Confronting Civil War

1.John Lewis Gaddis, “The Long Peace: Elements of Security in the Postwar International System,” in Long Peace, 214–45; Mueller, Retreat from Doomsday; Mandelbaum, Dawn of Peace in Europe; Howard, The Invention of Peace and the Reinvention of War; Sheehan, Where Have All the Soldiers Gone?

2.Melander, Pettersson, and Themnér, “Organized Violence, 1989–2015”; Pettersson and Wallensteen, “Armed Conflicts, 1946–2014.”

3.Braumoeller, “Is War Disappearing?”; Newman, “Conflict Research and the ‘Decline’ of Civil War”; Sarkees, “Patterns of Civil Wars in the Twentieth Century.”

4.Ghervas, “La paix par le droit, ciment de la civilisation en Europe?”

5.Immanuel Kant, “Toward Perpetual Peace” (1795), in Practical Philosophy, trans. Gregor, 317, 351.

6.Goldstein, Winning the War on War; Pinker, Better Angels of Our Nature.

7.Hironaka, Neverending Wars, 4–5; Paul Collier, Lisa Chauvet, and Håvard Hagre, “The Security Challenge in Conflict-Prone Countries,” in Global Crises, Global Solutions, ed. Lomborg, 72, 99 (quoted); Skaperdas et al., Costs of Violence; World Bank, World Development Report 2011;Dunne, “Armed Conflicts”; Hoeffler, “Alternative Perspective.”

8.Collier, Wars, Guns, and Votes, 139 (quoted); Collier, Hoeffler, and Söderbom, “On the Duration of Civil War”; Fearon, “Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others?”; Walter, “Does Conflict Beget Conflict?”; Hironaka, Neverending Wars, 1, 50; World Bank, World Development Report 2011, 57.

9.Collier, Bottom Billion; Rice, Graff, and Lewis, Poverty and Civil War.

10.Mission statement, Centre for the Study of Civil War, Peace Research Institute Oslo,​Programmes/​Extensions/​Centre-for-the-Study-of-Civil-War/​About/.

11.Enzensberger, Civil War, 12.

12.Agamben, Stasis, trans. Heron, 2. Compare Grangé, Oublier la guerre civile?, 7: “il est vrai que la guerre civile est occultée par les traités politiques”; Kissane, Nations Torn Asunder, 3: “There has been, in the history of political thought, no systematic treatise on civil war.”

13.Mason, “Evolution of Theory on Civil War and Revolution,” 63–66.

14.Melander, Petersson, and Wallensteen, “Organized Violence, 1989–2015,” 730; Gleditsch, “Transnational Dimensions of Civil War”; Checkel, Transnational Dynamics of Civil War.

15.Mayer, Furies, 323 (“If war is hell, then civil war belongs to hell’s deepest and most infernal regions”); Kalyvas, Logic of Violence in Civil War, 52–53.

16.Lucan, Bellum civile (1.31–32), in Lucan, Civil War, trans. Braund, 3–4; Michel de Montaigne, “Of Bad Meanes Emploied to a Good End” (Essais, 2.23), in Essays Written in French by Michael Lord of Montaigne, trans. Florio, 384; Frank Aiken, Aug. 3, 1922, quoted in Hopkinson, Green Against Green, 273.

17.Eliot, Milton, 3.

18.De Gaulle, quoted in Marañon Moya, “El general De Gaulle, en Toledo” (“Todas las guerras son malas…Pero las guerras civiles, en las que en ambas trincheras hay hermanos, son imperdonables, porque la paz no nace cuando la guerra termina”).

19.Enzensberger, Civil War, trans. Spence and Chalmers, 11.

20.Girard, Violence and the Sacred; Giraldo Ramírez, El rastro de Caín; Jacoby, Bloodlust; Esposito, Terms of the Political, 123–34. As Bill Kissane notes, the term for civil war in modern Hebrew approximates to “war between brothers.” Kissane, Nations Torn Asunder, 7.

21.Osgood, Caesar’s Legacy, 3, citing Brunt, Italian Manpower, 225 B.C.A.D. 14, 509–12.

22.Braddick, God’s Fury, England’s Fire, xii.

23.Faust, “ ‘Numbers on Top of Numbers,’ ” 997; Faust, This Republic of Suffering, xi. Neely, Civil War and the Limits of Destruction, 208–16, criticized these figures, but Hacker, “Census-Based Count of the Civil War Dead,” has since persuasively revised them upward from an estimated 620,000 to 750,000 dead.

24.Kloppenberg, Toward Democracy, 21–60.

25.Clarendon, The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, Begun in the Year 1641.

26.Schmitt, Ex Captivitate Salus, 56 (“Der Bürgerkrieg hat etwas besonders Grausames. Er ist ein Bruderkrieg, weil er innerhalb einer gemeinsamen…politischen Einheit…geführt wird, und weil beide kämpfenden Seiten diese gemeinsame Einheit gleichzeitig absolut behaupten und absolut verneinen”).

27.U.S. Department of War, War of the Rebellion.

28.Gingrich, quoted in Stauffer, “Civility, Civil Society, and Civil Wars,” 88.

29.“Pour Valls, le FN peut conduire à la ‘guerre civile,’ ” Le Monde, Dec. 11, 2015: “Il y a deux options pour notre pays. Il y a une option qui est celle de l’extrême droite qui, au fond, prône la division. Cette division peut conduire à la guerre civile et il y a une autre vision qui est celle de la République et des valeurs, qui est le rassemblement.”

30.Brass, Theft of an Idol, 3–20; Kalyvas, “Ontology of ‘Political Violence’ ”; Kalyvas, “Promises and Pitfalls of an Emerging Research Program”; Kissane and Sitter, “Ideas in Conflict.”

31.Kaldor, New and Old Wars; Kalyvas, “ ‘New’ and ‘Old’ Civil Wars”; Münkler, New Wars.

32.Geuss, “Nietzsche and Genealogy”; Bevir, “What Is Genealogy?”

33.Skinner, “Genealogy of the Modern State,” 325.

34.Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morality, 51.

35.Ibid., 53 (my emphasis).

36.Gallie, “Essentially Contested Concepts”; Collier, Hidalgo, and Maciuceanu, “Essentially Contested Concepts.”

37.Gallie, preface to Philosophy and the Historical Understanding, 8–9.

38.Kalyvas, “Civil Wars,” 417.

39.For helpful overviews, see Sambanis, “Review of Recent Advances and Future Directions in the Literature on Civil War”; Collier and Sambanis, Understanding Civil War; Blattman and Miguel, “Civil War.”

40.Uppsala Conflict Data Program (1948–present),​research/​UCDP/.

41.The Correlates of War Project,; Small and Singer, Resort to Arms; Gleditsch, “Revised List of Wars Between and Within Independent States, 1816–2002”; Sarkees and Wayman, Resort to War; Reiter, Stam, and Horowitz, “Revised Look at Interstate Wars, 1816–2007.”

42.Dixon, “What Causes Civil Wars?,” 730; Lounsberry and Pearson, Civil Wars, viii; Newman, Understanding Civil Wars.

43.Though for a recent exception, spanning the centuries from ancient Rome to Afghanistan, see Armitage et al., “AHR Roundtable: Ending Civil Wars.”

44.Guldi and Armitage, History Manifesto; Armitage et al., “La longue durée en débat.”

45.Armitage, “What’s the Big Idea?”; McMahon, “Return of the History of Ideas?”; McMahon, Divine Fury, xiii.

46.McMahon, Happiness; McMahon, Divine Fury; Forst, Toleration in Conflict; Rosenfeld, Common Sense; Fitzmaurice, Sovereignty, Property, and Empire, 1500–2000; Kloppenberg, Toward Democracy.

47.Fitzmaurice, Sovereignty, Property, and Empire, 1500–2000, 20; Dubos, Le mal extrême.

48.DeRouen and Heo, Civil Wars of the World, is a more manageable compendium on the topic.

49.Manicas, “War, Stasis, and Greek Political Thought”; Berent, “Stasis, or the Greek Invention of Politics.”

50.Gardet, “Fitna”; As-Sirri, Religiös-politische Argumentation im frühen Islam (610–685); Ayalon, “From Fitna to Thawra”; Martinez-Gross and Tixier du Mesnil, eds., “La fitna: Le désordre politique dans l’Islam médiéval.”

51.Similar terms for “internal war” are found in Finnish, Persian, and Turkish. Kissane, Nations Torn Asunder, 39.

52.Armitage, “Every Great Revolution Is a Civil War.”

53.Armitage, “Cosmopolitanism and Civil War.”


Inventing Civil War

The Roman Tradition

1.Loraux, Divided City, trans. Pache and Fort, 108.

2.Nicolet, Demokratia et aristokratia; Wiedemann, “Reflections of Roman Political Thought in Latin Historical Writing,” 519.

3.“Aemulumque Thucydidis Sallustium”: Velleius Paterculus, Historiae 2.36.2; Scanlon, Influence of Thucydides on Sallust; Pelling, “ ‘Learning from That Violent Schoolmaster.’ ”

4.Botteri, “Stásis.”

5.Clavadetscher-Thürlemann, Πόλεμος δίκαιος und bellum iustum, 178–83; Wynn, Augustine on War and Military Service, 128–31.

6.Rosenberger, Bella et expeditiones.

7.Keenan, Wars Without End, 32.

8.Jal, La guerre civile à Rome, 19–21; Urbainczyk, Slave Revolts in Antiquity, 100–115; Schiavone, Spartacus.

9.Robert Brown, “The Terms Bellum Sociale and Bellum Civile in the Late Republic,” 103.

10.On Roman understandings of the civitas, see Ando, Roman Social Imaginaries, 7–14.

11.Harvey, Rebel Cities; Hazan, History of the Barricade.

12.Brett, Changes of State.

13.Plato, Republic 462a–b, in Collected Dialogues, 701 (translation adapted).

14.Gehrke, Stasis.

15.Price, Thucydides and Internal War, 30–32.

16.Plato, Republic 470b–c, in Collected Dialogues, 709.

17.Plato, Laws 628b, 629d, in Collected Dialogues, 1229 (translation adapted), 1231; Price, Thucydides and Internal War, 67–70.

18.Stouratis, “Byzantine War Against Christians”; Kyriakidis, “Idea of Civil War in Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century Byzantium.”

19.Panourgía, Dangerous Citizens, 81–86.

20.Loraux, “Oikeios polemos.”

21.Plato, Republic 471e, in Collected Dialogues, 710.

22.Thucydides, Eight Bookes of the Peloponnesian Warre 3.81–83, trans. Hobbes, 187–90. The section immediately following this description of stasis (3.84) is now generally accepted to be a later interpolation. Fuks, “Thucydides and the Stasis in Corcyra.”

23.Hobbes’s was the first English translation of Thucydides from the Greek; an earlier English version, The Hystory Writtone by Thucidides the Athenyan of the Warre, Whiche Was Betwene the Peloponesians and the Athenyans, trans. Nicolls, was translated from the French version of Claude de Seysell. It, too, generally avoids “civil war” in favor of “civile dissention,” “cyvill seditions,” or “cyvill battailles,” for example. On the political context of Hobbes’s translation in the 1620s—therefore quite distinct from the civil wars of the 1640s—see Hoekstra, “Hobbes’s Thucydides,” 551–57; on the modern reception of Thucydides more generally, see Harloe and Morley, eds., Thucydides and the Modern World.

24.On Thucydides and contemporary medicine, see Price, Thucydides and Internal War, 14–18, and on the analogies between his description of stasis and his treatment of the plague at Athens (2.47–58), see Orwin, “Stasis and Plague.”

25.Thucydides, Eight Bookes of the Peloponnesian Warre, trans. Hobbes, 198, 199 (i.e., pp. 188, 189). On the linguistic consequences of stasis, see Loraux, “Thucydide et la sédition dans les mots.”

26.Thucydides, War of the Peloponnesians and the Athenians 3.74, trans. Mynott, 208.

27.I am very grateful to Richard Thomas for stressing this important point about the spatial dimensions of civil war, as against stasis.

28.Thomas De Quincey, “[‘Greece Under the Romans,’ draft]” (Jan.–March 1844), in Works of Thomas De Quincey, 15:539 (footnote). My thanks to Jennifer Pitts for alerting me to this passage.

29.Thucydides, War of the Peloponnesians and the Athenians, trans. Mynott, 212n1.

30.Thucydides, Eight Bookes of the Peloponnesian Warre, trans. Hobbes, 198 (i.e., 188).

31.Loraux, Divided City, 107–8, 197–213; Ando, Law, Language, and Empire in the Roman Tradition, 3–4.

32.Thucydides, War of the Peloponnesians and the Athenians 4.64, trans. Mynott, 273; Loraux, “Oikeios polemos.”

33.Brunt, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic; Lintott, Violence in Republican Rome.

34.On the distinction between tumults and civil war, see Jal, “ ‘Tumultus’ et ‘bellum ciuile’ dans les Philippiques de Cicéron”; Grangé, “Tumultus et tumulto.”

35.Livy, History of Rome 1.7, in Rise of Rome, trans. Luce, 10–11; Wiseman, Remus.

36.Lucan, Bellum civile 1.95, in Civil War, trans. Braund, 5; also quoted in Augustine, City of God Against the Pagans 15.5, ed. and trans. Dyson, 640.

37.Beard, SPQR, 73–74.

38.On the meaning of res publica, see Lind, “Idea of the Republic and the Foundations of Roman Political Liberty.”

39.Livy, History of Rome 2.1, in Rise of Rome, 71; Arena, Libertas and the Practice of Politics in the Late Roman Republic.

40.Raaflaub, Social Struggles in Archaic Rome.

41.See, for example, Draper, Dictatorship of the Proletariat, 11–27 (on “dictatorship”); Lekas, Marx on Classical Antiquity; Bonnell, “ ‘A Very Valuable Book’: Karl Marx and Appian.” Marx’s use of the Roman language of internal conflict would merit much further research.

42.Plutarch, “Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus,” in Roman Lives, trans. Waterfield, 98–99, 113–14.

43.Appian, Civil Wars 1.1–2, trans. Carter, 1; Price, “Thucydidean Stasis and the Roman Empire in Appian’s Interpretation of History.”

44.Ibid. 1.1–2, trans. Carter, 1–2 (translation amended).

45.Jal, “ ‘Hostis (Publicus)’ dans la littérature latine de la fin de la République.”

46.Flower, “Rome’s First Civil War and the Fragility of Republican Culture,” 75–78.

47.Sherwin-White, Roman Citizenship, 40, 264–67.

48.Keaveney, Sulla, 45–50; Seager, “Sulla.”

49.Raaflaub, “Caesar the Liberator?”

50.Appian, Civil Wars 1.59–60, trans. Carter, 32–33.

51.Ibid. 1.1, 1.55, trans. Carter, 1, 30.


Remembering Civil War

Roman Visions

1.At least according to the philosopher Seneca the Elder, who preserved his words: “Optima civilis belli defensio oblivio est.” Seneca, Controversiae 10.3.5, quoted in Gowing, Empire and Memory, 82. The historian Josiah Osgood has recently suggested that for the Romans the “best defense was to half-forget.” Osgood, “Ending Civil War at Rome,” 1689. More generally, see Flower, Art of Forgetting.

2.Caesar, Civil War 2.29, 3.1, ed. and trans. Damon, 166, 192; Francis W. Kelsey, “Title of Caesar’s Work on the Gallic and Civil Wars,” 230; Batstone and Damon, Caesar’s “Civil War,” 8–9, 31–32; Brown, “The Terms Bellum Sociale and Bellum Civile in the Late Republic,” 113–18.

3.Caesar, Civil War 1.22, ed. and trans. Damon, 35; Raaflaub, Dignitatis contentio.

4.On later representations of Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon, see Wyke, Caesar, 66–89, 263–66.

5.Appian, Civil Wars 2.35, trans. Carter, 88; Plutarch, Caesar 32, in Roman Lives, trans. Waterfield, 328–39. The line is usually quoted in Suetonius’s Latin: “Iacta alea est.” Suetonius, The Deified Julius 32, in Suetonius, trans. Rolfe, 1:76.

6.Suetonius, Deified Julius 31–32, in Suetonius, trans. Rolfe, 1:74–77; Lucan, Bellum civile (1.190–92, 225–27), in Civil War, trans. Braund, 8, 9.

7.Heuzé, “Comment peindre le passage du Rubicon?”

8.Caesar, Civil War 1.8, ed. and trans. Damon, 15.

9.Bonaparte, Précis des guerres de Jules César, 97–98 (“En passant le Rubicon, César avait déclaré la guerre civile et bravé les anathèmes prononcés contre les généraux qui passeraient en armes le Rubicon: ils étaient voués aux dieux infernaux”); Poignault, “Napoleon Ier et Napoleon III lecteurs de Jules César,” 329–36.

10.Brown, “Terms Bellum Sociale and Bellum Civile in the Late Republic,” 104.

11.Cicero, De imperio Cn. Pompei 28, in Political Speeches, trans. Berry, 119 (my emphasis).

12.Seager, Pompey the Great, 25–36, 43–48.

13.Lucan, Bellum civile 1.12, in Civil War, trans. Braund, 3; Schmitt, Glossarium, 32 (“Im Bürgerkrieg gibt es keinen Triumph”); Beard, Roman Triumph, 123–24, 303–4.

14.Valerius Maximus, Memorable Deeds and Sayings 2.8.7, quoted in Lange, “Triumph and Civil War in the Late Republic,” 69–70.

15.Östenberg, “Veni Vidi Vici and Caesar’s Triumph,” 823.

16.Lange, “Triumph and Civil War in the Late Republic,” 74, 76–78, 82–84. More generally, see Lange, Triumphs in the Age of Civil War.

17.Cicero, De officiis 1.85–86 (“apud Atheniensis magnae discordiae, in nostra re publica non solum seditiones sed etiam pestifera bella civilia”), in On Duties, 86–87, quoting Plato, Republic 420b (translation adapted).

18.Horace, Odes 2.1, in Complete Odes and Epodes, trans. West, 56; Mendell, “Epic of Asinius Pollio”; Henderson, Fighting for Rome, 108–59.

19.Tacitus, Annals 1.3, quoted in Harriet I. Flower, Roman Republics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2010), 154 (“etiam senes plerique inter belli civilia nati: quotus quisque reliquus qui rem publicam vidisset”); Keitel, “Principate and Civil War in the Annals of Tacitus.”

20.Gowing, “ ‘Caesar Grabs My Pen,’ ” 250.

21.Masters, Poetry and Civil War in Lucan’s “Bellum Civile.”

22.On Lucan’s reception history, see the relevant chapters in Asso, ed., Brill’s Companion to Lucan.

23.Lucan, In Cath Catharda; Meyer, “Middle-Irish Version of the Pharsalia of Lucan.”

24.Rómverja Saga, ed. Helgadóttir.

25.Dante, Convivio 4.28.13 (“quello grande poeta Lucano”); Geoffrey Chaucer, The House of Fame 3.1499, quoted in Susanna Braund, introduction to Lucan, ed. Tesoriero, Muecke, and Neal, 2–4.

26.Lucan, M. Annaei Lvcani Pharsalia; Grotius (“poeta phileleutheros”), quoted in Conte, Latin Literature, trans. Solodow, 451.

27.Petronius, Satyricon 118, in Satyricon, trans. Sullivan, 109 (“ingens opus”), 109–22 (Eumolpus’s poem); Virgil, Aeneid 7.45 (“maius opus”).

28.“But,” Gibbon continued, “of what avail is tardy knowledge? Where error is irretrievable, repentance is useless.” Note from winter 1790–91, in Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, British Library shelf mark C.60.m.1; Bowersock, “Gibbon on Civil War and Rebellion in the Decline of the Roman Empire.”

29.Lucan, Bellum civile 1.223–24, in Civil War, trans. Braund, 27.

30.Florus, Epitome 1.intro., 1.47.14, 2.3.18, 2.8.20, 2.13.4–5, in Epitome of Roman History, trans. Foster, 5–7, 217, 233, 241, 267 (translations adapted).

31.Henderson, Fighting for Rome, pts. 1, 4; Breed, Damon, and Rossi, Citizens of Discord.

32.“Trina bella civilia, plura externa, ac plerumque permixta.” Tacitus, Histories 1.2, in Histories, Books I–III, trans. Moore, 5 (translation adapted).

33.Florus, Epitome 2.13, in Epitome of Roman History, trans. Foster, 267 (translation adapted).

34.Lucan, Bellum civile 1.1–8, in Civil War, trans. Braund, 3.

35.Núñez González, “On the Meaning of Bella Plus Quam Ciuilia (Lucan 1, 1).”

36.Lucan, Bellum civile 1.682, in Civil War, trans. Braund, 21; Waller to Sir Ralph Hopton, June 16, 1643 (O.S.), in Coate, Cornwall in the Great Civil War and Interregnum, 1642–1660, 77.

37.Woodman, “Poems to Historians.”

38.Augustine, City of God Against the Pagans 3.6, 15.5, ed. and trans. Dyson, 99, 639–40.

39.Horace, Epodes 7, in Complete Odes and Epodes, trans. West, 11.

40.Wiseman, Remus, 143.

41.Horace, Epodes 16, in Complete Odes and Epodes, trans. West, 18.

42.Sallust, The War with Catiline 16.4, in Sallust, trans. Rolfe, 17, 19, 27–28 (“civile bellum exoptabant”) (translation adapted).

43.Sallust, fragments from Histories, bk. 1, frags. 8, 10, 12, in Fragments of the Histories, trans. Ramsey, 8–13.

44.Varro, Di vita populi Romani, frag. 114, quoted in Wiseman, “Two-Headed State,” 26; see also Florus, Epitome 2.5.3, in Epitome of Roman History, trans. Foster, 228 (“iudiciaria lege Gracchi diviserant populum Romanum et bicipitem ex una fecerant civitatem”).

45.Tacitus, Histories 2.38, in Tacitus, Histories, Books I–III, trans. Moore, 223 (“temptamenta civilium bellorum”).

46.Cicero, De officiis 1.86, in Cicero, On Duties, 86–87.

47.Tacitus, Histories 1.50, in Histories, Books I–III, trans. Moore, 85 (“repetita bellorum civilium memoria”) (translation adapted).

48.Braund, “Tale of Two Cities”; McNelis, Statius’ Thebaid and the Poetics of Civil War.

49.Brown, Augustine of Hippo, 23–25.

50.Augustine, City of God Against the Pagans, 15.5, 2.19, 2.22, 2.25, 3.25, ed. Dyson, 640, 73, 81, 87, 134.

51.Ibid., 3.23 (“illa mala…quae quanto interiora, tanto miseriora…discordiae civiles vel potius incivilies…; bella socialia, bella servilia, bella civilia quantum Romanum cruorem fuderunt, quantam Italiae vastationem desertionemque fecerunt!”), 3.28, 3.30, ed. Dyson, 132 (translation adapted), 137, 139.

52.Rohrbacher, Historians of Late Antiquity, 135–49.

53.Orosius, Seven Books of History Against the Pagans 2.18.1, 5.22.6, 8, trans. Fear, 105, 253.

54.Ibid., 23–24.

55.Augustine, City of God Against the Pagans 19.7, ed. Dyson, 929.

56.Appian, Civil Wars 1.6, trans. Carter, 4; Appian, Auncient Historie and Exquisite Chronicle of the Romane Warres, title page.


Uncivil Civil Wars

The Seventeenth Century

1.Hobbes, On the Citizen, ed. Tuck and Silverthorne, 4.

2.On Shakespeare’s debt to the humanist curriculum, see Armitage, Condren, and Fitzmaurice, Shakespeare and Early Modern Political Thought; Skinner, Forensic Shakespeare.

3.Burke, “Survey of the Popularity of Ancient Historians, 1450–1700.”

4.Jensen, “Reading Florus in Early Modern England”; Jensen, Reading the Roman Republic in Early Modern England, 56–73.

5.Schuhmann, “Hobbes’s Concept of History,” 3–4; Hobbes, Behemoth; or, The Long Parliament, 52.

6.Grafton, What Was History?, 194–95; see Wheare, Method and Order of Reading Both Civil and Ecclesiastical Histories, trans. Bohun, 77–78, on “the body of the Roman History…the Picture of which in Little is most Artfully drawn by our L. Annaeus Florus.”

7.Statutes of the University of Oxford Codified in the Year 1636 Under the Authority of Archbishop Laud, 37.

8.Eutropius, Eutropii historiæ romanæ breviarum; Phillipson, Adam Smith, 18, plates 2–3.

9.MacCormack, On the Wings of Time, 15, 72, 76.

10.Garcilaso de la Vega, Historia general del Peru trata el descubrimiento del; y como lo ganaron los Españoles.

11.Montaigne, Essays Written in French by Michael Lord of Montaigne, trans. Florio, 547.

12.Hadfield, Shakespeare and Republicanism, 103–29, has called this tetralogy “Shakespeare’s Pharsalia.

13.Bentley, Shakespeare and Jonson, 1:112; Donaldson, “Talking with Ghosts: Ben Jonson and the English Civil War.”

14.Shakespeare’s Appian; Logan, “Daniel’s Civil Wars and Lucan’s Pharsalia”; Logan, “Lucan—Daniel—Shakespeare.”

15.Daniel, The First Fowre Bookes of the Civile Wars Between the Two Houses of Lancaster and Yorke, sig. B[1]r.

16.Norbrook, Writing the English Republic, 24.

17.Shapiro, “ ‘Metre Meete to Furnish Lucans Style’ ”; Gibson, “Civil War in 1614”; Norbrook, “Lucan, Thomas May, and the Creation of a Republican Literary Culture”; Norbrook, Writing the English Republic, 43–50.

18.May, History of the Parliament of England Which Began November the Third, MDCXL, sig. A3v; Pocock, “Thomas May and the Narrative of Civil War.”

19.Milton, Paradise Lost; Hale, “Paradise Lost”; Norbrook, Writing the English Republic, 438–67, 443.

20.McDowell, “Towards a Poetics of Civil War,” 344.

21.Filmer, Patriarcha, title page, quoting Lucan, Bellum civile 3.145–46 (“Libertas…Populi, quem regna coercent / Libertate perit”); Hobbes, Behemoth: The History of the Causes of the Civil-Wars of England, title page, adapting Lucan, Bellum civile 1.1–2 (“Bella per Angliacos plusquam civilia campos, / Jusque datum sceleri loquiumur”); Hobbes, Behemoth; or, The Long Parliament, 90, 92.

22.Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Extrait du projet de paix perpétuelle de monsieur l’abbé de Saint-Pierre, title page (quoting Lucan, Bellum civile 4.4–5); Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men, in Discourses and Other Early Political Writings, trans. Gourevitch, 185 (quoting Lucan, Bellum civile 1.376–78).

23.Lucan, Pharsale de M. A. Lucain, trans. Chasles and Greslou, 1:xvii (quoting Lucan, Bellum civile 4.579).

24.See, for instance, Mason, ed., The Darnton Debate.

25.“Intestinae Simultates,” in Whitney, Choice of Emblemes and Other Devises, 7.

26.Seaward, “Clarendon, Tacitism, and the Civil Wars of Europe.”

27.Grotius, De Rebus Belgicis, 1.

28.Corbet, Historicall Relation of the Military Government of Gloucester, sig. A2v.

29.Biondi, “Civill Warrs of England,” trans. Henry, Earl of Monmouth; Biondi, History of the Civill Warres of England, Betweene the Two Houses of Lancaster and Yorke, trans. Henry, Earl of Monmouth; Davila, Historie of the Civill Warres of France, trans. Cotterell and Aylesbury; Adams, Discourses on Davila.

30.Guarini, Il Pastor Fido, trans. Fanshawe, 303–12.

31.Sandoval, Civil Wars of Spain in the Beginning of the Reign of Charls the 5t, Emperor of Germanie and King.

32.Samuel Kem, The Messengers Preparation for an Address to the King (1644), quoted in Donagan, War in England, 1642–1649, 132; compare Robert Doughty, “Charge to the Tax Commissioners of South Erpingham, North Erpingham, North Greenhoe, and Hold Hundreds” (Feb. 1664), in Notebook of Robert Doughty, 1662–1665, 123: “our late uncivil civil wars.”

33.Davila, History of the Civil Wars of France, trans. Cotterell and Aylesbury, sig. A2r.

34.Dugdale, Short View of the Late Troubles in England. Compare also Adamson, “Baronial Context of the English Civil War,” with the more nuanced account in Adamson, Noble Revolt.

35.Larrère, “Grotius et la distinction entre guerre privé et guerre publique.”

36.Grotius, Commentary on the Law of Prize and Booty, 50 (“aut civile in partem eiusdem reipublicae: aut externum, in alius, cuius species est quod sociali dicitur”). On Grotius’s debt to Roman law, see Straumann, Roman Law in the State of Nature.

37.Grotius, Commentary on the Law of Prize and Booty, 80 (“bella Christianorum esse civilia, quasi vero totius Christianus Orbis una sit republica”), referring to Vázquez de Menchaca, Controversiarum illustrium…libri tres.

38.Grotius, Rights of War and Peace 1.3.1, 1:240.

39.Ibid.,, 1:381, quoting Plutarch’s Life of Brutus and Cicero’s Second Philippic.

40.Rousseau, The Social Contract (1762), in Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings, 42–43, 44–45.

41.Hobbes, Leviathan, 3:850.

42.Thomas Hobbes, De Corpore 1.7, in Elements of Law, Natural and Politic, 190 (“causa igitur belli civilis est, quod bellorum ac pacis causa ignoratur”), 191.

43.Hobbes, On the Citizen 1.12, 29–30.

44.Ibid., 11–12.

45.Hobbes to Cavendish, July 1645, in Hobbes, Correspondence, 1:120.

46.Hobbes, On the Citizen, 82, 124 (“et bellum civile nascitur”), 149.

47.Ibid., 15.

48.On the background, see especially Kelsey, “Ordinance for the Trial of Charles I”; Kelsey, “Trial of Charles I”; Holmes, “Trial and Execution of Charles I.”

49.Donagan, War in England, 1642–1649, 130.

50.Orr, “Juristic Foundation of Regicide.”

51.“An Act of the Commons of England Assembled in Parliament for Erecting a High Court of Justice, for the Trying and Judging of Charles Stuart, King of England” (Jan. 6, 1649), in Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642–1660, ed. Firth and Rait, 1:1253–54 (my emphasis). Heath, Chronicle of the Late Intestine War in the Three Kingdomes of England, Scotland, and Ireland,194–95, and “The Act Erecting a High Court of Justice for the King’s Trial” (Jan. 6, 1649), in Gardiner, Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, 1625–1660, 357, have “civil war” in place of “cruel War,” but this is not attested in, for example, “An Ordinance of the Commons in England in Parliament Assembled with a List of the Commissioners & Officers of the Said Court by Them Elected” (Jan. 3, 1649), British Library E.536(35), fol. 1r, or in [John Nalson], A True Copy of the Journal of the High Court of Justice, for the Tryal of K. Charles I, 2.

52.Journals of the House of Commons, 6:107, 111, quoted in Orr, Treason and the State, 173.

53.Bauman, Crimen Maiestatis in the Roman Republic and Augustan Principate, 271–77; Orr, Treason and the State, 12, 44–45 (referring to 25 Edward III, st. 5, c. 3); Digest 48.4.3.

54.Hobbes, Leviathan, 2:192.

55.Ibid., 2:256, 274, 278, 282.

56.Hobbes, “Questions Relative to Hereditary Right” (1679), in Writings on Common Law and Hereditary Right, 177–78.

57.Locke, Two Treatises of Government, 137 (“The Preface”).

58.Woolhouse, Locke, 11.

59.For example, Harrison and Laslett, Library of John Locke, items 2, 561–62, 927, 1146–48, 1818–19, 2792b, 3060.

60.Locke, Two Treatises of Government, 278 (2nd Treatise, § 16).

61.Ibid., 416–17 (2nd Treatise, §§ 227, 228).

62.Locke, “On Allegiance and the Revolution” (ca. April 1690), in Political Essays, 307.

63.Pocock, “Fourth English Civil War,” 153, 159.

64.Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government, 198, 187–89.

65.Ibid., 193, 196–99.

66.Sidney, Court Maxims, 20.

67.Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government, 121.

68.Ibid., 198.

69.Filmer, Patriarcha, 54, 55–56, 57, 58.

70.Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government, 120.

71.Ibid., 172.

72.Montesquieu, Reflections on the Causes of the Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire, 61; Bates, States of War, 160–64.

73.Jouffroy, Mélanges philosophiques par Théodore Jouffroy, 140 (“Les guerres civiles de l’Europe sont finies”).


Civil War in an Age of Revolutions

The Eighteenth Century

1.Abdul-Ahad, “ ‘Syria Is Not a Revolution Any More.’ ”

2.Compare Viola, “Rivoluzione e guerra civile,” 24: “In un certo senso la rivoluzione sprovincializza la guerra civile.”

3.Arendt, On Revolution, 12.

4.Civil war is also not mentioned in the Encyclopédie’s major article on war: [Le Blond], “Guerre.” The contemporaneous fourth edition of the Dictionnaire de l’Académie Française (1762) defines “Guerre civile, & guerre intestine” as “La guerre qui s’allume entre les peuples d’un même État”: accessed via the ARTFL Project’s “Dictionnaires d’autrefois,”​content/​dictionnaires-dautrefois.

5.Koselleck, “Historical Criteria of the Modern Concept of Revolution,” trans. Tribe, 47, 48, 49. On the conceptual continuities between “revolution” and “civil war,” see Koselleck, Critique and Crisis, 160–61; Bulst et al., “Revolution, Rebellion, Aufruhr, Bürgerkrieg,” esp. 712–14, 726–27, 778–80.

6.Momigliano, “Ancient History and the Antiquarian,” 294; Goulemot, Le règne de l’histoire, 127–56.

7.Echard, The Roman History from the Building of the City to the Perfect Settlement of the Empire by Augustus Cæsar.

8.Vertot, Histoire de la conjuration de Portugal; Vertot, Histoire des révolutions de Suède où l’on voit les changemens qui sont arrivez; Vertot, Histoire des révolutions de Portugal.

9.Trakulhun, “Das Ende der Ming-Dynastie in China (1644).”

10.Sidney, Discourses Concerning Government, 195–96.

11.Vattel, Law of Nations (1758), 3.18.293, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 645.

12.“A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress Assembled” (July 4, 1776), in Armitage, Declaration of Independence, 165.

13.Vattel, Law of Nations 1.4.51, 3.1.1–2, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 105, 469.

14.Ibid., 3.18.287, 290, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 641, 642.

15.“Thomas Jefferson’s ‘Original Rough Draft’ of the Declaration of Independence,” in Armitage, Declaration of Independence, 161.

16.Vattel, Law of Nations 3.18.292, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 644–45. On Vattel’s doctrine of civil war, see Rech, Enemies of Mankind, 209–13, 216–20.

17.Vattel, Law of Nations 3.18.293, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 645.

18.Ibid., 3.18.295, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 648–49.

19.Zurbuchen, “Vattel’s ‘Law of Nations’ and the Principle of Non-intervention”; Pitts, “Intervention and Sovereign Equality.”

20.Vattel, Law of Nations 2.4.56, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 290–91.

21.Braund, “Bernard Romans.”

22.Romans, To the Hone. Jno. Hancock Esqre.; Romans, Philadelphia, July 12. 1775.

23.Romans, Annals of the Troubles in the Netherlands.

24.Belcher, First American Civil War, is the exception that proves the rule.

25.Paine, Common Sense, in Collected Writings, 25.

26.O’Shaughnessy, Empire Divided; more generally, see Armitage, “First Atlantic Crisis.”

27.Lawson, “Anatomy of a Civil War”; Shy, People Numerous and Armed, 183–92; Wahrman, Making of the Modern Self, 223–37, 239–44; Simms, Three Victories and a Defeat, 593–600; Klooster, Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 11–44; Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles, 21–53.

28.Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World, 352.

29.Bollan, The Freedom of Speech and Writing upon Public Affairs, Considered; with an Historical View of the Roman Imperial Laws Against Libels, 158–59. On Bollan’s use of Roman history, see York, “Defining and Defending Colonial American Rights,” 213.

30.Price, Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, 91.

31.Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 4.7.c, ed. Campbell and Skinner, 2:622.

32.Pocock, “Political Thought in the English-Speaking Atlantic, 1760–1790,” 256–57.

33.Newport Mercury, April 24, 1775, quoted in Breen, American Insurgents, American Patriots, 281–82.

34.Civil War; a Poem; Hartley, Substance of a Speech in Parliament, upon the State of the Nation and the Present Civil War with America, 19; Roebuck, Enquiry, Whether the Guilt of the Present Civil War in America, Ought to Be Imputed to Great Britain or America.

35.[Jackson], Emma Corbett; Wahrman, Making of the Modern Self, 243–44.

36.Cooper, introduction (1831) to Spy, 13; Larkin, “What Is a Loyalist?”

37.Pocock, Three British Revolutions, 1641, 1688, 1776.

38.“A Declaration…Seting Forth the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms” (July 6, 1775), in Hutson, Decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind, 96, 97 (my emphasis).

39.Lord North to George III, July 26, 1775, quoted in Marshall, Making and Unmaking of Empires, 338.

40.Paine, Common Sense, in Collected Writings, 45–46.

41.Ibid., 18–19. Compare Howell, Twelve Several Treatises, of the Late Revolutions in These Three Kingdomes, 118, where the total of “rebellions” since 1066 is given as “near upon a hundred.”

42.On Paine and the “republican turn” in 1776, see Nelson, Royalist Revolution, 108–45.

43.“Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress Assembled” (July 4, 1776), in Armitage, Declaration of Independence, 165, 170.

44.Beaulac, “Emer de Vattel and the Externalization of Sovereignty.”

45.Franklin to C. G. F. Dumas, Dec. 9, 1775, in Papers of Benjamin Franklin, 22:287.

46.Armitage, Declaration of Independence, 165, 166.

47.Lempérière, “Revolución, guerra civil, guerra de independencia en el mundo hispánico, 1808–1825”; Adelman, “Age of Imperial Revolutions”; Pani, “Ties Unbound”; Lucena Giraldo, Naciones de rebeldes; Pérez Vejo, Elegía criolla.

48.José María Cos, “Plan de Guerra” (June 10, 1812), in Guedea, Textos insurgentes (1808–1821), 52–55; San Martín to Tomás Godoy Cruz, April 12, 1816, quoted in John Lynch, San Martín, trans. Chaparro, 131.

49.Baker, “Revolution 1.0,” 189; Baker, “Inventing the French Revolution,” 203, 223.

50.Snow, “Concept of Revolution in Seventeenth-Century England”; Rachum, “Meaning of ‘Revolution’ in the English Revolution (London, 1648–1660).” For an alternative view, see Harris, “Did the English Have a Script for Revolution in the Seventeenth Century?”

51.Hobbes, Behemoth; or, The Long Parliament, 389.

52.Edelstein, “Do We Want a Revolution Without Revolution?”; compare Rey, “Révolution”; William H. Sewell Jr., “Historical Events as Transformations of Structures: Inventing Revolution at the Bastille,” in Logics of History, 225–70.

53.Vlassopoulos, “Acquiring (a) Historicity,” 166.

54.Furet, “The Revolutionary Catechism,” in Interpreting the French Revolution, trans. Forster, 83.

55.Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1851), in Selected Writings, 300.

56.Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France, 26–27 (quoting Livy, Histories 9.1.10) (my emphasis).

57.Burke, Letter from the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, 41.

58.Vattel, Law of Nations 3.3.36, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 488. The fuller quotation reads, “Justum est bellum, quibus necessaria; et pia arma, quibus nulla nisi in armis relinquitur spes.”

59.Burke, “Speech on the Seizure and Confiscation of Private Property in St. Eustatius” (May 14, 1781), in Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to 1803, vol. 22, col. 231.

60.Burke, Thoughts on French Affairs, in Further Reflections on the Revolution in France, 207.

61.Vattel, Law of Nations 2.4.56, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 291; compare ibid., 3.16.253, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 627.

62.Kant, “Toward Perpetual Peace,” in Practical Philosophy, trans. Gregor, 319–20; Hurrell, “Revisiting Kant and Intervention,” 198.

63.Burke, “First Letter on a Regicide Peace” (Oct. 20, 1796), and Burke, “Second Letter on a Regicide Peace” (1796), in Revolutionary War, 1794–1797, 187, 267; Armitage, Foundations of Modern International Thought, 163–69.

64.See, for example, Martin, “Rivoluzione francese e guerra civile”; Martin, “La guerre civile”; Andress, Terror; Martin, La Vendée et la Révolution.

65.Mayer, Furies, 4–5.

66.Serna, “Toute révolution est guerre d’indépendance.”

67.Drayton, Charge, on the Rise of the American Empire, 2, 8, 15.

68.Guizot, Histoire de la révolution d’Angleterre, depuis l’avènement de Charles Ier jusqu’a la restauration, 1:xvii: “Telle est enfin l’analogie des deux révolutions que la première n’eût jamais été bien comprise si la seconde n’eût éclaté.”

69.Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848), in Marx, Selected Writings, 230 (“den mehr oder minder versteckten Bürgerkrieg innerhalb der bestehenden Gesellschaft bis zu dem Punkt, wo er in eine offene Revolution ausbricht”); Balibar, “On the Aporias of Marxian Politics.”

70.Marx, The Civil War in France, in Marx and Engels, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), 22:158 (“und der bei Seite fleigt, sobald der Klassenkampf Bürgerkrieg auflodert”).

71.Lenin, Clausewitz’ Werk “Vom Kriege”; Hahlweg, “Lenin und Clausewitz.”

72.The description is Carl Schmitt’s. Schmitt, Theory of the Partisan, trans. Ulmen, 93.

73.Lenin [and Grigorii Zinoviev], The Military Programme of the Proletarian Revolution (Sept. 1916), in Collected Works, 23:78. On the immediate context of Lenin and Zinoviev’s pamphlet, see Nation, War on War, 80–83.

74.Stalin (1928), quoted in Rieber, “Civil Wars in the Soviet Union,” 140.

75.Compare Eckstein, “On the Etiology of Internal Wars,” 133; Canal, “Guerra civil y contrarrevolución en la Europa del sur en el siglo XIX,” 46.


Civilizing Civil War

The Nineteenth Century

1.Lincoln, “Address Delivered at the Dedication of the Cemetery at Gettysburg” (Nov. 19, 1863), in Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 7:23.

2.See especially Wills, Lincoln at Gettysburg; Boritt, Gettysburg Gospel; and Johnson, Writing the Gettysburg Address, none of which treats the phrase “great civil war.”

3.Cimbala and Miller, Great Task Remaining Before Us; Varon, Appomattox; Downs, After Appomattox.

4.Mably, Des droits et des devoirs du citoyen (1758), 62–63 (“la guerre civile est quelque foix un grand bien”).

5.“La guerra civil es un don de cielo,” quoted in Fuentes, “Guerra civil,” 609; Fuentes, “Belle époque,” 84–93.

6.Chateaubriand, Mémoires d’outre-tombe, 1358; Caron, Frères de sang, 153–57.

7.Compare Ranzato, “Evidence et invisibilité des guerres civiles”; Grangé, De la guerre civile; Grangé, Oublier la guerre civile?; and, on the more general absence of war from social theory, Joas and Köbl, War in Social Thought, 2.

8.Rousseau, Social Contract, in Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings 1.4.9, ed. Gourevitch, 46–47. Rousseau’s argument was, in part, an attack on Hugo Grotius’s conception of a “private” war, on which see chapter 3 above.

9.Clausewitz, On War. Civil war also makes only fleeting appearances in Clausewitz’s less well-known writings on “small war” (kleiner Krieg). Clausewitz, Clausewitz on Small War, trans. Daase and Davis, 121, 131, 163.

10.Mao and Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare.

11.“Vouloir donner des maximes pour ces sortes de guerres serait absurde”: Jomini, Précis de l’art de la guerre, 1:85. For more recent accounts attempting to bring civil war within the pale of normative theory see Franco Restrepo, Guerras civiles; Fabre, Cosmopolitan War, 130–65.

12.Moynier, Étude sur la Convention de Genève pour l’amélioration du sort des militaires blessés dans les armées en campagne (1864 et 1868), 304 (“Nous ne parlons pas, cela va sans dire, des guerres civiles; les lois internationales ne leur sont pas applicables.”)

13.In volumes 4–8 of Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, covering the period 1861–65, “rebellion” appears 340 times, “civil war” 64 times.​l/lincoln/.

14.Gastineau, Histoire de la souscription populaire à la médaille Lincoln; Boritt, Neely, and Holzer, “European Image of Abraham Lincoln,” 161; Doyle, Cause of All Nations, 295–97.

15.Hugo, Les Misérables (The Wretched): A Novel; Providence Evening Bulletin, May 25, 1885, quoted in Lebreton-Savigny, Victor Hugo et les Américains (1825–1885), 31 (translation corrected). Les Misérables was published in French in Brussels in late March 1862 and in Paris in early April 1862.

16.Hugo, Les Misérables: A Novel, trans. Wilbour, 4:164–65.

17.Laurent, “ ‘La guerre civile?’ ”; Caron, Frères de sang, 157–62.

18.Beckert, Empire of Cotton, 242–73.

19.Geyer and Bright, “Global Violence and Nationalizing Wars in Eurasia and America”; Bayly, Birth of the Modern World, 1780–1914, 148–65; Platt, Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom.

20.Armitage et al., “Interchange.”

21.Pavković, Creating New States, 65–94.

22.Wimmer and Min, “From Empire to Nation-State,” 881 (quoted); Wimmer, Cederman, and Min, “Ethnic Politics and Armed Conflict”; Wimmer, Waves of War.

23.“Meeting of the Sub-committee [of the Société Publique for the Relief of Wounded Combatants], held on March 17, 1863,” in International Committee of the Red Cross, “The Foundation of the Red Cross”: 67.

24.Boissier, Histoire du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge, 391–94; Siordet, “The Geneva Conventions and Civil War”; Sivakumaran, The Law of Non-international Armed Conflict, 31–37 (to which I am indebted in this paragraph).

25.Mill, “A Few Words on Non-intervention,” in Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, 21:120, 118, 121; Varouxakis, Liberty Abroad, 77–89.

26.Mill, “The Contest in America” (1862), in Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, 21:140, 142, 138; Varouxakis, “ ‘Negrophilist’ Crusader.”

27.Pitts, “Intervention and Sovereign Equality.”

28.“Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union” (Dec. 20, 1860), in Journal of the Convention of the People of South Carolina, Held in 1860, 1861 and 1862, 461–66 (my emphasis).

29.Lincoln, “Message to Congress in Special Session” (July 4, 1861), in Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 4:426, 435, 436 (Lincoln’s emphases).

30.Ibid., 4:433.

31.Lincoln, “First Inaugural Address” (March 4, 1861), in Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 4:265. Lincoln had originally written “Treasonable” in place of “revolutionary.” Ibid., 4:265n16.

32.Pavković, Creating New States, 221–40.

33.Lincoln, “Address Delivered at the Dedication of the Cemetery at Gettysburg,” in Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 7:23.

34.Wright, “American Civil War (1861–65),” 43.

35.Neff, Justice in Blue and Gray, 32–34.

36.The Prize Cases, 67 U.S. 635 (1863); McGinty, Lincoln and the Court, 118–43; Lee and Ramsey, “Story of the Prize Cases”; Neff, Justice in Blue and Gray, 20–29.

37.The Prize Cases, 67 U.S. 635 (1863), citing Vattel, Law of Nations 3.18.293, ed. Kapossy and Whatmore, 645.

38.Halleck, International Law, 73–75.

39.Halleck also derived the category of “wars of Islamism” from Jomini. Halleck later translated Jomini’s Life of Napoleon.

40.Halleck, International Law, 332–33.

41.Carroll, War Powers of the General Government, 7–8, citing Vattel, Law of Nations 3.18.293.

42.Dyer, “Francis Lieber and the American Civil War”; Mack and Lesesne, Francis Lieber and the Culture of the Mind.

43.Baxter, “First Modern Codification of the Law of War”; Hartigan, Military Rules, Regulations, and the Code of War; Witt, Lincoln’s Code; Finkelman, “Francis Lieber and the Modern Law of War.”

44.Lieber to George Stillman Hillard, May 11, 1861, Lieber MSS, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif. (hereafter HEH), LI 2308.

45.Lieber, “[Notes on the] English and Ferench [sic] Revolutions” (ca. 1850), Lieber MSS, HEH LI 365.

46.Lieber, “Some Questions Answered—Secession—the Strength of Armies and Navys, &ca.” (ca. 1851), Lieber MSS, HEH LI 369.

47.Lieber, “[Remarks Regarding the Right of Secession]” (ca. 1851), Lieber MSS, HEH LI 368.

48.Lieber, “Twenty-Seven Definitions and Elementary Positions Concerning the Laws and Usages of War” (1861) and “Laws and Usages of War” (Oct. 1861–Feb. 1862), Lieber MSS, Eisenhower Library, Johns Hopkins University, box 2, items 15, 16–18.

49.Lieber, “Laws and Usages of War,” Lieber MSS, John Hopkins University, box 2, item 17. The reference to “contentio justa” comes from Alberico Gentili (1552–1608), cited in Kennedy, Influence of Christianity on International Law, 91.

50.Lieber, “Civil War,” Lieber MSS, John Hopkins University, box 2, item 18; Lieber, Guerrilla Parties, 21; Witt, Lincoln’s Code, 193–96.

51.Halleck to Lieber, Aug. 6, 1862; Lieber to Halleck, Aug. 9, 1862, Lieber MSS, HEH, LI 1646, 1758.

52.Lieber to Bates, Nov. 9, 1862, Lieber MSS, HEH, LI 852.

53.Halleck, annotation to Lieber, Code for the Government of Armies in the Field, 25–[26], HEH, 243077.

54.Lieber to Halleck, March 4, 1863, Lieber MSS, HEH 1778; compare Lieber, [U.S. Field Order 100.] Section X.

55.Lieber, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, 34.

56.Neff, War and the Law of Nations, 256–57.

57.U.S. Constitution, article I, secs. 8–9; Fourteenth Amendment (1868), sec. 3.

58.See also U.S. Naval War Records Office, Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion.

59.Witt, Lincoln’s Code, 340–45.

60.U.S. Department of War, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field.

61.Ramsey, Masterpiece of Counterguerrilla Warfare, 119–41.

62.For example, Davis, Military Laws of the United States, 798; U.S. Department of War, Rules of Land Warfare; U.S. Department of War, Basic Field Manual; U.S. Department of the Army, Law of Land Warfare, 9. More generally, see Kretchik, U.S. Army Doctrine.

63.Compare Fleche, Revolution of 1861.

64.Coulter, “Name for the American War of 1861–1865,” 123, quoting Mildred Rutherford; Hoar, South’s Last Boys in Gray, 524–25 (estimating 120 names for the war); Musick, “War by Any Other Name”; Coski, “War Between the Names”; Manning and Rothman, “Name of War.”

65.Thomas M. Patterson, Congressional Record (Jan. 11, 1907), 944, in Record Group 94 (Office of the Adjutant General), Administrative Precedent File (“Frech File”), box 16, bundle 58, “Civil War,” National Archives, Washington, D.C.

66.Congressional Record (Jan. 11, 1907), 944–49; clipping from unnamed Washington, D.C., newspaper, Jan. 12, 1907, “Frech File,” National Archives, Washington, D.C.

67.Coulter, “Name for the American War of 1861–1865,” 128–29; United Daughters of the Confederacy, Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Convention of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, 298.

68.Blight, Race and Reunion, 15, 300–337.

69.Melville, “The Surrender at Appomattox (April, 1865),” in Published Poems, 100; Thomas, “ ‘My Brother Got Killed in the War,’ ” 301–3.

70.Lucan, Bellum civile 1.128, in Lucan, Civil War, trans. Braund, 6; Jacob, Testament to Union, 169; Malamud, “Auctoritas of Antiquity,” 310–11.

71.Engels to Marx, May 23, 1862, in Marx and Engels, Collected Works, trans. Dixon et al., 41:367.


Worlds of Civil War

The Twentieth Century

1.Torres Bodet, “Why We Fight.” My thanks to Glenda Sluga for this reference.

2.Neumann, “International Civil War,” 333, 350; Kunze, “Zweiter Dreißigjähriger Krieg.”

3.Voltaire, Le siècle de Louis XIV (1756), quoted in Pagden, “Europe: Conceptualizing a Continent,” in The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, ed. Pagden, 37.

4.Fénelon, Fables and Dialogues of the Dead, 183; Bell, First Total War, 59.

5.Lucan, Bellum civile 1.1–2: “bella per Emathios plus quam civilia campos, /…canimus” (my emphases).

6.Armitage, “Cosmopolitanism and Civil War.”

7.Kant, “Toward Perpetual Peace,” in Practical Philosophy, trans. Gregor, 330.

8.Rousseau, Project for Perpetual Peace, 9 (“presque la cruauté des guerres civiles”).

9.Bourrienne, Mémoires de M. de Bourrienne, ministre d’état, 5:207: “La Turquie exceptée, l’Europe n’est qu’une province du monde; quand nous battons, nous ne faisons que de la guerre civile.”

10.Martin, La Russie et l’Europe, 106: “Toutes les guerres entre Européens sont guerres civiles.”

11.See, for example, G. K. Chesterton, in Hymans, Fort, and Rastoul, Pax mundi; Coudenhove-Kalergi, Europe Must Unite, title page.

12.Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War, Final Record of the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1949, 2B:325, 11; Sivakumaran, Law of Non-international Armed Conflict, 30–31, 40.

13.International Committee of the Red Cross, Seventeenth International Red Cross Conference, Stockholm, August 1948: Report, 71; Pictet, Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 39–48. On the drafting of Common Article 3, see Moir, Law of Internal Armed Conflict, 23–29.

14.For guides to the legal background across the twentieth century, see Rougier, Les guerres civiles et le droit des gens; Siotis, Le droit de la guerre et les conflits armés d’un caractère non-international; Castrén, Civil War; La Haye, War Crimes in Internal Armed Conflicts; Solis, Law of Armed Conflict; Dinstein, Non-international Armed Conflicts in International Law; Moir, “Concept of Non-international Armed Conflict.”

15.Geneva Convention, Common Article 3, in Pictet, Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 37–38.

16.Sivakumaran, Law of Non-international Armed Conflict, 163; Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War, Final Record of the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1949, 1:351, quoted in ibid., 163. On the colonial determinants of the debate around the revised Geneva Conventions, see Klose, “Colonial Testing Ground,” 108–11; Klose, Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence, trans. Geyer, 122–24.

17.Institut de Droit International, “Principle of Non-intervention in Civil Wars.”

18.Moir, Law of Internal Armed Conflict, 89–132; Sivakumaran, Law of Non-international Armed Conflict, 49–92, 182–92.

19.Cullen, Concept of Non-international Armed Conflict in International Humanitarian Law; Vité, “Typology of Armed Conflicts in International Humanitarian Law,” 75–83; David, “Internal (Non-international) Armed Conflict.”

20.On the general question of classifying conflict, see Wilmshurst, International Law and the Classification of Conflicts.

21.Institut de Droit International, “Application of International Humanitarian Law and Fundamental Human Rights, in Armed Conflicts in Which Non-state Entities Are Parties.”

22.Kolb, “Le droit international public et le concept de guerre civile depuis 1945”; Mattler, “Distinction Between Civil Wars and International Wars and Its Legal Implications.”

23.International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor v. Tadić, § 97.

24.For a summary and critique of these efforts, see Kreβ and Mégret, “The Regulation of Non-international Armed Conflicts.”

25.U.K. Ministry of Defence, Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, 381–408.

26.Sewall, introduction to U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual, 352.

27.International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor v. Tadić, §§ 126, 119.

28.U.S. Department of State, Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs, “Daily Press Briefing—December 2, 2011”; Pressman, “Why Deny Syria Is in a Civil War?”

29.Chenoweth, “Syrian Conflict Is Already a Civil War”; Murphy, “Why It’s Time to Call Syria a Civil War.”

30.“Syria Crisis: Death Toll Tops 17,000, Says Opposition Group,” Huffington Post, July 9, 2012; “Syria in Civil War, Red Cross Says,” BBC News, Middle East, July 15, 2012.

31.International Committee of the Red Cross, “Internal Conflicts or Other Situations of Violence.”

32.Eckstein, “Introduction: Toward the Theoretical Study of Internal War,” in Internal War, 1. On Eckstein, see Almond, “Harry Eckstein as Political Theorist.”

33.Eckstein, “On the Etiology of Internal Wars.” For recent overviews of the Cold War and the social sciences, see Engerman, “Social Science in the Cold War”; Gilman, “Cold War as Intellectual Force Field.”

34.Orlansky, State of Research on Internal War, 3; compare Eckstein, Internal War, 32: “The crucial issues…are pre-theoretical issues.”

35.U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Nature of Revolution, 155–56; Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution; McAlister, Viet Nam.

36.For the broader intellectual and political context within which Rawls gave his lectures, see Forrester, “Citizenship, War, and the Origins of International Ethics in American Political Philosophy, 1960–1975.”

37.Rawls, “Moral Problems.”

38.Compare, for example, Speier, Revolutionary War.

39.John Rawls, “Topic III: Just War: Jus ad bellum” (1969), Harvard University Archives, Acs. 14990, box 12, file 4; Mill, “A Few Words on Non-intervention” (1859), in Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, 21:111–23.

40.Foucault, “La société punitive,” Lecture 1 (Jan. 3, 1973), 16–17; Foucault, La société punitive, 14–15; Foucault, Punitive Society, trans. Burchell, 13.

41.Hoffman, “Foucault’s Politics and Bellicosity as a Matrix for Power Relations.”

42.Foisneau, “Farewell to Leviathan.”

43.Foucault, “La société punitive,” Lecture 2 (Jan. 10, 1973), 22–23, 28–29; Foucault, La société punitive, 26–31 (“la guerre civile se déroule sur le théâtre du pouvoir”), 34 (“la politique est la continuation de la guerre civile”); Foucault, Punitive Society, trans. Burchell, 24–32.

44.Wright, Study of War; Richardson, Statistics of Deadly Quarrels; Singer and Small, Wages of War, 1816–1965.

45.Small and Singer, Resort to Arms, 203–4.

46.Ibid., 210–20; Henderson and Singer, “Civil War in the Post-colonial World, 1946–92,” 284–85.

47.Sambanis, “What Is Civil War?,” 816.

48.For other discussions, see, for example, Duvall, “Appraisal of the Methodological and Statistical Procedures of the Correlates of War Project”; Cramer, Civil War Is Not a Stupid Thing, 57–86; Vasquez, War Puzzle Revisited, 27–29.

49.The metropole/periphery distinction was later dropped by the Correlates of War Project. Sarkees and Wayman, Resort to War, 43, 47.

50.This difficulty haunts even the more pragmatic definition of civil war offered by the Yale political scientist Stathis Kalyvas: “armed combat within the boundaries of a recognized sovereign entity between parties subject to a common authority at the outset of the hostilities.” Kalyvas, Logic of Violence in Civil War, 17 (my emphasis).

51.Remak, Very Civil War, 157.

52.Hopkinson, Green Against Green, 272–73.

53.Sutton, Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland, 1969–1993; Conflict Archive on the Internet, “Violence: Deaths During the Conflict.”

54.Sambanis, “It’s Official”; see also Toft, “Is It a Civil War, or Isn’t It?”

55.Annan, quoted in Cordesmann, Iraq’s Insurgency and the Road to Civil Conflict, 2:393.

56.Lando, “By the Numbers, It’s Civil War.”

57.Wong, “Matter of Definition.”

58.Erdoğan, quoted in Cordesmann, Iraq’s Insurgency and the Road to Civil Conflict, 2:393.

59.Keeter, “Civil War.”

60.Stansfield, “Accepting Realities in Iraq.”

61.Fearon, “Testimony to U.S. House of Representatives…on ‘Iraq: Democracy or Civil War?’ ”

62.Fearon, “Iraq’s Civil War.”

63.Zavis, “Maliki Challenges ‘Civil War’ Label.”

64.Taheri, “There Is No Civil War in Iraq.”

65.Keegan and Bull, “What Is a Civil War?”

66.Patten, “Is Iraq in a Civil War?”: 32, 27.

67.U.S. Army Field Manual 100–20: Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict, quoted in Patten, “Is Iraq in a Civil War?”: 28

68.Patten, “Is Iraq in a Civil War?”: 29 (my emphasis).

69.“Piú che ad una guerra fra nazioni, noi assistiamo ad una mondiale guerra civile”: Salvemini, “Non abbiamo niente da dire” (Sept. 4, 1914), in Come siamo andati in Libia e altri scritti dal 1900 al 1915, 366; “…dieser Großkrieg ist ein europäischer Bürgerkrieg, ein Krieg gegen der inneren, unsichtbaren Feind des europäischen Geistes”: Marc, “Das geheime Europa” (Nov. 1914), in Marc, Schriften, 165; Losurdo, War and Revolution, trans. Elliott, 82; Traverso, A ferro e fuoco, 29.

70.Keynes, Economic Consequences of the Peace, 5.

71.Rusconi, Se cessiamo di essere una nazione, 101–21; Traverso, A ferro e fuoco; Traverso, “New Anti-Communism”; Cattani, “Europe as a Nation,” 8–9.

72.Friedrich, “International Civil War,” in Foreign Policy in the Making, 223–53; Losurdo, “Une catégorie centrale du révisionnisme.”

73.Roy, War and Revolution, 46–54, 83–91, 96, 108–9; Manjapra, M. N. Roy, 128–29.

74.Nolte, Der europäische Bürgerkrieg, 1917–1945; Nipperdey, Doering-Manteuffel, and Thamer, Weltbürgerkrieg der Ideologien; Bonnet, “Réflexions et jeux d’échelles autour de la notion de ‘guerre civile européenne.’ ” For a different approach, see Payne, Civil War in Europe, 1904–1949.

75.Acheson, Present at the Creation, 4–5.

76.John F. Kennedy, “State of the Union Address” (Jan. 11, 1962), in U.S. President (1961–1963: Kennedy), Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 2:9; Miller, Modernism and the Crisis of Sovereignty, 15–16.

77.Schmitt, Theory of the Partisan, trans. Ulmen, 95.

78.Schmitt, Donoso Cortés in gesamteuropäischer Interpretation, 7 (“der europäische Bürgerkrieg von 1848…und der globale Weltbürgerkrieg der Gegenwart”), 18–19, 21, 85–86, 113–14; Schmitt, La guerre civile mondiale; Kesting, Geschichtsphilosophie und Weltbürgerkrieg; Schnur, Revolution und Weltbürgerkrieg; Portinaro, “L’epoca della guerra civile mondiale?”; Müller, Dangerous Mind, 104–15; Jouin, Le retour de la guerre juste, 269–90.

79.Students for a Democratic Society, Port Huron Statement, 27.

80.Arendt, On Revolution, 17; Bates, “On Revolutions in the Nuclear Age.”

81.Galli, Political Spaces and Global War (2001–2), trans. Fay, 171–72; Härting, Global Civil War and Post-colonial Studies; Odysseos, “Violence After the State?”; Odysseos, “Liberalism’s War, Liberalism’s Order.”

82.Hardt and Negri, Multitude, 341.

83.Agamben, State of Exception, trans. Attell, 2–3; see also Agamben, Stasis, trans. Heron, 24 (“The form that civil war has acquired today in world history is ‘terrorism’….Terrorism is the ‘global civil war’ which time and again invests this or that zone of planetary space.”).

84.On the congruences, empirical and definitional, between “civil war” and “terrorism,” see Findley and Young, “Terrorism and Civil War.”

85.Jung, “Introduction: Towards Global Civil War?”


Civil Wars of Words

1.Moses, “Civil War or Genocide?”; Rabinbach, “The Challenge of the Unprecedented.”

2.Lepore, Name of War, xv.

3.Kalyvas, “Civil Wars,” 416, where he notes it is “a phenomenon prone to serious semantic confusion, even contestation.” See also Waldmann, “Guerra civil”; Angstrom, “Towards a Typology of Internal Armed Conflict”; Sambanis, “What Is Civil War?”; Mundy, “Deconstructing Civil Wars”; González Calleja, Arbusti, and Pinto, “Guerre civili,” 34–42; González Calleja, Las guerras civiles, 34–78; Jackson, “Critical Perspectives,” 81–83.

4.De Quincey, “[Fragments Relating to ‘Casuistry’]” (ca. 1839–43), in Works of Thomas De Quincey, 11:602.

5.Pavone, Civil War, 269–70.

6.Mamdani, “Politics of Naming”; Mamdani, Saviors and Survivors, 3–6.

7.Freedman, “What Makes a Civil War?”

8.Talmon, “Recognition of the Libyan National Transitional Council.”

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