Notes

INTRODUCTION

1 Julie Hollar, “Congo Is Ignored, Not Forgotten,” Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, May 2009, www.fair.org/index.php?page=3777, accessed March 8, 2010.

2 Nicholas Kristof, “Darfur and Congo,” On the Ground (blog), New York Times, June 20, 2007, kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/06/20/darfur-and-congo/, accessed March 8, 2010, quoted in Hollar, “Congo Is Ignored.”

3 The Congolese colloquially call the Belgians noko, or uncles, and like to make fun of their fondness for mayonnaise on their French fries.

4 Achille Flor Ngoye, Kin-la-joie, Kin-la-folie (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1993), 147 (my translation).

5 The country’s name was switched back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997. When discussing the period 1971 to 1997, I will refer to the country as Zaire.

6 Gauthiers de Villers and Jean-Claude Willame, Republique democratique du Congo: Chronique politique d’un entre-deux-guerres, octobre 1996–juillet 1998, Cahiers Africains 35 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998), 85.

7 His name has been changed to protect his identity.

CHAPTER 1

1 A controversy still surrounds the downing of the plane. Opponents of the current regime and some academics insist that the RPF rebels shot it down, while the RPF and other regional experts maintain that it was extremists within the Habyarimana government.

2 Scott Straus, “How Many Perpetrators Were There in the Rwandan Genocide?” Journal of Genocide Research 6, no. 1 (2004): 85–98.

3 Kathi L. Austin, Rearming with Impunity: International Support for the Perpetrators of the Rwandan Genocide, Human Rights Watch, vol. 7, no. 4 (May 1995).

4 Unless otherwise indicated, information about Rwarakabije’s life in this chapter is based on a series of interviews with him in Kigali between 2007 and 2009.

5 Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York: Penguin, 2006), 135.

6 This section draws on a discussion of identity formation in Rwanda in David Newbury, Kings and Clans: Idjwi Island and the Lake Kivu Rift (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1991); as well as Jean-Pierre Chrétien, The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History, trans. Scott Straus (New York: Zone Books, 2003), 171–190, 281–290; and Catherine Newbury, The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860–1960 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 73–150.

7 Quoted by Chrétien, The Great Lakes of Africa, 283.

8 Gérard Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (London: Hurst, 1997), 143n27.

9 Philip Verwimp, An Economic Profile of Peasant Perpetrators of the Genocide: Micro-level Evidence from Rwanda, HiCN Working Paper 8, Households in Conflict Network, University of Sussex, 2003, www.hicn.org/papers/perp.pdf.

10 Straus, “How Many Perpetrators?,” 94. Other authors contest this figure; the range varies from between tens of thousands to several million perpetrators.

11 Jean-Paul Kimonyo, Un genocide populaire (Paris: Karthala, 2008); Scott Straus, The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006).

12 Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis, 100–102, 147, 148; Alison Des Forges, Eric Gillet, and Timothy Longman, Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999), 506–507.

13 Austin, Rearming with Impunitywww.hrw.org/reports/1995/Rwanda1.htm, n25.

14 Des Forges, Gillet, and Longman, Leave None to Tell the Story, 506.

15 Linda Melvern, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide (London: Zed Books, 2000), 131.

16 African Rights, Rwanda: The Insurgency in the Northwest (London: African Rights, 1998), 103.

17 African Rights, Rwanda: Death, Despair, and Defiance, rev. ed. (London: African Rights, 1995), 657, quoted by Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis, 314.

18 Amos Elon, “Introduction,” in Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem, xiv.

CHAPTER 2

1 Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 30.

2 Quoted by Joel Boutroue, Missed Opportunities: The Role of the International Community in the Return of the Rwandan Refugees from Eastern Zaire, July 1994–December 1996, Rosemarie Rogers Working Paper 1, Inter-University Committee on International Migration, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 1998.

3 Beatrice Umutesi, Fuir ou Mourir au Zaire (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000), 95.

4 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 26, quoting UNHCR field notes.

5 Johan de Smedt, “Child Marriages in Rwandan Refugee Camps,” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 68, no. 2 (1998): 211–237.

6 Umutesi, Fuir ou Mourir au Zaire, 93, 94.

7 Breaking the Cycle: Calls for Action in the Rwandese Refugee Camps in Tanzania and Zaire, Doctors Without Borders, November 10, 1994, http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/article.cfm?id=1465.

8 John Eriksson, “Synthesis Report” of the International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience, Danish International Development Assistance, March 1996, 29, quoted by Fiona Terry, Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002), 175.

9 Umutesi, Fuir ou Mourir au Zaire, 88.

10 Terry, Condemned to Repeat? 186, 187.

11 Ibid., 204, 205.

12 Ibid., 190.

13 Author’s off-the-record interview with a UN official, New York, July 2007.

14 Kurt Mills, “Refugee Return from Zaire to Rwanda: The Role of UNHCR,” in War and Peace in Zaire/Congo: Analyzing and Evaluating Intervention, 1996–1997, ed. Howard Adelman and Govind C. Rao (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2004), 163–185; Final Report of the United Nations Technical Mission on the Security Situation in the Rwandan Refugee Camps in Zaire, 1994, www.grandslacs.net/doc/2745.pdf.

15 Boutroue, Missed Opportunities, 62–64.

16 Quoted by Boutroue, Missed Opportunities, 31, 32.

17 Terry, Condemned to Repeat? 171.

18 Boutroue, Missed Opportunities.

19 Rwanda/Zaire: Rearming with Impunity, Human Rights Watch Arms Project, May 1995.

20 The Great Lakes region of Africa consists of the countries located around lakes in the Great Rift Valley. The region is loosely defined but usually includes Uganda, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Kenya, and Tanzania.

21 Gérard Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 279n139.

22 Agence France-Presse, Brussels, October 29, 1996.

23 Quoted by Simon Massey, “Operation Assurance: The Greatest Humanitarian Intervention that Never Happened,” Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, February 15, 1998, jha.ac/1998/02/15/operation-assurance-the-greatest-intervention-that-never-happened.

24 Ibid.

CHAPTER 3

1 Stephen Kinzer, A Thousand Hills: Rwanda’s Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamed It (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2008), 254.

2 Philip Gourevitch, “After Genocide,” Transition 72 (1996): 188.

3 Kinzer, A Thousand Hills, 232.

4 Gérard Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis: A History of the Genocide (London: Hurst & Co., 1997), 62.

5 Richard Grant, “Paul Kagame: Rwanda’s Redeemer or Ruthless Dictator?” Daily Telegraph (London), July 22, 2010.

6 “When Kagame Turned 50,” New Times (Kigali), October 25, 2007.

7 Author’s interview with Andrew Mwenda, New Haven, Connecticut, March 2010.

8 Author’s interview with former RPF soldier, Nairobi, July 2007.

9 Author’s telephone interview with U.S. intelligence officer, June 2009.

10 Steve Vogel, “Student of Warfare Graduates on Battlefields of Rwanda; Rebel Leader Ran a Textbook Operation,” Washington Post, August 25, 1994.

11 Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis, 62.

12 Filip Reyntjens, La Guerre des Grands Lacs (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999), 52; Report of the Joint Mission Charged with Investigating Allegations of Massacres and Other Human Rights Violations Occurring in Eastern Zaire (Now Democratic Republic of the Congo) Since September 1996, United Nations General Assembly, A/51/942, July 2, 1997, 17, 18.

13 Quoted in the film Afrique en morceaux (1999), directed by Jihan El Tahran.

14 Peter Rosenblum, “Irrational Exuberance: The Clinton Administration in Africa,” Current History (May 2002): 197.

15 The Ugandan rebels included the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a brutal rebel group that initially drew support from the Acholi community of northern Uganda, who had made up a large part of Milton Obote’s army and had been marginalized after Museveni’s arrival in power. The LRA were not yet active in Zaire, but several other Ugandan rebel groups were, with support from both Mobutu and the Khartoum government. Shortly afterwards, Sudanese intelligence operatives based out of northeastern Zaire helped create the West Nile Bank Liberation Front (WNBLF), made up of former partisans and soldiers close to former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. In addition, Sudan lent support to several other rebel groups, including two small Ugandan Islamist organizations, the Tabliq and the Uganda Muslim Liberation Army (UMLA), both of which claimed to be outraged by the alleged massacre of Muslims at the hands of Museveni. To complicate the picture further, there was also a group of leaders from the Baganda community, the Allied Democratic Movement (ADM), who attacked Museveni for continuing to repress the kingdom of Baganda, the largest precolonial monarchy in the region, and also began to recruit soldiers. As neither ADM nor UMLA had significant grassroots support, the Sudanese put them in contact with remnants of the National Army for the Liberation of Uganda (NALU), a rebel militia based among the Konjo ethnic community in the Ruwenzori Mountains of western Uganda, who had felt marginalized from Uganda politics since the colonial era. Together, these three groups formed the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF).

16 “Congo Rebels Were Museveni’s Idea,” Monitor (Kampala), June 1, 1999.

17 “Supplementary Report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Sanctions Against UNITA,” Security Council Document S/2001/966, October 8, 2001.

18 The figure for displaced people comes from the UN consolidated appeal for Angola, January–December 1996; military expenditure information comes from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).

19 Matthew Hart, “How to Steal a Diamond,” Atlantic Monthly, March 1999.

20 Author’s interview with Rwandan intelligence official, South Africa, January 2009.

21 Author’s interview with Don Steinberg, former U.S. ambassador to Angola, New York, June 2007.

22 “Kabila Shouts Down Museveni,” Monitor (Kampala), June 2, 1999.

23 Thabo Mbeki, “Statement on Behalf of the African National Congress, on the Occasion of the Adoption by the Constitutional Assembly of‘The Republic of South Africa Constitution Bill 1996.’”

CHAPTER 4

1 Author’s interview with human rights activist, Bukavu, March 2008.

2 BBC monitoring of Voix du Zaire newscast, October 9, 1996. His comments about six days were made off air to one of the international journalists.

3 See, for example, his submission to the Goma peace conference in 2008: “Reaction de Monsieur Lwabanji Lwasi Ngabo, Vice-Gouverneur Honoraire du Sud Kivu, à la declaration du porte parole des Banyamulenge à la conference de Goma,” January 15, 2008.

4 Much of this chapter is based on the author’s interview with Serukiza, Kinshasa, November 2007. He passed away not long afterwards from complications from cancer.

5 Isidore Ndaywel, Histoire Générale du Congo: De l’héritage ancien à la République démocratique (Paris: Duculot, 1998), 382–383 (my translation). Also see Koen Vlassenroot, “Citizenship, Identity Formation and Conflict in South Kivu: The Case of the Banyamulenge,” Review of African Political Economy 29, nos. 93–94 (2002): 499–515.

6 I owe this insight to Mauro DeLorenzo, who studied the Banyamulenge for his doctoral dissertation at Oxford University.

7 Historians of Rwanda also record emigrations from southern Rwanda toward Congo around this time. Catherine Newbury, The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860–1960 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 48–49.

8 Lazare Sebitereko Rukundwa, “Justice and Righteousness in Matthean Theology and Its Relevance to the Banyamulenge Community,” PhD thesis, University of Pretoria, November 2005, 317.

9 Ibid., 292.

10 Ibid., 129.

11 Quoted by Cosma Wilungula, Le Maquis Kabila, Fizi 1967–1986 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1997), 24 (my translation).

12 Manassé Ruhimbika, Les Banyamulenge entre deux guerres (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001), 25.

13 Leslie Crawford, “Hutus See France as Their Saviour,” Financial Times (London), June 27, 1994.

14 Anzuluni Bembe, the president of the national assembly and himself a Bembe from South Kivu, authored the decree, implying that the Banyamulenge were Rwandan immigrants who had fraudulently acquired Congolese citizenship.

15 Haut Conseil de la République, Parlement de Transition, “Resolution sur les réfugiés et population déplacés dans les regions du Nord et du Sud-Kivu,” signed in Kinshasa, April 28, 1995.

16 Letter from the Commissaire de Zone d’Uvira, October 26, 1995, quoted by Ruhimbika, Les Banyamulenge, 32.

17 A group of Banyamulenge leaders, led by Dugu wa Mulenge, their only provincial parliamentarian, wrote to denounce this recruitment of Banyamulenge. The estimates for the number of Banyamulenge in the RPF come from Ruhimbika, Les Banyamulenge (300) and Serukiza (1,000).

CHAPTER 5

1 Much of this chapter is based on the author’s interview with Deogratias Bugera, Johannesburg, April 2008. Thomas Ntiratimana, Bugera’s former chief of staff, also provided helpful information.

2 Author’s interview with former AFDL member, Kinshasa, November 2007.

3 The exact size is a matter of contention. According to Brooke Grundfest Schoepf and Claude Schoepf, “Gender, Land, and Hunger in Eastern Zaire,” in African Food Systems in Crisis, vol. 2, Contending with Change, ed. Rebecca Huss-Ashmore and Solomon H. Katz, Food and Nutrition in History and Anthropology, vol. 7 (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1990), King Leopold ceded 12 million hectares, or 46,000 square miles, to the National Committee for the Kivus, a state agency, but that was soon reduced to 300,000 hectares, which is a tenth of the size of Belgium.

4 Séverin Mugangu, “Les politiques legislatives congolaise et rwandaise relatives aux refugiés et émigrés rwandais,” in Exilé, réfugiés et deplacés en Afrique Centrale et orientale, ed. André Guichaoua (Paris: Karthala, 2004), 639.

5 Paul Mathieu and Mafikiri Tsongo, “Enjeux fonciers, déplacements de population et escalades conflictuelles (1930–1995),” in Conflits et guerres au Kivu et dans la région des grands lacs: Entre tensions locales et escalade régionale, ed. P. Mathieu and Jean-Claude Willame, Cahiers Africains 39 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999), 20–25.

6 Jean-Pierre Pabanel, “La question de la nationalité au Kivu,” Politique Africaine (1993): 41, 43.

7 There was no effort to implement the law until 1989, when the government began to identify voters. This process provoked violence—Banyarwanda in Masisi burned down registration booths.

8 The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Zaire put the figure at 3,000, while Amnesty International suggested it could be as high as 7,000, citing humanitarian officials Roberto Garretón, UN Special Rapporteur, Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Zaire, December 23, 1994, paragraph 90; Amnesty International, Zaire: Violence Against Democracy, September 16, 1993.

9 Bugera was in touch with two leading Rwandan officers who were coordinating these operations, Major Jack Nziza and Colonel Kayumba Nyamwasa, both of whom would play major roles in the subsequent Rwandan invasion of the Congo.

10 Joel Boutroue, Missed Opportunities: The Role of the International Community in the Return of the Rwandan Refugees from Eastern Zaire, July 1994–December 1996, Rosemarie Rogers Working Paper 1, Inter-University Committee on International Migration, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 1998.

11 This was later confirmed by documents they recovered after they had captured the refugee camps.

12 Anonymous tract written by the Collective of Congolese Patriots (COPACO), dated February 10, 2000.

CHAPTER 6

1 Erik Kennes with Jean Omasombo, Essai biographique sur Laurent Désiré Kabila (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2003), 29.

2 Ibid., 29.

3 Quoted by Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959–1976, Envisioning Cuba (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 72.

4 Kennes, Essai biographique, 72.

5 Ernesto “Che” Guevara, The African Dream: The Diaries of the Revolutionary War in the Congo, trans. Patrick Camiller (New York: Grove, 2000), 6.

6 Ibid., 86.

7 Ibid., 244.

8 William Galvez, Le rêve Africain de Che (Antwerp: EPO, 1998), 302, quoted by Kennes, Essai biographique, 174.

9 Wilungula Cosma, Le Maquis Kabila, Fizi 1967–1986 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1997), 112; Kennes, Essai biographique, 264.

10 Kennes, Essai biographique, 302.

11 Jean-Baptiste Sondji, a hospital director in Kinshasa who went on to become health minister under Laurent Kabila, met with Kahinda Otafire, one of President Museveni’s point men on the Congo, in Brussels as early as 1993 to discuss regime change in his country. He spoke to Tshisekedi about Uganda’s proposal, but the opposition leader didn’t want to have anything to do with an armed insurrection. Patrick Karegeya confirmed this. Author’s interview with Jean-Baptiste Sondji, Kinshasa, February 2008.

12 Lemera is a town in South Kivu where the first AFDL training camp would be located. Coincidentally, the neighborhood in Kigali where some of the Congolese rebels were staying was also called Lemera.

CHAPTER 7

1 This description comes from Thomas Ntiratimana, chief of staff of Deo Bugera and later vice governor of South Kivu, whom I interviewed in Kinshasa, July 2006, as well as General Malik Kijege, a leading Munyamulenge commander, whom I interviewed in Kinshasa, November 2007.

2 “West ‘ Fooled’ by Banyamulenge,” Voix du Zaire, Bukavu, October 25, 1996.

3 Author’s interview with Bembe civil society activist, Baraka, March 2008.

4 Manassé Ruhimbika, Les Banyamulenge entre deux guerres (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001), 47.

5 Ibid., 49.

6 Alex’s name has been changed to protect his identity.

7 See also Report of the Mapping Exercise Documenting the Most Serious Violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Committed Within the Territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Between March 1993 and June 2003, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, October 2010, 74. The death toll given by UN investigators was 152 for this incident.

8 Several days later, a German journalist ventured into the squalid camp on the Rwandan side of the border, to where the Tutsi survivors had fled. Amid the blue UNHCR tents, a wizened man approached him with a black book. Musafiri Mushambaro, the president of the Uvira community there, paged through the book, counting the dead: “Sange 20, Muturure 9, in Burugera 3, Lweba 89, Kamanyola 37.” He had 217 names in his book, all men. They were separated from their families, driven together, and shot, he said.

9 According to a UN report published in 2010, 101 people died that day in Abala. Report of the Mapping Exercise, 135.

CHAPTER 8

1 The information on Prosper Nabyolwa’s experiences stems from a series of interviews by the author with General Nabyolwa in Kinshasa in July 2005, December 2007, and July 2008.

2 “Declaration of the Population of South Kivu Following the ‘March of Anger, Protest and Denunciation Against the Aggression by Tutsi Rwandans of Which Zaire and Its People Have Become Victims,’” Bukavu, September 18, 1996, quoted by Olivier Lanotte, Guerres sans frontiers: De Joseph-Désiré Mobutu a Joseph Kabila (Brussels: GRIP, 2003), 42.

3 Demain le Congo, no. 244 (1997): 7, quoted by Isidore Ndaywel, Histoire Générale du Congo: De l’héritage ancien à la République démocratique (Paris: Duculot, 1998).

4 Author’s interviews with hospital staff, Lemera, March 2008; Amnesty International, Zaire: Violent Persecution by State and Armed Groups, November 29, 1996, 5.

5 “A Hole in the Middle of Africa,” Economist, July 8, 1995.

6 Library of Congress, Country Study: Zaire, 1994, 312.

7 Crawford Young and Thomas Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 275.

8 Honoré Ngbanda Nzambo, Ainsi sonne le glas: Les derniers jours du Maréchal Mobutu (Paris: Editions Gideppe, 1998), 46 (my translation).

9 William Reno, “Sovereignty and Personal Rule in Zaire,” African Studies Quarterly 1, no. 3 (1997), www.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v1/3/4.htm.

10 Author’s interview with General Prosper Nabyolwa in Kinshasa, December 2007.

11 Young and Turner, Rise and Decline, 259.

12 Michael G. Schatzberg, The Dialectics of Oppression in Zaire (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988), 59.

13 Library of Congress, Zaire, 303.

14 Author’s interview with José Endundo, owner of a large aviation company, Kinshasa, December 2007.

15 Nzambo, Ainsi sonne le glas, 88.

16 Author’s interview with Deo Bugera, Johannesburg, March 2008.

17 Author’s interview with Patrick Karegeya, Dar es Salaam, January 2008.

18 “Plus jamais le Congo,” Observatoire de l’Afrique centrale 6, no. 10, March 4, 2003, www.obsac.com.

19 Cherif Ouazani, “James Kabarebe et la mémoire de la guerre de libération de l’AFDL,” Jeune Afrique Intelligent, April 29, 2002 (my translation).

20 When Joseph Kabila came to power in 2001, some of his closest military advisors were former Katangan Tigers.

21 Author’s interview with former FAR commander, Kinshasa, July 2009.

22 Stephen Smith, “L’Armada de mercenaires au Zaïre: Commandés par un Belge, 280 ‘affreux’ mènent la contre-offensive,” Libération, January 24, 1997; Philippe Chapleau and Francois Misser, Mercenaires S.A. (Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 1998), Chapter 6.

23 Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 129.

24 Quoted in the film Afrique en morceaux (1999), directed by Jihan El Tahran.

25 Gordana Igri, “Alleged ‘Assassins’ Were No Strangers to France,” in Balkan Crisis Report, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, November 26, 1999.

26 James Astill’s interview with General James Kabarebe, Kigali, May 2004.

27 Author’s interview with Colonel Fely Bikaba, Kinshasa, July 2006.

28 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 142.

29 “Canadian Deal Worth Millions to Zaire’s Rebels: $50 Million Investment Likely to Find Its Way into Kabila’s War Chest,” Associated Press, May 10, 1997.

30 Mark Sherman, “McKinney Reassured About Zairian Refugees, Elections,” Atlanta Constitution, May 14, 1997.

CHAPTER 9

1 Robert Gribbin, In the Aftermath of Genocide, U.S. Congress Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights, December 4, 1996, 198.

2 No one really knew exactly how many refugees remained in Zaire. At one point, the UN refugee agency suggested the number could be as high as 600,000, the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs said 439,500, while the U.S. general Edwin Smith put the figure at 202,000 and the Canadian general Maurice Baril at 165,000. Filip Reyntjens, The Great African War: Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 85–86.

3 Quoted by Johan Pottier, Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 175.

4 Ibid., 175.

5 Beatrice Umutesi, Fuir ou mourir au Zaire (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000), 131.

6 Ibid., 147.

7 Forced Flight: A Brutal Strategy of Elimination in Eastern Zaire, Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), May 1997, www.msf.org/msfinternational/invoke.cfm?component=report&objectid=A63A4532-BEA0-4BB1-A7AE1EEB4BD27AC7&method=full_html.

8 According to Doctors Without Borders, mortality rates were as high as 21 deaths per 10,000 people in some camps. By comparison, the mortality rate in a healthy population is around 0.6 per 10,000, a rate of 2 per 10,000 constitutes an emergency, and 4 per 10,000 is an out-of-control emergency.

9 Forced Flight.

10 Ibid.

11 See Kisangani Emizet, “ The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law,” Journal of Modern African Studies 33, no. 2 (2000): 173–179; Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 148. Both of these authors, however, use 1.1 million refugees as a starting point, a figure of unknown accuracy, given the lack of a census in the camps.

12 Alan L. Heil Jr., Voice of America: A History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 264.

13 Report of the Mapping Exercise Documenting the Most Serious Violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Committed Within the Territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Between March 1993 and June 2003, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, October 2010, 278.

14 Ibid., 77–116, 273–277.

15 Colin Nickerson, “ Refugee Massacre Unfolds in Congo: Witnesses Tell of Slaughter of Hundreds by Kabila’s Soldiers,” Boston Globe, June 1, 1997, A1. The figure of nine hundred bodies buried comes from Andrew Maykuth, “ Tutsis Slaughter Hutu Refugees,” Knight-Ridder Newspapers, June 8, 1997. UN investigators, who were barred from visiting Mbandaka, suggested that between 200 and 2,000 people may have been killed there.

16 Nickerson, “ Refugee Massacre Unfolds in Congo.”

17 Author’s interview with Beatrice Umutesi, Brussels, August 2009.

18 Thomas P. Odom, “Guerrillas from the Mist: A Defense Attaché Watches the Rwandan Patriotic Front Transform from Insurgent to Counter-Insurgent,” Small Wars Journal, n.d., smallwarsjournal.com/documents/swjmag/v5/odom.htm#_ftn11, accessed March 20, 2009.

19 Howard French, “Kagame’s Hidden War in the Congo,” New York Review of Books, September 24, 2009.

CHAPTER 10

1 Much of the material for this chapter stems from several interviews with Kizito (whose name has been changed to protect his identity) in Bukavu in early 2008. I also interviewed six other former AFDL soldiers, all of whom had similar experiences.

2 All commanders were called afande, a word derived from the Swahili and Turkish effendi, an honorable person.

3 Watchlist on Children in Armed Conflict, Country Report: DR Congowww.watchlist.org/reports/files/dr_congo.report.20060426.php?p=15, accessed July 29, 2010.

4 Author’s interview with Colonel Fely Bikaba, Kinshasa, November 2007.

5 Author’s interview with General Siatilo Ngizo, Kinshasa, July 2009.

6 Author’s interview with “Trésor,” Kinshasa, July 2009.

CHAPTER 11

1 Michela Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in the Congo (London: Fourth Estate, 2000), 263.

2 Quoted in the film Afrique en morceaux (1999), directed by Jihan El Tahran.

3 The irony here was that the Bangala identity was largely the creation of colonial authorities out of a conglomeration of tribes, although Mobutu was trying to present himself as a precolonial authority.

4 Michael G. Schatzberg, The Dialectics of Oppression in Zaire (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988), 72.

5 For an example of this, see the film Mobutu, Roi du Zaire (1999), directed by Thierry Michel.

6 Valentin Nagifi, Les derniers jours de Mobutu a Gbadolite (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2003), 52 (my translation).

7 Scott Straus, “Americans Meddling, Zairians Charge U.S. Unpopular with Residents Convinced It Backed First Mobutu and Now Rebel Leader,” Globe and Mail (Toronto), April 12, 1997.

8 Nagifi, Les derniers jours de Mobutu, 77.

9 Howard French, “ Ending a Chapter, Mobutu Cremates Rwandan Ally,” New York Times, May 16, 1997.

10 Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz, 272.

11 Félix Vundwawe Te Pemako, A l’ombre du Léopard: Vérités sur le régime de Mobutu Sese Seko (Brussels: Editions Zaïre Libre, 2000), 322 (my translation).

12 Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz, 274–277.

13 Tshilombo Munyegayi, “ La chute de Mobutu et la mort Mahele racontées par le général Likulia,” Le Potentiel, July 10, 2005 (my translation).

14 Tshilombo Munyengayi, “ La chute de Mobutu et la mort Mahele racontées par le général Likulia,” Le Potentiel, June 25, 2005.

15 This version of the story was related to General Siatilo Ngizo and General Prosper Nabyolwa by the survivors of the incident, including General Matthieu Agolowa.

CHAPTER 12

1 Eric Tollens, “Food Security in Kinshasa: Coping with Adversity,” in Reinventing Order in Congo: How People Respond to State Failure in Kinshasa, ed. Theodore Trefon (London: Zed Books; Kampala, Uganda: Fountain, 2004), 48.

2 Author’s interview with Nestor Diambwama, Kinshasa, November 2007.

3 Information about Kabila’s lifestyle came from the author’s separate interviews with Didier Mumengi, Mwenze Kongolo, Jean Mbuyu, and Moise Nyarugabo in Kinshasa, October 2007, and from an interview with Deogratias Bugera in Johannesburg, April 2008.

4 Author’s interview with Babi Mbayi, former minister of planning and development, Kinshasa, November 2007.

5 Ibid.

6 “Mandela, Museveni Meet Over Regional Issues,” Xinhua News Agency, May 27, 1997.

7 Tom Cohen, “Kabila Sworn in as President, Promises Elections Within Two Years,” Associated Press, May 29, 1997.

8 Gauthiers de Villers and Jean-Claude Willame, Republique democratique du Congo: Chronique politique d’un entre-deux-guerres, octobre 1996–juillet 1998, Cahiers Africains 35 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998), 76.

9 Ibid., 107; Uncertain Course: Transition and Human Rights Violations in the Congo, Human Rights Watch, vol. 9, no. 9 (December 1997); Howard French, “Congo’s Opposition Pays Price of Defying Kabila,” New York Times, December 3, 1997.

10 Olivier Lanotte, Guerre sans frontiers en RDC (Brussels: Complexe, 2003), 74.

11 Human Rights Watch, Uncertain Course: Transition and Human Rights Violations in the Congo (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1997), 41.

12 During the rebellion, the AFDL had an office in charge of nongovernmental organizations.

13 International Crisis Group, How Kabila Lost His Way, DRC Report #3, May 21, 1999, 15.

14 Interview with Didier Mumengi, the former minister of information, Kinshasa, November 2007.

15 Laura Myers, “Be Democratic, Albright Tells Congo’s Kabila,” Associated Press, December 13, 1997.

16 Author’s interview with Howard Wolpe, Bukavu, February 2008.

17 Howard French, “In Congo, Many Chafe Under Rule of Kabila,” New York Times, July 17, 1997.

18 Author’s interview with Ministry of Mines official, Kinshasa, July 2009.

19 Author’s interview with business official, Kinshasa, July 2009.

20 De Villers and Willame, Republique democratique du Congo, 121.

21 Author’s interview with Didier Mumengi, Kinshasa, November 2007.

22 Author’s interview with Babi Mbayi, Kinshasa, November 2007.

23 Author’s interview with Didier Mumengi, Kinshasa, November 2007.

24 Robert Reid, “Security Council Struggles to Get Act Together over Congo,” Associated Press, May 29, 1997.

25 Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 157.

26 Kisangani Emizet, “The Massacre of Refugees in Congo: A Case of UN Peacekeeping Failure and International Law,” Journal of Modern African Studies 38, no. 2 (2000): 170.

27 Author’s interview with Tony Gambino, Washington, DC, July 2007.

28 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 166.

29 Author’s interview with Mabi Mulumba, Kinshasa, January 2008.

30 Author’s interview with Mulumba, Kinshasa, November 2007.

31 Author’s interviews with Moise Nyarugabo, Kinshasa, November 2007, and Deo Bugera, Johannesburg, March 2008. One can dispute their reliability, as they later fell out with Kabila and went into armed opposition.

32 Author’s interview with Nyarugabo, Kinshasa, October 2007.

CHAPTER 13

1 Charles Onyango-Obbo, “Interview with Kagame: Habyarimana Knew of Plans to Kill Kim,” Monitor (Kampala), December 19, 1997.

2 Final Report of the International Commission of Inquiry (Rwanda), S/1998/1096, November 18, 1998, 5. Other reports, including by the human rights group African Rights, put the figure much higher, at around 30,000–40,000.

3 Author’s interview with Paul Rwarakabije, Kigali, March 2008.

4 African Rights, Rwanda: The Insurgency in the Northwest (London: African Rights, 1999), 45.

5 Human rights groups differ on whether the killings by the RPA were part of a systematic strategy or due to individuals’ indiscipline and abuse. Amnesty International argued for the former in the reports Ending the Silence (1997) and Civilians Trapped in Armed Conflict (1997), while African Rights does not find evidence for a policy of killing civilians in its 1999 report Rwanda.

6 Author’s interview with anonymous source, Kinshasa, October 2007.

7 Author’s interview with Malik Kijege, Kinshasa, October 2007.

8 Ibid.

9 This section is based on four separate interviews by the author with Didier Mumengi, Kinshasa, October 2007, January 2008, and June 2009.

10 Comer Plummer, “The Kitona Operation: Rwanda’s African Odyssey,” May 6, 2007, www.MilitaryHistoryOnline.com/20thcentury/articles/kitona.aspx, accessed March 17, 2010.

11 Author’s interview with anonymous source, Kinshasa, November 2007.

12 Howard French, “Pilot’s Account Seems to Confirm Rwanda Role in Congo Strife,” New York Times, August 10, 1998.

13 Author’s telephone interview with Rwandan intelligence official, January 2008.

14 Author’s interview with Didier Mumengi, Kinshasa, October 2007.

15 Author’s interview with Todd Pitman, Associated Press correspondent who visited Kitona shortly after these events, Bukavu, July 2006.

16 Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 189; author’s interview with Donald Steinberg, former U.S. ambassador to Angola, New York, July 2007; author’s interview with U.S. State Department officials, Washington, DC, July 2007.

17 Interview with Steinberg.

18 Author’s interview with Angolan officer, Kinshasa, July 2009.

19 Ian Stewart, “Angolans Seize Congo Rebel Stronghold,” Associated Press, August 24, 1998. The same figure was advanced by Gérard Prunier in Africa’s World War, 421n59, citing an article in the South African magazine Business Day.

20 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 192.

21 Ibid., 189.

22 Mary Braid and Ross Herbert, “Congo Civil War Draws in Rival Neighbours,” Independent (London), August 23, 1998.

23 Gauthiers de Villers with Jean Omasombo and Erik Kennes, Republique democratique du Congo: Guerre et politique: Les trente derniers mois de L. D. Kabila, août 1998–janvier 2001 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001), 28 (my translation).

24 The decision was made by the Inter-State Defense and Security Commission, an SADC organ that Mugabe was presiding over. Only four of the fourteen members had sent their defense ministers, while other countries had sent lower-level delegates. According to SADC statutes, the decision to send a regional military force would have required an SADC presidential summit.

25 Patrick Lawrence, “Mugabe and Mandela Divided by Personalities and Policies,” Irish Times, August 21, 1998, quoted by Katharina P. Coleman, International Organisations and Peace Enforcement: The Politics of International Legitimacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 153.

26 The Congolese government tried to convince the Angolans that Rwanda was backing the UNITA rebels, but it is not clear that this was the case at the time of the Kitona offensive. However, when the Rwandan-led troops withdrew under Angolan fire, they found refuge in UNITA-controlled northern Angola, which fueled speculation about earlier contacts. There is overwhelming evidence, documented in UN reports and elsewhere, that UNITA began trading diamonds through Kigali by 1999 at the latest.

27 Norimitsu Onishi, “Congo Recaptures a Strategic Base,” New York Times, August 23, 1998.

28 Norimitsu Onishi, “Threat Eased, Congo Leader Arrives Back in His Capital,” New York Times, August 25, 1998.

29 “Race Charge Against Congo Minister,” BBC World Service, July 5, 2000.

30 Author’s interviews with Congolese in Masina neighborhood, October 2007.

31 Ross Herbert, “Rebel Suspects Die at Hands of Mob in Congo,” Independent (London), August 30, 1998. The Rwandan and Ugandan soldiers fled to northern Angola. In order to get back to Rwanda, they had to capture a local airstrip from the Angolan army with the help of UNITA rebels. As the airstrip was small, it took them a month and thirty airplane rotations to evacuate the last of their soldiers, during which time they were under constant attack by the well-armed Angolan army. See Charles Onyango-Obbo, “Daring RPA Raid in Congo, Angola; And a Heroic UPDF Unit,” Sunday Monitor (Kampala), April 16, 2000.

32 This section is based on interviews with Martin Sindabizera and Colonel Martin Nkurikiye (retired), the former Burundian ambassador to the Congo and the former head of the Burundian intelligence services, respectively, Bujumbura, March 2008.

CHAPTER 14

1 Much of this chapter is based on interviews with Wamba dia Wamba in November 2007 and July 2009. Information on the RCD was also provided by Delly Sessanga, Thomas Luhaka, Mbusa Nyamwisi, Moise Nyarugabo, Benjamin Serukiza, and José Endundo.

2 Randy Kennedy, “His Father Is a Rebel Leader ...,” New York Times Magazine, August 29, 1999.

3 Didier Kazadi Nyembwe, the future head of Kabila’s intelligence services, was married to Rashid Kawawa’s daughter.

4 Author’s interview with Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, Kinshasa, November 2007.

5 Author’s interview with former Tanzanian intelligence official, Dar es Salaam, January 2008.

6 Author’s interview with Patrick Karegeya, Dar es Salaam, January 2008.

7 Michael Colin Vazquez, “The Guerrilla Professor: A Conversation with Ernest Wamba dia Wamba,” Transition 10, no. 1 (2000): 146.

8 Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, “On the State of African Philosophy and Development,” Journal of African Philosophy 2 (2003), www.africanphilosophy.com/issue2/diawamba.html.

9 Author’s interview with Moise Nyarugabo, former vice president of the RCD, Kinshasa, November 2007.

10 The commander was General James Kazini. Author’s interview with former RCD leader, Kinshasa, October 2007.

11 Author’s interview with Thomas Luhaka, November 2007. The story is a version of a parable told about Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie.

12 Author’s interview with Luhaka.

13 Written copy of Ernest Wamba dia Wamba’s New Year’s speech, December 31, 1998.

14 Author’s interview with Moise Nyarugabo, Kinshasa, October 2007.

15 Author’s interview with Suliman Baldo, New York, December 2007.

16 This was the case of Desiré Lumbu Lumbu, who was accused of conspiring alternately with the Mai-Mai and with the original RCD and beaten to death in Butembo in December 1999.

17 Gauthiers de Villers with Jean Omasombo and Erik Kennes, Republique democratique du Congo: Guerre et politique: Les trente derniers mois de L. D. Kabila, août 1998–janvier 2001 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001), 79 (my translation).

CHAPTER 15

1 Author’s interview with Arnaud Zajtmann, former BBC correspondent, Kinshasa, May 2009.

2 Jean-Pierre Bemba, Le choix de la liberté (Gbadolite, D. R. Congo: Editions Venus, 2002), 241.

3 Author’s interview with Thomas Luhaka, Kinshasa, May 2009.

4 Christopher Clapham, ed., African Guerrillas (Oxford: James Currey; Kampala: Fountain; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998), 5.

5 Bemba himself insists that he was shipping fish through Uganda to Europe on his airline, but many others maintain that it was weapons on the flights, and that they were going from Kampala to the Angolan warlord Jonas Savimbi in exchange for diamonds.

6 Bemba, Le choix de la liberté, 10.

7 Author’s interview with Colonel Shaban Bantariza, Kampala, December 2007.

8 Bemba, Le choix de la liberté, 35–36.

9 Author’s interview with a friend of Bemba’s, who wished to remain anonymous, Kinshasa, June 2008.

10 Author’s interview with a former MLC commander who wished to remain anonymous, Kinshasa, November 2007.

11 Author’s interview with José Endundo, Kinshasa, November 2007.

12 This was the case for an attack on Basankusu in 1999, which the Ugandans did not want to carry out.

13 Author’s interview with François Mwamba, Kinshasa, November 2007.

14 Author’s interviews with Thomas Luhaka and François Mwamba, Kinshasa, November 2007.

15 Tatiana Caryannis, Elections in the Congo: The Bemba Surprise, United States Institute of Peace Special Report, February 2008, 7.

16 The second exception was Katanga, the home province of Joseph Kabila, which voted overwhelmingly for him.

17 Ituri: “Covered in Blood”: Ethnically Targeted Violence in Northeastern DR Congo, Human Rights Watch report, July 7, 2003, 32.

18 Author’s interview with MLC leader, Kinshasa, November 2007.

19 Ibid.

20 Ernesto “Che” Guevara, The African Dream: The Diaries of the Revolutionary War in the Congo, trans. Patrick Camiller (New York: Grove, 2000), 227.

CHAPTER 16

1 V.S. Naipaul, A Bend in the River (London: Vintage, 1989), 27.

2 UN Security Council, Report of the Inter-Agency Mission to Kisangani, S/2000/ 1153, December 4, 2000, paragraph 51.

3 Author’s interview with Shaban Bantariza, Kampala, February 2008.

4 The commander of the army was Fred Rwigyema, who was one of thirty soldiers who had begun the NRM rebellion with Museveni; the head of medical services was Peter Bayingana, while the head of military police was Sam Kaka; the best man at Kagame’s wedding was Aronda Nyakairima, who later became the commander of the Ugandan army.

5 Author’s interview with Colonel James Mujira, acting head of Military Intelligence, Kampala, February 2008.

6 Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 174.

7 Other sources confirm that Kisase was killed by Rwandans, perhaps on Kabila’s prodding. A former member of his bodyguard told me that Rwandan security agents had tipped him off regarding the ambush, sparing his life. Gérard Prunier also has an account in his book based on two separate insider accounts, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 403n112.

8 Charles Onyango-Obbo, “Kabila Shouts Down Museveni,” Monitor (Kampala), June 2, 1999. The Ugandans were inspired by their own experience. Museveni’s rebellion had originally come to power in 1980, backed by the Tanzanian army, which was intent on overthrowing Idi Amin’s dictatorship. When the Tanzanians withdrew, the Ugandan alliance that had been put in place had no internal cohesion, and they broke into factions, forcing Museveni to return to the bush. During his second attempt, Museveni had little external support and over six years of guerrilla warfare was forced to develop grassroots support and strong internal organization. It was this second experience that convinced Museveni, at least on a theoretical level, that too much external influence would cause the rebellion to fail.

9 Author’s interview with presidential advisor, Kigali, February 2008.

10 Author’s interview with Wamba dia Wamba, Kinshasa, November 2007.

11 Author’s interview with Ugandan journalist, Kampala, February 2008.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid.

14 Levi Ochieng, “Machtpoker am grossen Fluss,” Die Tageszeitung, June 22, 1999 (my translation).

15 Report of the United Nations Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, S/2001/ 357, United Nations, April 12, 2001, 21.

16 Lara Santoro, “Behind the Congo War: Diamonds,” Christian Science Monitor, August 16, 1998.

17 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 215.

18 Author’s interview with Kisangani resident, June 2004.

19 Author’s interview with MLC leader who was in Kisangani at the time, Kinshasa, June 2009.

20 The “bunch of rebels” is a reference to the Lord’s Resistance Army, who had displaced almost a million people in northern Uganda.

21 Author’s interview with Levi Ochieng, Ugandan journalist in Kisangani at the time, Nairobi, June 2007.

22 Author’s interview with Thomas Luhaka, Kinshasa, November 2007.

23 This section is based on the author’s interview with Pastor Philippe, Kisangani, June 2004.

24 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 240. The students, who had been born in Uganda, were protesting against having to take exams in French, a language they did not speak.

25 David Kibirige, “UPDF Commanders Hooligans,” Monitor (Kampala), June 11, 2000.

CHAPTER 17

1 Richard Brennen et al., “Mortality in the Congo: A Nationwide Survey,” Lancet 367, no. 9504 (January 2006): 44–51.

2 Roberts’s methodology has been questioned by other researchers, although most concur with his broad conclusions. The initial two studies carried out only surveyed a small, random sample of health zones, raising questions about how representative the study was. Also, the baseline of mortality from 1998, with which they were comparing their results, had not been firmly established.

3 For Rwanda, this included the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), the Mudundu 40, as well as several semi-independent local militias affiliated with the RCD, such as Governor Eugene Serufuli’s Local Defense Force in North Kivu and Governor Xavier Chiribanya’s militia in South Kivu. For Uganda, this included the Patriotic Resistance Forces of Ituri (FRPI), the National and Integrationist Front (FNI), the Congolese Revolutionary Movement (MRC), the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC), and the Congolese Rally for Democracy-National (RCD-N). The Congolese government was allied to half a dozen Mai-Mai groups, ranging from 8,000 strong to just several hundred, spread throughout the Kivus.

4 This section is based on the author’s interviews with residents, Kasika, March 2008. The events have been corroborated by interviews conducted by the United Nations Mapping Team in 2008 and 2009 in Kasika, Report of the Mapping Exercise Documenting the Most Serious Violations of Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law Committed within the Territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between March 1993 and June 2003, 176. Numerous Congolese NGOs also documented the massacre; their reports include Massacres de Kasika au sud-Kivu, CADDHOM, 1998; Report of 20 November 1998, COJESKI, 1998; Report of January 1999, COJESKI, 1999; and Jean Migabo Kalere, Génocide au Congo? Analyse des massacres des populations civiles, Broederlijk Delen, 2002. See also Ambroise Bulambo, Mourir au Kivu: Du génocide tutsi aux massacres dans l’est du Congo RCD (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001).

5 Interviews with residents, Kasika.

6 His name has been changed to protect his identity.

7 Author’s interview with Patrice, Kasika, March 2008.

8 His name has been changed to protect his identity.

9 Author’s interview, Bukavu, March 2008.

10 Report of the Mapping Exercise, 176.

11 This section is based on the author’s interviews in Kilungutwe, March 2008.

12 George Lerner, “Activist: Rape of Women, Girls a Weapon of War in Congo,” CNN, October 30, 2009, edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/africa/10/24/amanpour .congo.rape.documentary/index.htmlDemographic and Health Survey, 2007, Ministry of Development and Ministry of Health, Democratic Republic of Congo, August 2008; Kirsten Johnson et al., “Association of Sexual Violence and Human Rights Violations with Physical and Mental Health in Territories of the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo,” Journal of the American Medical Association 304, no. 5 (August 2010): 553–562.

13 Author’s interview with Benjamin Serukiza, Kinshasa, November 2007.

14 “Interview with Julius Nyerere,” PBS Newshour, December 27, 1996.

15 Tatiana Carayannis and Herbert Weiss, “Reconstructing the Congo,” Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 1 (2004): 134.

CHAPTER 18

1 This description of events is according to the author’s interviews with Jean Mbuyu, the national security advisor; Edy Kapend, Kabila’s military advisor; and Mwenze Kongolo, minister of interior, Kinshasa, June 2009.

2 Author’s interview with a former aide to Kabila, who wished to remain anonymous, Kinshasa, November 2007.

3 The roll call gave a good idea of who had power around the president at the time: Gaetan Kakudji, the interior minister who had been Kabila’s representative in Europe during the 1980s; the oil minister Victor Mpoyo, the president’s éminence grise for financial deals with multinationals; Yerodia Ndombasi, the eccentric education minister who had known Mzee since his early rebel days; and Edy Kapend, the young military advisor with close links to Angola.

4 Author’s interview with Didier Mumengi, Kinshasa, November 2007.

5 Herbert Weiss, War and Peace in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Current African Issues no. 22 (Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikaninstitutet, 2000), 15.

6 Gauthiers de Villers and Jean-Claude Willame, Republique democratique du Congo: Chronique politique d’un entre-deux-guerres, octobre 1996–juillet 1998, Cahiers Africains 35 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998), 233.

7 Interview with Mumengi.

8 International Monetary Fund, Country Report No 01/123, July 2001, 29.

9 Addendum to the United Nations Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of DR Congo, S/2001/1072, United Nations, November 10, 2001, paragraphs 67–68.

10 Author’s interview with Jean Mbuyu, Kinshasa, June 2009.

11 Author’s interview with Jean-Bosco Ndayikengurukiye, Bujumbura, May 2009.

12 International Crisis Group, Scramble for the Congo: Anatomy of an Ugly War, Africa Report no. 26, December 20, 2000, 52.

13 Author’s interview with Colonel Maurice Gateretse, Bujumbura, March 2008.

14 Karl Vick, “Desperate Battle Defines Congo’s Warlike Peace,” Washington Post, January 2, 2001.

15 Interview with Ndayikengurukiye.

16 Interview with Mbuyu.

17 Vick, “Desperate Battle.”

18 International Crisis Group, Scramble for the Congo, 64.

19 Interview with Kabila aide, Kinshasa, June 2009.

20 Interview with two separate Kabila aides, Kinshasa, June 2009.

21 Interview with Mumengi.

22 This description of events is according to my interviews with Jean Mbuyu, the national security advisor, and Edy Kapend, Kabila’s military advisor, Kinshasa, June 2009.

23 Stephen Smith and Antoine Glaser, “Ces enfants soldats qui out tué Kabila,” Le Monde (Paris), February 9, 2001.

24 This tale is recited frequently in Kinshasa. See also Norimitsu Onishi, “Slain Congo Leader Buried to Pomp and Confusion,” New York Times, January 24, 2001.

25 State Department Report on Human Rights Practices, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2001; author’s interview with former kadogo, Kinshasa, October 2007.

26 Smith and Glaser, “Ces enfants soldats.”

27 Interview with Mbuyu.

28 Author’s telephone interview with former Rwandan security official, June 2010.

29 “ Kabila cherche à vendre ses pierres,” La Lettre du Continent, August 24, 2000; “Dropping Kabila,” Africa Confidential 41, no. 20, October 13, 2000, quoted in Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 253nn152, 153.

30 Marie-France Cros, “L’assassinat de Kabila: Un quasi-témoin parle,” La Libre Belgique, December 24, 2001.

31 Norimitsu Onishi, “Suspects by the Score and, Oh, Such Digressions!” New York Times, April 21, 2001.

CHAPTER 19

1 Author’s interview with Mwenze Kongolo, Kinshasa, July 2009.

2 Richard Morais, “Friends in High Places,” Forbes, August 10, 1998.

3 Author’s interview with Gécamines official, Kinshasa, July 2009.

4 Andrew Maykuth, “Outside Mining Firms Find Zaire an Untapped Vein,” Philadelphia Inquirer, May 11, 1997.

5 Ibid.

6 Ibid.

7 “Huge Fortunes at Stake in Zaire,” Business Times (Johannesburg), April 20, 1997; author’s interview with former American Mineral Fields executive, Cape Town, February 2008.

8 Author’s interview with Lundin executive, Cape Town, February 2008.

9 Maykuth, “Outside Mining Firms.”

10 These companies were not alone. A Canadian company, First Quantum, was also reported to have given a multimillion-dollar advance to the rebels in return for a concession before they arrived in Kinshasa.

11 James G. Stewart, Corporate War Crimes: Prosecuting the Pillage of Natural Resources (New York: Open Society Justice Initiative, 2010), 33–36.

12 Ludo de Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba, trans. Ann Wright and Renée Fenby (London: Verso, 2001), 31.

13 “Demands and Derailment,” Africa Energy & Mining, May 21, 1997.

14 Special Commission Charged with Examining the Validity of Economic and Financial Conventions Concluded During the Wars of 1996–1997 and 1998: The Lutundula Report , National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, February 26, 2006, 35.

15 Author’s interview with Mabi Mulumba, Kinshasa, December 2007.

16 Author’s interview with former presidential advisor, Kinshasa, November 2007.

17 Ibid.

18 Lutundula Report, 32–33.

19 The commander of the armed forces was General Vitalis Zvinavashe and the minister of defense Sidney Sekeramayi.

20 Author’s interview with businessman in Paris, February 2008.

21 “Rautenbach Denies Murder Allegation,” South African Press Agency, December 16, 1999.

22 Author’s interview with Gécamines official, Kinshasa, July 2009.

23 Report of the United Nations Panel on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, United Nations, October 8, 2002, 11; Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 218.

24 Author’s off-the-record telephone interview with a mining executive, May 2009.

25 Confidential South African intelligence report in the author’s possession.

26 Report of the United Nations Panel on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, United Nations, April 12, 2001, 33.

27 International Monetary Fund, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix, Country Report 1/123, July 2001, 16.

28 Author’s interview with Jean Mbuyu, Kinshasa, November 2007; author’s interview with Mwenze Kongolo, Kinshasa, May 2009.

29 Confidential industry intelligence report on Billy Rautenbach, August 10, 2000.

30 Ibid.

31 Cliff Taylor, “Congo Wealth Lures Africa’s Power-Players,” Independent (London), October 31, 1998; Michael Nest, “Ambitions, Profits and Loss: Zimbabwean Economic Involvement in the DRC,” African Affairs 100, no. 400 (2001): 484.

32 Report of the United Nations Panel, 8.

33 Martin Meredith, Our Votes, Our Guns: Robert Mugabe and the Tragedy of Zimbabwe (New York: PublicAffairs, 2002), 142.

34 Author’s interview with mining officials, Kinshasa, May 2009. There are, unfortunately, almost no legal safeguards in the Congo to prevent such transfer pricing.

35 Author’s interview with Dona Kampata, Kinshasa, July 2009.

36 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 239.

37 His name has been changed to protect his identity.

38 This section is based on several interviews with the pilot in the Eastern Congo, March 2008.

39 The UN panel of experts that was researching the illegal exploitation of natural resources in the Congo at the time was given similar information regarding how long it took to fly the stockpiles to Kigali.

40 According to Global Witness, a kilo of tin was being sold for $6 in Goma in 1998, when the world coltan price was hovering around $60 per kilo of refined tantalum. Coltan sold in Goma usually included around 20 to 40 percent tantalum. See Didier de Failly, “Coltan: Pour comprendre ...,” in L’Afrique des Grands Lacs: Annuaire 2000–2001 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001), 13, and “ Under-Mining Peace,” Global Witness (June 2005): 28.

41 Report of the United Nations Panel, 8.

42 Gauthiers de Villers with Jean Omasombo and Erik Kennes, Republique democratique du Congo: Guerre et politique: Les trente derniers mois de L. D. Kabila, août 1998–janvier 2001 (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2001), 114–115.

43 Author’s interview with Benjamin Serukiza, former RCD vice governor of South Kivu and a prominent member of the Banyamulenge community, Kinshasa, October 2007.

44 Jeroen Cuvulier and Tim Raeymaekers, Supporting the War Economy in the DRC: European Companies and the Coltan Trade, International Peace Information Service (IPIS), January 2002, 8.

45 As always, reliable statistics are hard to come by in the region. According to the United States Geological Survey, columbo-tantalite exports for 2000 amounted to 1,011 tons for Rwanda and the Congo combined, while a UN experts panel estimated exports to be around 1,200 tons for the same period. Rwanda has several, smaller coltan mines, but the bulk of their exports comes from the Eastern Congo. The local price in Goma peaked in the second half of 2000 at $75 per kilo of 20 to 40 percent coltan and $150 for higher-grade product. The world price, however, peaked at around $600 for refined tantalum, so middlemen had handsome profit margins. See George Coakley, The Mineral Industry of Congo-Kinshasa, U.S. Geological Survey Country Report, 2002, 10.3, www.usgs.gov.

46 Stephan Marysse and C. Andre, “Guerre et pillage économique en République Democratique du Congo,” in L’Afrique des Grands Lacs; see also Bjorn Willum, “ Purely Beneficial or Contributing to War,” PhD diss., October 21, 2001, University of Copenhagen. Willum conducts a comprehensive analysis of gold, coltan, and diamond exports from the Eastern Congo and concludes that the Rwandan army and its business associates were making around $250 million in profits from mineral trade in the Eastern Congo at the height of the war.

47 Report of the United Nations Panel, 27.

48 International Institute for Security Studies, The Military Balance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

49 Author’s interview with Colonel Vincent Kitoko, Kinshasa, July 2008.

50 Rwanda: The Search for Security and Human Rights Abuses, Human Rights Watch, vol. 12, no. 1(A), April 2000.

51 Author’s interview with Patrick Karegeya, Dar es Salaam, January 2008.

52 Final Report of the United Nations Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, S/2002/1146, United Nations, October 16, 2002, 15.

53 World Bank: Doing Business 2009 (Washington: World Bank, 2008), 43.

54 Final Report of the United Nations PanelReport of the United Nations Panel; Cuvulier and Raeymaekers, Supporting the War Economy.

55 Stewart, Corporate War Crimes, 34–36.

CHAPTER 20

1 Gaetan Kakudji was a longtime associate of Kabila, his representative in Belgium during the 1980s, and his interior minister once he came to power; Victor Mpoyo was minister of the state portfolio for several years and handled much of Kabila’s financial dealings.

2 According to Edy Kapend, the following people attended this meeting: several of Laurent Kabila’s old comrades from his early days as a rebel, namely General Celestin Kifwa, General Sylvestre Lwetcha, General Francois Olenga, Victor Mpoyo, Gaetan Kakudji, and Yerodia Ndombasi; and members of the new vanguard, including Mwenze Kongolo, Didier Mumengi, Nono Lutula, and Henri Mova. Others say the group was smaller but did not include any other names.

3 Author’s interview with anonymous presidential aide, Kinshasa, July 2009.

4 Ibid.

5 Danna Harman, “A Shy Son in Congo’s Hot Seat,” Christian Science Monitor, January 23, 2001.

6 Jean Omasombo and Erik Kennes, Biographies des acteurs de la transition (Terveuren, Belgium: Musée Royale de l’Afrique Centrale, 2006), 70. Tanzanian security officials and numerous members of Joseph Kabila’s entourage have confirmed this.

7 Author’s interviews conducted in Kinshasa in 2007–2009; interestingly, this version is also supported by Laurent Nkunda, who fought alongside Joseph Kabila—albeit as a junior officer—in the AFDL war.

8 Erik Kennes with Jean Omasombo, Essai biographique sur Laurent Désiré Kabila (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2003), 300.

9 Colette Braeckman, “ Mama Sifa, la mère du president parle,” Le Soir (Brussels), June 6, 2006 (my translation).

10 Author’s interview with Kenyan security official, Nairobi, June 2009; “Portrait: Joseph Kabila,” La Revue (July/August 2006): 37.

11 “Kabange” denotes the second born of twins in Laurent Kabila’s native language, Kiluba.

12 Francois Soudan, “Portrait: Joseph Kabila,” La Revue (July/August 2006): 41.

13 He had been nominally in charge of some military operations during the AFDL offensive, but according to soldiers serving under him at the time, he worked in the shadow of Rwandan commanders.

14 Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 258.

15 Ibid.

16 Chris McGreal, “Western Allies Urge Rwanda to Leave Congo,” Guardian (Manchester, U.K.), February 9, 2001.

17 “Congo Rebels Deny Clearance to U.N. Troops Trying to Land,” Associated Press, April 16, 2001.

18 Prunier, Africa’s World War, 263.

19 Author’s interview with UN official, Nairobi, June 2009.

20 Author’s interview with American diplomat, Kinshasa, July 2009.

21 Author’s interview with foreign journalist, Kinshasa, July 2008. The ambassador in question was Georges Serre.

22 Author’s interview with UN official, Nairobi, June 2008.

23 Author’s interview with Philip Winter, Kinshasa, June 2008.

24 Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa (NIZA), The State vs. The People, 2006, , 41.

25 Author’s interview with UN official, Nairobi, June 2008.

26 Special Commission Charged with Examining the Validity of Economic and Financial Conventions Concluded During the Wars of 1996–1997 and 1998: The Lutundula Report, National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, February 26, 2006, 63–64.

27 Final Report of the United Nations Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, #S/2002/1146, United Nations, October 16, 2002, 7; Toby Heaps, “A Glimpse of the World: Joseph Kabila,” Tea with the FTFinancial Times (London), April 9, 2006.

28 Brooderlink Delen, “Memorandum to the Attention of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Member States of the International Committee of Support for the Transition in the DRC,” Rights and Accountability in Development, 11.11.11, February 20, 2006, 8.

29 “Office Memorandum from Craig Andrews, Principle Mining Specialist, to Pedro Alba, Country Director for the DRC,” September 4, 2005, in the author’s archive.

30 Author’s interview with presidential advisor, Kinshasa, November 2007; author’s interview with presidential pilot, Kinshasa, June 2008; Gertler is also named in Report of the United Nations Panel on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, United Nations, April 12, 2001.

31 Author’s interview with Congolese politician, Kinshasa, July 2009.

32 Author’s interview with Congolese mining lawyer, Kinshasa, July 2009.

33 Author’s interview with Gérard Gerold, Kinshasa, January 2007.

34 For a study of Laurent Nkunda, see Jason Stearns, “ The Emergence of a New Rebellion in North Kivu,” in Afrique des Grands Lacs: Annuaire 2007–2008, eds. Stefaan Marysse and Filip Reyntjens (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2008); for Rwandan support to Nkunda, see Final Report of the United Nations Group of Experts on the DR Congo, S/2008/773, United Nations, December 12, 2008.

35 We Will Crush You, Human Rights Watch Report, November 2008.

36 I was speaking with a presidential intelligence officer after an abortive coup attempt by Major Eric Lenge in July 2004.

37 Author’s interview with officer in staff headquarters, Kinshasa, July 2009.

38 Author’s interview with presidential advisor, Kinshasa, July 2009.

CONCLUSION

1 Philip Gourevitch, “Forsaken,” New Yorker, September 25, 2000, 65.

2 The International Rescue Committee, in its most recent mortality study in 2007 concluded that 5.4 million people had died as a result of the conflict in the Congo between 1998 and 2007, not counting those who had died between 1996 and 1998, or those who have died since 2007 in the ongoing violence. “IRC Affirms Congo Mortality Findings,” January 21, 2010, www.irc.org. Figures of rape are notoriously difficult to estimate, but the United Nations believes that over 200,000 women have been victims of sexual violence since 1998. “Nearly 200 Women and Children Raped in Systematic Attack in Eastern DRC,” Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture, August 27, 2010, www.torturecare.org.uk/news/latest_news/3173, accessed September 30, 2010.

3 Eve Ensler, “The Beginning of Hope or the End of It,” Huffington Post, October 30, 2008, www.huffingtonpost.com/eve-ensler/the-beginning-of-hope-or_b_139423.html.

4 Jeffrey Gettleman, “Rape Victim’s Words Help Jolt Congo into Change,” New York Times, October 17, 2008.

5 Author’s interview with Sue Hogwood, Bujumbura, March 2008.

6 Author’s interview with presidential advisor, Kigali, February 2008.

7 In 1993, a large UN mission (UNOSOM) was deployed to Somalia to secure the distribution of food aid to a starving population. It became embroiled in urban firefights with local militia commanders, leading to the highly publicized death of U.S. soldiers.

8 “Code Cable 00283 from American Embassy in Kigali to Rwanda Collective, Secretary of State, Washington DC,” January 6, 1997.

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