Notes

ABBREVIATIONS

ADdC Archives départementales du Calvados, Caen

AdM Archives de la Manche, Saint-Lô

AFRHA Air Force Research Historical Agency, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama

AHB Air Historical Branch, Ministry of Defence, Northwood

AN Archives Nationales, Paris

AVP Archives de la Ville de Paris

AVPRF Arkhiv Vneshnoi Politiki Rossiiskii Federatsii (Foreign Policy Archives of the Russian Federation), Moscow

BA-MA Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv, Freiburg-im-Breisgau

BD Bruce Diary, Papers of David Bruce, Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Virginia

BfZ-SS Bibliothek für Zeitgeschichte, Sammlung Sterz, Stuttgart

CAC Churchill Archive Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge

CMH Center of Military History, Washington, DC

CRHQ Centre de Recherche d’Histoire Quantitative, University of Caen

CWM/MCG Canadian War Memorial/ Mémorial Canadien de la Guerre

DDEL Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas

DTbA Deutsches Tagebucharchiv, Emmendingen

DWS Department of War Studies, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst

ETHINT European Theater Historical Interrogations, 1945, USAMHI

FMS Foreign Military Studies, USAMHI

HP Harris Papers, RAF Museum, Hendon

IfZ Archiv des Instituts für Zeitgeschichte, Munich

IHTP-CNRS Reports from the German Military Commander in France and the synthesis of the reports from the French prefects 1940-44, edited by the German Historical Institute Paris and the Institut d’Histoire du Temps Présent, revised by Regina Delacor, Jürgen Finger, Peter Lieb, Vincent Viet and Florent Brayard

IMT International Military Tribunal

IWM Imperial War Museum archives, London

LHCMA Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, London

LofC Library of Congress, The Veterans’ History Project, Washington, DC

MdC Mémorial de Caen archives, Normandy

MHSA Montana Historical Society Archives

NA II National Archives II, College Park, Maryland

NAC/ANC National Archives of Canada/Archives Nationales du Canada

NWWIIM-EC National World War II Museum, Eisenhower Center archive, New Orleans

OCMH-FPP Office of the Chief of Military History, Forrest Pogue Papers, Forrest C. Pogue’s interview notes for Supreme Command, Washington, 1954, now with USAMHI

PDDE The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, Vol. III, The War Years, edited by Alfred D. Chandler, Baltimore, MD, 1970

PP Portal Papers, Christ Church Library, Oxford

ROHA Rutgers Oral History Archive

SHD-DAT Service Historique de la Défense, Département de l’Armée de Terre, Vincennes

SODP Senior Officers’ Debriefing Program, US Army War College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania

SWWEC Second World War Experience Centre archive, Horsforth, Leeds

TNA The National Archives (formerly the Public Record Office), Kew

USAMHI United States Army Military History Institute, US Army War College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania

WLHUM Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine, London

WWII VS World War II Veterans’ Survey, USAMHI

In addition the private diaries of the following people have been used:

Lieutenant Colonel Stanley Christopherson, Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry

Lieutenant William Helm, 210 Field Ambulance, 177th Brigade, 59th Infantry Division

Captain Myles Hildyard, intelligence officer with 7th Armoured Division

Lieutenant T. T. Ritson, RHA

1

THE DECISION

p. 2 ‘For heaven’s sake, Stagg’, J. M. Stagg, Forecast for Overlord, London, 1971, p. 69

‘pre-D-Day jitters’, Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, London, 1946,

p. 479

p. 3 Plan Fortitude, TNA WO 219/5187

p. 4 ‘Garbo’, TNA KV 2/39-2/42 and 2/63-2/71

Ironside, TNA KV 2/2098

‘Bronx’, TNA KV 2/2098

destruction of airfields, Luftgau West France, TNA HW 1/2927

Bletchley watch system, TNA HW 8/86 p. 5 ‘Latest evidence suggests . . .’, TNA HW 40/6

‘my circus wagon’, Carlo D’Este, Eisenhower , New York, 2002, p. 518

‘to establish a belt . . .’, TNA WO 205/ 12

‘There is no doubt . . .’, Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries 1939-1945, London, 2001, p. 575

p. 6 ‘Nice chap, no soldier’, Cornelius Ryan interview, Ohio University Library Department of Archives and Special Collections

‘national spectacles pervert . . .’, Alanbrooke, p. 575

‘My hat is worth ...’, Duff Hart-Davis (ed.), King’s Counsellor, London, 2006, p. 196-7

‘Monty is perhaps . . .’, LHCMA Liddell Hart 11/1944/11

‘The bloody Durhams . . .’, Harry Moses, The Faithful Sixth, Durham, 1995, p. 270. I am most grateful to Miles d’Arcy-Irvine, Major Philip Windsor-Aubrey, Major C. Lawton, Harry Moses and Richard Atkinson for their help on this incident

p. 7 ‘unsatisfactory’, NA II 407/427/24132

‘hayseed expression ... pragmatic ...’, Martin Blumenson, The Battle of the Generals, New York, 1993, p. 35

p. 8 ‘made everyone angry’, Major General Kenner, chief medical officer, SHAEF, OCMH-FPP

‘The landings in . . .’, quoted in Butcher, p. 525

Omaha reconnaissance, Major General L. Scott-Bowden, SWWEC T2236

p. 9 ‘When we left . . .’, Robert A. Wilkins, 149th Combat Engineers, NWWIIM-EC

‘As we passed through . . .’, Arthur Reddish, A Tank Soldier’s Story, privately published, undated, p. 21

p. 10 ‘I’ve been fattened up . . .’, quoted in Stuart Hills, By Tank into Normandy, London, 2002, p. 64

‘All are tense . . .’, LofC

‘The women who have come . . .’, Mollie Panter-Downes, London War Notes, London, 1971, p. 324

‘One night . . .,’ Ernest A. Hilberg, 18th Infantry, 1st Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 11 ‘Had it not been fraught . . .’, Stagg, p. 86

‘If I answered that . . .’, ibid., p. 88

p. 12 ‘Good luck, Stagg . . .’, ibid., p. 91

‘Gentlemen . . . The fears . . .’, ibid., pp. 97-8

‘Eisenhower’s forces are landing . . .’, Butcher, p. 481

‘the sky was almost clear . . .’, Stagg, p. 99

2

BEARING THE CROSS OF LORRAINE

p. 14 ‘an empty feeling . . .’, Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries 1939-1945, London, 2001, pp. 553-4 (5 June)

‘The British had a much . . .’, Colonel C. H. Bonesteel III, G-3 Plans, 12th Army Group, OCMH-FPP

p. 15 ‘display some form of “reverse Dunkirk” . . .’, TNA HW 1/12309

‘My dear Winston . . .’, CAC CHAR 20/ 136/004

‘peevish’, Butcher quoting Commander Thompson, Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, London, 1946, p. 480

‘Winston meanwhile . . .’, Alanbrooke, p. 553

p. 16 ‘As I understand it . . .’, Prime Minister to President, 23 February, in answer to telegram No. 457, TNA PREM 3/472

‘an insurrectional government’, quoted in Jean Lacouture, De Gaulle, New York, 1990, p. 511

De Gaulle and Waterloo, Robert and Isabelle Tombs, That Sweet Enemy, London, 2006, p. 569

‘You might do him a great deal . . .’, Prime Minister to President, 20 April, TNA PREM 3/472

p. 17 ‘I am unable at this time,’ 13 May, TNA PREM 3/472

Eisenhower and CFNL, PDDE, p. 1592

‘acute embarrassment’, SCAF 24, 11 May, TNA PREM 3/345/1

‘a working arrangement’, Prime Minister to President, 12 May, TNA PREM 3/472

Joan of Arc mass, 14 May, SHD-DAT 11 P 218

p. 18 ‘Thanks to jokes . . .’, quoted in Max Hastings, Overlord, London, 1984, p. 69

‘all the faults . . .’, Prime Minister to President, 26 May, TNA PREM 3/472

‘the interest of security . . .’, 13 May, TNA PREM 3/472

‘This did not endear . . .’, M. R. D. Foot, SOE in France, London, 1966, p. 241

‘C’ to Prime Minister, TNA PREM 3/ 345/1

p. 19 ‘Above all...’, Duff Cooper diary, 2 June, John Julius Norwich (ed.), The Duff Cooper Diaries, London, 2005, p. 306

‘My dear General de Gaulle . . .’, TNA PREM 3/345/11

‘absolutely unrecognized . . .’, Charles de Gaulle, Mémoires de Guerre, Vol. II, Paris, 1959, pp. 223-4

p. 20 ‘We are going to liberate . . .’ and ‘To de Gaulle, who never accepted defeat’, quoted in Lacouture, pp. 522

‘wished to suggest . . .’, Bedell Smith to Churchill, 5 June, TNA PREM 3/339/6 p. 21 ‘Gentlemen, since I presented . . .’, J. M. Stagg, Forecast for Overlord, London, 1971, p. 113

p. 22 ‘He always gets a lift . . .’, Butcher, p. 482

cut-throat razors, Pfc Carl Cartledge, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne, WWII VS

‘to crawl through . . .’, William True, NWWIIM-EC

p. 23 the paratrooper winning $2,500, Arthur B. ‘Dutch’ Schultz, C Company, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 24 ‘There was a great feeling . . .’, Parker A. Alford, 26th Field Artillery, 9th Infantry Division, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

‘he also said . . .’, Don Malarkey, E Company of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘Men, what you’re going . . .’, Edward C. Boccafogli, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘Look to the right of you . . .’, Major General S. H. Matheson, Regimental Adjutant of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 25 ‘übelste Untermenschentum amerikanischer Slums’, BA-MA RW 2/v.44, quoted in Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg? , Munich, 2007, p. 132

‘one for pain . . .’, Pfc Carl Cartledge, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne, WWII VS

p. 26 ‘He was standing there . . .’, Edward C. Boccafogli, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘informality and friendliness with troopers’, Butcher, p. 485

‘What’s your name, soldier? . . .’, Sherman Oyler, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC p. 27 ‘We were surprised as dickens . . .’, Edward J. Jeziorski, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

p. 28 ‘One trooper asked . . .’, Tomaso William Porcella, 3rd Battalion, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘We ask you . . .’, Prime Minister to Stalin, 14 April, TNA PREM 3/472

p. 29 ‘One should not forget . . .’, Stalin to Prime Minister, TNA PREM 3/333/5

‘We have heard from other sources . . .’, Gusev diary, AVPRF 59a/7/p13/6, pp. 357-8

p. 30 Vishinsky, AVPRF 06/6/p2/d22, p. 147

‘I have just returned . . .’, Prime Minister to Stalin, 5 June, TNA PREM 3/346

3

WATCH ON THE CHANNEL

p. 31 ‘They are supposed . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

p. 32 Christmas boxes for the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, Traudl Junge, Until the Final Hour, London, 2002, p. 79

‘just a bit of cheap bluff’, General der Infanterie Blumentritt, debriefing 6 August 1945, NA II 407/427/24231

Rommel also wanting to abandon Italy, Generalleutnant Speidel, Chief of Staff Army Group B, FMS B-718-720

p. 33 ‘not favourably received’, Shulman interview with Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt, October 1945, Milton Shulman, Defeat in the West, London, 1986, p. 107

‘We considered the repulse . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

‘The face of the war . . .’, Leutnant Kurt Flume diary, 1 June 1944, BfZ-SS

p. 35 ‘When the Government . . .’, Hans Speidel, We Defended Normandy, London, 1951, p. 88

p. 36 ‘If he does not do . . .’, IfZ, NOKW- 546, quoted in Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, p. 121

panzer army near Paris, Generaloberst Heinz Guderian, ETHINT 38

Rommel and Allied air supremacy, General der Infanterie Blumentritt, debriefing 6 August 1945, NA II 407/427/24231

identification of likely landing sites, General der Infanterie Blumentritt, debriefing 6 August 1945, NA II 407/427/ 24231

p. 37 dummy minefields, Lieutenant Cyril Rand, 2nd Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles, MdC TE 499

‘ear and stomach battalions’, Lieb, p. 106

‘it is really sad . . .’, Heinrich Böll, Briefe aus dem Krieg 1939-1945, Vol. II, Cologne, 2001, p. 918

‘No good replacements . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

p. 38 ‘apprehensive impression ...’, BA-MA RH 19 iv/129, 28.12.1943, quoted in Lieb, p. 123

‘Plutokratenstaaten Amerika und England’, IfZ, MA-1024, quoted in Lieb, p. 120

‘very different . . .’, Fernand Louvoy, MdC TE 38

p. 39 ‘You will be liberated . . .’, Madame Richer, Bayeux, MdC TE 223

‘With this division . . .’, General-leutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

‘could hardly understand . . .’, Generalleutnant Edgar Feuchtinger, FMS B-441

p. 40 ‘He was of Spartan-like . . .’, Oberstleutnant Keil, FMS C-018

‘a conqueror’s paradise’, interview with General der Infanterie Blumentritt, February 1946, Shulman, p. 60

‘The enemy will certainly . . .’, Truppeningenieur, Stab/Pz.Pi.Btl.86, 9.Pz.Div., BfZ-SS

p. 41 ‘They had done nothing . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

‘King’s Own German Grenadiers’, Shulman interview with Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt, October 1945, Shulman, p. 110

‘the Canada Division’, Speidel, p. 98

Bayeux Wehrmacht facilities, Franz Gockel, MdC TE 500 p. 42 ‘I have here . . .’, undated letter from Hauptfeldwebel Helmut Lichtenfels, Folder Newbold, Stefan, DDEL

‘I will behave . . .’, André Heintz diary, MdC TE 32 (1-4)

‘Don’t be too concerned . . .’, Unteroffizier Leopold L., 5.Kp./Pz.Rgt.3, 2.Pz.Div., BfZ-SS

weather conditions, Admiral Friedrich Ruge, Admiral bei der Heeresgruppe B, FMS A-982; and Oberstleutnant Keil, FMS C-018

p. 43 ‘Well, another false . . .’, Hubert Meyer, The 12th SS, Vol. I, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2005, p. 87

‘Couriers and individual soldiers . . .’, Generalleutnant Mahlmann, 353rd Infantry-Division, FMS A-983; and Oberst Cordes, Alfred Weißkopf, AdM 2 J 695

‘made statements...’, Oberstleutnant Fritz Ziegelmann, 352nd Infantry Division, FMS B-021

Alert Stage II, Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann, OB West, FMS B-308; and Admiral Friedrich Ruge, FMS B-282

4

SEALING OFF THE INVASION AREA

p. 45 SOE estimates of the Resistance, William Mackenzie, The Secret History of SOE, London, 2000, p. 602

p. 46 ‘Plan Vert’ etc., SHD-DAT 13 P 33

p. 47 Resistance in the Orne,ADdC9W4/2

Resistance information gathering, André Heintz diary, MdC TE 32 (1-4)

‘nothing more than . . .’, First US Army headquarters, 10 March, NA II 407/427/ 24368/595

p. 48 SAS and Jedburghs, M. R. D. Foot, SOE in France, London, 1966, pp. 400-407

‘We will undergo . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

‘minimum diversions’, letter of 24 March from Air Marshal Arthur Harris to Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff, HP, Folder H83

p. 49 Harris and Spaatz, Tami Davis Biddle, ‘Bombing by the Square Yard: Sir Arthur Harris at War, 1942-1945’, International History Review, XXI, 3, September 1999, pp. 569-852

‘should be the main target’, TNA PREM 3/4727

‘However regrettable . . .’, TNA PREM 3/4727

‘The RAF was a house divided’, Colonel C. H. Bonesteel III, G-3 Plans, 12th Army Group, OCMH-FPP

15,000 French killed and 19,000 injured, AN AJ 41/56

‘You must get control...’, Wing Commander Scarman, Tedder’s aide, OCMH-FPP

Churchill’s inability to see, Marshal of the RAF Viscount Portal, OCMH-FPP

p. 50 ‘God, no!’, Air Chief Marshal Sir James Robb, Chief of Staff (Air) to Eisenhower, OCMH-FPP

‘insolent little sphinx . . .’, anonymous, MdC TE 83

signals to the Resistance in Normandy, SHD-DAT 13 P 33

5

THE AIRBORNE ASSAULT

p. 51 ‘This is it’, David Howarth, Dawn of D-Day, London, 1959, p. 13

p. 53 ‘Well, so far . . .’, Garry Johnson and Christopher Dunphie, Brightly Shone the Dawn, London, 1980, p. 36

‘Ham’ and ‘Jam’, Private Tappenden, NWWIIM-EC

p. 54 Generalleutnant Joseph Reichert, 711th Infanterie-Division, FMS B-403

p. 55 execution of paratroopers, Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg? , Munich, 2007, p. 173

‘Gentlemen, in spite of . . .’, Terry Copp, Fields of Fire, Toronto, 2003, p. 42

p. 57 Saint-Pair, Neville Smith, 9th Battalion Parachute Regiment, MdC TE 134 192 of Otway’s men, Howarth, p. 61 ‘Shall we take . . .’, ibid., p. 56

p. 58 Brigadier Hill’s account, Independent on Sunday, 6 June 2004

‘the means of mortal sin’, Mark Zuehlke, Juno Beach, Vancouver, 2005, p. 129

p. 59 ‘The landing went . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24170

p. 60 ‘grossly overloaded . . .’, Legrand Johnson, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘by this time . . .’, Lieutenant John R. Blackburn, Sky Control, USS Quincy, NWWIIM-EC

p. 61 ‘cocky, unruly characters . . .’, Roger L. Airgood, C-47 pilot, NWWIIM-EC

‘two islands named . . .’, Richard H. Denison, 437th Troop Carrier Group, NWWIIM-EC

p. 62 evasive action against orders, NA II 407/427/24137

‘Often, a yellow . . .’, Lieutenant John R. Blackburn, Sky Control, USS Quincy, NWWIIM-EC

p. 63 ‘Our plane never did slow . . .’, Major Leland A. Baker, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘US parachute troops landed . . .’, Obergefreiter Hans S., 9.Kp./Gren.Rgt.1058, 91.(LL.)Inf.Div., BfZ-SS

‘watermelons falling off . . .’, Sherman Oyler, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 64 ‘damn cricket’, Parker A. Alford, attached to 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne, NWWIIM-EC

p. 66 ‘I had put it there . . .’, John Fitzgerald, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

Map of the Cotentin, Captain R. H. Brown, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne, NA II 407/427/24242

‘The Germans thought we were . . .’, Fred C. Patheiger, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘Ou es Alamon?’, Chris Courneotes Kanaras, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

death of General Falley, Frank McKee, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 67 ‘Get to the drop zone . . .’, Chris Courneotes Kanaras, 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘They didn’t come down to give us candies . . .’, Rainer Hartmetz, NWWIIM-EC p. 68 ‘nobody said a thing’, Ken Cordry, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne, NWWIIM-EC

‘you didn’t dare trust him . . .’, Don Malarkey, E Company, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘with their privates cut off . . .’, William Oatman, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

‘their bodies for bayonet practice’, Briand North Beaudin, Medical Officer, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘I asked him wherehe got . . .’, William M. Sawyer, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

German officer’s ring, Lieutenant Eugen Brierre, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 69 ‘Let’s go and find some Krauts to kill!’ and ‘These people had gone ape’, Sherman Oyler, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘Never before in the annals . . .’, Parker A. Alford, attached to 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

‘They couldn’t talk . . .’, Rainer Hartmetz, NWWIIM-EC

p. 70 ‘We threw him in the cart . . .’, Don Malarkey, E Company, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘After a short march . . .’, ‘we could hear . . .’and ‘Weimmediatelytriedtoaidthe injured . . .’, John Fitzgerald, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

p. 71 ‘The troop-carrying . . .’, Obergefreiter Hans S., 9.Kp./Gren.Rgt.1058, 91.(LL.) Inf.Div., BfZ-SS

p. 72 ‘Upon landing, . . .’, Charles E. Skid-more Jr, 439th Troop Carrier Squadron, NWWIIM-EC

‘You’ve now seen . . .’, Pfc Carl Cartledge, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne, WWII VS

p. 73 ‘I am more thankful . . .’, Leigh-Mallory, letter 7 June, quoted Carlo D’Este, Eisenhower, New York, 2002, p. 530

6

THE ARMADA CROSSES

p. 74 Royal Navy in Operation Neptune, Naval Plan TNA ADM 1/16259

‘The Road to the Isles’, Piper Bill Millin, SWWEC T654/666

‘A-hunting We Will Go’, A. D. E. Curtis, R Force, SWWEC 2000.384

‘Marseillaise’, Dr Ian Campbell, RAMC, 2nd Field Dressing Station, SWWEC 2000.477

‘the traffic got thicker . . .’, Admiral G. B. Middleton, HMS Ramillies, letter 12 June, IWM 01/2/1

p. 75 ‘a mixture of excitement . . .’, Edwin Bramall, ‘D-Day Plus One’, in More Tales from the Travellers, Oxford, 2005, p. 147

memories of Dieppe, Rev. P. Symes, 4th County of London Yeomanry, SWWEC T563

‘as a last reminder’, Arthur Reddish, A Tank Soldier’s Story, privately published, undated, p. 21

‘The attempt to do . . .’, V Corps, NA II 407/427/24235

p. 76 Operation Taxable and other diversions, TNA ADM 179/410

p. 77 ‘Although attendance was . . .’, Ronald Seaborne, Royal Navy Forward Observer, 50th Division, NWWIIM-EC

gambling on USS Samuel Chase, Oscar Rich, 5th Field Artillery Battalion, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘All are tense . . .’, LofC ‘Even though huddled . . .’, Gardner Botsford, A Life of Privilege, Mostly, New York, 2003, p. 21

‘who was going to . . .’ and ‘My thoughts turned to . . .’, Everett P. Schultheis, 467th Anti-aircraft Artillery, NWWIIM-EC

‘Anyone who has . . .’, Harold Baumgarten, Eyewitness on Omaha Beach, Jacksonville, Fla., 1994, p. 7

‘Don’t worry . . .’, K. G. Oakley, RN Beach Commando, Sword Beach, IWM 96/ 22/1

p. 78 ‘approaching a great abyss . . .’, Cyrus C. Aydlett, USS Bayfield, NWWIIM-EC

USS Shubrick, Edward T. Duffy, US Navy, NWWIIM-EC

‘dramatic announcement’, William F. Rellstab Jr, 388th Bomber Group, 562nd Squadron, NWWIIM-EC

p. 79 ‘The preparations were staggering,’ Desmond Scott, Typhoon Pilot, London, 1982, p. 99

Allied squadrons involved in D-Day operations, RAF-MoD

p. 80 ‘to provide shelter . . .’, Weldon J. Allen, Pilot, 387th Bomb Group, diary, NWWIIM-EC

‘as much steak, pork . . .’, Theodore G. Aufort, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘wieners, beans . . .’, Sergeant Harry C. Bare, 116th Infantry, 29th Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘as if it were Nelson’s . . .’, Major George Young, Green Howards, SWWEC T2452

‘we might have been alongside . . .’, Ludovic Kennedy, SWWEC T320

‘skunk suits’, Vincent Schlotterbeck, NWWIIM-EC

‘nervously adjusting . . .’, Cyrus C. Aydlett, USS Bayfield, NWWIIM-EC

p. 81 ‘We crept still further in . . .’, Lieutenant J. G. Pelly, IWM 91/15/1

‘Attention on deck! . . .’, John Raaen, 5th Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

Seekommandant Normandie, Auszug aus dem Fernsprechmeldebuch der 352. I. D., Küstenverteidigungsabschnitt Bayeux, FMS B-388

p. 82 duffel coats and cocoa, Jean-Louis Salmon, MdC TE 213

‘the whole horizon . . .’, Generalleutnant Joseph Reichert, 711th Infanterie-Division, FMS B-403

smokescreen, Admiral G. B. Middleton, HMS Ramillies, letter 12 June, IWM 01/2/1

p. 83 ‘The screen was literally . . .’, Anthony Drexel Duke, NWWIIM-EC

‘Get your damn helmet on’, Kenneth Romanski, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘During this half-hour . . .’, Major Dallas, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, 29th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24034

p. 84 ‘Good hunting, Rangers!’, Lieutenant Francis W. Dawson, 5th Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

‘the loneliest time . . .’, Alfred F. Birra, 237th Engineers with 4th Infantry Division, Folder Birra, Alfred F., DDEL

‘That, sirs . . .’, John Raaen, 5th Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

‘The big guns . . .’, Ludovic Kennedy, SWWEC T320

‘It was a strange sight . . .’, Robert L. Bogart, Staff Sergeant, 1st Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘The other landing-craft . . .’, Vernon Scannell, Argument of Kings, London, 1987, p. 145

p. 85 ‘started throwing up . . .’, Kenneth Romanski, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

senior officer in Jeep, Ronald Seaborne, Royal Navy Forward Observer, 50th Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘to be a bloody . . .’, Stanley Christopherson diary

‘Floater, five thousand!’, Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, diary, SWWEC T501

p. 86 ‘Off Asnelles . . .’, 352nd Infanterie-Division, 6 June log, Bayeux Sector, FMS B-388

‘Fancy having . . .’, David Howarth, Dawn of D-Day, London, 1959, p. 185

rocket bombardment of Cabourg, conversation M. R. D. Foot

‘missed the target entirely . . .’, Combat Team, 16th Infantry, NA II 407/427/5927 p. 87 ‘Well, Ike . . .’, PDDE 1588- 9

7

OMAHA

p. 88 description of Omaha, V Corps, NA II 407/427/24235

For Gerow and the planning of the Omaha operation see especially Adrian R. Lewis, Omaha Beach - A Flawed Victory, North Carolina, 2001

p. 90 ‘the greatest firepower . . .’, Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, London, 1946, p. 453

‘about whether the importance...’, LHCMA Liddell Hart 11/1944/7

‘It’s far too rough . . .’, Major General L. Scott-Bowden, SWWEC T2236

DD tanks, 741st and 743rd Tank Battalions, NA II 407/427/24235; and Dean Rockwell, US Navy, NWWIIM-EC

p. 91 ‘the Americans bungled ...’, LHCMA, Liddell Hart 11/1944/37

for the debate on DD tanks, see Lewis, pp. 307-18

‘precision bombing’, ibid., pp. 184-90

‘The Air Corps might just . . .’, NAII 407/427/5927

German gunnery practice, ADdC 6 W4

p. 92 shelling of Vierville, Michel Hardelay, MdC TE 59

‘The invasion fleet was like . . .’, Obergefreiter Alfred Sturm, 9. Kp., II Battalion, 726th Infanterie-Regiment, 716th Infanterie-Division, MdC TE 805

‘stretching in front of our coast . . .’, Franz Gockel, MdC TE 500

‘heavy bombardment . . .’, 352nd Infanterie-Division, 6 June log, FMS B-388

352nd Artillerie-Regiment and 716th Artillerie-Regiment, see Niklas Zetterling, Normandy 1944, Winnipeg, 2000, pp. 277-9 and 297-9

p. 93 Kraiss’s dispositions, for an excellent summary see Joseph Balkoski, Beyond the Beachhead, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 1999, pp. 73-8

absence of fire from the beach, Sergeant HarryC. Bare, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

dead fish, Captain Joseph T. Dawson NA II 407/427/24011

‘bucking like . . .’, Edwin J. Best, First Lieutenant, 6th Engineer Special Brigade NWWIIM-EC

‘reeked of vomit’, John Raaen, 5th Ranger Battalion, WWII VS

navigation difficulties, Robert E. Adams, US Coast Guard, LCVP #22, USS Samuel Chase, NWWIIM-EC

p. 94 Royal Navy landing craft crews, I am grateful to Dr Kevan Elsby and Joseph Balkoski for information correcting the false impressions of earlier accounts.

‘Soon we became conscious . . .’, Lieutenant (MC) Alfred A. Schiller, USN, CWM/ MCG 58A

‘Make it look good, men . . .’, First Lieutenant Donald S. Newbury, NA II 407/427/ 24242

experienced coxswains, E. Adams, US Coast Guard, LCVP #22., USS Samuel Chase, NWWIIM-EC

‘Astherampwentdown . . .’,Pozek, 116th Regiment, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘if you slipped . . .’, J. Robert Slaughter, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, MdC TE 231

p. 95 ‘bullets were splashing . . .’, William Huch, E Company, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division, Folder Huch, William, DDEL

‘had a gaping wound...’, Harold Baumgarten, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘I’m hit! I’m hit!’, Private Elmer E. Matekintis, 16th Infantry, 1st Division, NA II 407/ 427/24242

‘as it hit the wet sand . . .’, Harry Parley, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘He screamed for a medic...’, J. Robert Slaughter, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, MdC TE 231

p. 96 ‘frontal and enfilade’, V Corps, NA II 407/427/24235

‘fifty or sixty feet . . .’, Staff Sergeant Robert L. Bogart, 1st Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘We went to work . . .’, William M. Jenkins, US Navy Reserve (Navy Combat Demolition Unit), MdC TE 438

‘I’ve never in all my life . . .’, William Huch, E Company, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division, Folder Huch, William, DDEL

p. 97 121st Combat Engineer Battalion, Lieutenant P. W. J. Mallory, NA II 407/ 427/24242

‘Some men were crying . . .’, Second Lieutenant John T. Czuba, 116th Infantry, NA II 407/427/24242

‘men were tumbling . . .’, Alan Anderson, 467th Anti-aircraft Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

men trying to climb back on landing craft, Robert V. Miller, US Navy, NWWIIM-EC

‘Some of our boys said . . .’, 116th Infantry, 29th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/ 24241

‘another miserable . . .’, Lieutenant Ed R. McNabb Jr, H Company, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 98 ‘We talked to them . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24034

‘yelled down at the troops . . .’,JohnRaaen, 5th Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

‘I saw a man coming . . .’, Captain C. N. Hall, Assistant Surgeon, 16th Infantry, 1st Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 99 ‘started running . . .’, Andrew A. Fellner, 112th Combat Engineers, Easy Red, NWWIIM-EC

tank on Fox Green, NA II 407/427/24034

‘What saved us were . . .’, Private Elmer E. Matekintis, 16th Infantry, 1st Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘were crowded . . .’, V Corps, NA II 407/ 427/24235

p. 100 111th Field Artillery Battalion, NA II 407/427/24034

08.00 hours, timings taken from log kept by Major Thomas D. Howie, the RCT 116’s S-3, NA II 407/427/24151

‘He was catapulted . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 24034

‘Old Hatchetface . . .’, J. Robert Slaughter, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, MdC TE 231

p. 101 ‘We’ve got to get off . . .’, Captain C. N. Hall, Assistant Surgeon, 16th Infantry, 1st Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘The only people . . .’, after action report, Headquarters Company, 16th Infantry, NA II 407/427/24011; confirmed by Major General Albert H. Smith Jr, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘North-east of Colleville . . .’, Ia, 352nd Infanterie-Division to Chief of Staff LXXXIV Corps, 6 June log, FMS B-388

‘the gravest immediate threat...’, Gordon A. Harrison, US Army in World War II, Washington, DC, 1951, pp. 320 and 330- 31

p. 102 ‘from warships on the high seas . . .’, 11.10 hours, 352nd Infantry Division, 6 June log, Bayeux Sector, FMS B-388

‘Praise the Lord’, Pfc Harold F. Plank, 2nd Ranger Battalion, WWII VS p. 103 08.19 hours, telephone log, 352nd Infanterie-Division, FMS B-388

‘Medico! . . .’, NA II 407/427/24034

Cota and Canham, NA II 407/427/24235

p. 104 mortars, Franz Gockel, MdC TE 500, and NA II 407/427/24034

‘Boats and vehicles . . .’, V Corps, NA II 407/427/24235

C Company, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, NA II 407/427/24034

C Company losses, Captain Berthie B. Hawks, C Company, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, NA II 407/427/ 24242

p. 105 ‘everyone got ashore safely’, NA II 407/427/24034

‘enemy fire was not as bad . . .’, Second Lieutenant George Athanasakos, 2nd Battalion, 116thInfantry, NA II 407/427/24242

‘he spouted . . .’, NA II 407/427/24034

‘It was just one big mass . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24241

‘They looked like . . .’, NA II 07/427/ 24034

‘a stampeded herd . . .’, quoted in Harrison, p. 334

p. 106 ‘They lit the fuse . . .’, Barnett Hoffner. 6th Engineer Special Brigade, NWWIIM-EC

destroyers at Omaha, Harrison, p. 322

‘the survivors . . .’, Obergefreiter Alfred Sturm, 9. Kp., II Battalion, 726 Inf Rgt, 716 ID, MdC TE 805

‘There was a German . . .’, Bradley Holbrook, NWWIIM-EC

‘We came across . . .’, Pfc. Charles M. Bulap, 2nd Ranger Battalion, NA II 407/ 427/24241

p. 107 signaller, John Raaen, 5th Ranger Battalion, WWII VS

ranger helped up by prisoners, Nicholas Butrico, 5th Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

‘Things look better’, NA II 407/427/ 24235

‘struck by the gray . . .’, Gale B. Beccue, 5th Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

‘His helmet was off . . .’, Brugger, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 108 ‘who was calmly . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24034

‘individually they were . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24034

‘Those jagged sharp bones . . .’, Herbert Zafft, 29th Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘As I drew near him . . .’, Colin H. Mc-Laurin, 115th Infantry, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘Smoke, dust from . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 24034

French civilians in Vierville, Howie journal, NA II 407/427/24151

p. 109 Cota and Vierville exit, NA II 407/ 427/24034

landed 18,772 men, NA II 407/427/24235

p. 110 ‘wounded can no longer . . .’, telephone log, 352. I.D., 17.10 hours, FMS B-388

identifying the presence of the 352nd Infanterie-Division, letter from Captain Fred Gercke, 27 June, NA II 407/427/24011

smell of burnt flesh, Roy Arnn, 146th Combat Engineer Battalion attached to 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘I saw one young soldier . . .’, Captain Benjamin A. Payson, 60th Medical Battalion, MdC TE 291

p. 111 treatment on Omaha, Lieutenant (MC) Alfred A. Schiller, USN, CWM/ MCG 58A

‘What am I going to do? . . .’, Frank Feduik, pharmacist on LST, NWWIIM-EC

‘left alone to whatever . . .’, Vincent J. del Giudice, pharmacist, USS Bayfield, NWWIIM-EC

p. 112 Gerow landing, NA II 407/427/ 24235

29th Infantry Division command post, NA II 407/427/24034

‘assumed that everyone . . .’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2001, p. 83

Casualty figures, see Harrison, p. 330; and NA II 407/427/5919

‘He knew better . . .’, George Roach, Company A, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

Bedford casualties, see James W. Morrison, Bedford Goes to War: The Heroic Story of a Small Virginia Community in World War II, Lynchburg, Va., 2006; and George D. Salaita, ‘Embellishing Omaha Beach’, Journal of Military History, April 2008, pp. 531-4

p. 113 German losses on the eastern front and in Normandy, Niklas Zetterling, Normandy 1944, Winnipeg, 2000, p. 434

8

UTAH AND THE AIRBORNE

p. 114 German soldiers and American containers, Rainer Hartmetz, NWWIIM-EC

‘The war game has . . .’, Generalleutnant Karl-Wilhelm Graf von Schlieben, 709th Infanterie-Division, FMS B-845

p. 115 ‘American prisoners with . . .’, Montebourg, Fernand Louvoy, MdC TE 38

‘A soldier had his leg . . .’, Brigadier General David E. Thomas, NWWIIM-EC

p. 116 Château de Hauteville, Briand N. Beaudin, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

discovery of ford, NA II 407/427/ 24206

p. 118 ‘odd-shaped sea-monsters . . .’, Howard van der Beek, USS LCC 60a, NWWIIM-EC

‘met General Roosevelt . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24204

‘more like guerrilla fighting’, NA II 407/ 427/24242

‘Captain, how in the hell...’, Folder Birra, Alfred F., DDEL

p. 119 ‘walked their fire . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24240

‘they could not be trusted’, John Capell, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘duringthebriefings . . .’,NA II 407/427/ 24242

Le Molay, Danièle Höfler, MdC, TE 71

patrols over south-western approaches, R. L. Delashaw, 405th Fighter Group, USAAC, NWWIIM-EC

p. 120 ‘Achtung! Minen!’, John L. Ahearn, 70th Tank Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

20th Field Artillery, 4th Infantry Division, Staff Sergeant Alfred Donald Allred, NWWIIM-EC

‘French people, of course . . .’, William E. Jones, 4th Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

p. 121 ‘came across a little . . .’, Captain Carroll W. Wright, 33rd Chemical Company, NWWIIM-EC

‘a German soldier lying dead . . .’, John A. Beck, 87th Chemical Mortar Battalion with 4th Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘We had to kill most . . .’, Lieutenant John A. Le Trent, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 122 ‘There isn’t much left . . .’, R. R. Hughart, 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

325th Glider Infantry Regiment, NA II 407/427/24206

p. 123 ‘They look as though they’re from Sing Sing’, Heinz Puschmann, 6th Paratroop Regiment, private account

‘as if it were a movie . . .’, Jean Roger, Saint-Lô, MdC TE 316

‘Windows and doors . . .’, MdC TE 285 p. 124 escape into the countryside, Michèle Chapron, MdC TE 278

9

GOLD AND JUNO

p. 125 ‘Is this the landing?’, André Heintz diary, MdC TE 32 (1-4)

‘Do you think . . .’, MdC TE 149

‘Yes, it is indeed . . .’, Marianne Daure, MdC TE 48

p. 126 boulangeries in Caen, Marcel Ehly, MdC TE 11

Germans ‘requisitioning’ alcohol, Madeleine Betts-Quintaine, MdC TE 25

‘They’re landing! . . .’, Marianne Daure, MdC TE 48

evacuation orders, Nadine Speck, MdC TE 2

‘Continual telephone calls . . .’, Generalleutnant Speidel, FMS B-718

p. 127 Blumentritt’s calls, FMS B-284

p. 128 ‘Once you stop on the beach . . .’, Major George Young, Green Howards, SWWEC T2452

p. 129 ‘a sort of aquatic turnpike . . .’, Clifford H. Sinnett, USNR, LST 530, NWWIIM-EC

p. 130 ‘Never in my wildest dreams . . .’, Stanley Christopherson diary

p. 131 Keller, Mark Zuehlke, Juno Beach, Toronto, 2005, pp. 31-2

‘Operation Overboard’, ibid., p. 84; and Papers of Frank A. Osmanski, G-4 SHAEF, USAMHI

HMS Belfast, Tony Hugill diary, CAC HUGL 1

Canadian vessels in Overlord, NA II 407/ 427/24200

p. 132 ‘Nearly every foot . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24200; and Terry Copp, Fields of Fire, Toronto, 2003, p. 48

Fort Garry Horse tanks, Sergeant Bill Hudson, A Troop, 48 Royal Marine Commando, MdC TE 84; and Zuehlke, p. 202

Bernières-sur-Mer, NA II 407/427/ 24200; Zuehlke, p. 219; and Copp, p. 52

p. 133 ‘But what do you expect? . . .’, Louise Hamelin, MdC TE 222

‘I don’t want to see . . .’, J. Kyle, SWWEC T1094

p. 135 ‘At Carpiquet . . .’, Ultra intercept passed by ‘C’ to Churchill on 11 June, Luftflotte 3, TNA HW 1/2927

10

SWORD

p. 136 ‘Widgeon and teal . . .’, Tony Hugill diary, CAC HUGL 1

‘Floater, 5,000!’, Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T501

p. 137 ‘Some were scared . . .’, N. G. Marshall, H Troop Armoured Support Group with 41st RM Commando, SWWEC 2000.407

‘like a Napoleonic dragoon’, Lieutenant Ken Baxter, 2nd Battalion Middlesex Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, MdC TE 164

John and Jacqueline Thornton, NWWIIM-EC

‘Every now and then . . .’, Tony Hugill diary, CAC HUGL 1

p. 138 ‘Well, dig yourself . . .’, Lieutenant Cyril Rand, 2nd Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles, MdC TE 499

‘with misjudged enthusiasm’ and ‘he relented a little’, Lionel Roebuck, 2nd Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment, MdCTE 199

Piper Bill Millin piping on the beach, SWWEC T654/666 and K. G. Oakley, IWM 96/22/1

p. 139 ‘Right, Piper . . .’, Piper Bill Millin, SWWEC T654/666

3 Troop of 6 Commando, TNA DEFE 2/43; and Philip Biggerton Pritchard, Soldiering in the British Forces in World War II, privately published, undated

X Troop, Harry Nomburg, NWWIIM-EC, and Peter Masters, NWWIIM-EC

Kieffer, MdC TE 131

p. 140 ‘Gentlemen, this is the invasion . . .’, letter from Otto Günsche, 2 October 1981, quoted in Hubert Meyer, The 12th SS, Vol. I, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2005, p. 97

‘a tall wiry . . .’, Milton Shulman, Defeat in the West, London, 1988, pp. 118-19

p. 141 Château de Bénouville, Louise Moulin, MdC TE 350

Oppeln-Bronikowski’s change of orders, Generalmajor Wilhelm Richter, 716th Infantry Division, FMS B-621

Marcks, Seventh Army telephone records captured in August by 1st Polish Armored Division, NA II 407/427/6431

‘in no position to judge’ and ‘The main landing ...’, Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann, OB West, FMS B-308

p. 142 ‘fill a crater . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 24170

p. 143 ‘deep concrete pillboxes . . .’, ‘fought with determination . . .’ and ‘blown out of their emplacements . . .’, Current Reports from Overseas, No. 56, NA II 407/427/ 24170

p. 144 André Heintz, diary, MdC, TE 32 (1- 4); and Dr Robert Chaperon, MdC TE 42

p. 145 destruction in Caen, MdC TE 283

‘One could see . . .’, Félix Drougard, MdC TE 3

‘If only I was a little less fat’, MdC TE 149

looter, MdC TE 149 p. 146 Défense Passive etc., MdC TE 193

‘magnificent attitude . . .’, SIPEG (Service interministériel de protection contres les évènements de guerre) report of 10 June, AN AJ/41/56

executions in Caen prison, Jean-Baptiste Pierre (Surveillant-Chef Adjoint de la Maison d’Arrêt de Caen), MdC TE 521

‘Oh, no! . . .’, ‘pale and evidently terrified’ and ‘The German army is honest’, Madame Blanche Néel, MdC TE 201

p. 147 ‘With a bestial frenzy . . .’, Nadine Speck MdC TE 2

‘useless as well as criminal’, Max Maurin, MdC TE 77 (2)

800 deaths in Caen, 600 on 6 June and 200 on 7 June, CRHQ

‘The town is in flames . . .’, ‘almost destroyed’ and ‘all the gendarmes . . .’, SIPEG report of 10 June, AN AJ/41/56

p. 148 ‘In Westminster Abbey . . .’, Mollie Panter-Downes, London War Notes, London, 1971, p. 328

‘It has been very hard . . .’, Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries 1939-1945, London, 2001, p. 555 (6 June)

p. 149 Eadie and ‘Fireflies’, see Carlo D’Este, Decision in Normandy, New York, 1983

‘I suppose that’s what . . .’, Lieutenant Cyril Rand, 2nd Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles, MdC TE 499

‘It equally impressed . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24170

p. 150 ‘the enemy annihilated . . .’, Seventh Army telephone records, NA II 407/427/ 6431

‘He was still convinced . . .’, Nicolaus von Below, Als Hitlers Adjutant, 1937-1945, Mainz, 1980, p. 374

Panzer Lehr Division, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

‘What’s happened to...’, BA-MA MSg2/5025

p. 151 4,649 US seaborne casualties, Omar Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, New York, 1951, p. 242

11

SECURING THE BEACHHEADS

p. 152 29th Division headquarters, NA II 407/427/24034

farmhands and Pennsylvania coal miners, 29th Division, WWII VS

‘The sea was like . . .’, Oberstleutnant Ziegelmann, 352nd Infanterie-Division, FMS B-489

p. 153 MP Sergeant, Melvin Asche, 1006th Seabea Detachment, MdC TE 126

‘looked at us . . .’, Madame Huet-Patry, Vierville-sur-Mer, MdC TE 22

‘I guess they didn’t know . . .’, Barnett Hoffner, 6th Engineer Special Brigade, NWWIIM-EC

p. 154 ‘deloused’ areas, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’sWar,Lexington,Kentucky, 2001,p. 63

USS Harding, Walter Vollrath Jr, USN, NWWIIM-EC

p. 155 ‘Again Colonel Rudder . . .’, Elmer H. Vermeer, 2nd Engineer Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division, with 2nd Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC; also Lieutenant Francis W. Dawson, 5th Ranger Battalion, NWWIIM-EC; and Lieutenant Rex F. Gibson, Headquarters Company, 116th Infantry, 29th Division, NA II 407/427/ 24242

‘stumble-footed action’, NA II 407/427/ 24034

bartering, Brugger, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘Hey, I need a hedgerow . . .’, Oscar Rich, 5th Field Artillery Battalion, 1st Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

A-1 landing strip, W. G. Schuler, 382nd Air Service Squadron, 84th Group, NWWIIM-EC evacuation of wounded by air, Louise Anthony de Flon, 816th Medical Air Evacuation, MdC TE 177

p. 156 Gerhardt, see Joseph Balkoski, Beyond the Beachhead, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 1999, pp. 44-50

‘Sergeant, I want you . . .’, John Hooper, 115th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

V Corps plan, Oberst Ziegelmann, 352nd Infanterie-Division, FMS B-489 and B-636

p. 157 ‘the Führer personally . . .’, General Günther Blumentritt, OB West, FMS B-637, p. 263

‘a tough learning period . . .’, Lieutenant Cameron K. Brooks, 115th Infantry, 29th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘Lieutenant Kermit Miller ...’, NA II 407/427/24240; and Captain S. S. Suntag, 115th Infantry, NA II 407/427/24242

‘It was nearly midnight . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24240

‘trouble from those . . .’, Captain Otto Graas, Headquarters Company, 29th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

p. 158 Gerhardt and ‘Vixen Tor’, Staff Sergeant Lester Zick, Anti-tank Company, 175th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘John Doughfoot looked . . .’, Lieutenant George Wash, 224th Field Artillery Battalion, 29th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/24242

‘an American on a white horse . . .’, Staff Sergeant Lester Zick, Anti-tank Company, 175th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC

Isigny, Edwin R. Schwartz, 747th Tank Battalion, NWWIIM-EC; Staff Sergeant Lester Zick, Anti-tank Company, 175th Infantry Regiment, 29th Division, NWWIIM-EC; and Balkoski, pp. 170-74

p. 159 ‘Rubble was everywhere . . .’, Lieutenant George Wash, 224th Field Artillery Battalion, 29th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24242

Generalleutnant von Schlieben, FMS B-845

‘17.00 hours went into . . .’, Captain Claude J. Mercer, 29th Field Artillery Battalion, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/24242

p. 160 Montebourg, Louis Lucet, MdC TE 107; and Valognes, MdC TE 111

Georgians at Turqueville, Captain Le GrandK.Johnson, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, NA II 407/427/24242

‘and Jerry went from one to another . . .’, Lieutenant George W. Goodridge, 44th Field Artillery Battalion, 4th Division, NA II 407/427/24240

‘Their throats had been cut . . .’, Captain Claude J. Mercer, 29th Field Artillery Battalion, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/24242

‘sniping coming from a building . . .’, Sergeant W. C. Cowards, 22nd Infantry, 4th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 161 ‘France was like . . .’, Captain Robert E. Walker, 19th Infantry Division, WWII VS

‘couldn’t trust them in Normandy’, Pfc Robert Boyce, 502nd Parachute Infantry Regiment, WWII VS

‘we saw in the ditches . . .’, Barnett Hoffner, 6th Engineer Special Brigade, NWWIIM-EC

Sgt Prybowski, Captain Elmer G. Koehler, Battalion Surgeon, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 162 Hill 30, Tomaso William Porcella, 3rd Battalion, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division; and Kenneth J. Merritt, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

‘There were so many . . .’, Edward C. Boccafogli, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division, NWWIIM-EC

90th Division firing at prisoners, Max Hastings, Overlord, London, 1989, p. 154

p. 163 ‘He was sitting out . . .’, Pogue, pp. 111-12

‘Collins and Bradley . . .’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 479

the ‘Treuelied’, Jean-Claude Perrigault and Rolf Meister, Götz von Berlichingen, Bayeux, 2005, p. 77

‘Well, we don’t know . . .’, SS-Mann Johann H., 36 380 D =3.Kp./SS-Pi.Btl.17 17.SS-Pz.Gren.Div. 8 June, BfZ-SS

p. 164 ‘Turn round!’, Perrigault and Meister, p. 203

‘and push the enemy . . .’, Generalleutnant Richard Schimpf, 3rd Paratroop Division, FMS B-020

p. 165 ‘insufficient forces’, Generalmajor Max Pemsel commentary, FMS B-541

353rd Infanterie-Division, General Mahlmann, FMS A-983

hiding in barns and orchards, AdM 2 J 695

‘nocturnal game...’, Generalleutnant Kurt Badinski 276th Infanterie-Division, FMS B-526

SS Das Reich in France, Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, p. 361

p. 166 ‘the initiation of . . .’, IMT, Vol. XXXVII, quoted in Lieb, p. 364

For these and other killings, see Lieb, pp. 374-5 and AN AJ/41/56. According to one report, 108 were hanged in Tulle, AN AJ/41/56

Oradour, M. R. D. Foot, SOE in France, London, 1966, pp. 398-9

‘regions where a hideous . . .’, AN AJ/ 41/56

p. 167 ‘spray jobs’, Technical Sergeant Donald J. Walworth, 3rd Battalion, 26th Infantry, 1stDivision,NA II 407/427/24242

‘were in fact facing . . .’, Gordon A. Harrison, US Army in World War II, Washington, DC, 1951 p. 370

p. 168 ‘You people are always . . .’, Oberstleutnant Keil, FMS C-018

‘sly, underhand...’, Perrigault and Meister, p. 245

‘moderately high losses’, ibid., p. 247

p. 169 accusation against Heydte, FMS B-839; and Perrigault and Meister, p. 248

12

FAILURE AT CAEN

p. 170 ‘communications between division . . .’, Generalmajor Wilhelm Richter, 716th Infanterie-Division, FMS B-621

‘honeycombed with trenches, NA II 407/ 427/24200

p. 171 ‘under his command . . .’, TNA WO 208/4363

1st SS Panzer-Division Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, Taganrog, Sönke Neitzel (ed.), Tapping Hitler’s Generals, St Paul, Mn, 2007, p. 344, n. 93

p. 172 ‘It has taken . . .’, Generalmajor Wilhelm Richter, 716th Infanterie-Division, FMS B-621

‘Little fish!’, Shulman interview with Generalleutnant Edgar Feuchtinger, August 1945, Milton Shulman, Defeat in the West, London, 1988, p. 121

‘At a moment when . . .’, General Geyr von Schweppenburg, FMS B-466

p. 173 ‘Fright reports’, Generalmajor Fritz Krämer, I SS Panzer Corps, FMS C-024

p. 174 ‘Action rear’, etc., Alastair Bannerman, 2nd Battalion Royal Warwicks, SWWEC 2001-819

Gruchy, Raymond Pouchin, MdC TE 86

Hitler Jugend in Cambes, Lieutenant, Cyril Rand, 2nd Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles, MdC TE 499

p. 175 ‘We were the first troops . . .’ and ‘After a very short time . . .’, Stanley Christopherson diary

p. 176 ‘fighter-bomber racecourse’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

Panzer Lehr losses, see H. Ritgen, Die Geschichte der Panzer-Lehr Division im Westen, 1944-1945, Stuttgart, 1979, p. 100, quoted in Niklas Zetterling, Normandy 1944, Winnipeg, 2000, p. 386

p. 177 ‘How can I live . . .’, ‘Aristocrats’, Keith Douglas, The Complete Poems, London, 2000, p. 117

‘I like you, sir’, Stuart Hills, By Tank into Normandy, London, 2002, p. 54

p. 178 ‘missed the psychological moment . . .’, General Geyr von Schweppenburg, FMS B-466

‘Last time I was . . .’, Lieutenant Cyril Rand, 2nd Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles, MdC TE 499

p. 179 ‘When I looked to the left . . .’, Unterscharführer Alois Morawetz, 3. Panzerkompanie, SS Panzer-Regiment 12, Hubert Meyer, The 12th SS: The History of the Hitler Youth Panzer Division, Vol. I, Mechanicsburg, Pa., p. 188

‘I could have cried . . .’, ibid., p.191

p. 180 ‘He had tried to make . . .’, ibid., p.197

killing of prisoners in Normandy, TNA TS 26/856

‘about thirty Canadian . . .’, Nelly Quidot, MdC TE 228

killings at Abbaye d’Ardennes, Sergeant Frank Geoffrey, Royal Winnipeg Rifles, NWWIIM-EC

p. 181 ‘dare-devil’, Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, p. 163

Kurt Meyer executing Jews in Poland, ibid., p. 159

‘the men show signs . . .’, Ultra intercepts passed by ‘C’ to Churchill on 11 June, TNA HW 1/2927

location of headquarters of Panzer Group West, TNA KV 7171 and KV 7225

p. 182 ‘all personnel . . .’, General Geyr von Schweppenburg, FMS B-466

p. 183 ‘a gutless bugger’, TNA WO 205/ 5D

p. 184 ‘pull the Germans . . .’, TNA WO 205/5B

‘Inaction and a defensive mentality . . .’, TNA PREM 3/339/1, p. 6

‘to assault to the west . . .’, LHCMA De Guingand 2/1/1-6

‘a peevish imperialism’, Army Group intelligence summary, 23 April 1944, TNA WO 205/532 (2)

‘to block the enemy’s . . .’, General Geyr von Schweppenburg, FMS B-466

p. 185 ‘the key to Cherbourg’, General Omar Bradley, OCMH-FPP

‘By premature commitment . . .’, Generalmajor Fritz Krämer, I SS Panzer Corps, FMS C-024

13

VILLERS-BOCAGE

p. 187 ‘The fury of artillery ...’, Vernon Scannell, Argument of Kings, London, 1987, p. 165

‘The smart, keen . . .’, ibid., p. 156

‘The thing that shocked . . .’, Major Peter Griffin, 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion, NAC/ANC R5067-0-0-E

‘broke down’, Lieutenant Colonel Terence Otway, SWWEC T689

p. 188 ‘He is not very impressive . . .’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 461

Dempsey, see Carlo D’Este, Decision in Normandy, New York, 1983, p. 60

p. 189 ‘You’ll get a shock . . .’, Arthur Reddish, A Tank Soldier’s Story, privately printed, undated, p. 29

‘Bucknall was very weak’, Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries 1939-1945, London, 2001, p. 538 (7 April)

Bucknall and Bayeux, LHCMA, Liddell Hart 11/1944/36

p. 190 General Maxwell D. Taylor, SODP p. 191 entry into Villers-Bocage, M. Diguet, MdC TE 220

‘We have only one . . .’, Patrick Agte, Michael Wittmann, Vol. I, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2006, p. 354

p. 192 11th Hussars and prisoner from 2nd Panzer-Division, Dudley Clarke, The Eleventh at War, London, 1952, p. 339; and Myles Hildyard, who says in his diary that they strangled one guard and seized the other

Ultra on 2nd Panzer-Division, TNA KV 7707

p. 193 artillery regiment firing airbursts, NA II 407/427/24170

Aunay-sur-Odon, Abbé André Paul, MdC TE 21

p. 194 ‘The fighting in the west . . .’, 15 June, Unteroffizier Leopold L., 25 644 = 5.Kp./Pz.Rgt.3, 2.Pz.Div., BfZ-SS

‘131 Brigade . . .’, Myles Hildyard diary, 19 June

‘a very poor showing . . .’, Major General G. L. Verney diary, quoted in D’Este, pp. 272-4

‘The famous Desert Rats . . .’, Stanley Christopherson diary

p. 195 ‘it was no good grousing . . .’, J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson, Sharpshooter, Fleet Hargate, 2006, p. 109

‘design fault’, Lieutenant General Richard O’Connor to Churchill, 5 May, LHCMA O’Connor 5/2/39

‘a Tiger and Panther complex’, letter, 12 June, TNA WO205/5B

‘We are outshot . . .’, Algiers, 23 August 1943, Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, London, 1946, p. 339

‘The squadron left . . .’, anonymous diary entry, 11 June, MdC TE 396

Eisenhower to Marshall, Brigadier Joseph A. Holly, 5 July, PDDE, p. 1973

p. 196 ‘I have received . . .’, No. 695, Prime Minister to President, 9 June, TNA PREM 3/472

‘passed convoys...’, Alanbrooke, pp. 556-7 (12 June)

p. 197 ‘There has been a recognizable . . .’, Churchill to Eden, 12 June, TNA PREM 3/339/7

‘We went and had . . .’, TNA PREM 3/ 339/7

HMS Ramillies, Admiral G. B. Middleton, IWM 01/2/1

‘a slight display . . .’ and ‘General de Gaulle’s personal flag . . .’, report of British Naval Liaison Officer, 16 June, TNA ADM 1/16018

p. 198 ‘Has it occurred . . .’, quoted in Henri Amouroux, La grande histoire, Vol. VIII, p. 546, and Robert Aron, Histoire de la Libération de la France, Paris, 1959, p. 78

‘did little to ingratiate them . . .’, report of British Naval Liaison Officer, TNA PREM 3/339/7

Monsieur le curé . . .’, Jean Lacouture, De Gaulle - Le Rebelle, Paris, 1984, p. 779

p. 199 ‘hated Laval, but not Pétain’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2006, p. 115

‘has left behind in Bayeux . . .’, Montgomery to Churchill, 14 June, TNA PREM 3/339/7

p. 200 ‘In my opinion we should . . .’, No. 561, President to Prime Minister, 14 June, TNA PREM 3/339/7

‘There is not a scrap . . .’, Churchill to Eden, 12 June, TNA PREM 3/339/7

‘Trojan horse’, Aron, p. 77

Le panorama . . .’, MdC TE 195 p. 201 ‘I simply cannot . . .’, André Heintz diary, MdC TE 32 (1-4)

Café owner, Dr Robert Chaperon, MdC TE 42

‘in the Middle Ages’, MdC TE 42 p. 202 Secours National, Céline Coantic-Dormoy, MdC TE 281

‘The English since . . .’ Le Dily diary, 11 June, MdC TE 143

le troc’, Claude Guillotin, 1944, ‘L’aventure de mes quinze ans’, Le Fresne-Camilly, MdC TE 397

p. 203 ‘a senior officer of the Military Police . . .’, Dr Ian Campbell, RAMC, 2nd Field Dressing Station, SWWEC 2000.477

‘during the morning . . .’, MdC TE 144

‘musical chairs’ and ‘Now there’s no need . . .’, Lieutenant Cyril Rand, 2nd Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles, MdC TE 499

p. 205 Red Army, see Antony Beevor and Lyuba Vinogradova (eds.), A Writer at War: Vasily Grossman with the Red Army, 1941- 1945, London, 2005, p. 109

‘The whole world . . .’, SS Untersturmführer Herbert E., 2.Kp./Nachr.Abt.SS. Pz.Div. ‘Hohenstaufen’, 6 June and 10 June, 24 742C, BfZ-SS

14

THE AMERICANS ON THE COTENTIN PENINSULA

p. 208 ‘Within a week . . .’, Lieutenant (MC) Alfred A. Schiller, USN, CWM/ MCG 58A

Omaha Beach command, NA II 407/427/ 212

‘Turn those prisoners...’, Barnett Hoffner, 6th Engineer Special Brigade, NWWIIM-EC

‘Those wounded paratroopers . . .’, Orval Wakefield (Naval Combat Demolition Unit), NWWIIM-EC

‘We had an incident . . .’, Charles C. Zalewski, LST 134, NWWIIM-EC

‘One of our ship’s officers . . .’, Ralph Crenshaw, LST 44, NWWIIM-EC

p. 209 trade in Lugers, Major John C. Geiglein, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2006, pp. 127-8

bartering a truck-load of weapons, T/Sgt Eugene W. Griffin, 2nd Armored Division, WWII VS

‘a considerable laxity . . .’, Pogue, p. 87

pig roasting, Angelos Chatas (Naval Combat Demolition Unit), NWWIIM-EC

p. 210 ‘The [French] attitude is . . .’, NA II 407/427/212

‘The Mayor of Colleville . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/212

p. 211 ‘Hermann’s Vermin’, Cyrus C. Aydlett, USS Bayfield, NWWIIM-EC

‘despite undisputed air supremacy . . .’, Leigh-Mallory, 1 July, Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Air Force, TNA ADM 1/ 16332

p. 212 ‘an enemy sniper . . .’, Omar Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, New York, 1951, p. 292

‘When I saw that . . .’, John Troy, 8th Infantry, NWWIIM-EC

91st Luftlande-Division, Oberst Eugen König, FMS B-010

p. 214 ‘I was ordered to . . .’, Obergefreiter Hans S., 9.Kp./Gren.Rgt.1058, 91.(LL.) Inf.Div., 13 273 B, 7 July, BfZ-SS

‘a burly professor . . .’, Martin Blumenson, The Duel for France, New York, 2000, pp. 20-21

‘a pudgy man . . .’, ibid., p. 11

‘The commander-in-chief . . .’, Generalleutnant von Choltitz, LXXXIV Corps, FMS B-418

‘he had lived a life . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

‘the war was lost’, Generalleutnant von Choltitz, LXXXIV Corps, FMS B-418 p. 215 ‘refreshingly open-minded’, LHCMA Liddell Hart 11/1944/7

‘Montebourg and Valognes . . .’, TNA WO 205/5B

‘a Cub plane . . .’, operation of air support parties, NA II 407/427/24204

p. 216 Mulberry and gale, ‘Artificial Harbours in Operation Overlord’, TNA ADM 1/17204

‘The only chance . . .’, Dean Rockwell, US Navy, NWWIIM-EC

‘It took us about . . .’, Werner Hugo Saenger, LST 27, NWWIIM-EC

‘I thank the gods . . .’, J. M. Stagg, Forecast for Overlord, London, 1971, p. 126

‘never really believed...’, Colonel Thomas Bigland, Montgomery’s personal liaison officer to First US Army, then 12th Army Group, SWWEC 99-10

p. 217 tonnage and vehicles landed in August, Normandy Base Section Communications Zone, 8 September, Com Z, NA II 407/427/24133

‘a bit of plunder’, Oberst a.D. Dr Hans Kessler, BA-MA MSg 2/249

‘The men were tired . . .’, Lieutenant William Priestman, 315th Infantry, NA II 407/ 427/24242

p. 218 ‘K Company . . .’, Lieutenant John E. Cunningham, 314th Infantry, 79th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘We fired back . . .’, Karl Hohmann, RAD, MdC TE 506

‘any part of the garrison . . .’, Colonel Bernard B. MacMahon, 315th Infantry, 79th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 219 ‘At eight-thirty . . .’, Lieutenant John R. Blackburn, Sky Control Officer, USS Quincy, NWWIIM-EC

‘It was a beautiful...’, Rear Admiral Carleton F. Bryant, USN, Commander Battleship Division 5, MdC TE 173

p. 220 ‘Immediately we opened fire’, K. Jump, SWWEC T 1823

armoured bulldozers, Lieutenant Colonel H. A. Delo, 346th Engineers, NA II 407/ 427/24242

display of strength, Lieutenant Ralph Powell, Cannon Company, 47th Infantry, 9th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘had drunk enough . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 24242

p. 221 ‘sound common sense’, Oberstleutnant Keil, FMS C-018

‘Final battle for Cherbourg . . .’, Generalleutnant Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben, 709th Infantry Division, FMS B-845

‘Some of the boys . . .’, Lieutenant John A. Le Trent, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘We saw a few women snipers . . .’, Sergeant Walter M. Hedrick, 22nd Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24242

Organisation Todt workers, BA-MA RH 19 iv/132, quoted in Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, p. 168

‘The Teutonic tendency . . .’, Captain Elmer G. Koehler, Battalion surgeon, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/24242

p. 220 ‘That was quite . . .’, Clayton Storeby, 326th Airborne Engineer Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

‘The Germans have left . . .’, Pogue, p. 135

‘amassive under ground wine cellar’, Bradley, p. 314

Hitler and Schlieben, General Warlimont, ETHINT 1

15

OPERATION EPSOM

p. 223 ‘Field Marshal Rommel is . . .’, Wilhelm Ritter von Schramm, BA-MA MSg 2/247

Channel Islands and Nebelwerfer Brigades, General Warlimont, ETHINT 4

p. 224 ‘Jungle Tiger Tactics’, General Geyr von Schweppenburg, FMS B-466

‘[Hitler] looked unhealthy . . .’, Speidel, FMS C-017. The description of this meeting is based on the accounts by Speidel, Rundstedt (FMS B-633), Blumentritt, chief of staff OB West (FMS B-284), and Hitler’s Luftwaffe adjutant, Nicolaus von Below (Als Hitlers Adjutant, 1937-1945, Mainz, 1980)

p. 225 withdrawal of six to ten miles and ‘a long auto-suggestive speech’, General der Infanterie Blumentritt, debriefing 6 August 1945, NA II 407/427/24231

‘That was the last thing . . .’, Below, p. 375

‘everything would depend . . .’, Blumentritt, Chief of Staff OB West, FMS B-284 p. 226 ‘What principally bothers . . .’, Mollie Panter-Downes, London War Notes, London, 1971, pp. 330-31

‘eerie howl of sirens’, Cyrus C. Aydlett, USS Bayfield, NWWIIM-EC

War Cabinet, 16 June, LHCMA Liddell Hart 11/1944/38

‘These things . . .’, Wing Commander R. Beamont, SWWEC T537

p. 227 Director General of Gendarmerie’s report, General Martin, AN AJ/41/56

‘with a pathetic wail . . .’, Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries 1939-1945, London, 2001, p. 562 (27 June)

Agent ‘Lector’, TNA HW 40/6

p. 228 ‘Battle is going well . . .’, Montgomery to Churchill, 14 June, TNA PREM 3/339/8

‘We formed up . . .’, G. Steer, 1/4th

King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, SWWEC 2002.1644

p. 229 ‘There’s no need to tell Ike’, LHCMA, LHP/1/230/22-23a p. 231 ‘The German trick . . .’, Peter Rubie, CWM/MCG 58A 1 40.7

‘on turning a corner . . .’, Stanley Christopherson diary

‘The order came to us . . .’, G. Steer 1/ 4th King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, SWWEC 2002.1644

p. 232 Ultra on Panzer Lehr, 27 June, TNA KV 9826

‘like strange fungi . . .’, John Keegan, Six Armies in Normandy, London, 1992, p. 174

‘were much amused . . .’, Aidan Sprot, Swifter than Eagles, Edinburgh, 1998, p. 120 ‘It’s a vision . . .’, Félix Drougard, MdC TE 3

p. 233 ‘the enemy which has . . .’, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/4831

p. 234 ‘die grosse Chance’, Kriegstagebuch Panzer Group West, Fifth Panzer Army, BA-MA MSg 2/4831

Ultra, 29 June, XL 70, see Ralph Bennett, Ultra in the West, New York, 1979, p. 82

Operation Epsom, one of the best accounts is in Carlo D’Este, Decision in Normandy, New York, 1983

p. 235 ‘General talked about . . .’, Myles Hildyard diary, 22 June

‘the armchair strategists . . .’, General Geyr von Schweppenburg, FMS B-466

p. 236 ‘returned in a vile humour’, Blumentritt, Chief of Staff OB West, FMS B-284

‘told him bluntly...’, Blumentritt, ETHINT 73

‘because of the effect . . .’, General der Panzertruppen Eberbach, FMS A-922

p. 237 ‘become imbued . . .’, Blumentritt, Chief of Staff OB West, FMS B-284

‘energetic, quick-witted...’, Speidel, FMS C-017

‘After a rather frosty . . .’, Speidel, FMS C-017

p. 238 ‘German tanks are superior . . .’, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

‘the British attacks . . .’, General Alfred Jodl, FMS A-913

‘jumped out of line . . .’, William Oatman, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, NWWIIM-EC

p. 240 ‘The effect of the major conflicts . . .’, Keitel and Jodl, FMS A-915

visit of Colonel Vassilievsky, Arthur Reddish, A Tank Soldier’s Story, privately published, undated, p. 56

‘are still on the Soviet-German front’, Major General Galaktionov, Pravda, 23 June

‘We know where . . .’, Ilya Ehrenburg, ‘The West Wind’, Pravda, 11 June

16

THE BATTLE OF THE BOCAGE

p. 242 ‘immediately deserted to the enemy’, Generalleutnant Dietrich von Choltitz, LXXXIV Corps, FMS B-418; and Oberst Eugen König, 91st Luftlande-Division, FMS B-010

‘to gain experience . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 24203

‘The prisoners we captured’, T/Sergeant Laurence E. Ousley, 330th Infantry, 83rd Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘We no longer have . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 6431

p. 243 ‘Fallen for Greater Germany’, Jean-Claude Perrigault and Rolf Meister, Götz von Berlichingen - Normandie, Bayeux, 2005, p. 267

‘The Germans haven’t much left . . .’, Martin Blumenson, The Duel for France 1944, New York, 2000, p. 23

LXXXIV Corps daily losses, General Dietrich von Choltitz, De Sebastopol à Paris, Paris, 1964, p. 184

‘After having been . . .’, Obergefreiter Hans S., 10 July, 9.Kp./Gren.Rgt.1058, 91.(LL.)Inf.Div., 13 273 B, BfZ-SS

p. 246 ‘to gain suitable terrain . . .’, NA II 407/427/24232

attack of 30th Infantry Division, 7 July, NA II 407/427/24232

p. 247 twelve Shermans knocked out, Pfc Bertrand J. Close, 3rd Battalion, 32nd Armored Regiment, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

Meine Frau und . . .’, Robert T. Gravelin, 23rd Combat Engineer Battalion, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

p. 248 ‘terriblemess’, NA II 407/427/24232

‘because of the element . . .’, 120th Infantry Regiment, 30th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24037

4th Division in marshland fighting, Major Yarborough, NA II 407/427/6431

p. 249 ‘The Germans are staying . . .’, General Barton, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/6431

‘in comparing the average American . . .’, NA II 407/427/24242

‘have no regard . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 24242

‘What do you want to do in Europe?’ TNA WO 171/337

‘Captivity is . . .’, Obergefreiter Hans S., 17 July, 9.Kp./Gren.Rgt.1058, 91.(LL.) Inf.Div., BfZ-SS

p. 250 ‘Colonel, that was . . .’, 22nd Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/ 6431

‘Company G had . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 6431

p. 251 Panzer Lehr losses against British, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, FMS A-903

‘was not in a position . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, ETHINT 66

‘Because of its exhausted condition . . .’, Geyr von Schweppenburg, FMS B-466

p. 252 Panzer Lehr losses in American sector, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, ETHINT 66

Panzer Lehr offensive, NA II 407/427/ 24232; and Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, ETHINT 67

schmutziger Buschkrieg’, Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, p. 176

‘the only good Jerry soldiers . . .’, E Company, 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, Folder Huch, William, DDEL

p. 253 ‘Keep moving . . .’, FUSAG ‘Battle Experiences’, NA II 407/427/24148

three times as many wounds, 9th Medical Battalion, NA II 407/427/7545 p. 254 ‘The sniper menace . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24170

‘moles in the ground’, NA II 407/427/ 24242

German rapid counter-attacks, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

p. 256 Generalleutnant Richard Schimpf, 3rd Paratroop Division, FMS B-541

p. 257 rhino tanks, Lieutenant John M. Wilder, ADC to General Hickey, 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘I talked to enough men . . .’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, p. 105

‘Our younger men...’, Lieutenant Samuel E. Belk III, 320th Infantry, 35th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 258 ‘Practically all of the replacements . . .’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24021

‘Just before they . . .’, Paul Fussell, The Boys’ Crusade, New York, 2003, p. 108

p. 259 ‘a high probability . . .’, ibid., p. 110

‘Riflemen must leave...’, FUSAG ‘Battle Experiences’, NA II 407/427/24148

‘To get down fast . . .’, Robert B. Bradley, 120th Infantry Regiment, 30th Infantry Division, MdC TE 366

p. 260 ‘a sphygmomanometer . . .’, 29th Infantry Division, Combat Exhaustion Survey, June-August,NAII 407/427/24035/84 p. 262 ‘Krammer, a capable . . .’ and ‘a nice Heimatschuss’, Obergefreiter Hans S. 15.7.44, 9.Kp./Gren.Rgt.1058 91.(LL.)Inf.Div. 13 273 B, BfZ-SS

‘apparently few . . .’, L. B. Kalinowsky, American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 107, 1950; and TNA WO 177/316

17

CAEN AND THE HILL OF CALVARY

p. 263 ‘Ike is considerably less . . .’, Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, London, 1946, p. 512

Carlo D’Este, Decision in Normandy, New York, 1983, pp. 268-9

p. 265 ‘a twenty-five centimeter . . .’, Erich Wohlgemut, quoted Hubert Meyer, The 12th SS, Vol. I, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2005, p. 463

1st SS Panzergrenadier-Regiment, Kriegstagebuch Panzer Group West/Fifth Panzer Army, BA-MA MSg 2/4831

p. 266 ‘wounded as well as dead’ and ‘No prisoners are taken . . .’, Alexander McKee, Caen: Anvil of Victory, London, 1965, pp. 199 and 197

Canadians and 43rd Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24200

‘Please do not hesitate . . .’, 25 June, PDDE, p. 1949

‘in maximum volume’, 25 June, ibid., p. 1952

p. 267 ‘There was high cloud . . .’, Lieutenant T. T. Ritson, RHA, diary

‘We could see . . .’, William Helm, ‘The Normandy Field Diary of a Junior Medical Officer in 210 Field Ambulance’, 177th Brigade, 59th Infantry Division

‘a magnificent spectacle’, W. Kingsley, IWM P424

‘I sat smoking a cigarette . . .’, Major Peter Griffin, 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion, letter 8 July, NAC/ANC R5067-0-0-E

‘The awful thing was . . .’, Captain Michael Bendix, Coldstream Guards, SWWEC 2000-356

‘The sight was frightening . . .’, Robert Thornburrow, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, 43rd Wessex Division, MdC TE 120 p. 268 ‘Imagine a rat . . .’, MdC TE 149

‘We had the impression . . .’, MdC TE 145

‘Monsieur le Curé . . .’, MdC TE 149

‘a grandiose procession . . .’, MdC TE 145 p. 269 6,000 casualties, Robert Thornburrow, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, 43rd Wessex Division, MdC TE120

350 deaths, CRHQ

Lieutenant Colonel Kraminov, MdC TE 246

bombing of Caen, ‘Observations on Bomber Command Attack on Caen, 7 July 1944’, TNA AIR 37/1255, quoted in D’Este, p. 315

p. 270 ‘a heap of ruins . . .’, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

French squadrons, logbook of Roger Piroutet, MdC TE 262

‘There were all sorts of casualties . . .’, Rev. Jim Wisewell, 223 Field Ambulance, SWWEC T1141

p. 271 ‘a group of terrified . . .’, William Helm, ‘The Normandy Field Diary of a Junior Medical Officer in 210 Field Ambulance’, 177th Brigade, 59th Infantry Division

‘The Germans are leaving!’, André Heintz diary, MdC TE 32 (1-4)

p. 272 ‘Where is the River Orne?’, Max Maurin, MdC TE 77 (2)

Les Petites Soeurs des Pauvres, Mme Laberthe, MdC TE 74

‘At last . . .’, Major L. J. Massey, civil affairs team, MdC TE 167

Canadian captain and restaurant, Mme Lucie Corbasson, MdC TE 49

p. 273 ‘Most of the women . . .’, Sapper Douglas Waite, Royal Engineers, MdC TE 182

10 July parade, Place Saint-Martin, Henriette Guibé, MdC TE 237

p. 274 ‘Kalvarienberg’, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/ 4832

‘a small, fiery . . .’, Michael Carver, Out of Step, London, 1989, p. 193

Sergeant W. Partridge, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, SWWEC 2006.419

p. 275 Maltot, Schwere Panzer-Abteilung 502, BA-MA MSg 2/4832

‘He had been hit . . .’, Corporal Jones, quoted in McKee, p. 230

p. 276 ‘slit trenches scraped . . .’, Corporal D. Proctor, ‘Section Commander’, DWS

‘Not a metre . . .’, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/4832

einer Milchsuppe’, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/4832

‘They’re brave . . .’, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/ 4832

‘We had a scene . . .’, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/ 4832

Schlüsselstellung’,HubertMeyer,BA-MA MSg 2/4832

p. 277 ‘infiltrate the enemy position . . .’, Sergeant W. Partridge, SWWEC 2006.419

‘Struggling in desperation . . .’, Corporal D. Proctor, ‘Section Commander’, DWS

‘anguished cries . . .’, Sergeant Partridge, SWWEC 2006.419

‘A single well-aimed . . .’, Corporal D. Proctor, ‘Section Commander’, DWS

p. 278 ‘moon landscape’, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/ 4832

‘Mademoiselle Jeanette’, Ludwig Horlebein, 9th SS Panzer-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/4832

civilians in the caves of Fleury, MdC TE 149

cholera and dogs, Major L. J. Massey, MdC TE 167

‘Regret to report . . .’, TNA CAB 106/ 1092, quoted in D’Este, p. 274

p. 279 ‘not to criticise . . .’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T2150

6th Duke of Wellington’s Regiment, 49th Division, TNA WO 205/5G, quoted in D’Este, p. 282

‘during the 54 hours . . .’, 21st Light Field Ambulance, 13 July, LHCMA O’Connor 5/ 3/18

p. 280 15th Scottish Division, 22 July, LHCMA O’Connor 5/4/14

desertions in 50th Division, Stephen A. Hart, Montgomery and ‘Colossal Cracks’, Westport, Conn., 2000, p. 31

‘The Corps psychiatrist . . .’, 21 July, LHCMA O’Connor 5/3/18

‘most serious offence...’, 21 July, LHCMA O’Connor 5/3/18

p. 281 ‘Two of them during . . .’, 129th Infantry Brigade Headquarters, Robert Thornburrow, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, 43rd Wessex Division, MdC TE120

‘ignorance, stupefying, brutalizing ignorance . . .’, VernonScannell, Argument of Kings, London, 1987, p. 152

‘Gentlemen, your life expectancy . . .’, Sydney Jary, 18 Platoon, Bristol, 1998

18

THE FINAL BATTLE FOR SAINT-LÔ

p. 282 ‘awfully restless’, diary, 4 June, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 462

‘It is Hell . . .’, ibid., p. 464

‘an office seeker . . .’, ibid., pp. 468- 9

p. 283 ‘I cannot follow the reasoning . . .’, Generalleutnant Richard Schimpf, 3rd Paratroop Division, FMS B-541 and FMS B-020

‘one or two armored . . .’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 470

p. 284 ‘After lunch . . .’, ibid., p. 479

p. 286 I saw U.S. troops . . .’, 2nd Lieutenant Morton Kligerman, Graves Registration, 320th Infantry, 35th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘to relieve the body . . .’, John Capell, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘sickening stench’ and ‘As gruesome . . .’, Sergeant Charles D. Butte, 603rd Quartermaster, Graves Registration Company, VII Corps, First US Army, NWWIIM-EC p. 287 ‘Three enemy paratroopers . . .’, NA II 407/427/24232

p. 288 ‘Mind your Goddam business . . .’, Max Feldman, 2nd Infantry Division, NWWIIM-EC

‘scattered opposition’, 2nd Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24232

p. 289 ‘This second transfer . . .’, Generalleutnant Freiherr von Lüttwitz, 2nd Panzer-Division, FMS B-257

‘in a poor state . . .’ and ‘a giant, brutal man’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, ETHINT 66

p. 290 ‘more like jungle fighting’, NA II 407/427/24206

358th Infantry, Lieutenant George W.Godfrey, 90thDivision,NA II 407/427/24240 p. 291 ‘The population has to evacuate . . .’, Obergefreiter Hans S., 17 July, 9.Kp./ Gren.Rgt.1058, 91.(LL.)Inf.Div., BfZ-SS

German artillery observation officer dressed as a priest, Lieutenant James J. Williams, 47th Infantry, 9th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘The men said they held . . .’, Lieutenant James J. Williams, 47th Infantry, 9th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

p. 292 ‘poker and mint juleps . . .’, diary of Captain Thomas P. Jacobs, MD, 45th Armored Medical Battalion, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

‘Sunday punch’, NA II 407/427/24232

‘a tall Britisher . . .’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2001, p. 130

‘two preachers . . .’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 481

p. 293 Artillery airbursts, 331st Infantry, 83rd Division, NA II 407/427/24203

‘I remember one poignant . . .’, James H. Watts, Chemical Battalion, NWWIIM-EC

‘Then, he shot . . .’, Captain Elmer G. Koehler, Battalion surgeon, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/ 24242

‘I saw medical aid men . . .’, Captain William Pola, Medical Detachment, 66th Armored Regiment, 2nd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 294 ‘I got so I can tell . . .’, Captain William L. Johnston, 100th Evacuation Hospital, NA II 407/427/24240

‘It’s such a paradox . . .’, George Silverton, Chief of X Ray Department, 2nd Evacuation Hospital, MdC TE 710

‘blooded’, diary of Captain Thomas P. Jacobs, MD, 45th Armored Medical Battalion, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS p. 295 K-Rations, WWII VS

‘I find it a bit hard . . .’, diary of Captain Jack H. Welch, 54th Armored Medical, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

sergeant in 1st Infantry Division, Sergeant Leroy N. Stewart, 26th Infantry Regiment, WWII VS

‘French kids . . .’, Vernon W. Tart, 618th Ordinance Ammunition Company, NWWIIM-EC

p. 296 ‘I know we lack . . .’, J. Le Gal, ‘Un Gendarme à Caumont l’Eventé’, MdC TE 398

30th Division casualties, NA II 407/427/ 24232 p. 297 ‘I remember going up . . .’, Bradley Holbrook, NWWIIM-EC

p. 298 ‘Fix bayonets! Twenty-nine, let’s go!’, NA II 407/427/24232

p. 300 ‘like a sled’ and ‘known simply as “Chief”’, NA II 407/427/24232 p. 302 29th Division, night of 15 July, NA II 407/427/24232

Interview Colonel Godwin Ordway Jr, Commanding Officer, 115th Infantry, 20 July, NA II 407/427/24034 p. 303 ‘Cota was hit...’, Lieutenant Edward G. Jones, Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop, 29th Infantry Division, WWII VS

25th Cavalry Squadron, Lieutenant Edward G. Jones, Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop, 29th Infantry Division, WWII VS

p. 304 ‘the magnificent American troops . . .’, Montgomery tribute, NA II 407/427/24232

19

OPERATION GOODWOOD

p. 306 ‘I am viewing the prospects . . .’, 14 July, PDDE, p. 2004

‘I came upon a line . . .’, Brigadier M. J. P. O’Cock, 2nd Battalion Irish Guards, SWWEC 2003.2287

p. 307 ‘alternate thrusts’, Stephen A. Hart, Montgomery and ‘Colossal Cracks’, Westport, Conn., 2000, p. 103

Crocodile tanks, Kriegstagebuch Panzer Group West/Fifth Panzer Army, BA-MA MSg 2/4831

‘There is a nice cool breeze . . .’, Captain S. Beck, MdC TE 570

9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, General Sylvester Stadler, FMS B-470

‘the whole length . . .’, Eberhard Beck, 277th Artillerie-Regiment, 277th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/3242

p. 309 277th Infanterie-Division, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86

‘decisive for the course of the war . . .’, XL 2287, quoted in Ralph Bennett, Ultra in the West, New York: 1979, p. 106

‘out of the question’, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86 ‘The units will fight . . .’, Kurt Meyer,

Grenadiers, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2005, p. 270

p. 310 Frenchwoman at Sainte-Foy-de-Montgommery, Simone Grieux-Isabelle, MdC TE 419

‘that the Panzer Group . . .’, Kriegstagebuch Panzer Group West/Fifth Panzer Army, BA-MA MSg 2/4831

p. 311 Operations Goodwood and Atlantic, NA II 407/427/24200

‘pre-recorded wireless traffic’, A. D. E. Curtis, R Force, SWWEC 2000.384

‘We’ll be moving into top gear!’, N. F. Burrell, 1/7th Queens, 131st Infantry Brigade, 7th Armoured Division, SWWEC LEEWW 2004.2680

‘We are undoubtedly . . .’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T2150

p. 313 ‘a bit of mistletoe . . .’, quoted in Laurence Whistler, The Laughter and the Urn: The Life of Rex Whistler, London, 1985, p. 287

Tedder and Coningham on Goodwood, Air Publication 3235, Air Ministry, 1955, p. 151, AHB

p. 314 RAF report on Goodwood bombing, Air Support, Air Publication 3235, Air Ministry, 1955, AHB

p. 315 ‘like cars crawling . . .’, Whistler, p. 289

p. 316 ‘Prisoners are streaming in . . .’, Major Peter Griffin, 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion, NAC/ANC R5067-0-0-E

‘a breakthrough appeared unavoidable’, Eberbach, Panzer Group West, FMS B-840

‘completely overrun’ and ‘Some tanks had received direct hits . . .’, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86

‘At 10.00 hours . . .’, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

‘Suddenly a Sherman . . .’, W. H. Close, 3rd Royal Tank Regiment, SWWEC 2002.1713

p. 317 ‘What happened was incomprehensible . . .’, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

p. 318 ‘death ride’, Alexander McKee, Caen: Anvil of Victory, London, 1965, p. 263

five Tiger tanks and eight Mark IVs, Generalleutnant Edgar Feuchtinger, FMS B-441

‘no more reserves’, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86; and Kriegstagebuch Panzer Group West, BA-MA MSg 2/4831

1st SS Panzer-Division at Ifs-Bras, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86 p. 319 ‘Operations this morning . . .’, quoted in L. F. Ellis, Victory in the West, London, 1962, Vol. I, pp. 344-5

‘like children’, Brigadier E. T. Williams, G-2, 21st Army Group, OCMH-FPP

‘We were fighting . . .’, Eberbach, Panzer Group West, FMS B-840

p. 320 ‘The enemy needed only . . .’, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

Hitler Jugend tank losses to fighter-bombers, Tagesmeldungen, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86

‘the British continued to stay immobile . . .’, Eberbach, Panzer Group West, FMS B-840

‘found him in grand form . . .’, 19 July, Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries 1939-1945, London, 2001, p. 571

p. 321 ‘Russian style’ breakthrough and press conferences, Lieutenant Colonel Kraminov, MdC TE 246

‘a field strewn . . .’, N. F. Burrell, 1/7th Queens, SWWEC LEEWW 2004.2680

p. 322 ‘There comes a time . . .’, Bill Close, A View from the Turret, Tewkesbury, 1998, p. 130

‘Either it was just gross . . .’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T2150

‘It rained and there were mosquitoes . . .’, Rev. Jim Wisewell, 223rd Field Ambulance, 3rd Infantry Division, SWWEC T1141

British and Canadian losses in Normandy, TNA WO 171/139

p. 323 army complaints about the lack of bombs on Bourguébus ridge, Air Support, Air Publication 3235, Air Ministry, 1955, p. 158, AHB

‘General Montgomery was reminded . . .’, Royal Air Force Narrative, Vol. III, p. 81, AHB; and 2nd TAF Operations Report by Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham, TNA AIR 20/1593

‘a national decline in boldness and initiative’, LHCMA Liddell Hart 11/ 1944/45

p. 324 ‘But once the needle . . .’, Brigadier Sir Ian Fraser, MdC TE 160

‘One boy of about sixteen . . .’, John Colville, The Fringes of Power, London, 1985, p. 474

20

THE PLOT AGAINST HITLER

p. 326 ‘inflexible mission of defending . . .’, Generalleutnant Hans Speidel, FMS B-721

‘The Führer must be killed . . .’, TNA WO 208/4363

‘and above all about . . .’, Hans Speidel, We Defended Normandy, London, 1951, p. 132

‘a hardline anti-semite’, Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich at War, London, 2008,p. 379

‘measures to be taken immediately . . .’, Generalleutnant Hans Speidel, FMS B-721 p. 327 ‘oasis’ for the Resistance, Wilhelm Ritter von Schramm, BA-MA MSg 2/247

for an excellent analysis of the Allies and the German opposition to Hitler, see Michael Howard, Liberation or Catastrophe?, London, 2007, pp. 80-93

p. 329 move of Führer headquarters on 14 July to Wolfsschanze, General Warlimont, ETHINT 5

I must request you . . .’, Generalleutnant Hans Speidel, FMS B-721

‘We are experiencing the overwhelming . . .’, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/1079

p. 330 ‘The longer Hitler . . .’, 21st Army Group Intelligence Summary, 23 April 1944, TNA WO 205/532 (2)

‘The Chiefs of Staff . . .’, Ismay to Churchill, 21 June, TNA HS 6/623

Operation Foxley, TNA HS 6/624, and Mark Seaman (ed.), Operation Foxley, Kew, 1998

Churchill’s views on Hitler and unconditional surrender, TNA HS 6/625; and Churchill’s speech in House of Commons 2 August 1944

p. 331 ‘Since the generals have . . .’, quoted in Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1936- 1945, Nemesis, London, 2000, p. 656

p. 332 ‘strikingly large briefcase’, General Warlimont, ETHINT 5

British fuses used in bomb, M. R. D., Foot, SOE in France, London, 1966, p. 331 n5

p. 333 ‘over a million foreign workers . . .’, Otto Remer, Commander Guard Regiment Grossdeutschland, ETHINT 63

p. 334 ‘Gestapo riot’, Blumentritt, FMS B-284

‘executive powers had been passed . . .’, Otto Remer, Commander Guard Regiment Grossdeutschland, ETHINT 63

‘What do you know about the situation?’, Otto Remer, Commander Guard Regiment Grossdeutschland, ETHINT 63

p. 335 ‘The Führer is dead . . .’, quoted in Ralph Bennett, Ultra in the West, New York, 1979, p. 110

‘Today at midday . . .’, 20.40 hours, 20 July, Tagesmeldungen, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86

p. 336 ‘Unterweltsmarschall’, Blumentritt, FMS B-284

Dietrich and Himmler, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/1079

‘almost turned revolutionary’, Eberbach, TNA WO 208/4363, quoted in Sönke Neitzel (ed.), Tapping Hitler’s Generals, St Paul, Mn, 2007, p. 101

‘In my opinion . . .’, TNA WO 208/4363 p. 337 ‘Long live holy Germany!’, quoted in Kershaw, p. 683

Kluge’s order to arrest Stülpnagel, BA-MA RH19 ix/86

‘the Military Commander . . .’, BA-MA RH19 ix/86

‘came like a bomb-shell’, Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann, OB West, FMS B-308

‘it spread like wild-fire . . .’, Hans Höller, 21st Panzer-Division, MdC TE 98

‘the front kept on fighting . . .’, Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann, OB West, FMS B-308

‘indignation and anger’, Eberbach, 23 December tape, TNA WO 208/4364

‘Our signaller heard . . .’, Eberhard Beck, 277th Artillerie Regiment, 277th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/3242

p. 338 ‘feeling of moral oppression . . .’, Generalleutnant Bodo Zimmermann, OB West, FMS B-308

‘might well be the proverbial . . .’, Duff Hart-Davis (ed.), King’s Counsellor, London, 2006, p. 245

‘Explanation of Continued German Resistance’, 8 September 1944, LHCMA Alanbrooke 6/1/5

p. 339 ‘an idiotic idea’, Wilhelm Ritter von Schramm, BA-MA MSg 2/247

‘falsification of the enemy situation’, Hubert Meyer, The 12th SS, Vol. I, Mechanicsburg Pa., 2005, p. 36

‘daily reports which even . . .’, General Bülowius, II Flieger Corps, FMS B-620

p. 340 ‘had a really good relationship . . .’, Günter Peuckert, 272th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/5424

malgré-nous’, Nicolas Fank, 116th Panzer-Division, MdC TE 531

‘No, no. I play no tricks . . .’, Aitken, Medical Officer, 24th Lancers, WLHUM RAMC 1668

p. 341 ‘If somebody betrays . . .’, 1944, BA-MA RH 21-5/50, quoted in Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg? , Munich, 2007, p. 439

US Army report on German prisoners in Normandy, NA II 407/427/24242

Kameradenerziehung’, Eugène Finance, MdC TE 331

21

OPERATION COBRA - BREAKTHROUGH

p. 342 German radio intercepts, Oberstleutnant Ziegelmann, 352nd Infanterie-Division, FMS B-455

‘One unit surrendered . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24242

‘a battalion of the 90th . . .’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940- 1945, New York, 1974, p. 486

p. 343 ‘War is about 90% waiting . . .’, diary of Captain Jack H. Welch, 54th Armored Medical, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

p. 345 ‘The observers hung around . . .’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/6431

‘the peculiar rustling in the sky’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/6431

bombing casualties on 24 July, NA II 407/ 427/24245

‘The flamboyant, red-headed...’, Colonel Kraminov, MdC TE 246

‘stiffened perceptibly’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2001, pp. 167-8

p. 346 Soviet complaint about reports of former Red Army soldiers fighting for the Germans, see Eisenhower letters 26 and 27 July, PDDE, pp. 2031 and 2032

‘Fourteenth US Army’, TNA HW 40/6

accident with bayonets, Robert B. Bradley, 120th Infantry Regiment, 30th Infantry Division, MdC TE 366

p. 347 ‘the faces of the dead . . .’, Robert B. Bradley, MdC TE 366

‘Many of them only . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 24245

‘all men and officers who were under the bombing . . .’, NA II 407/427/6431

p. 348 Kluge and Operation Spring, Oberstgruppenführer Paul Hausser, Seventh Army, ETHINT 48

‘The whole place . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

transfer of German panzer divisions to American sector, Omar Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, New York, 1951, p. 341

‘the drawing off of German panzers . . .’, Colonel Thomas Bigland, liaison officer with First US Army, then 12th Army Group, SWWEC 99-10

Panzer Lehr losses, ETHINT 66, then FMS A-903

p. 349 ‘many of . . .’, diary of Captain Jack H. Welch, 54th Armored Medical, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

‘At the end of this great bombing . . .’, NA II 407/427/24242

‘The rest huddled in a corner . . .’, Lieutenant Clyde Eddinger, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24021

‘The resultfor the firstday . . .’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24021

p. 350 ‘The effectiveness of the bombardment . . .’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/6431

‘quite a collection . . .’, Lieutenant Donald Dickinson, Company B, 22nd Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24021

p. 351 ‘a lot of looting’, Lieutenant John B. Derden, 66th Armored Regiment, WWII VS

‘The number of kill-lusty people . . .’, Captain Jim R. Burt, 66th Armored Regiment, 2nd Armored Division, WWII VS

‘Private De Castro . . .,’ E Company, 22nd Infantry, NA II 407/427/24021

p. 352 Montreuil-sur-Lozon, Brigadier General Doyle O. Hickey, Combat Command A, 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/ 427/24088

‘overhead like hawks...’, General Schmidt, 275th Infanterie-Division, FMS A-973

‘friendly tanks’ and ‘an old soldier . . .’, NA II 407/427/6431

‘We were riding along . . .’, Lieutenant George O. Grant, 69th Tank Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24241

p. 353 ‘good clothes’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 489

‘I tell you one thing, Sani . . .’, SanUffz Walter Klein, Kampfgruppe Heintz, FMS A-910

p. 354 Browning and air drop on Avranches, Wing Commander Scarman, Tedder’s aide, OCMH-FPP

‘Felt much happier over the war . . .’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 490

‘Because of heavy losses . . .’, TNA DEFE 3/ 63

‘a rather confused situation’, General der Panzertruppen Freiherr von Lüttwitz, 2nd Panzer-Division, FMS A-903

‘the din of shell-fire . . .’, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

p. 355 ‘from staff to staff . . .’, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

p. 356 ‘just rushed on through’, Lieutenant George O. Grant, 69th Tank Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24241

Collins’s criticism of 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24235

p. 357 6th Armored Division on 28 July, 69th Tank Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘no forces fit for battle’ and ‘neither light nor medium . . .’, 28 July, TNA DEFE 3/ 63

‘used to fire point-blank . . .’, VII Corps, NA II 407/427/24235

‘For five days . . .’, SanUffz Walter Klein, Kampfgruppe Heintz, FMS A-910

‘when other elements . . .’, Lieutenant James J. Williams, 47th Infantry, 9th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

tension between SS and paratroops, Oberstleutnant Friedrich Freiherr von der Heydte, 6th Paratroop Regiment, FMS B-839

p. 358 the sacking of Generalmajor Pemsel, Generalmajor Freiherr von Gersdorff, Chief of Staff Seventh Army, FMS A-894

p. 359 ‘on the road all night’ and ‘that they did it . . .’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/6431

‘a knocked out enemy vehicle standing . . .’, NA II 407/427/24021

‘only one-way traffic . . .’, Major William A. Castille, Combat Command B, 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24088

‘Hell, with in a couple of days . . .’, William M. King, 44th Armored Infantry Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/ 24241

‘they crapped in them and cooked in them’, Captain Thomas P. Jacobs, MD, 45th Armored Medical Battalion, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

2nd Panzer-Division on 29 July, General der Panzertruppen Freiherr von Lüttwitz, FMS A-903

p. 360 Captain Reid and Private Sharkey, 22nd Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24021

p. 361 Moyon engagement, Combat Command Rose, NA II 407/427/24021

82nd Reconnaissance Battalion, Major Willis T. Smith, 67th Armored Regiment, 2nd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/ 24242

p. 362 ‘by single rifle shots . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel Briard P. Johnson, Executive Officer of Combat Command B, 2nd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24082

Sergeant Bishop and ‘Action during the fight . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel Harry Hilliard, 3rd Battalion, 67th Armored Regiment, NA II 407/427/24082

‘their vehicles down the hill . . .’, NA II 407/427/24082

‘Even the use . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel Marshall L. Crowley, 41st Armored Infantry Regiment, 2nd Armored Division, 22 September, NA II 407/427/24082

p. 363 ‘The mortars set the vehicles . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel John D. Wynne, 2nd Battalion, 67th Armored Regiment, NA II 407/427/24082

‘Then the organized slaughter . . .’, Captain James R. McCartney, 67th Armored Regiment, 2nd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24082

‘as day light broke . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel John D. Wynne, 2nd Battalion, 67th Armored Regiment, NA II 407/427/24082

Death of Generalleutnant Kraiss, Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg? , Munich, 2007, p. 548

p. 364 ‘The whole area . . .’ and ‘prisoners were coming . . .’, NA II 407/427/24082

‘German equipment, abandoned...’, General Doyle O. Hickey, Combat Command A, 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/ 427/24088

‘Carnage gruesome . . .’, diary of Captain Thomas P. Jacobs, MD, 45th Armored Medical Battalion, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

Generalmajor Freiherr von Gersdorff, Chief of Staff Seventh Army, FMS A-894

demolitions and looting in Granville, Commissariat de Police de Granville, AdM 1370 W 1

p. 365 ‘urgent orders to prevent . . .’, General Warlimont, ETHINT 1

‘Pour it to them!’, Lieutenant Sancken, 4th Reconnaissance Troop, NA II 407/427/ 6431

‘The thing to do . . .’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 491

22

OPERATION COBRA - BREAKOUT

p. 366 ‘I have ordered Dempsey . . .’, quoted in Carlo D’Este, Decision in Normandy , New York, 1983, p. 422

‘grinds to a halt . . .’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T2150

‘Monty is determined to make us . . .’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T2150

p. 367 ‘The crews were shaken . . .’, Ian Daglish, ‘Operation Bluecoat’, in John Buckley (ed.), The Normandy Campaign 1944, London, 2006, p. 95

p. 369 326th Infanterie-Division, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

21st Panzer-Division, FMS B-631

3rd Scots Guards, Major Charles Farrell, SWWEC 2001.960

‘wearing only a vest . . .’, Alexander McKee, Caen, London, 1965, p. 308 p. 370 Coastal battery at Granville and Aulock Kampfgruppe, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86

‘unforgettable sight . . .’, Gefreiter Spiekerkötter, 2nd Pionier Kompanie, 256th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/5526

p. 371 ‘The situation is extraordinarily . . .’, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86

‘a most forceful order . . .’, Telephone Journal, Seventh Army, NA II 407/427/ 6431

Kluge to Eberbach, Eberbach, BA-MA MSg 1/106

‘under all circumstances . . .’, BA-MA RH 19 ix/86

p. 372 ‘Do not stop . . .’ and ‘facetiously suggested . . .’, General Doyle O. Hickey, Combat Command A, 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24088

p. 373 action in Brécey, Captain Carlton Parish Russell, 36th Armored Infantry Regiment, 3rd Armored Division, WWII VS

‘more dangerous than . . .’, Daily Operations, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/6431

‘a very jolly . . .’, Charles Whiting, Papa Goes to War, Marlborough, 1990, p. 66

p. 374 ‘take the first picture . . .’, Robert Capa, Slightly out of Focus, New York, 1947, p. 168

looting and lynch mob in Granville, Commissariat de Police de Granville, AdM 1370 W 1

Ah, Monsieur . . .’, anon., MdC TE 388

‘Our boys got their souvenirs . . .’, Lieutenant D. S. Woodward, 69th Tank Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/ 427/24241

p. 375 Resistance attack in the Landes, LCMHA Misc 24

armoured train derailed Souillac, TNA DEFE 3/62

‘throughout history . . .’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 493

‘As many troops as possible . . .’, XV Corps, NA II 407/427/24203

p. 376 ‘Gentlemen, this breakthrough . . .’, Wilhelm Ritter von Schramm, BA-MA MSg 2/247

‘The enemy is not under any circumstances . . .’, Hans Speidel, We Defended Normandy, London, 1951, p. 138

‘round the corner into Brittany’, NA II 407/427/6431

p. 377 ‘One of our trucks . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel Teague, 22nd Infantry, NA II 407/ 427/24021

VIII Corps and First Army prisoners, Martin Blumenson, The Duel for France, New York, 2000, pp. 143-4 and 150

prisoners of 8th Division, Captain Graham V. Chamblee, 13th Infantry, 8th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘We passed columns . . .’, 29th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24034

rumours of German withdrawal to the Seine, Oberstleutnant Friedrich Freiherr von der Heydte, 6th Paratroop Regiment, FMS B-839

‘As we came over the crest . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel Johnson and Captain Wright, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24203

p. 378 ‘in a state of jitters’, Captain Wright, NA II 407/427/24203

Captain Ware’s account, NA II 407/427/ 24203

p. 379 ‘The small number of Germans . . .’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/ 6431

‘had a shattering effect . . .’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, ETHINT 66

23

BRITTANY AND OPERATION BLUECOAT

p. 381 ‘a written declaration . . .’, SHD-DAT 13 P 33

‘intensify general guerrilla activity . . .’, SHD-DAT 13 P 33

‘a second General Patton . . .’, Lieutenant Harold H. Goodman, 13th Infantry, 8th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘a brawny, jovial type’, Martin Blumenson, The Duel for France, New York, 2000, p. 166 p. 382 French Resistance in Rennes, 2nd Lieutenant Edward W. Overman, 90th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

relief of prisoners of war, Lieutenant Harold H. Goodman, 8th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘One paratrooper ...’, Captain Joseph Gray, 13th Infantry, 8th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

p. 383 ‘What in hell . . .’,Blumenson, p. 176

‘General Patton’s Household Cavalry’, Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Goodwin, 6th Cavalry Group, NA II 407/427/24242

‘every night from ...’, Captain John C. Donley, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/ 427/24241

p. 384 ‘The first thing we did ...’, Lieutenant D. S. Woodward, 69th Tank Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/ 24241

‘pony express’, William M. King, 44th Armored Infantry Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24241

replacements in Brittany, Captain John C. Donley, 44th Armored Infantry Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/ 24241

‘better than expected ...’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 541

‘They aided in loading ...’, William M. King, 44th Armored Infantry Battalion, 6th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘with the help of terrorists’, 6 August, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

Terroristenführer’, 6 August, Ob. West Tagesmeldungen, BA-MA RH 19 iv/45

‘battles with terrorists ...’, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

massacres in Finisterre, Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, pp. 576 and 579

Eon and Passy, SHD-DAT 13 P 33 p. 385 Ramcke in Brest, see Lieb, pp. 483-4

‘to get a Hermann Goering . . .’, Lieutenant Harold H. Goodman, 8th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘courteously got rid of ...’, Lieutenant Harold H. Goodman, 8th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘It was entirely wiped out!’, TNA WO 208/4364

‘The townspeople were so nice ...’ and ‘We had a hair-cutting party . . .’, Lieutenant Harold H. Goodman, 8th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

p. 386 ‘I would not say this ...’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 532

p. 387 Leclerc’s attitude to British, Christian Girard, Journal de Guerre, Paris, 2000, p. 80

‘Even for us Gaullists ...’, Marc de Possesse, MdC TE 361

‘a uniform different ...’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2001, p. 178

p. 388 2ème DB landing on Utah beach, Marc de Possesse, MdC TE 361

French villagers marking mines, Alexander McKee, Caen, London, 1965, p. 315

‘Over in the next field . . .’, Sergeant Kite, 3rd Royal Tank Regiment, BA-MA MSg 2/ 4837

p. 389 reinforcement of Vire, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

‘The woods seemed to cast ...’, Colonel Tom Gilliam, B Company, 2nd Infantry, 5th Infantry Division, MdC TE 124

‘We’ll defend your town ...’, quoted in Blumenson, p. 215

p. 390 ‘Everyone very depressed ...’, Myles Hildyard diary, 3 August, and letter, 5 August

‘the wretched wounded ...’, Captain Michael Bendix, Coldstream Guards, SWWEC 2000-356

‘I could not help thinking ...’, Rev. A. R. C. Leaney, IWM PP/MCR/206

‘In the small fields of Normandy ...’, quoted in Eversley Belfield and H. Essame, The Battle for Normandy, London, 1975, p. 206

p. 391 ‘To be the leading tank . . .’, Stanley Christopherson diary

p. 392 ‘because they slip on ...’, Captain M. G. T. Webster, 2nd Battalion Grenadier Guards, IWM P 182

‘in the recesses of a LST’, John Colville, The Fringes of Power, London, 1985, p. 500

‘The tank commander would . . .’, Captain Michael Bendix, Coldstream Guards, SWWEC 2000-356

‘a little German stretcher-bearer ...’,Rev. A. R. C. Leaney, attached to 4th Dorsets, 43rd Wessex Division, IWM PP/MCR/206 p. 393 ‘Many of them probably ...’, XXX Corps, TNA WO 171/342

‘Apart from the church spire ...’, Major Julius Neave diary, SWWEC T2150

‘You really had to disassociate . . .’, Major Robert Kiln, 86th Field Artillery, SWWEC 99-63

‘an imbroglio of steel’, André Heintz diary, MdC TE 32 (1-4)

severed hand, Robert Thornburrow, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, 43rd Wessex Division, MdC TE120

p. 394 ‘a little foal walking ...’, William Helm, ‘The Normandy Field Diary of a Junior Medical Officer in 210 Field Ambulance’, 177th Brigade, 59th Infantry Division

‘Brigade and battalion commanders ...’, Stanley Christopherson diary

‘Our intention is to capture ...’, Major Julius Neave diary, SWWEC T2150

‘The nearer we got ...’, Corporal D. Proctor, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, DWS

p. 395 ‘It was soon obvious ...’, Sergeant W. Partridge, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, SWWEC 2006.419

p. 396 ‘more men in five weeks ...’, Sergeant W. Partridge, 4th Somerset Light Infantry, SWWEC 2006.419

‘heavy enemy attacks ...’, Heeresgruppe B, 6 August, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

p. 397 German casualty figures to 7 August, Dieter Ose, Entscheidung im Westen 1944, Stuttgart, 1982, p. 266, quoted in Lieb, p. 422

24

THE MORTAIN COUNTER-ATTACK

p. 398 ‘Situation still more acute ...’, TNA DEFE 3/65

discussions Hitler, Jodl and Warlimont, Major Herbert Büchs, Luftwaffe aide to Generaloberst Jodl, ETHINT 36

‘Whenever a line of defence . . .’, General Warlimont, ETHINT 1

p. 399 ‘He belonged to the set ...’, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

‘discouraged’ and ‘he could not hold ...’ General Warlimont, ETHINT 1

‘The division is bad . . .’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 497

p. 400 ‘a fifteen-year-old French boy ...’, NA II 407/427/24242

strengthening of Fougères, Headquarters XV Corps, NA II 407/427/24203

‘Approximately 13,000 trucks ...’, Mark J. Reardon, Victory at Mortain, Lawrence, Kansas, 2002, p. 39

‘withdrawal movements’, 2 August, TNA DEFE 3/65

p. 401 ‘Joe, I already have it’, J. Lawton Collins, Lightning Joe, Novato, CA, 1994, p. 250

‘Some of the troops held themselves well ...’, P. Peschet, MdC TE 215

p. 403 ‘it seemed like an excellent . . .’, NA II 407/427/24037

‘As we arrived there . . .’, Robert B. Bradley, 120th Infantry Regiment, 30th Infantry Division, MdC TE 366

120th Infantry Regiment in Mortain, NA II 407/427/24037

p. 404 ‘were the greatest obstacles ...’, Generalmajor Freiherr Rudolf von Gersdorff, FMS A-918

‘They had been deceived ...’, General Warlimont, ETHINT 1

‘passive resistance ...’, Generalleutnant Graf von Schwerin, ETHINT 17

p. 405 ‘The Führer has ordered ...’, Heeresgruppe B, 6 August, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

Hitler’s opposition to General von Funck, General Warlimont, ETHINT 1

‘virtually impossible’, Heeresgruppe B, 6 August, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

‘little air activity’, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87 p. 406 ‘The war looks practically over’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/6431

‘a beautiful bivouac . . .’, NA II 407/427/ 6431

Ultra intercepts, 6 August, TNA DEFE 3/65

Bradley’s scepticism about Ultra, see Carlo D’Este, Decision in Normandy, New York, 1983, pp. 420-21

‘to stop spreading rumours’, NA II 407/ 427/24037

p. 407 German motorcyclists, Chérencé-le-Roussel, 39th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/24037

‘extraordinarily well’, General der Panzertruppen Freiherr von Lüttwitz, FMS A-903

p. 408 fighting in Saint-Barthélemy, 30th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24037

120th Infantry in Mortain, NA II 407/ 427/24037

p. 409 ‘A loud clang followed ...’, Reardon, p. 100

p. 410 ‘should deal exclusively ...’, 2nd TAF Operations Report by Air Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham, TNA AIR 20/1593

‘This is the moment ...’, John Golley, The Day of the Typhoon, Shrewsbury, 2000, p. 129

pilots in 123 Wing, Desmond Scott, Typhoon Pilot, London, 1982, p. 193

‘roughly a four-per-cent chance ...’, Ian Gooderson, Air Power at the Battlefront, London, 1998, p. 76

p. 411 ‘Diving point ...’, ‘The Rocket Racket’, Air Ministry, AHB

Typhoon operations, 7 August, TNA AIR 25/704

‘Our fighters have been engaged ...’, Telephone Journal, Seventh Army, 7 August, NA II 407/427/6431

p. 412 ‘Alles kaputt!’, Robert B. Bradley, 30th Infantry Division, MdC TE 366

83 Group, Alfred Price, ‘The Rocket-Firing Typhoons in Normandy’, Royal Air Force Air Power Review, Vol. VIII, I, Spring 2005, pp. 78-88

‘As the day developed ...’, 2nd Tactical Air Force Operations Report by Air Marshal Coningham, TNA AIR 20/1593

Operational Research Section reports: Joint Report No. 3, ‘Rocket-firing Typhoons in Close Support of Military Operations’, Operational Research in North-West Europe, TNA WO 291/1331; and No. 2 ORS, 2nd TAF, Report No.1, ‘Investigations of the Operation of TAF Aircraft in the Mortain Area - 7th August 1944’, TNA AIR 37/61

p. 413 ‘Whether you realise it or not’, General der Panzertruppen Geyr von Schweppenburg, ETHINT 13

‘There is nothing...’, Operational Research Section, ‘Investigation of the Operation of TAF Aircraft in the Mortain Area, 7th August 1944’, dated 7 December 1944, AHB

field artillery in support of 30th Infantry Division, Brigadier General James M. Lewis, commanding 30th Division Artillery, NA II 407/427/24037

p. 414 ‘a thorn in the flesh ...’, General der Panzertruppen Walter Krüger, LVIII Panzer Corps, FMS B-445 p. 415 Germans with cognac, Pfc John Cole, 8th Infantry, NA II 407/427/6432

‘It was quite clear ...’, comments on Seventh Army war diary, Generalmajor Rudolf Freiherr von Gersdorff, FMS A-918

p. 416 ‘In formal manner ...’, 30th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

12th Infantry, NA II 407/427/6431

p. 417 SS panzergrenadiers using American equipment, Captain Dunbar Whitman, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/24021

‘For the first time ...’, 4th Infantry Division, NA II 407/427/24021

‘The tank he could see ...’, NA II 407/ 427/6432 and Reardon, p. 256

p. 418 ‘Then he pulled himself to his feet . . .’, 30th Infantry Division, NA II 407/ 427/24038

‘There, under that tank . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24037

p. 419 air drop, Reardon, p. 201

smoke shells, Lieutenant Charles A. Bartz, 230th Field Artillery Battalion, 30th Division, NA II 407/427/24242; and Lieutenant Elmer Rohmiller, 120th Infantry, 30th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

128th Evacuation Hospital, Colonel John N. Snyder, MdC TE 648

p. 420 ‘Under cover of this operation ...’, General der Panzertruppen Walter Krüger, LVIII Panzer Corps, FMS B-445

1st Battalion, 39th Infantry, NA II 407/ 427/24037

Colonel Birks at Abbaye Blanche, NA II 407/427/24037

p. 421 ‘I want Mortain demolished ...’, 30th Division G-3 Journal, 11.05 hours, 11 August, quoted in Reardon, p. 267

‘incredibly weary troops’, NA II 407/427/ 6431

‘the attitude of “silent mutiny” ...’, NA II 407/427/6432

‘Kluge did it deliberately ...’, Wilhelm Ritter von Schramm, BA-MA MSg 2/247

25

OPERATION TOTALIZE

p. 422 Crerar as commander in Italy, see Terry Copp and Bill McAndrew, Battle Exhaustion, Montreal, 1990, pp. 66-8

Montgomery on Crerar and Keller, LCHMA AP/14/27; see also Stephen A. Hart, Montgomery and ‘Colossal Cracks’, Westport, Conn., 2000

p. 423 ‘to avenge the death of our comrades’, quoted in Howard Margolian, Conduct Unbecoming, Toronto, 1998, p. 29

p. 425 ‘Blimey! Square-bashing in tanks’, Ken Tout, Tank!, London, 1985, p. 17

2nd Canadian Infantry Division in Operation Totalize, report by Canadian Military Headquarters, NA II 407/427/24200

7th Norfolks crossing the Orne, Lieutenant Colonel Freeland, 7th Battalion Norfolk Regiment, MdC TE 168

p. 426 ‘The artillery has an awfully easy job ...’, Lieutenant T. T. Ritson, RHA, diary, 6 August

‘A magnificent view of the Orne valley . . .’, William Helm, ‘The Normandy Field Diary of a Junior Medical Officer in 210 Field Ambulance’, 177th Brigade, 59th Infantry Division

‘Here on the British front ...’, Myles Hildyard diary, 11 August

‘During these days ...’, Rev. A. R. C. Leaney, IWM PP/MCR/206

p. 427 ‘What an honour!’, Hubert Meyer, The 12th SS, Vol. II, Mechanicsburg, Pa., 2005, p. 25

‘View Hallo! . . .’, Tout, p. 111

p. 428 destruction of five Tiger tanks, Hauptsturmführer Dr Wolfgang Rabe, quoted in Meyer, pp. 29-30; see also Stephen A. Hart, ‘The Black Day Unrealised’, in John Buckley (ed.), The Normandy Campaign 1944, London, 2006

p. 429 ‘Other aircraft could not . . .’, Major Robert Kiln, Hertfordshire Yeomanry, 86th Field Artillery, SWWEC 99-63

‘The American air force ...’, Aitken Hughes diary, 6 General Hospital, WLHUM RAMC 1771

‘unfortunate support ...’, SHD-DAT 1 K 543 1

‘the Sikorski tourists’, SHD-DAT 1 K 543 1

p. 430 ‘becoming very serious . . .’, Heeresgruppe B, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87 p. 431 Generalleutnant Paul Dannhauser, 271st Infantry Division, FMS B-256

Plessis Grimoult, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T2150 p. 434 intelligence failure over anti-tank defences, Captain A. Potozynski, 10th Polish Mounted Rifles, SWWEC LEEWW 2000.327

Hitler Jugend claim 192 tanks destroyed, 20.55 hours, Chief of Staff Fifth Panzer Army, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

OKW communiqué, BA-MA MSg 2/ 3242

Hitler Jugend prisoners in Operation Totalize, Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, p. 165

p. 433 ‘The forces are so large . . .’, Patton, letter 9 August, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 504

‘appropriate the whole of fuel resupply . . .’, General John C. H. Lee, head of Com Z (Communications Zone), OCMH-FPP

Patton commandeering supply trucks, Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower , London, 1946, p. 550

60,000 gallons a day, Lieutenant Colonel Eugene Orth, 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24088

125,000 gallons to move every 100 yards, Captain Cecil Oppenheim, QM, 3rd Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24240

‘Miss America’, Lieutenant A. W. Loring, 133rd Engineer Combat Command, NA II 407/427/24242

‘This is an opportunity ...’, Omar Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, New York, 1951, p. 372

p. 434 ‘the pay of an entire division’, 2nd Lieutenant A. Dominic Scialla, 735th Tank Battalion, 8 August, NA II 407/427/24242

5th Infantry Division in Angers, Lieutenant Anthony J. Miketinae, 11th Infantry, 5th Division, NA II 407/427/24241

‘The French beat up the collaborators ...’, 2nd Lieutenant Derk van Raalte, 2nd Infantry, 5th Division, NA II 407/427/ 24241

‘lost his nerve’, Oberst Erich Helmdach, Ia Seventh Army, FMS B-822

p. 435 ‘supply troops, maintenance platoons . . .’, Bayerlein, FMS A-901

‘The counterattack against Avranches . . .’, Gersdorff, Chief of Staff Seventh Army, FMS A-921

‘It was inconceivable . . .’,Eberbach, FMS A-922

‘Enemy shellfire began falling ...’, Eberbach, FMS A-922

Feldgendarmerie and roving courts martial, Oberst Erich Helmdach, Ia Seventh Army, FMS B-822

p. 436 Retreat of 1st SS Panzer-Division from Sourdeval, Eugen Finanz, MdC TE 351

‘Calvados still in German hands!’, Gefreiter Spiekerkötter, 2nd Pionier Kompanie, 265th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/ 5526

p. 437 Panthers at 2ème DB headquarters, Service de Santé, 2ème DB, SHD-DAT 11 P 232

‘badly disguised’, Marc de Possesse, 2ème DB, MdC TE 361

p. 438 ‘There was no one to take care of them’, 2nd Lieutenant R. W. Conger, 10th Tank Battalion, 5th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24241

Colonel McHugh, 318th Infantry, 80th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

p. 439 ‘Vive l’Amérique!’, Rev. Père Roger Fouquer, Aumônier Divisionnaire, 2ème DB, MdC TE 825

129 casualties, 8 August, SHD-DAT 11 P 219

Alsatian deserter, MdC TE 351

116th Panzer-Division in Argentan, Generalmajor Gerhard Müller, 116th Panzer-Division, FMS B-162

‘solid cork’, 2nd French Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24205

‘Upon capture . . .’, USAMHI, quoted in Carlo D’Este, Decision in Normandy, New York, 1983, p. 428

‘This corps could easily advance ...’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 508

p. 440 For the effectiveness of anti-tank guns in defence see David Rowland, The Stress of Battle, Norwich, 2006, pp. 106-41

26

THE HAMMER AND ANVIL

p. 441 ‘Very hot - not good ...’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T501

Montgomery and Berlin, Harry C. Butcher, Three Years with Eisenhower, London, 1946, p. 551

p. 442 Tractable bombing attack, Terry Copp, Fields of Fire, Toronto, 2003, p. 229

‘The attack ordered by me . . .’, Eberbach, FMS A-922

p. 443 ‘It is really a great plan ...’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940- 1945, New York, 1974, p. 510

‘Take Orléans at once’, Major General Gilbert Cook, commanding XII Corps, Third Army, NA II 07/427/24241

‘The number of cases ...’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 510

‘A few of the enlisted men ...’, George Silverton, Chief of X Ray Department, 2nd Evacuation Hospital, MdC TE 710

6th Security Regiment captures American war correspondent, Heeresgruppe B, 14 August, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

p. 444 ‘We’d have been happy ...’, Gefreiter Spiekerkötter, 2nd Pionier Kompanie, 256th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/ 5526

‘a slimy paste’, Aitken Hughes diary, WLHUM RAMC 1771

‘more critical by the hour’, Heeresgruppe B, 14 August, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87

‘catastrophic’, Kriegstagebuch Panzer Group West, Fifth Panzer Army, BA-MA MSg 2/4831

‘swine ...’, Marshal of the RAF Lord Portal, OCMH-FPP

p. 445 ‘I cannot pretend ...’, No. 742, Prime Minister to President, 4 August, TNA PREM 3/472

‘Ike said no . . .’, Butcher, p. 545

‘especially when the first paratroops ...’ General Warlimont, ETHINT 1

p. 446 ‘One woman was raped ...’, M.R.D. Foot, SOE in France, London, 1966, p. 393 head of the Gestapo in Châteauroux killed, SHD-DAT 13 P 33

‘128 terrorists . . .’, BA-MA MSg 2/3242

‘reprisals cannot be harsh enough’, BA-MA M-854, quoted in Peter Lieb, Konventioneller Krieg oder Weltanschauungskrieg?, Munich, 2007, p. 463

p. 447 the twenty-six worst massacres, ibid., pp. 574-80

for a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of French civilian casualty figures see ibid., pp. 412-15

‘counter-scorching’, Foot, p. 391

p. 448 ‘military events having taken ...’, Faugère, AN F/1cIII/1166

Laval and Pétain, AN F/1cIII/1166

‘regions where hideous . . .’,AN AJ/41/56

‘In the face of these barbarous acts ...’, TNA WO 171/337, quoted in Lieb, p. 396 p. 449 ‘I watched an open lorry ...’, John Colville, The Fringes of Power, London, 1985, p. 475

‘their look, in the hands ...’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2001, p. 199

‘The French were rounding . . .’, Colonel McHugh, 318th Infantry, 80th Division, NA II 407/427/24242

‘an ugly carnival’, Alain Brossat, Les Tondues , Paris, 1992

for the département of the Manche, see Michel Boivin, Les Victimes civiles de la Manche, Caen, 1994, p. 6

p. 450 ‘Military police were posted ...’, Colville, p. 499

‘everything can be bought’, Madame Richer, MdC TE 223

‘My wife doesn’t understand me’, Pogue, p. 134

p. 451 ‘clearly considered us to be backward ...’, P. Peschet, MdC TE 215

‘their neighbours as German sympathizers’, NA II 407/427/24170

camp at Sully, ADdC 8 W 1/1 422

p. 452 ‘supplying the enemy’, AdM 1380 W 236 and AdM 1380 W 254

‘It’s because I don’t wash ...’, Claude Quétel, ‘Avoir quatre ans et demi, le 6 juin 1944, à Bernières-sur-Mer’, Bulletin d’information de la Fondation canadienne de la Bataille de Normandie, March 1993

réquisitions irrégulières’, AdM 158W 159- 202

‘pillaging shops . . .’, Major L. J. Massey, MdC TE 167

p. 453 ‘Our soldiers have done some looting’, Myles Hildyard diary, 19 June

‘with occasionally a cynical touch ...’, George Silverton, Chief of X Ray Department, 2nd Evacuation Hospital, MdC TE 710

‘Mon Repos’, R. Makin, IWM 88/34/1

15,000 troops working on Port de Caen, Major L. J. Massey, MdC TE 167

‘whose liberation was more rapid ...’, François Bédarida (ed.), Normandie 44, du débarquement à la Libération, Paris, 2004,p. 24

‘otherwise they must expect . . .’, Heeresgruppe B, 14 August, BA-MA RH 19 ix/87 p. 454 Kluge’s order to cross the Orne, BA-MA MSg 2/5117

panzers driving over bodies, Beck, 277th Artillerie Regiment, 277th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/3242

resistance of Hitler Jugend in Falaise, Copp, Fields of Fire, pp. 234-5

Canadian casualties at end of Tractable, Terry Copp, Cinderella Army, Toronto, 2007, p. 7

Polish crossing of the Dives, SHD-DAT 1 K 543 1

p. 455 ‘for the first time ...’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 513

‘No, by God . . .’, Major General Kenner, Chief Medical Officer, SHAEF, OCMH-FPP

p. 456 ‘All effort was made ...’, Combat Command B, 7th Armored Division, NA II 407/427/24096

p. 457 confusion with Gerow and Gaffey, NA II 407/427/24235

‘Change horses’, Blumenson (ed.), pp. 514-15

‘Ismay takes a sane . . .’, Duff Hart-Davis (ed.), King’s Counsellor, London, 2006, p. 279

‘Leclerc of the 2nd French Armored Division . . .’, Blumenson (ed.), p. 510

27

THE KILLING GROUND OF THE FALAISE POCKET

p. 459 ‘the 15th August was ...’, Wilhelm Ritter von Schramm, BA-MA MSg 2/247

‘Hitler suspected that . . .’, General Warlimont, ETHINT 5

p. 460 ‘The Führer has ordered ...’, Wilhelm Ritter von Schramm, BA-MA MSg 2/247

‘one of the harshest . . .’, Leutnant Dankwart Graf von Arnim, MdC TE 819

p. 461 ‘were a pack of cowards ...’,Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, ETHINT 66

Kluge’s letter to Hitler, quoted in Milton Shulman, Defeat in the West, London, 1986, pp. 174-7

p. 464 ‘able to drive by car ...’, Generalmajor Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff, Chief of Staff Seventh Army, ETHINT 59

shape of Falaise pocket, General Mahlmann, 353rd Infantry Division, FMS A-984

II Panzer Corps in Forêt de Gouffern, Eberbach, FMS A-922

‘In other words ...’, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

panzer soldier playing Viennese waltzes, Marcel Labussière, MdC TE 471

‘We have had a warm welcome . . .’, Captain S. Beck, 18 August, MdC TE 570

‘While I was talking to the Brigadier . . .’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 19 August, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC T 501

p. 465 1st Polish Armoured Division reorganizes, SHD-DAT 1 K 543 1

Model’s conference on 18 August, Eberbach, FMS A-922, and Generalmajor Freiherr von Gersdorff, written answers submitted October 1945, NA II 407/427/24231 p. 466 ‘The black mushrooms ...’, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

‘We rippled the rockets ...’, Michael Veitch, Tom Hall, Sydney, 2006, p. 113

‘On the road great heaps . . .’, General der Panzertruppen Freiherr von Lüttwitz, FMS A-903

Eberhard Beck, 277th Artillerie-Regiment, 277th Infantry Division, BA-MA MSg 2/3242

Allied air claims on 18 August, Leigh-Mallory, TNA CAB 106/980

Operational Research Section, Report No. 15, ‘Enemy Casualties in Vehicles and Equipment in the Retreat from Normandy to the Seine’, AHB

p. 467 ‘Take cover, boys, they may be ours!’ Rev. A. R. C. Leaney, IWM PP/MCR/206

‘some British armored vehicles ...’, NA II 407/427/24143

p. 468 ‘They were excellent fighters ...’, Lieutenant George W. Godfrey, 358th Infantry, 90th Division, NA II 407/427/ 24240

‘tidying up official correspondence’, quoted in Terry Copp, Fields of Fire, Toronto, 2003, p. 243

‘The roads were blocked ...’, Hans Höller, 21st Panzer-Division, MdeC TE 98

‘In their faces one could read ...’, Eberhard Beck, 277th Artillerie-Regiment, 277th Infantry Division, BA-MA MSg 2/3242

p. 469 ‘Fertigmachen zum Abmarsch’, Eberhard Beck, 277th Artillerie-Regiment, 277th Infantry Division, BA-MA MSg 2/3242

escape of General Meindl and paratroops, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

p. 470 ‘clear and serene’, Generalmajor Gerhard Müller, 116th Panzer-Division, FMS B-162

p. 471 ‘People, horses, vehicles ...’, General der Panzertruppen Freiherr von Lüttwitz, 2nd Panzer-Division, FMS A-903

‘This was the signal....’, Generalmajor Freiherr Rudolf von Gersdorff, FMS A-919

‘It was a gunner’s dream . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24242

p. 472 ‘The Polish soldier fights ...’, SHD-DAT 1 K 543 1

‘luck gave the 10th Cavalry Brigade ...’, SHD-DAT 1 K 543 1

capture of General Elfeldt, Captain A. Potozynski, 10th Polish Mounted Rifles, SWWEC LEEWW 2000.327

Simonds and Kitching, Copp, pp. 249-50 p. 473 Hauptmann Werner, III Battalion, Regiment Der Führer, 2nd SS Panzer-Division Das Reich, MdC TE 158

SS officer saved by Canadian officer, Herbert Ronstedt, 9th SS Panzer-Division Hohenstaufen, BA-MA MSg 2/3225

Polish tanks near northern Hill 262, Hubert Meyer, BA-MA MSg 2/4832

‘Oh it’s the old man’, General Eugen Meindl, II Parachute Corps, FMS A-923

p. 475 ‘German attempts, more or less . . .’, SHD-DAT 11 P 221

‘the sixty-sixth and last day . . .’, MdC TE 149

Polish losses in Normandy, SHD-DAT 1 K 543 1

p. 476 over 2,000 men per division had escaped, Generalmajor Freiherr von Gersdorff, Chief of Staff Seventh Army, written answers submitted October 1945, NA II 407/427/24231

‘[The] Yanks say ...’, diary of Major Julius Neave, 13th/18th Hussars, SWWEC 501 T

‘A boy of about ten years ...’, 2nd Lieutenant Roy J. Bolen, 38 Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, NA II 407/427/24240

‘The roads were choked with wreckage ...’, Desmond Scott, Typhoon Pilot, London, 1982, p. 129

‘The horses seemed almost more pitiful’, Kingsley Amis, Memoirs, London, 1991, p. 221

p. 477 the cossack squadron, Barnett Hoffner, 6th Engineer Special Brigade, NWWIIM-EC

German field hospital in Forêt de Gouffern, NA II 407/427/24235

‘On the collapse of the Falaise pocket . . .’, Lieutenant Colonel John N. Snyder, MdC TE 648

p. 478 ‘Their blankets have been ...’,Aitken Hughes diary, WLHUM RAMC 1771

‘The air became unbreathable’, Jean Sorel, MdC TE 504 ‘The victory has been definite ...’, LHCMA De Guingand 3/1-27

Eberbach’s estimate of those who escaped, Eberbach, FMS A-922

Gersdorff’s estimate, Generalmajor Rudolf-Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff, Chief of Staff Seventh Army, ETHINT 59

‘One of Monty’s great errors ...’, Air Chief Marshal Tedder, OCMH-FPP

‘Monty is supposed to have done a great job ...’, Air Chief Marshal Coningham, OCMH-FPP

‘too tidy’, ‘the high cock on the dungheap’ and ‘Bradley was indignant ...’, Brigadier E. T. Williams, G-2, 21st Army Group, OCMH-FPP

28

THE PARIS UPRISING AND THE RACE FOR THE SEINE

p. 480 ‘had to ask him categorically ...’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940-1945, New York, 1974, p. 516

‘This Army covers so much ...’, ibid., p. 517

p. 481 ‘pissed in the river that morning’, ibid., pp. 521-2

‘Go where you damn well ...’,Major General Gilbert Cook, commanding XII Corps, Third Army, NA II 407/427/24241

De Gaulle’sunannounced journey, Wilson to SHAEF, 16 August, TNA ADM 1/ 16018

De Gaulle and the Flying Fortress, John Julius Norwich (ed.), The Duff Cooper Diaries, London, 2005, p. 318 (17 August)

‘We must march on Paris . . .’, Charles de Gaulle, OCMH-FPP

p. 482 Hitler and Choltitz, General Dietrich von Choltitz, De Sebastopol à Paris, Paris, 1964, pp. 203-9

‘Bedell, Ike and all hands ...’, ACM Sir James Robb, OCMH-FPP

‘The worst job . . .’, TNA WO 208/4364, quoted in Sönke Neitzel (ed.), Tapping Hitler’s Generals, St Paul, Mn., p. 192

‘Have you read Churchill’s ...’, TNA WO 208/4634

p. 483 ‘short of stature ...’, Leutnant Dankwart, Graf von Arnim, MdC TE 819 p. 484 25,000 soldiers, Generalleutnant Freiherr von Boineburg, FMS B-015

‘interpreter battalion ...’, Oberst Professor Dr Kurt Hesse, FMS B-611

Bayerlein and Choltitz, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, Panzer Lehr Division, ETHINT 66

p. 485 ‘the shining example ...’, SHD-DAT 13 P 42 1

‘Along the rue Lafayette ...’, Jean Galtier-Boissière, Mon journal pendant l’Occupation, Paris, 1944, p. 242

p. 486 ‘A deceptive calm reigned ...’, Leutnant Dankwart Graf von Arnim, MdC TE 819

‘create a permanent state ...’, SHD-DAT 13 P 42 1

p. 487 ‘to cover the heroic defence ...’, Leutnant Dankwart Graf von Arnim, MdC TE 819

truce, SHD-DAT 13 P 42 1 p. 488 ‘for new missions’, NA II 407/427/ 24205

‘in the direction ...’, SHD-DAT 11 P 226

‘What are we doing here?’, NA II 407/ 427/24082

p. 489 American liaison officer warns V Corps, SHD-DAT 11 P 226

Private Petrie, Tyneside Scottish, MdC TE97

p. 490 ‘We all know he’s lost the war ...’, Rev. A. R. C. Leaney, IWM PP/MCR/206

‘the infantry captured ...’, Lieutenant T. T. Ritson, RHA, diary

‘We took the same number ...’, Jean Marius Vesque, MdC TE 401

‘smiles on their lips . . .’, anon., MdC TE 83

‘The explosive growth...’, Maître Quairé, MdC TE 469

p. 491 ‘every 11th Hussar ...’, Myles Hildyard diary

‘Would you like a Panzer ...’, Major General H. G. Woods, SWWEC LEEWW 2006.533

p. 492 ‘If you can’t do it, Bimbo ...’, Omar Bradley, A Soldier’s Story, New York, 1951, p. 377

‘one of the greatest injustices . . .’, General Omar Bradley, OCMH-FPP

only 13 armoured vehicles found to have been destroyed by air attack, Operational Research Section reports, Joint Report No. 3 ‘Rocket-firing Typhoons in Close Support of Military Operations’, Operational Research in North-West Europe, TNA WO 291/1331

123 Wing, Desmond Scott, Typhoon Pilot, London, 1982, p. 129

‘Ferry points for the Seine crossing ...’, Generalleutnant Fritz Bayerlein, ETHINT 66

p. 493 artillery horses swimming the Seine. Günter Peuckert, 272th Infanterie-Division, BA-MA MSg 2/5424

Fifth Panzer Army, Generalmajor Freiherr von Gersdorff, Chief of Staff Seventh Army, written answers submitted October 1945, NA II 407/427/24231

276thInfanterie-Divisionpioneers,Gefreiter Spiekerkötter, 2nd Pionier Kompanie, 256th Infantry Division, BA-MA MSg 2/ 5526

p. 494 ‘Paris should be declared ...’, Major General Gilbert Cook, commanding XII Corps, Third Army, NA II 407/427/ 24241

‘between 4,000 and 5,000 . . .’, NA II 407/ 427/24235

preparations to relieve Paris, Central Base Section, NA II 407/427/24201 p. 495 General Gerow’s briefing, V Corps, NA II 407/427/24235

p. 496 ‘I’ll make him talk ...’, John Mowinckel, quoted in Antony Beevor and Artemis Cooper, Paris after the Liberation, 1944-1949, London, 1994, p. 46

‘They looked like . . .’, John G. Westover, MdC TE 436 (2)

p. 497 ‘Bradley was madder than ...’, Blumenson (ed.), pp. 526-7

‘You are lucky’, Jean Lacouture, De Gaulle, New York, 1990, p. 568

29

THE LIBERATION OF PARIS

p. 498 ‘Every barricade ...’, Note de Service, 24 August, SHD-DAT 13 P 42 1

p. 499 ‘strange, indecisive days ...’, Maurice Goudeket, Près de Colette, Paris, 1955, pp. 216-17

102nd Cavalry attached to GTL, SHD-DAT 11 P 219

p. 500 rain interfering with radio traffic, NA II 407/427/24082

casualties in Longjumeau, SHD-DAT 11 P 230

Longjumeau, Rev. Père Roger Fouquer, Aumônier Divisionnaire, 2ème DB, MdC TE 825

‘a big disordered picnic ...’, John G. Westover, MdC TE 436 (2)

‘On one occasion ...’, William Mortimer Moore, Leclerc - The Making of a French Legend, unpublished MS

p. 501 battle outside Fresnes prison, SHD-DAT 11 P 226

Capitaine Dupont foretells his death, Rev. Père Roger Fouquer, Aumônier Divisionnaire, 2ème DB, MdC TE 825

‘and remain with him ...’, NA II 407/ 427/242351349

‘dance their way . . .’, Martin Blumenson, The Duel for France, New York, 2000, p. 353

‘over-enthusiastic French mademoiselles’, NA II 407/427/6431

p. 502 ‘Tenez bon, nous arrivons’, Journal de marche, 2ème DB, SHD-DAT 11 P 230

Dronne and Leclerc, SHD-DAT 11 P 226; Raymond Dronne, La Libération de Paris, Paris, 1970, pp. 280-81; and Marc de Possesse, 2e DB, MdC TE 361

‘Mort aux Cons!’, Moore, unpublished MS

p. 503 artillery fire from Longchamp, NA II 407/427/24021

Dronne’s column reaches the Hôtel de Ville, Marc de Possesse, 2e DB, MdC TE 361;Dronne,pp. 284-5; Moore, Leclerc - The Making of a French Legend, unpublished MS

‘when the night rose ...’, Goudeket, p. 217

‘They’re here!’, Madeleine Betts-Quintaine, MdC TE 25

p. 504 2nd Pionier Kompanie of 256th Infanterie-Division, Gefreiter Spiekerkötter, BA-MA MSg 2/5526

p. 505 ‘a noisy and lyrical ...’, Rev. Père Roger Fouquer, Aumônier Divisionnaire, 2ème DB, MdC TE 825

‘Victorious, Liberty advanced...’, Madame Talbot, MdC TE133

entry of American troops, NA II 407/ 427/242351349

‘the people bewildered ...’, NA II 407/ 427/24240

p. 506 ‘French girls, beautiful girls ...’, Alfred Donald Allred, Staff Sergeant, 20th Field Artillery, 4th Infantry Division. NWWIIM-EC

Merci! Merci! . . .’, Colonel J. S. Luckett, 12th Infantry, NA II 407/427/6431

‘The people of Paris were ...’,NA II 407/ 427/242351349

p. 507 ‘A vibrant crowd ...’, Jean Galtier-Boissière, Mon journal pendant l’Occupation, Paris, 1944, pp. 275-6

p. 508 ‘were mixed up ...’, Philippe Boegner, Carnets du Pasteur Boegner, Paris, 1992, p. 287

ultimatum to Choltitz, SHD-DAT 11 P 218

‘Silent also from the effort . . .’, Leutnant Dankwart Graf von Arnim, MdC TE 819 p. 509 ‘After a short, correct conversation’, Leutnant Dankwart, Graf von Arnim, MdC TE 819

‘a bearded giant . . .’, Leutnant Dankwart, Graf von Arnim, MdC TE 819

p. 510 ‘the crowd, often hateful ...’, Rev. Père Fouquer, MdC TE 825

Choltitz signing the surrender, SHD-DAT 11 P 226

‘saved Paris . . .’, NA II 407/427/24235 p. 511 ‘surrendered Paris to V Corps’, NA II 407/427/24235

Plan Fortitude, TNA WO 199/1379

Maillé massacre, Fondation de la Résistance, Paris

‘terrorists’, SHD-DAT 13 P 42 1

p. 512 ‘to give the crowd an opportunity ...’, Gefreiter Spiekerkötter, BA-MA MSg 2/5526

p. 513 ‘But why should we proclaim ...’, Antony Beevor and Artemis Cooper, Paris after the Liberation, 1944-1949, London, 1994, p. 56

2ème DB casualties, SHD-DAT 11 P 218

2,873 Parisians killed in the month of August, AVP

les délices d’une nuit dédiée à Vénus’, Marc de Possesse, 2e DB, MdC TE 361

‘I was providentially removed ...’, Rev. Père Roger Fouquer, Aumônier Divisionnaire, 2ème DB, MdC TE 825

‘beer, cider . . .’, BD

‘Slowly the tank hatches ...’, John G. Westover, MdC TE 436 (2)

p. 514 ‘Me, I don’t give a damn . . .’, Marc de Possesse, 2e DB, MdC TE 361

‘Direct General Leclerc that ...’, SHD-DAT 11 P 218

international composition of the 2ème DB, SHD-DAT 11 P 231

Rol-Tanguy’s headquarters calls for 6,000 FFI, SHD-DAT 13 P 42 1

‘members of the National Council of Resistance . . .’, Robert Aron, Histoire de la Libération de la France, Paris, 1959, p. 442

p. 515 ‘Public order is a matter ...’, Boegner, p. 301, quoted in Beevor and Cooper, p. 63

‘an informal visit’, NA II 407/427/24235

‘General Gerow, as military ...’, NA II 407/427/24235

p. 516 ‘collaboratrice!’ John G. Westover, MdC TE 436 (2)

head-shaving on balcony of Mairie, Madame Talbot, MdC TE 133

‘We are sickened ...’, Marc de Possesse, 2e DB, MdC TE 361

20,000 Frenchwomen, Fabrice Virgili, Shorn Women, Oxford, 2002

‘As we neared the city ...’, Forrest C. Pogue, Pogue’s War, Lexington, Kentucky, 2001, p. 174

p. 517 ‘an American enclave ...’, Simone de Beauvoir, La Force des Choses, Paris, 1960, p. 29

‘Pig Alley’ and drunken soldiers in the Place Vendôme, Pogue, pp. 229-30

allocation of penicillin, Major General Kenner, SHAEF, OCMH-FPP

30

AFTERMATH

p. 519 ‘I saw Frenchmen in the streets ...’, Major L. J. Massey, MdC TE 167

De Gaulle’s visit and minister for reconstruction, William I. Hitchcock, Liberation, London, 2008, p. 57

p. 520 76,000 people had lost their homes, TNA WO 219/3728, quoted in Hitchcock, p. 44

‘There are those who . . .’, Madame Ruet, Montebourg, MdC TE 63

p. 521 ‘camaraderie du malheur’, MdC TE 149

Saingt family at Fleury, Georges Hebert, MdC TE 12

discipline exemplaire’, Bernard Goupil, MdC TE 191

195th Field Ambulance near Honfleur, J. C. Watts, Surgeon at War, London, 1955, p. 110

p. 522 ‘Civil life will be mighty dull’, Martin Blumenson (ed.), The Patton Papers, 1940- 1945, New York, 1974, p. 521

‘It is astonishing ...’, 21 June, Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke, War Diaries 1939-1945, London, 2001, p. 561

p. 523 ‘First of all he’s a psychopath ...’, Cornelius Ryan papers, Ohio University Library Department of Archives and Special Collections, quoted in The Times, 9 November 2007

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