

8 Churchill to Fadden, 29 August 1941, PREM4/50/4A.

9 Diary, 25 August 1941, Waterson Papers; ibid., Waterson to Smuts, 30 August 1941; Diary, 2 September 1941; Waterson to Smuts, 30 August 1941; Smuts to Waterson, 2 September 1941.

10 Churchill to Fadden, 31 August 1941, DAFP V.

11 Fadden to Churchill, 4 September 1941, DO35/1010/476/3/30.

12 Fadden to Churchill, 5 September 1941, DO35/999/8/15.

13 'Dominions and the War: Voice in Direction', The Times, 12 June 1941; ibid., 'The Dominions and the War Cabinet', 13 August 1941; 'Dominions' Part in the War: Question of Cabinet Representation', 28 August 1941; 'The Dominions' Part', 25 August 1941.

14 Cranborne to Churchill, 4 September 1941, PREM4/50/5.

15 Cranborne to Churchill, 6 September 1941, DO35/999/8/13.

16 It also left him unsure about his high commissioner: 'I really don't know what has happened to Ronnie. Apart from telephoning every day to say that he must have a new car or two new bathrooms, 'on public grounds', he has now taken to lecturing Australian Ministers as if they were small and rather dirty boys. The air of the Antipodes seems to have gone to his head ...'; Cranborne to Emrys-Evans, 31 August 1941, Emrys-Evans Papers.

17 Churchill to Cranborne, 6 September 1941, PREM4/50/5; '[Page] was no polished Bruce. He was a country doctor, who, having made good in Macquarie Street as a very fine surgeon, got into politics and stayed there by a remarkable shrewdness in anticipating which way the cat was going to jump, and jumping before it'; 'Our Best Men Must Go to Singapore and London', Sydney Daily Telegraph, 23 December 1941.

18 Minute by Stephenson, 8 September 1941, DO35/999/8/13; Machtig to Cranborne, 9 September 1941, DO35/999/4; ibid., Cranborne to Machtig, 10 September 1941.

19 Sir Arthur Fadden, They Called Me Artie (Melbourne, 1969), pp. 73-8; Sir Arthur Fadden, 'Forty Days and Forty Nights: Memoir of a Wartime Prime Minister', Australian Outlook (Vol. 27; 1973), pp. 9-11.

20 Cranborne to Churchill, 22 April 1941, PREM3/206/1-3; Fadden, They Called Me Artie, pp. 58-9; Judith Brett, Robert Menzies' Forgotten People (Australia, 1992), pp. 250-1.

21 Day, The Great Betrayal, pp. 153-5; Horner, High Command, Australia and Allied Strategy (Sydney, 1982), pp. 100-13; Halifax to FO, 12 June 1941, FO371/27575.

22 Menzies to Churchill, 20 July 1941, DAFP V; ibid., Churchill to Menzies, 9 August 1941.

23 Horner, High Command, pp. 104-17. Blamey was even willing to make the dubious claim that his troops in Tobruk should be replaced because they were no longer medically capable of its defence; Blamey to General Auchinleck, 18 July 1941 cited in Robertson and McCarthy, Australian War Strategy, pp. 125-6; Duffy (Acting Official Secretary) to DO, 25 February 1946, DO35/1767.

24 Sebastian Cox, '"The Difference between White and Black": Churchill, Imperial Politics and Intelligence before the 1941 Crusader Offensive', Intelligence and National Security (Vol. 9, No. 3; July 1994), pp. 413-15; Fadden to Churchill, 5 September 1941, PREM3/63/2; ibid., Churchill to Auchinleck, 6 September 1941.

25 Auchinleck to Churchill, 10 September 1941, DO35/1009/446/1/40.

26 Diary, 3 October 1941, Massey Papers.

27 Lyttelton to Churchill, 11 September 1941, PREM3/63/2.

28 R. James (ed.), Victor Cazalet (London, 1976), p. 264; Diary, 15 September 1941, Harvey Papers

29 Cranborne to Emrys-Evans, 31 August 1941, Emrys-Evans Papers; WCM(41)92, 11 September 1941, CAB65/23.

30 Churchill to Fadden, 11 September 1941, PREM3/63/2; ibid., Fadden to Churchill, 15 September 1941; Fadden, They Called Me Artie, p. 77.

31 'Auchinleck Overruled During Tobruk Siege: Australia Insisted On Relief of Her Troops' (Lt-Gen H. G. Martin, Military Correspondent), Daily Telegraph, 22 August 1946.

32 Churchill to Fadden, 29 September 1941, PREM3/63/2; ibid., Fadden to Churchill, 4 October 1941; Churchill to Cranborne, 15 September 1941.

33 Ibid., Churchill to Lyttelton, 18 September 1941; minute by Pugh, 25 July 1945, DO35/1767; ibid., DO minute, 13 September 1945; Holdgate to Antrobus, 13 September 1945; minute by Antrobus, 13 September 1945.

34 Hasluck, The Government and the People, pp. 510-18.

35 Ross, John Curtin, pp. 214-19.

36 War Cabinet Defence Committee, 5 March 1941, cited in J. M. McCarthy, 'Australia: A View from Whitehall, 1939-1945', Australian Outlook (No. 28; 1974), p. 325.

37 Horner, Inside the War Cabinet, pp. 21-2; Horner, High Command, pp. 137-40; The Times, 25 August 1939.

38 Cross to Cranborne, June 1944, Machtig Papers, DO121/111; Brooke-Popham to Ismay, 28 February 1941, Brooke-Popham Papers.

39 Day, The Great Betrayal, p. 188; Cox, 'The Difference between White and Black', pp. 416-17; Horner, High Command, p. 123.

40 It is easy to see why it has been described as a long, slow game, one that wavered between, conciliatory diplomacy, economic blackmail and downright appeasement at the basis of which lay the panacea, 'Main Fleet to Singapore', John Gallagher, The Decline, Revival and Fall of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 130-1; John McCarthy, 'Singapore and Australian Defence, 1921-1942',Australian Outlook, (Vol. 25; 1971), pp. 165-79; Ian Cowman, Dominion or Decline: Anglo-American Naval Relations on the Pacific, 1937-1941 (Oxford, 1996), pp. 37-9.

41 For example the Review of Imperial Defence and the Far Eastern Appreciation, two major documents produced by the British chiefs of staff as preparation for the 1937 Imperial Conference; W. David McIntyre, The Rise and Fall of the Singapore Naval Base (London, 1979), pp. 129-31; A. C. Welburn, 'The Singapore Strategy: Half-Truths, Evasion and Outright Deception', Australian Defence Force Journal (No. 100; May/June 1993), pp. 39-48.

42 'Imperial Naval Policy', Committee of Imperial Defence (Minutes of 123rd Meeting) cited in Donald Gordon, The Dominion Partnership in Imperial Defence, 1870-1914 (Baltimore, 1965), p. 279.

43 W. David McIntyre, New Zealand Prepares for War (Canterbury, 1988), pp. 193, 203-16, 241; McIntyre, 'Imperialism and Nationalism' in Geoffrey W. Rice (ed), The Oxford History of New Zealand (Melbourne, 2002), pp. 338-47; Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Longmore had been part of the British delegation and confirmed publicly four years later that Frederick Jones, the NZ defence minister, 'had not appeared to be convinced' by his assurances that New Zealand would be all right as long as Singapore was held, 'Speech given at the Royal Empire Society, London by The Hon. Frederick Jones, MP', 8 June 1943, United Empire (Vol. 34, No. 5), p. 128.

44 Committee of Imperial Defence (Minutes of 355th Meeting), 2 May 1939, CAB2/8; Report of the Chiefs of Staff Sub-Committee (53rd Meeting), 20 June 1939, CAB27/625; 'Appreciation on the Far East', June 1939, CAB104/70; Raymond Callahan, 'The Illusion of Security, Singapore 1919-1942', Journal of Contemporary History (No. 9; April 1974), pp. 77-81; Ovendale, Appeasement and the English Speaking World, pp. 243-9; Lionel Wigmore, Australia in the War of1939-1945: Army Vol. 4, The Japanese Thrust (Canberra, 1957), pp. 6-12; S. Woodburn Kirby, The War Against Japan: Vol. 1, The Loss of Singapore (London, 1957), pp. 1-22.

45 Malcolm Murfett, 'Living in the Past: A Critical Re-examination of the Singapore Naval Strategy, 1918-1941',War and Society (Vol. 11, No. 1; May 1993), pp. 91-3.

46 DO to Dominion Prime Ministers, 13 June 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/1/1B.

47 Bruce to Menzies, 3 July 1940, Lord Bruce's War Files; Ismay to Bruce, 4 July 1940, DAFP IV, pp. 13-15; Dixon Memoirs, Batterbee Papers, Box 20/5.

48 'Singapore and the Empire', 1923, Chartwell Papers, CHAR8/338.

49 Churchill to Chamberlain, 25 March 1939, cited in A. J. Stockwell, 'Imperialism and Nationalism in South-East Asia' in Brown and Roger Louis (eds), OHBE4; Robert O'Neil, 'Churchill, Japan and British Security in the Pacific, 1904-1942' in Blake and Roger Louis (ed.), Churchill, pp. 279-86; ibid., Churchill to Chamberlain, 23 August 1939, cited in D. C. Watt, 'Churchill and Appeasement', p. 202.

50 Minutes of Meeting with Dominion Representatives, 20 November 1939, CAB99/1.

51 Murfett, 'Living in the Past', pp. 94-5; Callahan, 'The Illusion of Security', pp. 82-6.

52 War Cabinet submission by Curtin, 13 October 1941, DAFP V, pp. 133-6 .

53 Jeffrey Grey, The Military History of Australia (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 160-3.

54 Whiskard to Inskip, 19 June 1939, DO121/46; T. B. Millar, Australia in Peace and War (London, 1978), pp. 137, 140-1; Casey to Evatt, 25 October 1941, DAFP V.

55 Mackenzie King to Churchill, 25 October 1941, DO35/999/8/18.

56 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, p. 211.

57 Brooke-Popham to Ismay, 10 October 1941, Brooke-Popham Papers; the media in London meanwhile preferred to dwell on 'his hearty laugh, which he use[d] remarkably well as an evasive instrument when embarrassed by a touchy question', Evening News, 28 October 1941, DO35/999/8/18.

58 Page, Truant Surgeon, pp. 310-13; Diary, 5 November 1941, Cadogan Papers (Churchill College), ACAD1/10.

59 Diary, 3 December 1941, Massey Papers.

60 Memorandum on 'Machinery of Consultation', Sir Earle Page Papers (National Library of Australia, Canberra), Item No. 641.

61 Minute by Cranborne, 25 August 1941, DO35/1079/5; Churchill to Fadden, 31 August 1941, DAFP V, pp. 92-3; Advisory War Council Minute, 12 September 1941, DAFP V, pp. 106-108; ibid., Curtin to Cranborne, 16 October 1941, p. 149; Churchill to Curtin, 26 October 1941, pp. 153-4.

62 WCM(41)112, 12 November 1941, CAB65/24; John Pritchard, 'Winston Churchill, the Military and Imperial Defence in East Asia' in Saki Dockrill (ed.), From Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima (London, 1994), pp. 42-4; S. Hatano and S. Asada, 'The Japanese Decision to Move South' in Boyce and Robertson (eds), Paths to War, pp. 399-403; Thorne, Allies of a Kind, pp. 51-85; 'Note of a Meeting between Halifax and the Dominion High Commissioners', 31 July 1940, DO35/1000/1/124; Minute, 28 August 1941, DO35/1010/476/3/29.

63 Waterson to Smuts, 11 November 1941, Waterson Papers; ibid., Diary, 31 October 1941; Diary, 27 September 1941.

64 Duff Cooper to Churchill, 31 October 1941, PREM3/155; Glen St.J. Barclay, 'Singapore Strategy: The Role of the United States in Imperial Defense', Military Affairs (Vol. 39, No. 2; April 1975), p. 57.

65 Gowrie to DO, 10 October 1941, DO121/50.

66 Cranborne to Churchill, 24 November 1941, PREM3/155; ibid., note by Churchill, 25 November 1941.

67 Churchill to Eden, 23 November 1941, PREM3/156/6; Richard Grace, 'Whitehall and the Ghost of Appeasement: November 1941', Diplomatic History, (Vol. 3; 1979), pp. 173-91.

68 Cumpston, Lord Bruce of Melbourne, pp. 188-9; HCWM, 12 November 1941, DO121/11; WCM(41)109, 5 November 1941, CAB65/24; Cranborne to Fadden, 12 September 1941, DAFP V, pp. 109-11; ibid., Cranborne to Fadden, 19 September 1941, pp. 116-17.

69 HCWM, 24 November 1941, DO121/11.

70 Diary, 18 November 1941, Page Papers.

71 Attlee to Churchill, 20 November 1941, DO121/10B.

72 WCM(41)122, 1 December 1941, CAB65/24; de-cyphered Japanese document, 30 November 1941, HW1/288; Gilbert, Finest Hour, pp. 1259-67.

73 Brigadier Ivan Simson to Liddell Hart, 26 June 1968, Liddell Hart Papers, LH9/31/41a.

74 H. Martin and N. Orpen, South Africa at War, Vol. 7 (Cape Town, 1979), pp. 124-5, 132-3; J. C. Smuts, Jan Christian Smuts (London, 1952), pp. 415-16; A. M. Pollock, Pienaar of Alamein (Cape Town, 1943), pp. 75-86; Carel Birkby, Uncle George: The Boer Boyhood, Letters and Battles of Lieutenant-General George Edwin Brink(Johannesburg, 1987), pp. 242-4; Harlech to Churchill, 2 October 1941, PREM4/44/1; Harlech to DO, 28 January 1942, DO35/588/3.

75 Beloff, Dream of Commonwealth, pp. 348-60; Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, pp. 268-95.

76 Day, The Great Betrayal, pp. 192-202; Horner, Inside the War Cabinet, pp. 75-7; Henry Probert, 'British Strategy and the Far East War, 1941-1945' in Nish (ed.), Anglo Japanese Alienation, 1919-1952 (London, 1982), p. 161; Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, pp. 120-3.

77 Ross, John Curtin, pp. 236-9.

78 Curtin to Cranborne, 4 November 1941, DAFP V, pp. 162-3; Churchill to Curtin, 27 November 1941, DO121/119; Curtin to Churchill, 29 November 1941, DAFP V, pp. 237-8.

79 Brooke-Popham to Sir Arthur Street, 28 October 1941, Brooke-Popham Papers; Duff Cooper to Cranborne, 31 October 1941, Cranborne Papers; ibid., Duff Cooper to Churchill, 1 December 1941.

80 Horner, Defence Supremo: Sir Frederick Shedden and the Making of Australian Defence Policy (Sydney, 2000), pp. 95-6.

81 Churchill, The Grand Alliance, pp. 475-7; Ismay to Harry Hopkins, 12 January 1941; Diary, 7/21 December 1941, Waterson Papers.

82 Gilbert, Road to Victory: Winston S.Churchill, 1941-1945 (London, 1986), pp. 1-3; Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory, pp. 475-9; Robertson, 'Australia and the "Beat Hitler First" Strategy', pp. 310-31.

83 Mansergh, Problems of Wartime Cooperation, p. 128.

Notes to Chapter 7: The 'First' Dominion

1 Any study of this question begins with Roger Louis' Imperialism at Bay and Thorne's Allies of a Kind and it is difficult to surpass them so great and compelling are the two volumes. The first remains the definitive examination of American and British wartime planning for the future of the colonial world, it being rightly acclaimed shortly after its publication as 'one historical study that will not need to be done again'. Among the main themes it sought to explore, one of its foci was the examination of the interaction between Whitehall and the Dominion governments. It recognized at the beginning that Americans generally did not distinguish between the Empire and Commonwealth. But what it was not able to do—because the government documents were not available at the time—was to consider fully the opening questions posed by this chapter. Thorne, with his third chapter looking exclusively at the Anglo-American relationship prior to the Pearl Harbor attack, provides a 37-page synthesis of affairs leading up to 1941 before going forward to conclusively detail events as they happened in the Pacific theatre. To these there should be added Orde's The Eclipse of Great Britain.Written nearly 20 years later it traces the origins of the relationship and takes them forward to their nadir at Suez. The fifth chapter, however, provides an excellent and succinct encapsulation of the many themes and issues that affected the wartime relationship, neatly summarizing the two imposing works that had gone before her.

2 J. Ellis Barker, 'The British Empire and the United States', Current History (Vol. 15, No. 2; November 1921), pp. 258-62; Admiral Mark Kerr, 'Understanding and Friendship Between English-Speaking People', Empire Review (No. 463; August 1939), pp. 76-7.

3 This supplement, Current History, was the oldest United States publication devoted exclusively to world affairs and had been founded in 1914 in order to provide detailed coverage of what was then known as the Great War. It subsequently has proven to be one of the most distinguished of American journals.

4 Alastair Buchan, 'Mothers and Daughters (Of Greeks and Romans)', Foreign Affairs (Vol. 54, No. 4; July 1976), pp. 651-3; D. C. Watt, Personalities and Policies, pp. 37-8.

5 Peter Carlson, 'Raiding the Icebox: Behind Its Warm Front, the United States Made Cold Calculations to Subdue Canada', Washington Post, 30 December 2005; the Dominions were all shades of Red—Canada was Crimson, New Zealand was Garnet, Australia was Scarlet (India was included as Ruby).

6 Robert Stewart, 'Instruments of British Policy in the Sterling Area', Political Science Quarterly (Vol. 52, No. 2; June 1937), pp. 176-81. This of course was not a new idea, Leo Amery, one of the leading supporters of Imperial Preference, had noted before the meeting began that it would 'register either the final triumph or the failure of nearly fifty years of continuous effort to secure the practical acceptance of the principle that the unity and the strength of the Empire and the welfare of each part of it depend upon mutual economic cooperation'; L. S. Amery, 'The Imperial Economic Conference', International Affairs (Vol. 11, No. 5; September 1932), p. 678.

7 Most notable amongst these were Sweden, Denmark and Argentina; Andrew McFadyean, 'International Repercussions of the Ottawa Agreements', International Affairs (Vol. 12, No. 1; January 1933), pp. 37-59.

8 Lord Beloff, 'The End of the British Empire and the Assumption of Worldwide Commitments by the United States' in Roger Louis and Bull (eds), The 'Special Relationship', pp. 250-2.

9 H. G. Nicholas, The United States and Britain (London, 1975), p. 57.

10 'Howe y. England', Time, 5 December 1938; following the fall of France and the growing understanding that the Nazi threat would not necessarily skirt American shores, whilst recognizing the extremes of some his previous argument Time praised Howe for being a 'cultured, loquacious, birdlike Bostonian with a famous father (Pulitzer Prize Biographer Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe), a shrewd editorial sense, a mercurial mind'; 'Howe Behind the News', Time, 25 November 1940.

11 John Harvey (ed.), The Diplomatic Diaries of Oliver Harvey, 1937-1940 (London, 1970), pp. 67-86.

12 F. M. Leventhal, 'The Projection of Britain in America before the Second World War' in Wm. Roger Louis, Still More Adventures with Britannia (London, 2003), pp. 198-204.

13 Arnold Toynbee and Frank T. Ashton-Gwatkin (eds), Survey of International Affairs: The World in March 1939 (London, 1952), p. 1; from 1925 Toynbee had served as Director of Studies at Chatham House—and would do so for 30 years—plus he worked within the FO during the war, attended the post-war peace talks and still found time to produce a monumental twelve volume study of the rise and fall of civilizations ('A Study of History').

14 Douglas Fairbanks Jr to Eden, 18 October 1939 (University of Birmingham Special Collections) AP20/7/81; he spent part of his childhood in London, as a result of which he became a passionate Anglophile who was well connected in British society. During the war, as a lieutenant commander in the US Navy, Fairbanks had participated in several combined Anglo-American operations. Having witnessed (and participated in) British training and cross-channel harassment operations emphasizing the military art of deception, he attained a depth of understanding and appreciation of military deception then unheard of in the United States Navy (his experiences were recalled in his memoirs, A Hell of a War) and in 1949 he was made an Honorary Knight of the British Empire; Obituary, The Guardian, 8 May 2000.

15 Lothian to Halifax, 14 December 1939, F0800/397; Vansittart to Halifax, 31 December 1939, FO800/324.

16 'Memorandum', CP161(38), September 1938, CAB24/277, pp. 1-7; he would later go on to help edit the Royal Institute for International Affairs' Survey of International Affairs for 1939.

17 Trevor Reese, Australia, New Zealand and the United States: A Survey of International Relations, 1941-1968 (London, 1969), pp. 7-9, 10-31; P. G. A. Orders, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Challenge of the United States, 1939-1946: A Study in International History (London, 2003), pp. 17-27.

18 Neville Chamberlain to Ida Chamberlain, 27 January 1940, Neville Chamberlain Papers, NC18/1/1140.

19 John Simon Rofe, 'Prescription and Remedy: Lord Lothian's Influence upon the Tensions in Anglo-American Relations in Early 1940, The Round Table (Vol. 96, No. 389; April 2007), pp. 162-70.

20 David Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance 1937-1941 (London, 1981), pp. 63-102.

21 R. A. C. Parker, 'The American Treasury and British Preparations for War, 1938-1939', English Historical Review (Vol. 98, No. 387; April 1983), pp. 261-79; Alan Milward, The Economic Effects of the Two World Wars on Britain (London, 1972), pp. 66-70.

22 S. Pollard, The Development ofthe British Economy, 1914-1990 (London, 1992), pp. 157-8; Ritchie Overy, 'Cyclops' in Reynolds et al., Allies at War (New York, 1994), pp. 114-15.

23 'Memorandum on Financial Situation', Treasury document, 9 July 1939, CAB24/287.

24 'Memorandum of Conversation with Churchill', 12 March 1940, Welles Report (1940), Part II (Roosevelt Library), PSF 6; Constance Howard, 'The United States of America and the European War, September 1939 to December 1941' in Toynbee and Toynbee (eds), The Initial Triumph of the Axis, pp. 454-6; Christopher D. O'Sullivan, Sumner Welles, Post-War Planning and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943, (Columbia, 2007) 'Record of conversation between Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs and Mr Sumner Welles, 13 March 1940', DO35/1000/3/58.

25 Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance, pp. 122-3.

26 Lothian to Halifax, 27 February 1940, DO35/998/7/1; ibid. Halifax to Eden, 15 March 1940; ibid., Stephenson to Parkinson and Machtig, 18 March 1940; ibid., Machtig to Parkinson and Eden, 19 March 1940.

27 Martin Gilbert, In Search of Churchill (London, 1994), pp. 276, 263; he had first visited the United States in 1895, his last visit would come 65 years later. There was even some suggestion that the British wartime leader might have been 1/16th Native American Indian.

28 Colville, The Fringes of Power: Vol. 2, Oct 1941-April 1955 (London, 1987), 2 May 1948, p. 624.

29 Warren F. Kimball (ed.), Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence (Princeton, 1984), p. 23.

30 In December 1940 Churchill had prepared a draft message for Roosevelt complaining about the defects in these destroyers but was persuaded by the FO that it should not be sent. While it is certainly true that most of the newly acquired vessels served only about three years of active service with the Royal Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy, it is not true that they made no militarily important contribution, either in terms of what their presence in the North Atlantic made possible, or in the direct effect of their escort duties on the merchant convoys plying those waters; Charmley, End of Glory, p. 439.

31 The heavy cruiser Louisville (CA-28) departed Simonstown for New York on 6 January 1941, having taken on board $148,342,212.55 in British gold for deposit in American banks; Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance, p. 154; minute by Pitblado, 29 December 1940, DO35/1028/7; ibid., Clutterbuck, 30 December 1940.

32 Cranborne to Mrs Evans, 8 November 1940, Cranborne Papers.

33 WHC, 11 February 1941, DO121/9.

34 Minute, 30 January 1940, FO371/24252; see Fred Pollock, 'Roosevelt, the Ogdensburg Agreement and the British Fleet: All Done with Mirrors', Diplomatic History, (Vol. 5; 1981), pp. 203-5.

35 Minute by Hadow, 17 September 1939, FO371/23963.

36 Harding to DO, 27 May 1940, DO35/1003/2/11/1/1B; Menzies to DO, 16 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/3/3; Batterbee to DO, 18 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/4/4; WHC, 6 February 1941, DO121/11.

37 Cited in Ponting, Churchill, p. 212.

38 Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory, p. 18.

39 Cited in Gilbert, In Search of Churchill, p. 688.

40 Warren F. Kimball, 'Lend-Lease and the Open Door: The Temptation of British Opulence, 1937-1942', Political Science Quarterly (Vol. 86, No. 2; June 1971), p. 242.

41 Minute by Liesching, 2 August 1941, DO35/1075/3.

42 Stuart Ball (ed.), Parliament and Politics in the Age of Churchill and Attlee: The Headlam Diaries, 1935-1941 (London, 1999), p. 234, 31 December 1940.

43 John Robertson, 'Australia and the "Beat Hitler First" Strategy 1941-1942', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. XI, No. 3; 1983), pp. 301-8.

44 Minute by Pitblado, 25 March 1941, DO35/1075/279/67; minute by Pitblado, 30 May 1941, DO35/1075/279/91.

45 Comment by Pitblado at Treasury meeting, 11 December 1941, DO35/1076/1; WHC, 28 October 1941.

46 Machtig to Cranborne, 8 December 1941, DO35/1014/5; ibid., Cranborne to Machtig, 8 December 1941.

47 Minute, February 1941, DO35/1074/279/47; notes by Ashton-Gwatkin (FO) for R. A. Butler, April 1941, Conservative Research Department Papers (Bodleian Library, Oxford), CRD2/28/2; Casey to Department of External Affairs, 11 October 1941, DAFP V, pp. 131-2.

48 Cranborne to Kingsley Wood, 12 August 1941, DO35/1075/3.

49 Orde, The Eclipse of Great Britain, pp. 129-59; conversation between Churchill and Roosevelt, August 1941 cited in R. Palme Dutt, Britain's Crisis of Empire (London, 1949), p. 44.

50 Minute by Liesching, 19 August 1941, DO35/1075/3.

51 Minute by Liesching, 22 September 1941, DO35/1075/4.

52 'Discussion with Mr Winthrop Brown at the 10 o'clock meeting at the Treasury on December 11th (1941)', DO35/1076/1.

53 V. S. Swaminathan, 'America's Aid to Britain', Empire Review (No. 481; February 1941), p. 63.

54 Ritchie Diary, 21 April 1941, Siren Years, p. 100.

55 Reynolds, The Creation of the Anglo-American Alliance, pp. 140-6.

56 Churchill told the British public in a radio broadcast following his return, that the declaration was in fact 'a simple, rough and ready statement of the goal towards which the British Commonwealth and the United States meant to make their way*; 'Mr. Churchill on a Symbolic Meeting', The Times, 25 August 1941.

57 Harvey (ed.), The Diplomatic Diaries of Oliver Harvey, 1941-1945, 12 August 1941.

58 Louis, Imperialism at Bay, p. 123.

59 WM(41)89, CAB65/19; 'House of Commons Statement by Mr. Churchill', The Times, 9 September 1941.

60 Viscount Samuel, 'Thoughts on the Atlantic Charter', Contemporary Review (No. 913, January 1942), pp. 1-2.

61 Rt Hon. George Peel, 'Atlantic Charter No. 2', Contemporary Review (No. 917, May 1942), p. 264; many of the Americans at the conference remained convinced that imperial trade preferences such as the Ottawa Agreement had contributed strongly to the economic and political malaise of the interwar years.

62 John Barnes and David Nicholson (eds), The Empire at Bay: The Leo Amery Diaries, 1929-1945 (London, 1987), p. 710.

63 Headlam, 14/15 August 1941, The Headlam Diaries, p. 270.

64 Machtig to Cranborne, 23 August 1941, DO35/1002/48/2; Garner to Martin, 29 August 1941, DO35/1002/48/3; Attlee to Churchill, 12 August 1941, CAB66/18/13.

65 Minute by Liesching, February 1941, DO35/1077/281/11.

66 Halifax to Amery, 1 May 1941, Amery Papers, AMEL2/1/33; ibid., Halifax to Amery, 20 May 1941.

67 The source was David Eccles, later Viscount Eccles; Dalton Diary, 25 August 1941, The Dalton Diaries, p. 272.

68 Ibid., Dalton Diary, 29 August 1941, p. 277.

69 Cited in Pearson, Through Diplomacy to Politics, p. 218.

70 Sir Ian Kershaw, 'Hitler Versus America', BBC History (Vol. 8, No. 6; June 2007), p. 20; see also Sir Nicholas Henderson, 'Hitler's Biggest Blunder', History Today (April 1993), pp. 35-43.

71 Wm. Roger Louis, 'Sir Keith Hancock and the British Empire: The Pax Britannica and the Pax Americana', English Historical Review (Vol. 120, No. 488; September 2005), pp. 932-62.

72 Writing about the Survey he cautioned the potential reader about its scope and size, 'I certainly shouldn't recommend it to anybody of feeble health and weak determination', W. K. Hancock, Argument of Empire (London, 1943), pp. 7, 9-10.

73 Hancock to Colin Badger, 9 March 1943, cited in Louis, 'Sir Keith Hancock and the British Empire', p. 956.

Notes to Chapter 8: Rupture?

1 Page to Curtin, 8 December 1941, DAFP V, pp. 289-93.

2 Brooke-Popham to Sir Arthur Street, 28 October 1941, Brooke-Popham Papers.

3 Cranborne to Churchill, 12 December 1941, PREM3/206/1-3; Curtin to Churchill, 13 December 1941, DO121/119; Page, Truant Surgeon, pp. 319-23; Cumpston, Lord Bruce of Melbourne, pp. 189-91.

4 WCM127(41), 12 December 1941, CAB65/20; Memorandum on 'Machinery of Consultation', Page Papers, Item No. 642 (1942); 'Note by Shedden', 17 March 1943 cited in Day, The Great Betrayal, p. 219.

5 'Australia is Right', 21 December 1941, Sunday Express; 'Blunt Words from Dominions', 23 December 1941, Daily Mail.

6 Attlee to Churchill, 23 December 1941, PREM3/63/3.

7 Dalton Diary, 19 December 1941, p. 337.

8 Attlee to Churchill, 23 December 1941, PREM3/63/3.

9 Edwards, Bruce of Melbourne, pp. 324-5; Coral Bell, Dependent Ally: A Study in Australian Foreign Policy (Melbourne, 1988), pp. 25-6; Eric Baume, 'Australia's Political Trend', The Fortnightly (No. 151; January-June 1942), pp. 97-106.

10 Menzies Radio Broadcast, 26 April 1939 in R. G. Neale (ed.), Documents on Australian Foreign Policy, 1937-1949: Vol. 2, 1939 (Canberra, 1976).

11 P. G. Edwards, 'R.G. Menzies' Appeals to the United States', Australian Outlook (No. 28; 1974), pp. 64-70.

12 DO to Whiskard, 21 June 1940, DO35/1003/11/3/7.

13 Gwendolen M. Carter, 'New Trends in British Commonwealth Relations', Pacific Affairs (Vol. 17, No. 1; March 1944), p. 71.

14 'Empire War Cabinet—Oral Answers', 18 December 1941, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 376), pp. 2072-3; WCM (41)137, 29 December 1941, CAB65/20. A flurry of letters on the subject published by The Times had produced a number of broadly sympathetic responses, largely drawn from those most actively involved in the debate about the role of the Empire. Sir John Marriott was amongst those who strongly endorsed the 'most opportune and just plea' for a revival of an Empire War Cabinet' 'Empire War Cabinet—The Dominions and Strategy', The Times, 8 January 1942; 'Planning of War Strategy—Dangers in the Pacific' (Lord Denman), The Times, 10 January 1942.

15 Cited in Raymond Callahan, Worst Disaster: Fall of Singapore (Delaware, 1977), p. 234; Jacob to Ismay, 24 January 1959, Ismay Papers, ISMAYI/14/69a.

16 'Mr Curtin Explains', 29 December 1941, The Times; 'Dominions and Strategy' (Keith Murdoch), 29 December 1941, The Times; 'A Word to Mr Curtin', 30 December 1941, Daily Mail.

17 Cross to Cranborne, 3 November 1941, DO35/587/89/137; ibid., minute by Machtig, 29 December 1941; minute by Cranborne, 31 December 1941; John Gooch, 'The Politics of Strategy: Great Britain, Australia and the War against Japan, 1939-1945', War in History (Vol. 10, No. 4; 2003), pp. 436-8.

18 Cranborne to Churchill, 1 January 1942, DO35/1002/48/7A.

19 Memorandum on 'Machinery of Consultation' (1942), Page Papers, No. 642; 'Note of a Meeting between Lord Cranborne and Sir Earle Page', 31 December 1941, FO954/4.

20 'Lord Cranborne's comments on Sir Earle Page's proposals', 2 January 1942, FO954/4.

21 'Memorandum on Machinery of Consultation', Page Papers; Curtin to DO, 1 January 1942, DO35/1002/48/7A.

22 Cranborne to Eden, 7 January 1942, FO954/4.

23 Ibid., Note by Cavendish Bentinck, 12 January 1942.

24 Ibid., minute from unknown to Sir Orme Sargeant, 13 January 1942.

25 WCM137(41) and WCM138(41), 29 December 1941, CAB65/20; Gilbert, Road to Victory, pp. 32-3.

26 Batterbee to Attlee, 19 February 1942, CAB66/24.

27 Diary, 9 January 1942 cited in Lord Moran, Struggle for Survival (London, 1966), p. 21; there have been some doubts raised about the accuracy of some of the comments attributed by Churchill's surgeon.

28 Curtin to Churchill, 1 January 1942, DAFP V, pp. 396-8; ibid., Churchill to Curtin, 3 January 1942, p. 399; ibid., Curtin to Churchill, 6 January 1942, pp. 417-20; ibid., Churchill to Curtin, 8 January 1942, pp. 423-6; Evatt to Casey, 7 January 1942, pp. 420-1; Casey to Evatt, 8 January 1942, pp. 421-3.

29 COS(40)592, 15 August 1940, CAB80/15; Churchill to Ismay, 7 January 1941, PREM3/157/1; Churchill to Mrs Churchill, 21 December 1941 cited in Mary Soames (ed.), Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill (London, 1998), p. 460; Christopher M. Bell, '"Our Most Exposed Outpost": Hong Kong and British Far Eastern Strategy, 1921-1941',The Journal of Military History (Vol. 60, January 1996), pp. 75-88.

30 Gilbert, Road to Victory, pp. 45-7; Churchill to Curtin, 14 January 1942, DO121/19; Curtin to Churchill, 17 January 1942, DAFP V, pp. 441-3; Churchill to Curtin, 19 January 1942, DO121/19.

WCM8(42), 17 January 1942, CAB65/25.

Churchill to Curtin, 19 January 1942, DAFP V, pp. 445-7; Cranborne to Churchill, 17 January 1942, PREM3/167/1; Churchill to Fraser, 17 January 1942, DO35/1010/476/124; Curtin to Churchill, 21 January 1942, DO35/1010/476/128.

Cross to Cranborne, 21 January 1942, PREM4/50/7A; ibid., Cranborne to Churchill, 22 January 1942; Cross to DO, 14 January 1942, DO121/50; Cranborne to Emrys-Evans, 31 August 1941, Emrys-Evans Papers.

Cross to Cranborne, 9 August 1941, Cranborne Papers; ibid., Duff Cooper to Cranborne, 1 December 1941; Cross to Cranborne, 13 January 1944, DO121/11; 'Sir Ronald Cross Rebuked', Daily Mail, 18 July 1941.

Memoranda by Cranborne, WP(42)29 and WP(42)30, 21 January 1942, CAB66/21. Note by Bentinck, 12 January 1942, FO954/4. WCM8(42), 17 January 1942, CAB65/25.

Alexander Hardinge to Churchill, 22 January 1942, PREM3/167/1. Churchill to The King, 22 January 1942, PREM3/167/1. Ibid., Hardinge to Churchill, 26 January 1942.

Note by Cadogan, 23 January 1942, FO954/4; Newton to DO, 25 November 1942, DO35/1002/52/10. WHCM, 14 January 1942, DO121/12; ibid., WHCM, 15 January 1942; Waterson to Smuts, 15 January 1942, Waterson Papers. WHC, 26 January 1942, DO121/12.

Diary, 22 January 1942, Waterson Papers; ibid., 26 January 1942. Ibid., Diary, 28 January 1942; Waterson to Smuts, 27 January 1942. Ibid., Smuts to Waterson, 29 January 1942. Fraser to Churchill, 25 January 1942, DO35/1010/476/129. Fraser to Churchill, 22 January 1942, DO35/1010/476/124.

Ibid., Peck to Garner, 26 January 1942; Churchill to Roosevelt, 27 January 1942, DO35/1010/476/128.

Baume, 'Australia's Political Trend', The Fortnightly, p. 98; R. G. Menzies, 'We Don't Turn From You', Daily Express, 6 January 1942.

Curtin to Churchill, 24 January 1942, Chartwell Papers, CHAR20/69. Gilbert, Road to Victory, pp. 48-9; Edwards, Bruce of Melbourne, p. 329. Churchill to Curtin, n.d. (Not sent), PREM3/150/3. Diary, 24/25 January 1942, Harvey Papers; ibid., 1 February 1942. Diary, 28 January 1942, Woolton Papers.

'Commonwealth Control', The Round Table (Vol. 32; December 1941-September 1942), p. 221; 'Editorial', The Times, 19 January 1942.

'Letter from Hubert Gough to Editor', The New Statesman and Nation (7 February 1942), p. 92. 'Is Australia Threatened?', The New Statesman and Nation (Vol. 23, No. 568; 10 January 1942), p. 20; under the editorship of the leading left-wing figure Kingsley Martin, this was one of the most popular weekly British journals.

DO to Australia, 28 January 1942, PREM4/43A/14; DO to Australia, 2 February 1942, Chartwell

Papers, CHAR20/69A.

Diary, 27 January 1942, Waterson Papers.

'Imperial War Cabinet', 14 February 1942, The New Statesman and Nation; ibid., Letter to the Editor from Hubert Gough, 21 February 1942.

J. A. R. Marriott, 'An Empire Cabinet', The Nineteenth Century (Vol. 131, No. 781; March 1942), p. 128.

'Situation in the South-West Pacific', 29 January 1942, House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 71), p. 569-78.

DO to Dominion governments, 28 January 1942, DO35/1010/476/141. 'Curtin is Blunt to Churchill', 27 January 1942, Daily Mail.

'Australians Stirred—Warm Praise for Mr Churchill', The Times, 30 January 1942; only two weeks later the same source for the story in The Times—the Melbourne Argus—was recommending that it

was no time for 'a one-man band' and urging Churchill to listen to his critics; '"Our Honeymoon is Finished"—Mr Curtin Warns Australia', The Times, 17 February 1942.

67 Garner, The Commonwealth Office, pp. 213-15; Diary, 9 February 1942 cited in Dilks, Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, p. 432; Page, Truant Surgeon, pp. 328-9; Harvey, Consultation and Cooperation in the Commonwealth, pp. 96-7.

68 Diary, 16 January 1942, Page Papers.

69 'Situation in the South West Pacific', 28/29 January 1942, House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 71), pp. 497-510, 537-41, 551.

70 Headlam Diaries, 8 February 1942, p. 294.

71 'World View—Anxiety in Australia', Manchester Guardian, 17 February 1942; Harvey to Eden, 13 February 1942, Harvey Papers; Diary, 16 February 1942 cited in Pimlott, The Dalton War Diary, pp. 369-70.

72 Diary, 16 February 1942 cited in Eden, The Reckoning, p. 321.

73 Minute, 17 February 1942, Bruce Papers.

74 Diary, 23 January 1942, Waterson Papers; Bruce to Curtin, 17 February 1942, DAFP V, pp. 530-1; see Day, Menzies and Churchill at War, p. 241.

75 Diary, 19 February 1942, Waterson Papers; 'Debate in the House of Commons (War Situation, Ministerial Changes)', comments by Prime Minister, 24 February 1942.

76 Machtig to Bridges, 12 February 1942, DO35/1010/476/141; Diary, 19 February 1942 cited in Dilks, Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, p. 435.

77 'Speech at United Warden's luncheon of the City of London', 23 February 1942, Attlee Papers (Department of Western Manuscripts, Bodleian Library), dep. 4, fol.209-220; Dixon Memoirs, Batterbee Papers, Box 20/5.

78 Diary, 26 July 1943, Massey, What's Past is Prologue.

79 Diary, 19 May 1942, Ritchie, Siren Years; Diary, 3 March 1942, Waterson Papers, ibid., Diary, 28 April 1942. It is perhaps almost ironic therefore that it would be Attlee, now as prime minister, who in October 1948 promulgated the demise of the terms 'Dominion' and 'Dominion governments' to be superseded by 'Commonwealth country' or 'member of the Commonwealth'; 'Dominion Status' was dropped in favour of 'fully independent Member of the Commonwealth'; see McIntyre, 'Commonwealth Legacy' in OHBE4, p. 696; the department had already been renamed in July 1947 as the 'Commonwealth Relations Office' (CRO).

80 Waterson Diary, 5 June 1942; ibid., 25 June 1942.

81 'Imperial War Cabinet', The New Statesman and Nation (14 and 21 February 1942).

82 Churchill to Curtin (Telegram), 20 February 1942, DO121/10B; ibid., Cross to DO, 21 February 1942; Cross to DO, 14 July 1943, DO121/10B; 'Draft of Message from Prime Minister to Mr Curtin', n.d. This incident returned to haunt both governments the following year. During the 'No Confidence' debate precipitated by the Opposition at the end of June 1943, various references were made to Burma and to the earlier decision to withdraw troops from the Western Desert. The DO was so concerned that a telegram was sent in Churchill's name urging Curtin to try 'to prevent embarrassing and possibly dangerous disclosures' in order to avoid 'public political controversy'.

83 Diary, 30 March 1942, Diaries of Harold Nicolson, p. 219.

84 'Evidence as to Behaviour of Australian Troops in Malaya', n.d., DO35/1010; minute by Boyd-Shannon, 20 May 1942; Richard Wilkinson, 'Ashes to Ashes', History Today (February 2002), pp. 39-41.

85 Headlam Diaries, 10 March 1942/pp. 302-3.

86 Minute by Machtig, 31 August 1942, DO35/1010; ibid., Attlee to Churchill, 2 September 1942; Churchill to Attlee, 6 September 1942.

87 Robert Menzies, 'This is What Australians are Thinking', Daily Express, 7 April 1942.

88 Cross to Attlee, 16 September 1942, DO35/1010.

89 G. M. Brown, 'Attitudes to an Invasion of Australia in 1942', RUSI Journal (Vol. 122, No. 1; March 1977), pp. 27-31; Air Commodore A. D. Garrisson, 'Darwin 1942', Australian Defence Force Journal (No. 122; January/February 1997), pp. 41-77. Overall 64 Japanese air attacks were

conducted against Darwin, the last of these in mid-November 1943 but it is the first which is most remembered.

90 'South Australia Bans Horse-Racing', The Times, 26 February 1942. In South Africa also petrol rationing, trial blackouts and the curtailment of long distance rail services were all seen as responses to Japanese penetration into the Indian Ocean; 'Defence Measures in South Africa', The Times, 13 March 1942.

91 Noel Annan, 'How Wrong Was Churchill?', The New York Review of Books, 8 April 1993 (Vol. 40, No. 7); Gilbert, Road to Victory, p. 128; Andrew Stewart, '"The Klopper Affair": Anglo-South African Relations and the Surrender of the Tobruk Garrison', Twentieth Century British History (Vol. 17 No. 4, 2006), pp. 516-54.

92 Auchinleck to Alanbrooke, 25 July 1942, Alanbrooke Papers (Liddell Hart Archives), 6/D/4f/E; 'Notes on Freyberg and Auchinleck', n.d. (July 1955?), Liddell Hart Papers, LH1/242/417.

93 'Notes on Alanbrooke, Churchill and Tobruk', 3 April 1957, LH1/242/429; Dorman-Smith described Dominions troops as 'semi-independent expeditionary forces ... whose commanders had a definite responsibility to remote Dominion governments'; Dorman-Smith to Liddell Hart, 15 April ??, LH1/242/370.

Notes to Chapter 9: Holding the Imperial Line

1 John Deane Potter, Fiasco: The Break-out of the German Battleships (New York, 1970).

2 'The Dieppe Raid', The Times, 20 August 1942; 'Dieppe and Cherbourg—Experience Gained from Landings', The Times, 5 August 1944; General Denis Whitaker and Shelagh Whitaker, Dieppe: Tragedy to Triumph (London, 1992), pp. 23-8; C. G. Roland, 'On The Beach and In The Bag: The Fate of the Dieppe Casualties Left Behind',Canadian Military History (Vol. 9, No. 4), pp. 6-25; C. P. Stacy, The Canadian Army, 1939-1945 (Ottawa, 1948), p. 80.

3 Cited in Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay, p. 200 and Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (London, 1992), p. 734; according to John Charmley such rejoinders were, by this stage, pointless as 'the Empire was already on the way to liquidation, with the Americans taking the role of receiver to the bankrupt concern', Charmley, End of Glory, p. 431.

4 'Debate on the Address', 12/18 November 1942 and 2/3 December 1942, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 385), pp. 134-8, 201-2, 265-7, 293-4, 398-9.

5 'Dominion Prime Ministers (Cooperation)-Oral Answers', 11 June 1941, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 372), pp. 187-9; the exchange included one of Churchill's more celebrated rejoinders. When assured by Granville that he was trying to hinder the prime minister in the conduct of the war but was 'merely following the writings and precepts of Winston Churchill', the prime minister responded, 'I am afraid that at times that gentleman was very annoying'.

6 'Dominion High Commissioners (War Meetings)-Oral Answers', 24 June 1941, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 372), pp. 936-7; 'Empire and United States-Oral Answers', 22 July 1941, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 373), pp. 761-2; 'Empire War Collaboration-Oral Answers', 9 September 1941, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 374), pp. 28-9; Churchill was still being asked much the same questions by these two as late as February 1944.

7 'War Situation', 20 May 1942, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 380), pp. 290-2.

8 Graham Stewart, His Finest Hours: The War Speeches of Winston Churchill (London, 2007), pp. 299-301.

9 'Ol' Man River', Time, 2 September 1940.

10 Claude Bissell, The Imperial Canadian: VincentMassey (Toronto, 1986), p. 126.

11 Diary, 12 and 19 October 1942, Massey Papers.

12 John Colville, The Fringes of Power: Vol. 1, p. 148.

13 Miller, 'Special Relationship', p. 380.

14 Robert Rhodes James, 'The Politician' in A. J. P. Taylor et al., Four Faces and the Man (London, 1969), p. 94.

15 Malcolm MacDonald Papers, pp. 122/123.

16 'The Empire', 21 July 1942, House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 123), pp. 933-77.

17 Cranborne to MacDonald, 6 June 1942, MacDonald Papers, 14/5/29.

18 Cranborne to Emrys-Evans, 18 March 1943, Emrys-Evans Papers.

19 Hector Bolitho, 'This Empire of Ours', Empire Review (No. 304, January 1943), pp. 10-11; born in New Zealand, the prolific writer served as a wartime intelligence officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve. He was also said to be well connected with the royal family as a result of a popular account he wrote of the H.R.H. Duke of York's 1927 tour of New Zealand; I. G. Wilkinson,Journalese (Wellington, 1934), p. 47.

20 Kenneth O'Morgan, 'Imperialists at Bay: British Labour and Decolonization' in King and Kilson (eds), The Statecraft of British Imperialism, pp. 234-6.

21 'Empire or Commonwealth', Time, 25 January 1943.

22 'As England Feels ...', Time, 13 April 1942.

23 Of the 895 correspondents polled just 29 per cent of them understood the distinction between 'Dominion' and 'Colony'; 'The British Empire', BBC Listener Research Department, 22 February 1943, FO371/34088.

24 Frank Heinlein, British Government Policy and Decolonisation 1945-1963 (London, 2002), pp. 8, 64.

25 Unknown newspaper clipping, 15 May 1940, Pearson Papers, MG26, N8.

26 Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, pp. 663-4.

27 Halifax, Fullness of Days, p. 273; also in Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay, p. 16.

28 Hancock, Argument of Empire, pp. 9-13.

29 Clement Attlee, 'Wartime Cooperation in the British Commonwealth', United Empire (Vol. 34, No. 1; January-February 1943), pp. 7-12. The Royal Empire Society was founded in 1869 with 174 members; by the end of 1941 this had risen to 18,002. Its splendid buildings on Northumberland Avenue in central London suffered extensive damage in April and May 1941, virtually the entire library was destroyed by a huge bomb and water damage from the efforts of the fire brigade, a total of 232,353 volumes in all; 'The Royal Empire Society—Report of the Council', 17 June 1942; United Empire (Vol. 33, No. 4; July-August 1942).

30 A. Duff Cooper, 'The Future Development of the British Empire' (12 January 1943), United Empire (Vol. 34, No. 2), p. 33.

31 Richard Law, 'The British Commonwealth as a World Power' (19 January 1943), United Empire (Vol. 34, No. 2; March-April 1943), pp. 35-8.

32 Lord Elton, 'Post-War Role of the Empire', Empire Review (No. 505, June 1943), pp. 13-16; ibid., Lord Hailey, 'The New Attack on "British Imperialism"', pp. 44-8; Sir Charles Petrie, 'At the Peace Table—And Afterwards', pp. 30-2.

33 Sir Arthur Salter, the Independent MP for Oxford University, who was closely involved at this stage in shipping questions and had visited the United States as part of the Lend-Lease negotiations; Diary, 8 July 1942, Dalton Diary, p. 465.

34 Richard Akwei to Sir Alan Burns, 18 January 1943, Swinton Papers (Churchill Archives), Swin II 5/5.

35 Swinton to Cranborne, 17 October 1942, Swinton Papers, Swin II 5/5.

36 'Alleged Indiscretion of US Cabinet Minister', 21 February 1944, FO371/38522; Cross to Attlee, 22 December 1942, DO35/1628.

37 Greenway (DID) to DO Premiers, draft telegram 'Most Secret and Personal', 13 March 1943, FO371/36606.

38 'The Campbell is Coming', Time, 27 January 1941.

39 Campbell to Cadogan, 6 August 1942, FO371/39695; minute by Sir David Scott, 26 August 1942, FO371/39695.

40 Cited in Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay, p. 198. The author's brother penned a much less critical piece which appeared as an editorial in the January 1944 edition of Fortune magazine and was warmly welcomed both by Lord Halifax in Washington and the FO back in London; John Davenport, 'The British Empire and the United States',Fortune, January 1944; Halifax to Eden, 3 January 1944, FO371/38522; ibid., minute by Mason, 14 January 1944.

41 Amery to Cranborne, 27 October 1942, Amery Papers, AMEL2/1/34; ibid., Cranborne to Amery, 3 November 1942.

42 It was not merely anti-imperialism that Wilkie suffered from; there was also more than a hint of defeatism on display during his tour. During a stopover in West Africa he had met the British Resident Minister, Lord Swinton, who recorded that he had been 'frightfully gloomy' about the Allied position in North Africa until he had seen the position in Egypt which 'entirely changed his outlook', Swinton to Cranborne, 11 September 1942, Swinton Papers, Swin II 5/5.

43 Attlee to Churchill, 16 June 1942, DO121/10B.

44 Waterson to Smuts, 2 October 1942, Waterson Papers.

45 Massey Diary, 29 July 1942, Massey Papers.

46 Bissell, Imperial Canadian, p. 186; Diary, 2 July 1943, Massey Papers.

47 Cited in David Day, John Curtin: A Life (Sydney, 2000), pp. 522-6.

48 'Curtin Advocates Body to Govern Whole Empire', The Courier Mail (Brisbane), 16 August 1943; 'Empire Council Plan Supported', The Herald (Melbourne), 3 September 1943; 'British Interest in Empire Government Plan', Daily Telegraph (Sydney), 7 September 1943; 'A Council for Empire', The Times, 7 September 1943; 'Doubtful on Empire Parliament Plan', Daily Telegraph, 16 August 1943; 'Curtin's Scheme Not New', Daily Telegraph, 16 December 1943.

49 Sir Earle Page, 'Australia and the War', United Empire (Vol. 33, No. 2; March-April 1942), pp. 36-8; Wing-Commander the Hon. T. W. White, 'Australia's Outlook', United Empire (Vol. 34, No. 4, July-August 1943), pp. 97-101; Sir Ernest Fisk, 'The Empire as an Australian Sees It', United Empire (Vol. 34, No. 6; November-December 1943), pp. 167-70.

50 Emrys-Evans to Wakehurst, 4 June 1943, Emrys-Evans Papers.

51 For example Lord Elton, 'Post-War Role of the Empire', Empire Review (No. 505; June 1943), pp. 13-16; Keith Newman, 'New Trends in Anglo-Australian Relations', The Fortnightly (October 1943), pp. 241-7; Samuel Storey MP, 'Australia Wants Closer Cooperation', Empire Review (March-May 1944), pp. 35-40; L. C. Key, 'Australia in Commonwealth and World Affairs, 1939-1944',International Affairs (Vol. 21, No. 1; January 1945), pp. 60-73.

52 Smuts, Jan Christian Smuts, pp. 440-8.

53 'Peace and Power', Time, 13 December 1943; Kenneth Ingham, Jan Christian Smuts: The Conscience of a South African (London, 1986), pp. 223-30.

54 High Commission, Pretoria to DO, 18 March 1944, DO34/1204; Garner to Pugh, 20 January 1944, DO35/1205—there was also, not unexpectedly, considerable anger at the questioning of France's position; 'Reactions to FM Smuts Recent Speech', 15 December 1943, FO371/34411.

55 Diary, Monday 24 January 1944; Halifax Papers; I am grateful to Professor Greg Kennedy for supplying this reference.

56 Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, pp. 636-41; Andrew Roberts, The Holy Fox: A Life of Lord Halifax (London, 1991), pp. 294/5; Diary, 8 February 1944, Mackenzie King Papers.

57 Halifax to Cranborne, 30 January 1944, DO35/1485.

58 Ibid., Cranborne to Halifax, 9 February 1944.

59 'The Four-Power Plan', Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 8 November 1942, CAB66/30/46.

60 Handwritten comment, 'Foreign Affairs', 17 July 1942, DO35/998/7/48.

61 'The United Nations Plan', Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, 28 January 1943, CAB66/33/44.

62 'The Relation of the British Commonwealth to the Post-war International Political Organisation', Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, 15 June 1943, CAB66/37/44.

63 'Discussion on status and representation of the Members of the British Commonwealth in the International Sphere', Thursday 1 April 1943, DO35/1838.

Notes to Chapter 10: The Private Anzac Club

1 McIntyre, p. 49; Ian Wards, 'Peter Fraser—Warrior Prime Minister' in Margaret Clark (ed.), Peter Fraser: Master Politician (Palmerston North, 1998), pp. 155-6.

2 Alan Watt, Evolution of Australian Foreign Policy 1938-1965 (London, 1968), pp. 73-7; Robin Kay (ed.), The Australian New Zealand Agreement 1944 (Wellington, 1972), pp. xxviii-xxxii; Wm. Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay, pp. 409-21; Thorne, Allies of a Kind, pp. 480-6; Orders, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Challenge of the United States, pp. 95-101; Roger J. Bell, Unequal Allies, Australian-American Relations and the Pacific War (Melbourne, 1977), pp. 146-56; Hasluck, Diplomatic Witness, pp. 112-24.

3 Hankinson to Cranborne, 18 February 1944, CAB66/48/19.

4 Peter Lyon, 'Great Britain and Australia' in H. G. Gelber (ed.), Problems of Australian Defence (Melbourne, 1970), pp. 70, 76.

5 Hankinson to Stephenson, 26 May 1944, DO35/1118; he would later become British Ambassador in Dublin.

6 Hasluck, Diplomatic Witness, p. 117.

7 Minute by Cranborne, 11 December 1943, DO35/1118.

8 Malcolm McKinnon, Independence and Foreign Policy: New Zealand in the World since 1935 (Auckland, 1993), p. 44.

9 Attlee to Churchill, 11 March 1943, DO121/10B.

10 Batterbee to Cranborne, 22 February 1944, DO35/1119.

11 Lt. T. A. Gibson, '"Bayonets About the Crown": The Record of the Australian Army in the Second World War', The Army Quarterly (Vol. 56; April and July 1948), pp. 167-70; Grey, The Military History of Australia, pp. 177-80; David Dilks, 'Britain, the Commonwealth and the Wider World 1939-1945', Paper Given at the 'International Conference on the Contribution of the Commonwealth to the War Effort, 1939-1945', Oxford, April 1998, pp. 12-13 (I am grateful to Dr Ashley Jackson for sharing this paper).

12 Cross to Cranborne, 27 January 1944, DO35/1993.

13 Speech by Curtin, 17 January 1944, WO106/3419; ibid., Speech by Fraser, 17 January 1944; 'Defence of the South-West Pacific Region', Press Statement by the Prime Minister of Australia, Canberra, 18 January 1944.

14 'Charter for Down Under', Time, 31 January 1944.

15 On a map prepared within the WO the Australian 'offer' to police territories until such time as the United Nations organization was established was laid out: Java, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides chain were all clearly marked, forming a security umbrella that stretched along the entire northern Australian littoral.

16 Cross to DO (telegram), 18 January 1944, WO106/3419; Curtin had also assured the high commissioner, and told him that he should repeat the same to London, that the next stage to the talks would be to discuss the initial findings with the British government, most likely at the prime minister's conference, before discussing them with anybody else. The final post-conference announcement failed to include any reference to discussions with the British government.

17 Cross to DO (telegram), 26 January 1944, WO106/3419.

18 'Impressions of a New Zealand Official in his Return from the Australia-New Zealand Conference at Canberra, 31st January 1944', Note by F. E. Cuming-Bruce, 7 February 1944, DO35/1993; ibid., Batterbee to Machtig, 9 February 1944.

19 Sir A. D. McIntosh Papers (Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington), MS-Papers-6759-459, p. 486.

20 Cross to Cranborne, 13 January 1944, DO121/11; Evatt visited London in mid-1942 and was so charmed by the prime minister that he subsequently 'would not hear a word against him'. His return to Canberra with the news that Churchill was 'a very great man' swept Australia and feeling towards Britain began to abate. Cross to Cranborne, 13 January 1944, DO121/11; Cross to DO (Telegram No. 74), 19 January 1944, WO106/3419; T. B. Millar, 'The Australia-Britain Relationship', The Round Table (Vol. 67; 1977), p. 195.

Batterbee to DO (Telegram), 1 February 1944, WO106/3419; McIntosh to Bernedsen, 3 February 1944 in Ian McGibbon (ed.), Undiplomatic Dialogue, Letters between Carl Berendsen and Alister McIntosh 1943-1953 (Auckland, 1993).

'Australia-New Zealand Agreement of 21st January 1944', Memorandum by Cranborne, 2 February 1944, CAB66/46/20; 'Extract from the Conclusions of the 17th(44) Meeting of the War Cabinet', 9 February 1944, WO106/3419.

DO to Australian and New Zealand governments, 12 February 1944, WO106/3419. Cross to DO (telegram), 18 February 1944, WO106/3419. Minute by Greenway, 12 February 1944, FO371/42677. Minute by Clarke, 2 February 1944, FO371/42681.

Ibid., minute by Butler, 5 February 1944; minute By Butler, 16 May 1944, FO371/42678. Ibid., minute by Ashley Clarke, 16 May 1944. Minute by Greenway, 2 February 1944, FO371/42681.

Minute by Boyd-Shannon, 1 March 1944, DO35/1215; ibid., Garner to Costar, 21 February 1944.

Ibid., Holmes to Boyd-Shannon, 10 March 1944.

High Commission, Ottawa to DO (telegram), 27 January 1944, WO106/3419. Ibid., Australian High Commission to DO (telegram), 25 January 1944, WO106/3419; Australian High Commission to DO (telegram), 8 February 1944; New Zealand High Commission to DO (telegram), 25 January 1944.

Batterbee to DO (telegram), 9 February 1944, WO106/3419. Ibid., Batterbee to DO (telegram), 14 February 1944 (No. 66).

'Australia-New Zealand Agreement of 21st January 1944', WP(44)107, 14 February 1944, CAB66/47/7.

Batterbee to DO (telegram), 14 February 1944 (No. 62). Ibid., DO to Cross (telegram), 26 February 1944, WO106/3419. Watt, The Evolution of Australian Foreign Policy, p. 77.

Minute by Greenway, 2 March 1944, FO371/42677; there was also some thanks for the attitude adopted with regard to French aims which 'should put the President in a very prickly mood on this subject for some little time'.

Ronald Campbell to Cadogan, 8 May 1944, DO35/1994; there was some suggestion that this

'informant' was actually Sir Owen Dixon, the Australian Minister in Washington.

Minute by Greenway, 18 February 1944, FO371/42681; ibid., Campbell to Butler, 6 March 1944.

Minute by Ashley Clarke, 2 March 1944, FO371/42677.

Ibid., minute by Newton, 4 April 1944.

Ian McGibbon, 'The Australian-New Zealand Defence Relationship since 1901', Revue Internationale d'Histoire Militaire (No. 72, 1990), p. 139.

William Johnstone, 'Australian and New Zealand Agree', Far Eastern Survey (Vol. 13, No. 4; 23 February 1944), pp. 31-5.

David Jenkins, 'Implementing the Canberra Pact', Far Eastern Survey (Vol. 14, No. 1; 17 January 1945), pp. 8-9.

Paul Emrys-Evans, 'Relations of the Dominions to the Colonial Empire', 13 January 1943, DO35/1896.

Batterbee to DO (telegram), 7 November 1944, DO35/1900.

'New Zealand-Australia Conference', Memorandum by Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs,

10 November 1944, CAB66/57/41.

Hankinson to Harvey, 28 March 1939, FO800/310.

DO minute, 10 November 1944, DO35/1214.

DO minute, 10 November 1944, DO35/1215.

Batterbee to DO, 30 October 1944, DO35/1214.

McIntosh to Berendsen, 29 November 1944 in McGibbon, Undiplomatic Dialogue. Minute by Cranborne, 29 October 1944, DO35/1215. Batterbee to Machtig, 8 November 1944, DO35/1214.

58 Ibid., Batterbee to Machtig, 27 November 1944.

59 Ibid., Batterbee to DO, 24 November 1944.

60 Minute by Machtig, 5 December 1944, DO35/1215.

61 Ibid., Batterbee to Machtig, 27 November 1944; minute by Cranborne, 3 December 1944.

62 Ibid., Batterbee to Machtig, 6 November 1944.

63 Evatt to Cranborne, 19 November 1944, DO35/1899; ibid., Cranborne to Evatt, 21 November 1944; Evatt to Cranborne, 25 November 1944; Cranborne to Evatt, 1 December 1944.

64 Batterbee to Machtig, 8 November 1944, DO35/1215.

65 McIntosh to Berendsen, 10 November 1944 cited in McGibbon (ed.), Undiplomatic Dialogue.

66 Ibid., McIntosh to Berendsen, 21 December 1944.

67 Ibid., McIntosh to Berendsen, 29 November 1943.

68 DavidDay, Reluctant Nation, pp. 181-6; Watt, The Evolution of Australian Foreign Policy, p. 103.

69 Professor Vincent Harlow, 'Can the British Commonwealth Keep Together After the War?', Evening Standard, 27 January 1944; ibid., 'Speak with One Voice', 28 January 1944; 'States in Unison', Commonwealth and Empire Review (September-November 1944), p. 82.

Notes to Chapter 11: A Family Council

1 'Meeting of Dominion Prime Ministers', Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs, 4 June 1941, CAB66/16.

2 'Brief History of Attempts to Arrange a Meeting During the War—Meeting of Dominion Prime Ministers, May 1944', n.d., DO35/1480.

3 Minute by Churchill, 8 April 1943, DO35/1470.

4 Ibid., Churchill to Attlee, 11 April 1943.

5 Cranborne to Churchill, 5 November 1943, DO121/10A.

6 Attlee to Churchill, 27 April 1944, DO121/10B; Cranborne to Churchill, 15 October 1943, DO121/10A; ibid., Cranborne to Churchill, 1 November 1943.

7 Ibid., Cranborne to Churchill, January 1944.

8 'Meeting with Dominion Prime Ministers', Memorandum by Cranborne, 7 January 1944, DO35/1473.

9 Ibid., 'Extract from the conclusions of a meeting of the War Cabinet held at 10 Downing Street, on Thursday 20 January 1944'.

10 Minute by Greenway, 7 February 1944, FO371/42677.

11 Minute by Boyd-Shannon, 9 December 1943, DO35/1473; ibid., minute by Machitg, 5 January 1944; Machtig to Cranborne, 20 January 1944.

12 The Whitehall body was to consist of five Ministers supported by three secretaries. The chair would be taken by Cranborne with Bevin, Amery, Colonel Stanley and the FO Minister of State, Richard Law.

13 'Minutes of a meeting held on the DO on 15 February 1944', DPM(44) 1st Meeting, DO35/1488.

14 Minute by Newton, 14 February 1944, FO371/42681; ibid., minute by Greenway, 12 February 1944; minute by Newton, 17 March 1944.

15 'Cooperation in the British Commonwealth', Memorandum by Cranborne, 7 April 1944, FO371/42682.

16 'Minutes of meeting held on 12 April 1944', DO35/1488.

17 Minute by Newton, 13 April 1944, FO371/42682; ibid., minute by Greenway, 11 April 1944.

18 Minute by Machtig, 12 February 1944, DO35/1474; ibid., Bevin to Cranborne, 1 February 1944; Amery to Cranborne, 25 January 1944.

19 Cranborne to Chiefs of Staff, 3 March 1944, DO35/1473.

20 'The Coordination of Defence Policy within the British Commonwealth in Relation to a World System of Security', Memorandum by the Chiefs of Staff Committee, 31 March 1944, DO35/1744; Lt. Colonel G. S. Cole (MO1) to Colonel W. Ray, 27 March 1944, CAB121/156; the first draft had

been undertaken by Brigadier Jacob and was submitted at the beginning of March 1944; 'Note by Brigadier Jacob', 8 March 1944, CAB80/81.

21 'Secretary's Note for the Chairman', 11 April 1944, DO35/1474; ibid., 'Secretary's Note for Chairman', 20 April 1944.

22 Minute by Butler, 12 February 1944, FO371/42677; ibid., minute by Jebb, 14 February 1944; Jacob to Greenway, 10 March 1944; minute by Brigadier Jacob, 1 April 1944.

23 Ibid., Smuts to Churchill (Telegram), 20 March 1944; minute by Greenway, 21 March 1944.

24 Greenway to Eden, 26 April 1944, FO371/42678.

25 'Growing Unity of the Empire', Empire Review (June-August 1944), pp. 69-71; Cranborne to Churchill, 20 April 1944, DO121/10A; ibid., 'Notes for Debate on Motion Regarding Empire and Commonwealth Unity', n.d.

26 'Empire and Commonwealth Unity', House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 399), 20/21 April 1944, pp. 390-486, 497-586.

27 'Mother England', Time, 1 May 1944.

28 'Note of Arrangements for Air Passages for Dominion Prime Ministers', 18 April 1944, DO35/1204.

29 Ibid., 'List of Accommodation Reserved for Dominion Prime Ministers', n.d.; note to Colonel Sir Eric Crankshaw, 16 April 1944.

30 'Arrangements for Meetings with Dominion Prime Ministers', Memorandum by the Prime Minister, 25 April 1944, CAB121/156.

31 'Meeting of British Commonwealth Prime Ministers, May 1944—Notes on Administrative Arrangements', n.d., DO35/1480.

32 Lascelles to Cranborne, 1 April 1944, DO35/1475; ibid., minute by Stephenson, 22 April 1944.

33 'List of Social Engagements', n.d., DO35/1204; Cranborne to Churchill, 3 April 1944, DO121/ 10A.

34 'Social Engagements—Meeting of British Commonwealth Prime Ministers, May 1944', n.d., DO35/1480.

35 Cranborne to Churchill, 8 May 1944, DO121/10A.

36 'Publicity Arrangements', Note by Joint Secretaries, 5 April 1944, FO371/42682; 'Publicity Engagements—Meeting of British Commonwealth Prime Ministers, May 1944', n.d., DO35/1480.

37 'Commonwealth Faces the Future', The Times, 2 May 1944; 'Common Counsel', The Round Table (No. 134; March 1944), pp. 103-107; 'The Conference', The Round Table (No. 135; June 1944), pp. 195-8.

38 Minute by Cadogan, 12 June 1944, FO371/42678.

39 'Report of Speeches made at the Opening Meeting of the Prime Ministers', 1 May 1944, DO35/1854.

40 A. L. Kennedy to Newton, 4 May 1944, FO371/42681.

41 Minute by Greenway, 24 May 1944, FO371/42678.

42 Duff to Cranborne, 5 June 1944, DO35/1204; Holmes to Machtig, 29 June 1944, DO35/1476.

43 Minute by Newton, 17 May 1944, FO371/42682.

44 Cranborne to Churchill, 11 May 1944, DO121/10A.

45 McKinnon, Undiplomatic Dialogue, p. 77.

46 Boyd-Shannon to Antrobus, 18 August 1944, DO35/1854; ibid., minute by Machtig, 18 May 1944; minute by Stephenson, 18 May 1944.

47 Ibid., Churchill to Eden and Bridges, 21 May 1944; 'Future World Organisation—Meeting on 17 May 1944'; Eden to Churchill, 2 June 1944.

48 Minute by Compton, 7 July 1944, FO371/42682.

49 'Impressions of a New Zealand Official on his Return from the Australia-New Zealand Conference at Canberra, 31st January 1944', Note by F. E. Cuming-Bruce, 7 February 1944, DO35/1993; Cross to Cranborne, 13 April 1944, DO35/1476; ibid., Cross to Cranborne, 1 July 1944. Cross also took the opportunity to provide Whitehall with a detailed verbal picture of Curtin. This began with the comment 'If Mr Curtin were to put on a clerical collar and stock he would appear to be a typical middle-aged Church of England clergyman but offered a positive conclusion of a man who was committed to his country, filled with "right purpose" and, more significantly perhaps, convinced that Australia's future was "as a partner of the Commonwealth of Nations"'; 'Note by Cross', 2 April 1944, DO35/1476.

50 Cross to Cranborne, 10 June, DO35/111.

51 Cross to Cranborne, 26 July 1944, DO35/1118.

52 Pickersgill, The Mackenzie King Record, pp. 663-96.

53 Ritchie Diary, 2 February 1944, Siren Years, pp. 163/164.

54 Minute by Campbell, 31 May 1944, FO371/42682; ibid., minute by Campbell, 25 May 1944.

55 Garner to Cranborne, 26 May 1944, DO35/1204.

56 Minute for Prime Minister, 27 April 1944, CAB120/813; ibid., Colville to Brigadier Jacob, 1 May 1944.

57 Smuts, Jan Christian Smuts, p. 452.

58 Thorn, Peter Fraser, pp. 222-4; W. D. McIntyre, 'Peter Fraser's Commonwealth' in A. D. McIntosh et al., New Zealand in World Affairs, Vol. 1 (Wellington, 1972), pp. 47-8.

59 'Meeting of the King's Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa', 16th May 1944, DO118/24.

60 'Commonwealth Consultations', Commonwealth and Empire Review (March-May 1945), p. 38-9.

61 'Prime Minister's Conference: A Milestone in History, Empire Review (June-August 1944), pp. 11-14.

62 'Family Council', Time, 17 April 1944; 'The Brothers', Time, 22 May 1944.

Notes to Chapter 12: Losing an Empire

1 Ashley Jackson, The British Empire and the Second World War (London, 2006), pp. 21-40.

2 'The Conference of 1944', The Round Table (No. 136; September 1944), pp. 311-12.

3 Halifax to FO, 7 May 1944, FO371/42682; ibid., minute by Campbell, 8 May 1944; minute by Butler, 10 May 1944; minute by Butler, 30 May 1944; minute by Campbell, 16 June 1944.

4 Ibid., minute by Mason, 19 May 1944.

5 Memorandum (WP(43)115), 22 March 1943, DO35/1838; ibid., Archer to Maclennan, 20 April

1943.

6 Memorandum prepared by MacDonald, 'Methods of Achieving Imperial Unity', April 1944, DO35/1489.

7 Minute by Cranborne, 12 November 1944, DO35/1204; ibid., minute by Emrys-Evans, 6 November 1944; Garner to Machtig, 15 April 1944.

8 Professor H. L. Stewart, 'A Closer Empire Unity', Speech at the Empire Club of Canada, 27 April

1944.

9 Charles Luke, 'Plan for Commonwealth Unity', Empire Review (March-May 1944), p. 72.

10 Minute by Campbell, 25 May 1944, FO371/42682; ibid., minute by Newton, 1 June 1944.

11 Halifax to Eden, 14 April 1944, DO35/1204.

12 Ibid., Circular from Eden, 3 October 1944; Machtig to Emrys-Evans, 24 July 1944; Garner to Costar, 4 February 1944; Batterbee to Machtig, 14 April 1944.

13 'Civil Aviation', 1 June 1943, House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 390), pp. 90-143.

14 WHCM, 9 June 1942, DO121/12; WHCM, 28 November 1944, DO121/14; Bissell, Imperial Canadian, p. 130; Orders, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Challenge of the United States, pp. 22-3.

15 Minute by Machtig, 9 January 1945, DO35/1236; ibid., minute by Cranborne, 14 January 1945; Boyd-Shannon, 'British Commonwealth Delegations to Chicago Conference, November 1944', n.d. (December 1944).

16 Minute by Boyd-Shannon, 2 April 1945, DO35/1891; 'After Chicago', The Round Table (No. 138; March 1945), pp. 130-6.

17 E. J. Hughes, 'Winston Churchill and the Formation of the United Nations Organisation', Journal of Contemporary History (Vol. 9, No. 4; October 1974), p. 193.

Adam Roberts, 'Britain and the Creation of the United Nations' in Roger Louis (ed.) Still More Adventures with Britannia (London, 2003), p. 231; Hughes, 'Winston Churchill and the Formation of the United Nations Organisation', p. 193; Memoirs of Lord Gladwyn (London, 1972), pp. 118, 121-2; 'Something for a Name', Time, 6 July 1942—the name was first used officially on January 1, 1942, when 26 states joined in the 'Declaration by the United Nations', pledging to continue their joint war effort and not to make peace separately.

'Proposed Four-Power Declaration', Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs,

WP(43)412, 22 September 1943, CAB66/41/12.

Woodward, British Foreign Policy in the Second World War, pp. 135-72.

Op. cit., Woodward, pp. 282-300.

Holmes to Stephenson, 2 April 1945, DO35/1891.

Cranborne to Churchill, 7 December 1944, DO121/10A.

Ibid., Cranborne to Churchill, 2 April 1945.

Ibid., minute by Cranborne, 23 March 1945.

'British Commonwealth Meeting', 4 April 1945, DO35/1213; 'British Commonwealth Meeting

April 1945—Minutes of Meetings and Memoranda', CAB133/325.

Dilks, The Diaries of Sir Alexander Cadogan, 4 and 9 April 1945, pp. 726-7.

Colonel Oliver Stanley, 'International Aspects of Colonial Policy', 21 December 1944, DO35/1900;

this document was produced by the CO with the DO being allowed to see drafts at various stages

but not being invited to comment.

Ibid., Churchill to Eden, 31 December 1944; Eden to Churchill, 8 January 1945. Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay, pp. 455-8; describing this intervention Louis opined that 'rhetorically it must rank high in the annals of British imperialism as an extemporaneous and uninhibited defence of the Empire'.

'International Aspects of Colonial Policy', Memorandum by Secretary of State for the Colonies, 19 March 1945, CAB66/63/55.

'International Aspects of Colonial Policy', Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs (as Chairman of the British Commonwealth Meetings on World Organisation), 10 April 1945, CAB66/64/28.

'Note on Trusteeship for Mr Bottomley by Mr Boyd-Shannon', 15 October 1946, DO35/1912. William Hardy McNeill, Survey of International Affairs: America, Britain and Russia—Their Cooperation and Conflict, 1941-1946 (London, 1953), pp. 592-4.

Minute by Butler, 31 August 1944, FO371/38721; 'Note of conditions of appointment of Mr B. Cockram on attachment to HM's United Kingdom Embassy, Washington', 3 November 1944. Minute by Machtig, 12 July 1945, DO35/1884. Ibid., Cockram to Machtig, 28 April 1945. Ibid., Cockram to Stephenson, 15 May 1945.

'International Aspects of Colonial Policy', Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, WP(45)300, 14 May 1945, CAB66/65/50.

Cockram to Stephenson, 15 May 1945, DO35/1884. He was not alone in this view, Cadogan

agreed, Evatt was 'the most frightful man in the world; he makes long and tiresome speeches on

every conceivable subject, always advocating the wrong things and generally with a view to being

inconvenient and offensive to us, and boosting himself. However, everyone by now hates Evatt

so much that his stock has gone down a bit and he matters less'; Dilks (ed.), The Diaries of Sir

Alexander Cadogan, 21 May 1945, p. 745.

Smuts, Jan Christian Smuts, pp. 474-5, 482-3.

Cockram to Stephenson, 2 June 1945, DO35/1884.

Ibid., Cockram to Stephenson, 16 June 1945.

Cockram to Gladwyn Jebb, 20 March 1945, DO35/1891.

Paul Hasluck, 'Australia and the Formation of the United Nations', Royal Australian Historical Society Journal and Proceedings (Vol. 40, No. 3; 1954), p. 167.

David Tothill, 'Evatt and Smuts in San Francisco', The Round Table (Vol. 96, No. 389; April 2007), pp. 178/9, 181, 183, 187-9.

47 Cockram to Stephenson, 23 June 1945, DO35/1884; this was an example of a wider malaise largely resulting from the statements made during the signing of the Anzac Pact. The American military had decided it did not need any help from the Dominions during the final phases of the Pacific war and the result was that British Commonwealth forces played only a peripheral role. In reality the United States appeared to have grown weary of Australian-led demands for a greater say in post-war planning for the Pacific region; Orders, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Challenge of the United States, pp. 129-30; Bell, Unequal Allies, pp. 159-203.

48 UK Delegation San Francisco to FO, 23 June 1945, DO35/1884; ibid., Cockram to Stephenson, 18 June 1945.

49 Telegram from DO Section, San Francisco Conference to DO, 26 June 1945, DO35/1883; ibid., 'Summary of Reports on Dr Evatt's Press Conference for the United Kingdom Press, Friday 22 June', 23 June 1945.

50 Telegram from Australia HC to DO, 29 June 1945, DO35/1883; ibid, 4 July 1945; Eggleston, who had been a member of the Australian delegation and was not noted for his admiration for Evatt, thought that there was something in the Australian complaint. Whilst he agreed it was difficult to accuse Halifax of being 'disingenuous', his claims that the British had effectively been responsible for the chapter on trusteeship that developed were unfair on Evatt and did not reflect the work he had had put in on the issue, not just at San Francisco but in the years before, Frederic Eggleston to Stanley Bruce, 9 July 1945 (National Archives, Canberra) M100, July 1945.

51 Cranborne to Evatt, 25 June 1945, DO35/1883; ibid., Evatt to Cranborne, 26 June 1945; ibid., Cranborne to Evatt, 26 June 1945.

52 Minute by Charles Welsley (FO), 24 August 1945, FO371/50371.

53 Cockram to Stephenson, 2 July 1945, DO35/1883; ibid., minute by Cockram, 2 July 1945.

54 'Debate on the Address', House of Commons Official .Report (Vol. 406), 1 December 1944, pp. 211-12.

55 Batterbee to Cranborne, 20 July 1945, DO35/1119.

56 Cranborne to Emrys-Evans, July 1945, Emrys-Evans Papers; Emrys-Evans lost his Derbyshire South seat at the 1945 general election—he was in good company as so did 31 other ministers or junior ministers in one of the largest ever changes of elected government.

Notes to Conclusion: Brave New World

1 R. G. Casey, Double or Quit (Melbourne, 1949), p. 104.

2 Ritchie Diary, 25 December 1940, Siren Years, p. 81.

3 Speech given at luncheon, 23 February 1942, Attlee Papers, MS.Attlee dep. 4, fol.209-20.

4 Diary, Lt. Colonel C. A. de Candole Papers (Imperial War Museum), 98/35/1.

5 Porter, 'What Did They Know of Empire?', p. 47; Denis Judd, 'Britain: Land Beyond Hope and Glory', p. 20.

6 John O'Sullivan, 'The History of Empire Can Reunite This Divided Nation', Daily Telegraph, 1 September 2007.

7 Cited in H. Duncan Hall, 'The British Commonwealth as a Great Power', Foreign Affairs, July 1945; comments by Heathcote-Smith, 21 August 1945, FO371/50371; McIntyre, 'Clio and Britannia's Lost Dream: Historians and the British Commonwealth of Nations in the First Half of the 20th Century', The Round Table (Vol. 93, No. 376; September 2004), pp. 521-2.

8 Diary, 14 December 1940, Hugh Dalton, pp. 121-2; Bell (ed.), TheHeadlam Diaries, 24 September 1942, p. 334.

9 'Situation in the South-West Pacific', House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 71), 29 January 1942, p. 578.

10 B. J. C. McKercher, 'The Foreign Office, 1930-39: Strategy, Permanent Interests and National Security', Contemporary British History (Vol. 18, No. 3; Autumn 2004), pp. 95, 87.

11 Garner to Costar, 4 February 1944, DO35/1024/75/23.

12 Campbell to Batterbee, 20 May 1940, Batterbee Papers, Box 6/2.

13 Holland, Britain and the Commonwealth Alliance, p. 172.

14 Amery to Cranborne, 4 February 1944, DO35/1485; Amery to Cranborne, 28 January 1942, Amery Papers, AMEL2/1/34.

15 Churchill (ed.), Never Give In!, pp. 299-301.

16 Eden to Whiskard, 4 February 1940, DO35/1003/3/43; Churchill to Curtin, 21 March 1942, PREM3/206/1-3; ibid., Curtin to Churchill, 22 March 1942; 'Australia and the Empire', The Times, 24 March 1942; minute by Machtig, 19 February 1943, DO35/1896/213/3; A. J. Stockwell, 'The Audit of War', History Today (March 2006), pp. 52-3; Arnold L. Haskell, The Dominions -Partnership or Rift (London, 1943), pp. 5-32; Jeffrey Grey, 'Australia and Allied Relations in the Post-War Period, 1945-1972', Revue Internationale d'Histoire Militaire (No. 72, 1990), p. 168.

17 Ritchie Diary, 18 March 1941, Siren Years, p. 96; 'We Remain in Commonwealth after War', Daily Chronicle, 23 June 1942 .

18 'South Africa: Notes for Lecturers', War Office, 25 February 1942, FO371/34088.

19 'Empire and the War', November 1939, DO35/99/24/3; Harlech to Attlee, 20 July 1942, FO954/4B; Gann, 'South Africa and the Third Reich', p. 518; Smuts to Theron, 21 July 1942, Smuts Papers; Grundlingh, The King's Afrikaners, p. 354; Annette Seegers, The Military in the Making of Modern South Africa (London, 1996), pp. 58-9.

20 Batterbee to Machtig, 21 December 1941, DO121/116; Cranborne to Churchill, 2 February 1942, PREM3/150/2; 'Notes on New Zealand's War Effort and Future Participation in Pacific War', 5 May 1944, DO35/1631; by the 28 November 1945 final casualty figures stood at 9,334 dead and 27,413 wounded. This compares with 16,302 dead and 41,702 wounded during the Great War—'British Empire War Casualties', CAB106/305.

21 'Recall Without Repining', W. G. Stevens Papers, p. 217.

22 Arnold Toynbee, 'The British Commonwealth' in Toynbee and Ashton-Gwatkin (eds), Survey of International Affairs 1939-1946, pp. 28-9.

23 Lawrence James, 'Nailing the Lie of the Evil Empire', The Sunday Times, 18 June 2006; a provocative account of the British response to the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya in the 1950s was condemned by the renowned reviewer who described its author as an 'heir of the war of independence and schooled to believe that all empires are intrinsically evil'.

24 Nicholas Mansergh (ed.), The Constitutional Relations between Britain and India: The Transfer of Power, 1942-1947 (London, 1971), p. 253.

25 'Sub-Committee 1 on American Opinion, Preliminary Report', 27 January 1943, FO371/34086; minute by Attlee to Churchill, 16 June 1942, DO121/10B; Mansergh, The Commonwealth and the Nations, pp. 66-75.

26 A. Duff Cooper, 'The Future Development of the British Empire' (12 January 1943), United Empire (Vol. 34, No. 2), p. 33; Howe, Have We Bonds, p. 245.

27 For an excellent review see Niall Ferguson, 'Hegemony or Empire?', Foreign Affairs (September/ October 2003), pp. 154-61.

28 Heinlein, British Government Policy and Decolonisation, p. 11-12; 'A Record of Great Achievement', The Commonwealth and Empire Review (Vol. 79, No. 513; June-August 1945), p. 20; Ovendale, English Speaking Alliance, pp. 17-18; David Sanders, Losing an Empire, Finding a Role: British Foreign Policy Since 1945 (London, 1990), pp. 47-9.

29 'British Empire War Casualties', Cohen to Brigadier General Edmonds, 7 June 1945, CAB106/305; Glen St J. Barclay, The Empire is Marching (London, 1976), pp. 214, 217.

30 Francine McKenzie, 'In the National Interest: Dominions' Support for Britain and the Commonwealth after the Second World War', The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. 34, No. 4; December 2006), pp. 553-76; John Gallagher, The Decline, Revival and Fall of the British Empire, pp. 143-8; Ritchie Ovendale, The English-Speaking Alliance: Britain, the United States, the Dominions and the Cold War 1945-1951, pp. 17-25; D. K. Fieldhouse, 'The Labour Governments and the Empire-Commonwealth, 1945-1951' in Ritchie Ovendale, The Foreign Policy of the British Labour Governments, 1945-1951 (Leicester, 1984), pp. 83-120; Heinlein, British Government Policy and Decolonisation, pp. 8, 64-7, 72-3; Eugene P. Chase, 'Government by Consultation in the British Commonwealth', The Journal of Politics (Vol. 9,

No. 3; May 1947), pp. 198-210; K. C. Wheare, 'Is the British Commonwealth Withering Away?', The American Political Science Review (Vol. 4, No. 3; September 1950), pp. 545-55; 'Dominions Now Seen in Key Role of Empire's Power and Preservation, The Dominion (Wellington), 25 November 1947; 'Britain at the End of an Era. Dominions Now in Key Role', The New York Times,

24 November 1947; James L. Sturgis, 'What's In A Name?: A Perspective on the Transition of Empire/Commonwealth 1918-1950', The Round Table (No. 334, 1995), p. 203; Halifax to Eden,

25 April 1944, DO35/1204.

31 Barnett, The Collapse of British Power, p. 232; Correlli Barnett, 'Imperial Overstretch, from Dr Arnold to Mr Blair', RUSI Journal (August 2005), pp. 27-8.

32 'Man of England', Time, 6 March 1944.

33 'King's Speech—Debate on the Address', House of Commons Official Report (Vol. 457), 28 October 1948, p. 242.

34 'Foreign Affairs', House of Lords Official Report (Vol. 81), 25 May 1944, pp. 953-4, 998-9, 1011.

35 John Bierman and Colin Smith, Alamein: War Without Hate (London, 2003), p. 334.

36 'Note of a Talk with Mr Bruce at 10.00am on the 23rd of October [1945] at Shoreham Hotel, Washington', DO35/1491.

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