NOTES

EPIGRAPH

1. Andrew Roberts, Salisbury: Victorian Titan (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999), p. 687.

2. Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 30.

PREFACE: WHAT HAPPENED TO US?

1. Charles L. Mee, Jr., The End of Order: Versailles 1919 (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980), pp. xvi–xvii.

2. Ibid., p. xvii.

3. Ibid., p. 259.

4. G. J. Meyer, A World Undone: The Story of the Great War 1914–1918 (New York: E. P. Dutton, 2006), pp. 123, 141.

INTRODUCTION: THE GREAT CIVIL WAR OF THE WEST

1. Captain Russell Grenfell, R.N., Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (New York: Devin-Adair, 1953), p. 68.

2. Russell Kirk, America’s British Culture (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1993), p. 7.

3. Thomas A. Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace (New York: Macmillan, 1944), p. 18; Thomas Fleming, The Illusion of Victory: America in World War I (New York: Basic, 2003), p. 319.

4. Walter Lippmann, U.S. War Aims (Boston: Little, Brown, 1944), p. 174. 5. Everyone’s Mark Twain, Compiled by Caroline Thomas Harnsberger (New York: A. S. Barnes, 1972), p. 150.

6. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Selected Poetry and Prose, Introduction by Kenneth Neill Cameron (New York: Rinehart, 1958), p. 32.

7. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 1.

8. Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Leftism Revisited: From De Sade and Marx to Hitler and Pol Pot (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1990), p. 206.

9. Michael Riccards, “Two Years, 10 Major Decisions,” Washington Times, Aug. 5, 2007, p. B7; Patrick J. Buchanan, The Death of the West: How Dying Populations and Immigrant Invasions Imperil Our Country and Civilization (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002), p. 73.

10. Charles L. Mee, Jr., The End of Order: Versailles 1919 (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980), p. xvii.

11. A.J.P. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 274; Alistair Horne, To Lose a Battle: France 1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1969), p. 22.

12. Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), p. iv.

13. John Meacham, “Bush, Yalta and the Blur of Hindsight,” Washington Post, Sunday, May 15, 2005, p. B1; Patrick J. Buchanan, “Was World War II Worth It?” Creators.com, May 11, 2005.

CHAPTER 1: THE END OF “SPLENDID ISOLATION

1. Robert K. Massie, Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War (New York: Ballantine, 1991), p. 241; Andrew Roberts, Salisbury: Victorian Titan (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999), p. 628.

2. Massie, p. 241.

3. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 8.

4. Henry A. Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 178.

5. Bradford Perkins, The Great Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1895–1914 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), p. 9.

6. Roberts, p. 617.

7. Philip Magnus, King Edward the Seventh (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1964), p. 255.

8. Roberts, p. 687.

9. Roberts, p. 688.

10. Roberts, p. 688; Massie, p. 247.

11. Roberts, p. 710.

12. Peter Clarke, Hope and Glory: Britain 1900–1990 (New York: Penguin Press, 1996), p. 35.

13. Kenton J. Clymer, John Hay, The Gentleman as Diplomat (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1975), p. 158.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid.

16. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 255.

17. Hajo Holborn, The Political Collapse of Europe (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969), p. 72.

18. Denman, p. 8.

19. Massie, pp. 589–90.

20. Winston S. Churchill, Great Contemporaries (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 27.

21. Ibid.

22. Kissinger, p. 134.

23. Carl L. Becker, Modern History: The Rise of a Democratic, Scientific and Industrialized Civilization (New York: Silver Burdett, 1946), p. 641.

24. Henrik Bering, “Prussian Maneuvers,” Policy Review, April–May 2007, p. 94.

25. Michael Sturmer, The German Empire: 1870–1918 (New York: Modern Library, 2000), p. 83.

26. Holborn, p. 53.

27. George F. Kennan, The Fateful Alliance: France, Russia and the Coming of the First World War (New York: Pantheon, 1984), p. 253.

28. Ibid., p. 250.

29. Ibid., p. 251.

30. Giles MacDonogh, The Last Kaiser: The Life of Wilhelm II (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), p. 251.

31. Magnus, p. 272.

32. MacDonogh, p. 252.

33. Ibid., p. 2.

34. Ibid., p. 461.

35. Ibid., p. 2.

36. Ibid., pp. 306–7.

37. Magnus, p. 338.

38. Barbara W. Tuchman, The Guns of August (New York: Macmillan, 1962), p. 2.

39. Massie, p. 185.

40. Arthur Herman, To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World (New York: HarperCollins, 2004), p. 471.

41. Ibid., p. 473.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., p. 476.

44. MacDonogh, p. 224.

45. Lawrence James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1994), p. 335.

46. G. J. Meyer, A World Undone: The Story of the Great War 1914–1918 (New York: Delacorte Press, 2006), p. 527.

47. Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War (New York: Random House, 1979), p. 264.

48. Ibid.

49. Francis Neilson, The Churchill Legend (Brooklyn, N.Y.: 29 Books, 2004), p. 113.

50. Ibid.

51. Denman, p. 24.

52. Neilson, p. 115.

53. Magnus, p. 340.

54. Neilson, p. 106; Barbara Tuchman, The Proud Tower: A Portrait of the World Before the War 1890–1914 (New York: Ballantine, 1994), p. 275; MacDonogh, p. 306; Ralph Raico, “World War I—The Turning Point,” The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories. Edited with an Introduction by John Denson (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 215.

55. Tuchman, Proud Tower, p. 275; Roy Hattersley, The Edwardians (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004), p. 58.

56. Magnus, p. 358.

57. MacDonogh, p. 281.

58. Holborn, p. 76.

59. Ibid., p. 78.

60. Ibid., p. 81.

61. Massie, p. 820; Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 57.

62. Robert Holmes, In the Footsteps of Churchill: A Study in Character (New York: Basic, 2005), p. 101.

63. James, p. 337.

64. Andreas Hillgruber, Germany and the Two World Wars, Translated by William C. Kirby (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 16.

65. Ibid.

66. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War (New York: Basic, 1999), p. 71.

67. John Laughland, The Tainted Source: The Undemocratic Origins of the European Idea (London: Warner, 1998), p. 111.

68. Ibid.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid.

71. Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 555.

72. Ibid.

73. David Steele, Lord Salisbury: A Political Biography (New York: Routledge, 1999), p. 121; Steven Mayer, “Carcass of Dead Policies: The Irrelevance of NATO,” Parameters, Winter 2003–4, p. 83.

74. Ferguson, p. 64.

75. Tuchman, Guns of August, p. 52; Ferguson, p. 66.

76. Raico, p. 219.

77. Ferguson, p. 153; MacDonogh, p. 360; Raico, p. 208; Meyer, p. 9.

78. Massie, p. 852.

79. Herman, pp. 490–91; Massie, pp. 852–53.

CHAPTER 2: LAST SUMMER OF YESTERDAY

1. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War (New York: Basic, 1999), p. xxxv.

2. Giles MacDonogh, The Last Kaiser, The Life of Wilhelm II (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), p. 371.

3. A.J.A. Morris, The Scaremongers: The Advocacy of War and Rearmament 1896–1914 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984), p. 355.

4. Ferguson, p. 70.

5. Winston Churchill, The World Crisis: 1911–1918 (New York: Free Press, 2005), pp. 94–95; Robert K. Massie, Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War (New York: Random House, 1991), p. 879; Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, Cassell, 1997), p. 21; Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 264.

6. Massie, p. 879.

7. Ibid.; John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory: A Political Biography (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1993), p. 96; Violet Bonham Carter, Winston Churchill: An Intimate Portrait (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965), p. 246; William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Visions of Glory 1874–1932 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1983), p. 465.

8. MacDonogh, p. 355; Gilbert, p. 265.

9. Massie, p. 889.

10. Churchill, p. 99.

11. Barbara W. Tuchman, The Guns of August (New York: Macmillan, 1962), p. 91.

12. Manchester, p. 472.

13. Morris, p. 358.

14. Manchester, p. 472.

15. Gilbert, p. 266.

16. Charmley, pp. 95–96.

17. Ibid., p. 96.

18. Simon Schama, A History of Britain: The Fate of Empire: 1776–2000 (New York: Hyperion, 2002), p. 436; Gilbert, p. 268; Charmley, p. 96.

19. MacDonogh, p. 355.

20. Andreas Hillgruber, Germany and the Two World Wars, Translated by William C. Kirby (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 37.

21. Charmley, p. 33.

22. Massie, p. 893.

23. Tuchman, p. 130.

24. Hillgruber, p. 9.

25. Ibid., p. 32.

26. G. J. Meyer, A World Undone: The Story of the Great War 1914–1918 (New York: Delacorte Press, 2006), p. 94.

27. Ibid.

28. John Keegan, The First World War (New York: Vintage, 2000), p. 31.

29. Massie, p. 895.

30. A.J.P. Taylor, A History of the First World War (New York: Berkley, 1966), p. 14.

31. Ibid.

32. Tuchman, p. 25.

33. Ibid.

34. Massie, p. 895; Tuchman, p. 26.

35. Massie, p. 896; Denman, p. 25.

36. MacDonogh, p. 352.

37. Winston Churchill, Great Contemporaries (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 137.

38. Roy Jenkins, Churchill: A Biography (New York: Plume, 2002), p. 239; Gilbert, p. 271; Massie, p. 898.

39. Bonham Carter, p. 251.

40. Charmley, p. 97.

41. Peter Rowland, David Lloyd George: A Biography (New York: Macmillan, 1975), p. 280; Denman, p. 21.

42. Rowland, p. 283.

43. Ferguson, pp. 443–44.

44. Rowland, p. 282.

45. Meyer, p. 133.

46. Charmley, p. 97; Gilbert, p. 271; Jenkins, p. 239; Rowland, p. 282.

47. Manchester, p. 464.

48. Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Power Order and the Lessons for Global Power (New York: Basic, 2003), p. 294.

49. Manchester, p. 464.

50. Ferguson, Pity, p. 67.

51. Gilbert, p. 236.

52. C. Paul Vincent, The Politics of Hunger: The Allied Blockade of Germany 1915–1919 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1985), p. 4.

53. Churchill, World Crisis, p. 102.

54. Ralph Raico, “World War I: The Turning Point,” in The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories, Second Expanded Edition, John Denson, ed. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 215.

55. Tuchman, p. 117.

56. Massie, p. 907.

57. Ibid.; Manchester, p. 474.

58. Massie, p. 908.

59. Rowland, pp. 283–84.

60. Ibid., p. 284.

61. Meyer, p. 134.

62. Roy Hattersley, The Edwardians (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003), p. 480.

63. Meyer, p. 134.

64. Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 62.

65. Gilbert, p. 275; Hattersley, p. 480. Hattersley attributes the description of Churchill to Margot Asquith rather than Lloyd George.

66. Bonham Carter, p. 295; Ferguson, p. 178.

67. Manchester, p. 471.

68. Robert Payne, The Great Man: A Portrait of Winston Churchill (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1974), p. 150.

69. Keegan, p. 3.

70. Meyer, p. 67.

71. Keegan, p. 3.

72. Ferguson, Pity, p. 163; Denman, p. 22.

73. Ferguson, ibid.

74. Ibid., p. 173; A.J.P. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 4.

75. Taylor, p. 161.

76. Ferguson, Pity, p. xxxvii.

77. Ibid., p. 168; Captain Russell Grenfell, R.N., Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (New York: Devin-Adair, 1953), p. 18.

78. Morris, p. 359.

79. Ferguson, Empire, p. 298.

80. Ferguson, Pity, p. 163.

81. Francis Neilson, The Churchill Legend (Brooklyn, N.Y.: 29 Books, 2004), p. 117.

82. Ibid.

83. Francis Neilson, The Makers of War (Appleton, Wisc.: C. C. Nelson, 1950), p. 19.

84. Bonham Carter, p. 266.

85. Peter Clarke, Hope and Glory: Britain 1900–1990 (London: Penguin Press, 1996), p. 72.

86. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (Great Britain: Sutton, 1997), p. 57; Vincent, p. 4.

87. Barnett, p. 57.

88. Ibid.

89. Ibid.

90. Hajo Holborn, The Political Collapse of Europe (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969), p. 96.

91. Taylor, English History, pp. 2–3.

92. David Fromkin, Europe’s Last Summer: Who Started the Great War? (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004), p. 250.

93. Patrick J. Buchanan, Death of the West (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002), p. 73.

94. Keegan, p. 66.

95. Massie, p. 869; MacDonogh, p. 356.

96. Ferguson, Pity, p. 149.

97. Ibid., p. 156; Meyer, pp. 52–53.

98. MacDonogh, p. 355.

99. Massie, p. 875; Tuchman, p. 79.

100. Massie, ibid.; MacDonogh, p. 361; Tuchman, p. 80.

101. Massie, ibid.; MacDonogh, p. 361.

102. MacDonogh, p. 294.

103. Ferguson, Pity, p. 168.

104. Ibid., p. 169.

105. Ibid.

106. Tuchman, p. 75.

107. MacDonogh, p. 360.

108. Massie, p. 901; Tuchman, p. 53.

109. Ferguson, Pity, p. xxxvii.

110. Churchill, Great Contemporaries, p. 38.

111. Tuchman, p. 76.

112. Fromkin, p. 250.

113. Andrew Roberts, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900 (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), pp. 53, 81.

114. Ibid., p. 79.

115. Grenfell, pp. 54–55.

116. Henrik Bering, “Prussian Maneuvers,” Policy Review, April–May 2007, p. 90.

117. Denman, p. 24.

118. Ferguson, Pity, pp. 170–71.

119. Gilbert, p. 270; Meyer, p. 71.

120. John Laughland, The Tainted Source: The Undemocratic Origins of the European Idea (London: Warner, 1998), p. 114.

121. MacDonogh, pp. 259–60.

122. David Calleo, The German Problem Reconsidered: Germany and the World Order, 1870 to the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 44.

123. Ferguson, Pity, p. 172.

124. Ibid., pp. 172–73.

125. Ibid., p. 444.

126. Lawrence James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1994), p. 367.

127. Jim Powell, Wilson’s War: How Woodrow Wilson’s Great Blunder Led to Hitler, Lenin, Stalin and World War II (New York: Crown Forum, 2005), p. 43.

128. Ibid.

129. Ibid.

130. Neilson, Makers of War, p. 113.

131. Hughes, p. 60.

132. Neilson, The Churchill Legend, p. 169.

133. Ibid., p. 159.

134. Grenfell, pp. 3–4; Hughes, p. 63.

135. Jenkins, p. 239.

136. Tuchman, pp. 91, 94; Manchester, p. 474.

137. Manchester, p. 470.

138. Ibid.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid., p. 471.

141. Ibid., p. 473; Gilbert, p. 272; Churchill, Great Contemporaries, p. 148.

142. Gilbert, p. 274; Jenkins, p. 240; Ralph Raico, “Rethinking Churchill,” The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories, Second Expanded Edition, John Denson, ed. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 330.

143. Charmley, p. 99.

144. Gilbert, p. 281.

145. Ibid., p. 285.

146. Ibid., pp. 294–95.

147. Richard Holmes, In the Footsteps of Churchill: A Study in Character (New York: Basic, 2005), p. 72.

148. Gilbert, pp. 277–78.

149. Walter Millis, Road to War: America 1914–1917 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1935), p. 48; Raico, “Turning Point,” p. 220.

CHAPTER 3: “A POISONOUS SPIRIT OF REVENGE

1. Peter Rowland, David Lloyd George: A Biography (New York: Macmillan, 1975), p. 476.

2. Richard A. Odorfer, The Soul of Germany: A Unique History of the Germans from the Earliest Times to Present (New Braunfels, Tex.: Richard A. Odorfer, 1995), p. 290.

3. John Keegan, The First World War (New York: Vintage, 2000), p. 405; G. J. Meyer, World Undone: The Story of the Great War 1914–1918 (New York: Delacorte Press, 2006), pp. 563–64.

4. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–1941 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 10.

5. Ibid., p. 11.

6. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 32.

7. Jim Powell, Wilson’s War: How Woodrow Wilson’s Great Blunder Led to Hitler, Lenin, Stalin and World War II (New York: Crown Forum, 2005), pp. 2–3; C. Paul Vincent, The Politics of Hunger: The Allied Blockade of Germany, 1915–1919 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1985), p. 70.

8. Roy Hattersley, The Edwardians (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004), p. 95.

9. Rowland, p. 463.

10. Ibid., p. 470.

11. Denman, p. 38; Peter Clarke, Hope and Glory: Britain 1900–1990 (London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press, 1996), p. 102; Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World (New York: Random House, 2002), p. 189.

12. Francis Neilson, The Churchill Legend (Brooklyn, N.Y.: 29 Books, 2004), pp. 254, 256.

13. George Kennan, American Diplomacy 1900–1950 (New York: A Mentor Book, 1951), pp. 55–56.

14. Thomas A. Bailey, Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace (New York: Macmillan, 1944), p. 153.

15. Vincent, p. 85; Thomas Fleming, The Illusion of Victory: America in World War I (New York: Basic, 2003), p. 324.

16. Richard Holmes, In the Footsteps of Churchill (New York; Basic, 2005), p. 72; Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 143.

17. A.J.P. Taylor, A History of the First World War (New York: Berkley, 1966), p. 171.

18. Bailey, p. 34.

19. Ibid., p. 37.

20. Norman Davies, God’s Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes, Volume II: 1795 to the Present (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), p. 393.

21. Tansill, p. 21.

22. Denman, p. 43.

23. Taylor, p. 169.

24. Bailey, p. 242; MacMillan, p. 187; Fleming, p. 366.

25. Fleming, p. 382.

26. Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Leftism Revisited: From De Sade and Marx to Hitler and Pol Pot (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1990), p. 218.

27. Captain Russell Grenfell, R.N., Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (New York: Devin-Adair, 1953), p. 241.

28. Denman, p. 49.

29. Taylor, p. 158.

30. Bailey, p. 309; William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 5.

31. Ralph Raico, “World War I: The Turning Point,” in The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories, Second Expanded Edition, John Denson, ed. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 222.

32. Neilson, p. 250.

33. Ibid., p. 251.

34. Fleming, p. 323.

35. Odorfer, p. 289.

36. Bailey, p. 305.

37. Charles L. Mee, Jr., The End of Order: Versailles 1919 (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980), p. 129; Vincent, p. 112; Odorfer, p. 289.

38. Raico, p. 240; Fleming, p. 355.

39. Denman, p. 34.

40. Ibid., p. 35.

41. Herbert Hoover and Hugh Gibson, The Problems of Lasting Peace (New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1943), reprinted in Prefaces to Peace: A Symposium (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1943), pp. 227–28.

42. Tansill, p. 24.

43. Odorfer, p. 292; Fleming, p. 376.

44. Denman, p. 48; Mee, pp. 215–16.

45. Fleming, p. 377.

46. Bailey, p. 290; Fleming, p. 377.

47. Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p. 26.

48. Fleming, p. 377; Mee, p. 218.

49. Odorfer, p. 292.

50. Otto Friedrich, Before the Deluge: A Portrait of Berlin in the 1920s (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), pp. 49–50; Patrick J. Buchanan, A Republic, Not an Empire (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), p. 214.

51. A. David Andelman, A Shattered Peace: Versailles 1919 and the Price We Pay Today (Hoboken, N.J.: John T. Wiley & Sons, 2007), p. 290.

52. Ibid.

53. Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 218.

54. William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Visions of Glory 1874–1932 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1983), p. 660.

55. Odorfer, p. 294; Mee, p. 249.

56. Bailey, p. 303.

57. Ibid., p. 292.

58. Francis Neilson, The Makers of War (Appleton, Wisc.: C. C. Nelson, 1950), p. 151.

59. Fleming, p. 387.

60. Alistair Horne, To Lose a Battle: France 1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1969), p. 19.

61. Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 233.

62. Ibid., p. 234.

63. Andrew Roberts, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900 (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), p. 147.

64. Kissinger, p. 240; Luigi Villari, Italian Foreign Policy Under Mussolini (New York: Devin-Adair, 1956), p. 205.

65. Wenzel Jaksch, Europe’s Road to Potsdam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963), p. 210.

66. Ibid., pp. 210–11.

67. Ibid., pp. 276–77.

68. Stephen Sisa, The Spirit of Hungary: A Panorama of Hungarian History and Culture, 2nd Edition (USA: A Wintario Project, 1990), p. 235.

69. Ibid., p. 233.

70. Andelman, p. 155.

71. Ibid., p. 161.

72. Ibid., pp. 164–65.

73. Ibid., p. 162.

74. Ibid., p. 191.

75. Ibid.

76. Raico, p. 240; Denman, p. 30.

77. Jozsef Cardinal Mindszenty, Memoirs (New York: Macmillan, 1974), pp. 305–6.

78. George Kennan, Memoirs: 1925–1950 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967), p. 94.

79. Davies, p. 404.

80. Andelman, p. 215.

81. Winston S. Churchill, The World Crisis: 1911–1918, With a New Introduction by Martin Gilbert (New York: Free Press, 2005), p. 692.

82. Denman, p. 41; Kissinger, p. 241; MacMillan, p. 197.

83. Rowland, p. 485; Raico, p. 245.

84. John Laughland, The Tainted Source: The Undemocratic Origins of the European Idea (London: Warner, 1998), p. 119.

85. Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 206.

86. Denman, p. 49; Horne, p. 20.

87. Villari, p. 5.

88. Ibid.

89. Kissinger, p. 272.

90. Lawrence James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1997), p. 366.

91. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (Great Britain: Sutton, 1997), p. 71.

92. Winston S. Churchill, Great Contemporaries (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991), p. 208.

93. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War (New York: Basic, 1999), p. 436.

94. Mee, p. xviii.

95. Ibid., p. 259.

96. Bailey, p. 134.

97. MacMillan, p. 12.

98. Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power (New York: Basic, 2003), p. 310.

99. Jaksch, p. 218.

100. Ibid.

101. Ibid.; Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 94.

102. Hughes, p. 94.

103. Mee, p. 75.

104. Richard Toye, Lloyd George and Churchill: Rivals for Greatness (London: Macmillan, 2007), p. 200.

105. Ibid., p. 223.

106. Odorfer, p. 290.

107. Kissinger, p. 241.

108. Barnett, p. 392; Meyer, p. 536.

109. Andreas Hillgruber, Germany and the Two World Wars (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 47.

110. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Pandaemonium: Ethnicity in International Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 78–79.

111. Ibid., p. 102.

112. Rowland, pp. 494–95.

113. Ibid., p. 495.

114. Bailey, p. 323.

115. Villari, p. 92.

116. Mee, p. 267.

117. Kuehnelt-Leddihn, p. 221.

CHAPTER 4: “A LOT OF SILLY LITTLE CRUISERS”

1. Rudyard Kipling, “Recessional,” The Oxford Book of English Verse: 1250–1918, Chosen and Edited by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch (New York: Oxford University Press, 1955), p. 1076.

2. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1977), p. 252; Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p. 173.

3. Barnett, pp. 250–51; Johnson, p. 173.

4. Barnett, p. 251; Johnson, p. 173.

5. Barnett, p. 254.

6. Ibid., p. 262.

7. Alfred Leroy Burt, The Evolution of the British Empire and Commonwealth from the American Revolution (Boston: D.C. Heath, 1956), p. 745.

8. Barnett, p. 253.

9. Barnett, p. 265.

10. A.J.P. Taylor, A History of the First World War (New York: Berkley, 1966), p. 169.

11. Barnett, p. 264.

12. Ibid., p. 265.

13. Ibid., p. 263.

14. Ibid., p. 267; Johnson, p. 174.

15. Burt, p. 747.

16. Thomas A. Bailey, A Diplomatic History of the American People, Seventh Edition (New York: Meredith, 1964), p. 644.

17. Johnson, p. 188.

18. Arthur Herman, To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World (New York: HarperCollins, 2004), p. 522.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid.

21. Barnett, p. 249.

22. John T. Flynn, Country Squire in the White House (New York: Doubleday, Duran, 1940), pp. 20–23.

23. James Morris, Farewell the Trumpets: An Imperial Retreat (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1978), pp. 216–17.

24. Ibid., p. 217.

25. Robert H. Ferrell, American Diplomacy: A History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1959), p. 335; Johnson, p. 174.

26. Ferrell, p. 335.

27. Herman, p. 520.

28. Barnett, p. 272.

29. Ibid., p. 273.

30. Bradford Perkins, The Great Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1895–1914 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), p. 4.

31. Barnett, p. 262.

32. Robert Debs Heinl, Jr., Dictionary of Military and Naval Quotations (Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute, 1967), pp. 8–9.

33. Barnett, p. 275; Johnson, p. 175; Ian Kershaw, Fateful Choices: The Decisions That Changed the World, 1940–1941 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), p. 15.

34. Johnson, p. 174.

35. Ibid.; Herman, p. 520.

36. Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Power Order and the Lessons for Global Power (New York: Basic, 2003), p. 322.

37. Johnson, p. 175.

38. Roy Jenkins, Churchill: A Biography (New York: Penguin Putnam, 2001), p. 395.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., p. 396.

41. Ibid., p. 415.

42. Ibid., p. 397.

43. Barnett, p. 276.

44. Johnson, p. 175.

45. Barnett, p. 278.

46. Herman, p. 520.

47. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–1941 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 100.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., p. 101.

50. Barnett, p. 349.

51. Tansill, p. 521.

52. Ibid.

53. Ibid., p. 522.

54. Winston S. Churchill, Step by Step: 1936–1939 (London: Odhams Press, 1939), pp. 19–20.

55. Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), p. 13.

56. Ibid., p. 14.

CHAPTER 5: 1935: COLLAPSE OF THE STRESA FRONT

1. Ivone Kirkpatrick, Mussolini: A Study in Power (London: Discus, 1964), p. 285.

2. Richard Collier, Duce!: A Biography of Benito Mussolini (New York: Viking Press, 1971), p. 134.

3. Charles L. Mee, Jr., The End of Order: Versailles 1919 (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980), pp. 58–59.

4. Ibid., p. 59.

5. Peter Rowland, David Lloyd George: A Biography (New York: Macmillan, 1975), p. 491.

6. Luigi Villari, Italian Foreign Policy Under Mussolini (New York: Devin-Adair, 1956), p. vi.

7. Collier, p. 94.

8. Villari, p. vii.

9. Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 143.

10. Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris (New York: W. W. Norton, 1998), p. 246.

11. R.J.B. Bosworth, Mussolini (London: Arnold, 2002), p. 267.

12. Ibid.

13. Kirkpatrick, p. 282.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., p. 283.

16. Bosworth, p. 281.

17. Kirkpatrick, p. 284.

18. Richard Lamb, Mussolini as Diplomat: Il Duce’s Italy on the World Stage (New York: Fromm International, 1999), p. 105.

19. Collier, p. 117.

20. Kershaw, p. 522.

21. Richard Evans, The Third Reich in Power: 1933–1939 (New York: Penguin Press, 2005), p. 620.

22. Bosworth, p. 275.

23. Kirkpatrick, p. 284.

24. Ibid., p. 285.

25. John Toland, Adolf Hitler (Garden City: N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976), pp. 353–54.

26. Toland, p. 354; Kershaw, p. 524.

27. Kirkpatrick, p. 287.

28. Toland, p. 354.

29. J. Kenneth Brody, The Avoidable War: Lord Cecil & The Politics of Principle, vol. I (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 122; Toland, pp. 354–55.

30. Brody, p. 123; Toland, p. 355.

31. Toland, p. 355.

32. Ibid.; Brody, p. 123; Kirkpatrick, p. 288; Collier, p. 124.

33. Kirkpatrick, p. 287.

34. Ernest May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), p. 35.

35. Ibid.

36. Norman Cameron and R. H. Stevens, translators, Hitler’s Table Talk 1941–1944: His Private Conversations (New York: Enigma, 2000), p. 417.

37. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War (New York: Atheneum, 1961), p. 86.

38. Evans, p. 626.

39. Lamb, p. 112.

40. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (Great Britain: Sutton, 1997), p. 331.

41. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Second Edition with a Reply to Critics (New York: Fawcett, 1969), p. 57.

42. Barnett, p. 331.

43. William L. Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969), p. 240.

44. Ibid., p. 241.

45. Jasper Ridley, Mussolini (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997), p. 250.

46. Brody, pp. 269–70.

47. Ibid., p. 276.

48. Ibid., pp. 278–79.

49. Lamb, p. 111.

50. Kershaw, p. 555.

51. Ibid.

52. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 78.

53. Ibid., p. 79.

54. Toland, p. 371.

55. Evans, p. 629.

56. Lamb, p. 114.

57. Barnett, p. 407.

58. Ibid.

59. Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 338.

60. Kershaw, p. 558.

61. Roy Jenkins, Churchill: A Biography (London: Plume, 2001), p. 482.

62. William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone: 1932–1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988), p. 412; Brody, p. 207.

63. Villari, pp. 127–28.

64. Collier, p. 124.

65. Brody, p. 285.

66. Kirkpatrick, p. 292; Brody, p. 280; Ridley, p. 250; Collier, p. 124.

67. Kirkpatrick, pp. 292–93; Ridley, p. 250.

68. Kirkpatrick, p. 310.

69. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–41 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 116.

70. Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (London: Pimlico, 2000), p. 545; Manchester, pp. 163–64.

71. Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p. 320.

72. Bosworth, p. 302.

73. Ibid., p. 303.

74. Ibid.

75. Collier, p. 130.

76. Toland, p. 379.

77. Barnett, p. 353.

78. Ibid., p. 356.

79. Denman, p. 91.

80. Lamb, p. 149.

81. Johnson, p. 321.

82. A.J.P. Taylor, From Sarajevo to Potsdam (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967), p. 140.

83. Bullock, p. 340.

84. Henry A. Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 300.

85. Barnett, p. 380; Johnson, p. 321; Peter Clarke, Hope and Glory: Britain 1900–1990 (London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press, 1996), p. 185.

86. Villari, p. 195.

87. Lynne Olson, Troublesome Young Men: The Rebels Who Brought Churchill to Power and Helped Save England (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 87.

88. Denman, p. 91.

89. Taylor, pp. 95–96.

90. Lamb, p. 126.

91. Manchester, p. 160; Gilbert, p. 546.

92. Jenkins, p. 484.

93. Manchester, p. 161.

94. Ibid., p. 160.

95. Ibid.

96. Jenkins, p. 485.

97. Robert Payne, The Great Man: A Portrait of Winston Churchill (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1974), p. 190; Collier, p. 93; Gilbert, p. 480; Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 120.

98. Payne, p. 190; Hughes, p. 120.

99. Payne, p. 208; Hughes, p. 122.

100. Villari, p. 43.

101. Payne, p. 208.

102. Ibid., p. 190.

103. Taylor, pp. 56–57.

104. Villari, p. 101.

105. Kissinger, p. 299.

106. Barnett, p. 381.

CHAPTER 6: 1936: THE RHINELAND

1. A.J.P. Taylor, A History of the First World War (New York: Berkley, 1963), p. 163; C. P. Vincent, The Politics of Hunger: The Allied Blockade of Germany 1915–1919 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1985), p. 70.

2. David Carlton, Anthony Eden: A Biography (London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press, 1981), p. 82.

3. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 335.

4. Ibid., pp. 335–36.

5. Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), p. 587.

6. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Second Edition with a Reply to Critics (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1969), p. 98.

7. Kershaw, p. 587.

8. Ibid.; William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), p. 292.

9. Kershaw, p. 587.

10. Shirer, p. 291; William L. Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969), p. 261.

11. Kershaw, p. 585.

12. Ibid.

13. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 292; Alistair Horne, To Lose a Battle: France 1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1969), p. 37; Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 83.

14. Ernest May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), p. 38.

15. Wayne Cole, Roosevelt & The Isolationists: 1932–45 (Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1983), p. 201; Patrick J. Buchanan, A Republic, Not an Empire: Reclaiming America’s Destiny (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), p. 254.

16. William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1962), p. 7.

17. William Manchester, The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988), p. 188; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 277.

18. Taylor, Origins, p. 99.

19. John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory: A Political Biography (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1993), p. 309.

20. Andrew Roberts, Eminent Churchillians (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 6.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid., p. 12.

23. Ibid.

24. Barnett, pp. 382–83.

25. Peter Rowland, David Lloyd George: A Biography (New York: Macmillan, 1975), p. 728.

26. Ibid., p. 733.

27. Ibid.; Andrew Roberts, The Holy Fox: A Life of Lord Halifax (London: Orion, 1997), p. 69.

28. Rowland, p. 735.

29. Ibid., p. 736.

30. Lynne Olson, Troublesome Young Men: The Rebels Who Brought Churchill to Power and Helped Save England (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 87.

31. Manchester, p. 83; Olson, p. 68.

32. Winston Churchill, Great Contemporaries (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 265.

33. Ibid., p. 268.

34. Ibid., p. 265.

35. Ibid., p. 261; Charmley, p. 271.

36. Churchill, p. 268.

37. Winston S. Churchill, Step by Step: 1936–1939 (London: Odhams Press, 1947), p. 158; Robert Holmes, In the Footsteps of Churchill: A Study in Character (New York: Basic, 2005), p. 187; Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 144.

38. Roy Jenkins, Churchill: A Biography (New York: Penguin Putnam, 2002), pp. 490–91.

39. Churchill, Step by Step, p. 2.

40. Ibid., p. 3.

41. Horne, p. 37; Manchester, p. 181; Alfred Leroy Burt, The British Empire and Its Commonwealth (Boston: D. C. Heath, 1956), p. 821; Shirer, Third Reich, p. 293.

42. Barnett, p. 384; Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World From the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p. 349.

43. Manchester, p. 182; Shirer, Third Reich, p. 294; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 275.

44. Roberts, Holy Fox, p. 59.

45. Shirer, Third Republic, p. 263.

46. Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 345; Shirer, Third Reich, p. 293; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 281; Denman, p. 83; Manchester, p. 177.

47. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 293; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 281; Denman, p. 83; Manchester, p. 177.

48. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 293.

49. Winston Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), p. 194; May, p. 37.

50. May, Ibid.

51. Ibid., p. 38.

52. Shirer, Third Republic, p. 281.

53. Horne, p. 38.

54. Ibid.; Manchester, p. 191.

55. Horne, p. 38; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 280.

56. Manchester, p. 189.

57. Horne, p. 39; Manchester, p. 191.

58. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 295.

59. Ibid.; Manchester, p. 192.

60. Barnett, p. 336.

61. Shirer, Third Republic, p. 282.

62. Horne, p. 39.

63. Manchester, p. 189.

64. Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), p. 4.

CHAPTER 7: 1938: ANSCHLUSS

1. Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Complete and Unabridged, Fully Annotated (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1939), p. 3.

2. William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), p. 353.

3. Francis Neilson, The Makers of War (Appleton, Wisc.: C. C. Nelson, 1950), p. 171.

4. Richard Lamb, Mussolini as Diplomat: Il Duce’s Italy on the World Stage (New York: Fromm International, 1999), p. 91.

5. Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 178.

6. Ralph Raico, “Rethinking Churchill,” in The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories, Second Expanded Edition, John Denson, ed. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 246.

7. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 59.

8. Ibid., pp. 3, 59.

9. Edmund Burke, “Second Speech on Conciliation with America: The Thirteen Resolutions,” John Bartlett, Familiar Quotations, Thirteenth and Centennial Edition (Boston: Little Brown, 1955), p. 360.

10. Sir Nevile Henderson, Failure of a Mission (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940), p. 204.

11. Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), p. 91.

12. Ibid.

13. Gene Smith, The Dark Summer: An Intimate History of the Events That Led to World War II (New York: Macmillan, 1987), p. 69.

14. Ibid., pp. 69–70; Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 467; Andrew Roberts, The Holy Fox: A Life of Lord Halifax (London: Orion, 1997), p. 7.

15. Roberts, p. 72.

16. Ibid.; Smith, p. 70.

17. Roberts, p. 72.

18. Ibid.

19. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Second Edition with a Reply to Critics (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Premier, 1969), p. 134; Roberts, p. 71.

20. Taylor, p. 134.

21. Henderson, p. 96; Barnett, p. 467.

22. B. H. Liddell Hart, History of the Second World War (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970), p. 8.

23. Roberts, p. 73.

24. Ibid.

25. Niall Ferguson, The War of the World: Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), p. 338.

26. John Toland, Adolf Hitler (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976), p. 433.

27. William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988), p. 249.

28. Ibid.

29. Taylor, p. 137.

30. Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power 1933–1939 (New York: Penguin Press, 2005), p. 643.

31. Kershaw, p. 53.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid.

34. Evans, p. 649.

35. Toland, pp. 434–35.

36. Taylor, p. 140.

37. Toland, p. 436.

38. Taylor, p. 134.

39. Manchester, p. 250.

40. Taylor, pp. 137, 140.

41. Shirer, p. 334; Manchester, p. 276.

42. Toland, p. 442.

43. Kershaw, p. 74.

44. Gottfried-Karl Kindermann, Austria—First Target and Adversary of National Socialism 1933–1939 (Vienna: Austrian Cultural Association, 2002), p. 32.

45. Toland, p. 442; Kindermann, pp. 32–33.

46. Shirer, p. 337; Taylor, p. 143; Bullock, p. 428.

47. Taylor, p. 144.

48. Toland, p. 446.

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid., p. 449.

52. Shirer, p. 343; Toland, p. 449; Taylor, p. 145; Manchester, p. 276; Denman, p. 97.

53. Toland, p. 451.

54. Ibid., p. 455.

55. Shirer, p. 348; Denman, p. 97.

56. Toland, p. 452.

57. Ibid., p. 453.

58. Ibid.

59. Bullock, p. 437.

60. Kershaw, p. 81.

61. Ibid., p. 13; Manchester, pp. 282–83.

62. Taylor, p. 146.

63. Lynne Olson, Troublesome Young Men: The Rebels Who Brought Churchill to Power and Helped Save England (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 100.

64. Taylor, p. 128.

65. Graham Stewart, Burying Caesar: The Churchill-Chamberlain Rivalry (Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 2001), p. 290.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Robert Payne, The Great Man: A Portrait of Winston Churchill (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1974), p. 218.

CHAPTER 8: MUNICH

1. William Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969), p. 340; John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1993), p. 331; John Toland, Adolf Hitler (Garden City: N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976), p. 462; Graham Stewart, Burying Caesar: The Churchill-Chamberlain Rivalry (Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 2001), p. 293.

2. Hanson Baldwin, The Crucial Years 1939–1941: The World at War (New York: Harper & Row, 1976), p. 58; Gene Smith, The Dark Summer: An Intimate History of the Events That Led to World War II (New York: Macmillan, 1987), pp. 103–4.

3. Toland, p. 493.

4. Smith, p. 105.

5. William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), p. 419; A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Second Edition, With a Preface for the American Reader and a New Introduction, “Second Thoughts” (New York: Atheneum, 1961), p. 186; Stewart, pp. 308–9.

6. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 118; Toland, p. 493.

7. David Dutton, Neville Chamberlain (London: Arnold, 2001), p. 52.

8. Stewart, p. 309.

9. Dutton, p. 53.

10. Lynne Olson, Troublesome Young Men: The Rebels Who Brought Churchill to Power and Helped Save England (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 144.

11. Dutton, p. 53.

12. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 420; Taylor, p. 186; Smith, p. 106; Toland, p. 493; Stewart, p. 310.

13. Stewart, p. 310.

14. Dutton, p. 52; Denman, p. 118; Smith, p. 93.

15. William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 99.

16. Ibid.

17. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–41 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 428.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid., p. 429.

20. Ibid., p. 430.

21. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 547; Toland, p. 493; Shirer, Third Reich, p. 420.

22. Dutton, p. 52.

23. Ibid., p. 55.

24. Smith, p. 107.

25. A. N. Wilson, After the Victorians: The Decline of Britain in the World (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), p. 366.

26. Barnett, p. 551; Ernest May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), p. 192.

27. Stewart, p. 299.

28. Dutton, p. 54.

29. Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 596; Charmley, p. 346; Robert Payne, The Great Man: A Portrait of Winston Churchill (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1974), p. 220; Roy Jenkins, Churchill: A Biography (London: Plume, 2001), p. 526.

30. Smith, p. 108.

31. Jenkins, p. 527; Barnett, p. 550; Payne, p. 220; Shirer, Third Reich, p. 420.

32. Jenkins, p. 527.

33. Jenkins, pp. 527–28; Toland, p. 495; Payne, p. 220.

34. Winston S. Churchill, Step by Step: 1936–1939 (London: Odhams Press, 1947), p. 275; Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 167.

35. Taylor, p. 186.

36. Donald Cameron Watt, How War Came: The Immediate Origins of the Second World War, 1938–1939 (New York: Pantheon, 1989), p. 30; Barnett, p. 550; Smith, p. 104; Denman, p. 102.

37. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 424; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 406.

38. Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p. 355.

39. May, p. 215.

40. Tansill, p. 409.

41. Shirer, Third Republic, p. 407.

42. Taylor, p. 192.

43. A.J.P. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 430.

44. Patrick J. Buchanan, A Republic, Not an Empire (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), p. 211; letter from historian Robert Ferrell to author, author’s Republic files.

45. Taylor, Origins, p. 189.

46. Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Leftism Revisited: From de Sade and Marx to Hitler and Pol Pot (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1990), p. 220.

47. Francis Neilson, “The Making of a Tyrant,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 1958, p. 397.

48. Ibid., p. 390.

49. Wenzel Jaksch, Europe’s Road to Potsdam (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963), p. 274.

50. David Carlton, Anthony Eden, A Biography (London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press, 1981), p. 137.

51. Tansill, p. 397.

52. Shirer, Third Republic, p. 343.

53. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 365.

54. Shirer, Third Republic, p. 347.

55. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 365.

56. Ibid., p. 366.

57. Sir Nevile Henderson, Failure of a Mission (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940), p. 142.

58. Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 447.

59. Ibid.

60. Taylor, English History, p. 430; Stewart, p. 300; Maurice Cowling, The Impact of Hitler: British Politics and British Policy 1933–1940 (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 189–90.

61. Smith, pp. 91–92.

62. Stewart, p. 295.

63. Walter Lippmann, U.S. War Aims (Boston: Little, Brown, 1944), p. 173.

64. Smith, p. 207.

65. Shirer, p. 403; Toland, pp. 485–86; Smith, p. 100; Stewart, p. 306.

66. Taylor, Origins, p. 189.

67. Denman, p. 111.

68. Olson, p. 128.

69. Stewart, p. 311; Niall Ferguson, The War of the World: Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), p. 366.

70. Olson, p. 127.

71. John Lukacs, Five Days in London: May 1940 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p. 10.

72. Churchill, p. 269; Francis Neilson, The Churchill Legend (Brooklyn, N.Y.: 29 Books, 2004), p. 311.

73. Shirer, Third Republic, p. 356.

74. Ibid., p. 344.

75. Charmley, p. 331.

76. Henderson, p. 227.

77. Taylor, Origins, p. xxvi.

78. Andrew Roberts, The Holy Fox: A Life of Lord Halifax (London: Orion, 1997), p. 49; Lukacs, p. 50.

79. Roberts, p. 49.

80. Peter Clarke, Hope and Glory: Britain 1900–1990 (London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press, 1996), p. 185.

81. Ibid.

82. Barnett, p. 328.

83. May, p. 175.

84. Alistair Horne, To Lose a Battle: France 1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1969), p. 21.

85. A.J.P. Taylor, English History, p. 422.

86. Charmley, p. 152.

87. Taylor, Origins, p. xxvii.

88. Henderson, p. 157.

89. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 398; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 377; Toland, p. 485; Taylor, Origins, p. 182.

90. Smith, p. 98.

91. Ibid.

92. Ibid, p. 99.

93. Bullock, p. 461; Tansill, p. 422; Toland, p. 484.

94. Bullock, p. 461.

95. Ibid.

96. Ibid., p. 463.

97. Charmley, p. 351.

98. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 401.

99. Henderson, pp. 165–66.

100. Toland, p. 485.

101. Wilson, p. 365.

102. Ibid.

103. Smith, p. 104.

104. Stewart, p. 300; Shirer, Third Republic, p. 362.

105. Barnett, p. 535; Toland, p. 482; Stewart, p. 303.

106. Smith, p. 110.

107. Ibid., p. 109.

108. Stewart, p. 350.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid.; Smith, p. 123; Tansill, p. 445.

111. Henderson, p. 179.

CHAPTER 9: FATAL BLUNDER

1. Graham Stewart, Burying Caesar: The Churchill-Chamberlain Rivalry (Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 2001), p. 346; Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 609.

2. Gene Smith, The Dark Summer: An Intimate History of the Events That Led to World War II (New York: Macmillan, 1987), p. 122.

3. David Dutton, Neville Chamberlain (London: Arnold, 2001), p. 57.

4. A.J.P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 420.

5. Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p. 356.

6. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–41 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 509.

7. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Second Edition with a Preface for the American Reader and a New Introduction, “Second Thoughts” (New York: Atheneum, 1961), p. 195.

8. Smith, p. 18.

9. Andreas Hillgruber, Germany and the Two World Wars, Translated by William C. Kirby (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), pp. 58–59; Smith, p. 18.

10. Norman Davies, God’s Playground: A History of Poland, Volume II: 1795 to the Present (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), pp. 420–21; William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 44.

11. Hillgruber, p. 59.

12. Tansill, p. 510.

13. William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988), p. 403.

14. Taylor, Origins, p. 196.

15. Ibid., p. 213.

16. Maurice Cowling, The Impact of Hitler: British Politics and British Policy 1933–1940 (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 276.

17. Tansill, p. 510.

18. Donald Cameron Watt, How War Came: The Immediate Origins of the Second World War (New York: Pantheon, 1989), p. 143.

19. B. H. Liddell Hart, History of the Second World War (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970), p. 10.

20. Cowling, p. 188.

21. Simon Newman, March 1939: The British Guarantee to Poland (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), p. 89.

22. Tansill, p. 453.

23. Watt, p. 155.

24. George Kennan, Memoirs: 1925–1950 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967), p. 96.

25. John Lukacs, George Kennan: A Study of Character (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), p. 43.

26. Newman, p. 91.

27. Ibid.; Watt, p. 154.

28. Watt, p. 145.

29. John Toland, Adolf Hitler (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976), p. 517.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.; Richard Evans, The Third Reich in Power: 1933–1939 (New York: Penguin Press, 2005), p. 683.

33. Sir Nevile Henderson, Failure of a Mission (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940), p. 214; Smith, p. 131.

34. Henderson, p. 219.

35. Henry A. Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 316.

36. Taylor, Origins, pp. 202–3.

37. Michael Bloch, Ribbentrop, Foreword by Hugh Trevor-Roper (London: Abacus, 2003), p. 233.

38. Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 479.

39. Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), p. 84.

40. Ibid., p. 92.

41. Tansill, p. 454; William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), p. 451.

42. Smith, p. 132.

43. Newman, p. 103, Dutton, p. 58; Watt, p. 167.

44. Manchester, p. 401.

45. Ibid.

46. Watt, p. 170.

47. Ibid., p. 402.

48. Stewart, p. 355; Smith, p. 133; Taylor, Origins, p. 205; Dutton, p. 58; Cowling, p. 295.

49. Taylor, Origins, p. 207.

50. Alexander De Conde, A History of American Foreign Policy (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1963), p. 576; Smith, p. 185.

51. Smith, p. 164.

52. Andrew Roberts, The Holy Fox: The Life of Lord Halifax (London: Orion, 1997), p. 147; Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), pp. 120–21.

53. Newman, p. 184.

54. Bullock, p. 497; Taylor, Origins, p. 210; Newman, p. 162.

55. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 560; Denman, p. 121; Taylor, Origins, p. 211; Bullock, p. 498; Chamberlin, p. 58.

56. Taylor, English History, p. 441.

57. Ernest May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), p. 193.

58. Manchester, p. 406.

59. Ibid.

60. Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 175.

61. Denman, p. 122.

62. Peter Rowland, David Lloyd George: A Biography (New York: Macmillan, 1975), p. 757.

63. Hart, pp. 7, 11; Manchester, p. 406; Telford Taylor, Munich: The Price of Peace (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979), p. 971.

64. Hart, pp. 7, 11–12.

65. Manchester, p. 406.

66. Ibid., p. 407.

67. Roberts, Holy Fox, p. 148.

68. May, p. 193.

69. Denman, p. 121.

70. Henderson, p. 236.

71. Johnson, p. 363.

72. Ibid., p. 358.

73. Francis Neilson, The Churchill Legend (Brooklyn, N.Y.: 29 Books, 2004), p. 328.

74. Winston S. Churchill, Step by Step: 1936–1939 (London: Odhams Press, 1947), p. 344; Manchester, p. 407.

75. Manchester, p. 407.

76. Ibid.

77. Ibid.

78. Churchill, Step by Step, p. 343.

79. Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), p. 347.

80. Ibid., p. 348.

81. Hart, p. 704.

82. Ibid., p. 15; Neilson, p. 318; Hughes, p. 177.

83. Smith, p. 145.

84. Niall Ferguson, The War of the World: Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), p. 377.

85. Luigi Villari, Italian Foreign Policy Under Mussolini (New York: Devin-Adair, 1956), p. 216.

86. Ibid.

87. Johnson, pp. 356–57.

88. Watt, pp. 185–86.

89. Stewart, pp. 356–57.

90. Capt. Russell Grenfell, R.N., Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (New York: Devin-Adair, 1953), p. 22.

91. Tansill, p. 513.

92. Ibid.

93. Kissinger, pp. 316–17.

94. Peter Clarke, Hope and Glory: Britain 1900–1990 (London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press, 1996), p. 190.

95. Henderson, pp. 225–26.

96. Denman, p. 121.

97. Shirer, Third Reich, p. 466.

98. Taylor, Origins, p. 211.

99. Barnett, p. 560.

100. Ibid.

101. Ibid., p. 562.

102. Denman, p. 3.

103. Hart, p. 11.

104. Hughes, p. 175.

105. Newman, p. 136.

106. Richard M. Nixon, Six Crises (Garden City, N.: Doubleday, 1962), p. xv.

107. Newman, pp. 218–19.

108. Roberts, p. 144.

109. Ibid.

110. Ibid, p. 147.

111. Graham Stewart, Burying Caesar: The Churchill-Chamberlain Rivalry (Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 2001), p. 358.

112. Gilbert, p. 612; Manchester, p. 413; Stewart, p. 358.

113. Gilbert, p. 612; Manchester, p. 412.

114. Gilbert, p. 612; Manchester, pp. 412–13.

115. Watt, p. 190.

116. Chamberlin, p. 51.

117. Neilson, p. 409; Patrick J. Buchanan, A Republic, Not an Empire (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), p. 277; Hanson W. Baldwin, Great Mistakes of the War (New York: Harper, 1949), p. 10.

118. Denman, p. 151.

119. George Kennan letter to Pat Buchanan, November 5, 1999, PJB Files.

120. Ibid.

CHAPTER 10: APRIL FOOLS

1. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Second Edition with a Preface for the American Reader and a New Introduction, “Second Thoughts” (New York: Atheneum, 1961), p. 54; Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 331; Henry A. Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 273.

2. F. H. Hinsley, Hitler’s Strategy (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1951), p. 16.

3. William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 61.

4. Ibid., p. 45.

5. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–41 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 510.

6. Chamberlin, p. 61.

7. Tansill, p. 514.

8. Chamberlin, p. 52.

9. Taylor, p. 203.

10. Ernest May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), p. 193.

11. Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 612.

12. May, pp. 193–94.

13. Ibid., p. 194.

14. William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988), p. 412.

15. William Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1969), pp. 422–23.

16. Ibid.

17. Peter Rowland, David Lloyd George: A Biography (New York: Macmillan, 1975), p. 757; Gene Smith, The Dark Summer: An Intimate History of the Events That Led to World War II (New York: Macmillan, 1987), p. 163.

18. Andrew Roberts, The Holy Fox: A Life of Lord Halifax (London: Orion, 1997), p. 151.

19. Simon Newman, March 1939: The British Guarantee to Poland (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), p. 221.

20. Tansill, p. 519.

21. Ibid.

22. Manchester, pp. 407–8.

23. Ibid., p. 408.

24. Newman, p. 212.

25. Taylor, p. xxvii.

26. George Kennan, Memoirs: 1925–1950 (Boston, Little Brown, 1967), p. 88.

27. Taylor, p. 185.

28. Norman Davies, God’s Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes; vol. II: 1795 to the Present (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), p. 431.

29. Newman, p. 213.

30. Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, Completely Revised Edition (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 501.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid., pp. 504–5.

33. Ibid., p. 505.

34. Ibid.

35. Newman, p. 214.

CHAPTER 11: “AN UNNECESSARY WAR”

1. Keith Feiling, The Life of Neville Chamberlain (London: Macmillan, 1946), p. 320; Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 458.

2. Nicholas Bethell, The War Hitler Won: The Fall of Poland, September 1939 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973), pp. 97, 141.

3. Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 410; John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1993), p. 152; Historical Papers: Documents from the British Archives, www.fco.gov.uk.

4. Henry A. Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 252; Hajo Holborn, The Political Collapse of Europe (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969), p. 128.

5. Francis Neilson, The Makers of War (Appleton, Wisc.: C. C. Nelson, 1950), p. 71; Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 169.

6. Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), p. 349; A.J.P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 446; Gene Smith, The Dark Summer: An Intimate History of the Events That Led to World War II (New York: Macmillan, 1987), p. 164; William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 59.

7. Smith, pp. 159–60.

8. Chamberlin, p. 65.

9. Winston S. Churchill, Step by Step: 1936–1939 (London: Odhams Press, 1947), p. 47.

10. Ibid., p. 48.

11. Ibid., pp. 60–61.

12. Ibid., p. 330.

13. Humphrey Carpenter, W. H. Auden: A Biography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981), pp. 218–19.

14. Smith, p. 197.

15. Niall Ferguson, The War of the World: The Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), p. 379.

16. Bethell, p. 5.

17. Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power 1933–1939 (New York: Penguin Press, 2005), p. 699.

18. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–41 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 549.

19. Barnett, p. 333.

20. Kissinger, p. 317.

21. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 3.

22. Barnett, pp. 572–73.

23. Tansill, p. 550.

24. Ibid., p. 553.

25. Ibid.

26. Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich (New York: Macmillan, 1970), p. 165.

27. F. H. Hinsley, Hitler’s Strategy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951), pp. 28–29.

28. Andreas Hillgruber, Germany and the Two World Wars, Translated by William C. Kirby (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 77.

29. Bethell, p. 84.

30. Ernest May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Hill and Wang, 2000), p. 203.

31. Ibid.; Chamberlin, p. 70; David Dutton, Neville Chamberlain (London: Arnold, 2001), p. 59; Smith, p. 277.

32. Bethell, pp. 80–81.

33. Chamberlin, p. 70.

34. Dutton, p. 59.

35. Bethell, p. 165.

36. Ibid., p. 90.

37. Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Power Order and the Lessons for Global Power (New York: Basic, 2003), p. 287.

38. Norman Davies, God’s Playground: A History of Poland in Two Volumes; vol. II: 1795 to the Present (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), p. 432.

39. Hillgruber, p. 72; Norman Davies, Europe: A History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 995; Davies, God’s Playground, p. 432; Bethell, p. 92.

40. Hillgruber, p. 72.

41. Taylor, History, p. 450; Lukacs, p. 55.

42. John Lukacs, Five Days in London: May 1940 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p. 12.

43. Taylor, Origins, p. xxvii.

44. Taylor, History, p. 467.

45. Davies, God’s Playground, p. 430.

46. Davies, Europe, p. 993.

47. Sir Nevile Henderson, Failure of a Mission (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940), p. 251.

48. Hillgruber, p. 74.

CHAPTER 12: GRUESOME HARVEST

1. Ralph Franklin Keeling, Gruesome Harvest (Chicago: Institute of American Economics, 1947), p. 130.

2. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 15.

3. Alistair Horne, To Lose a Battle: France 1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1969), p. 559.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 196.

7. John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1993), p. 514.

8. Luigi Villari, Italian Foreign Policy Under Mussolini (New York: Devin-Adair, 1956), p. 162.

9. “The Madness of Myths,” The Economist, November 9, 2006, a review of Norman Davies, Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory.Economist.com

10. Norman Davies, Rising ’44: The Battle for Warsaw (New York: Viking Penguin, 2004), p. 158.

11. Ibid.

12. B. H. Liddell Hart, History of the Second World War (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970), p. 3.

13. Ibid.

14. Norman Davies, “How We Didn’t Win the War…But the Russians Did,” Sunday Times, November 5,

2006. http://www.timesonline.co.uk.

15. Villari, p. 96.

16. John Toland, Adolf Hitler (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1976), p. 511.

17. Ibid.

18. Ian Kershaw, Fateful Choices: The Decisions That Changed the World, 1940–1941 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), p. xv. 19. The Goebbels Diaries: 1942–1943, Edited, Translated, and with an Introduction by Louis P. Lochner (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1948), p. 86.

20. Ibid., p. 115.

21. Ibid., p. 148.

22. Ibid.

23. Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power (New York: Basic, 2003), p. 296.

24. Ibid., p. 354.

25. Davies, “How We Didn’t Win the War.

26. Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), pp. iv–v.

27. Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 646.

28. Churchill, p. 223; William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988), p. 266.

29. Alan Clark, “A Reputation Ripe for Revision,” London Times, January 2, 1993.

30. Sir Nevile Henderson, Failure of a Mission (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940), p. 240.

CHAPTER 13: HITLER’S AMBITIONS

1. B. H. Liddell Hart, History of the Second World War (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1970), p. 6.

2. A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War, Second Edition with a Preface for the American Reader and a New Introduction, “Second Thoughts” (New York: Atheneum, 1961), p. xx.

3. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 386.

4. Ibid.

5. Andreas Hillgruber, Germany and the Two World Wars, Translated by William C. Kirby (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 51.

6. Ibid., pp. 51–52.

7. Ibid., p. 53.

8. Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889–1936: Hubris (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), p. 249; William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 49; Hillgruber, pp. 48, 50.

9. Kershaw, p. 247.

10. David Calleo, The German Problem Reconsidered: Germany and the World Order (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 103.

11. A.J.P. Taylor, From Sarajevo to Potsdam (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967), p. 134.

12. Kershaw, p. 247.

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid., p. 246.

15. Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 337.

16. Ibid.

17. Roy Denman, Missed Chances: Britain and Europe in the Twentieth Century (London: Indigo, 1997), p. 129.

18. John Toland, Adolf Hitler (New York: Doubleday, 1976), p. 611.

19. Ibid.

20. Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Power Order and the Lessons for Global Power (New York: Basic, 2003), pp. 330–31.

21. B. H. Liddell Hart, The Other Side of the Hill (London: Papermac, 1970), pp. 200–201; Captain Russell Grenfell, R.N., Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (New York: Devin-Adair, 1953), pp. 165–66; Francis Neilson, The Churchill Legend (Brooklyn, N.Y.: 29 Books, 2004), p. 397; Hughes, pp. 187–88.

22. Denman, p. 130.

23. Ibid.

24. Paul Kennedy, “Die Kriegsmarine—The Neglected Service,” Hitler’s War Machine, Robert Cecil, ed. cons. (London: Salamander, 1996), p. 160.

25. F. H. Hinsley, Hitler’s Strategy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951), pp. 1, 3.

26. Hart, History, p. 7.

27. A.J.P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 504.

28. Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), pp. 413, 425.

29. Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich (New York: Macmillan, 1970), p. 165.

30. Ian Kershaw, Fateful Choices: The Decisions That Changed the World, 1940–1941 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), p. 22.

31. Ibid.; Nicholas Bethell, The War Hitler Won: The Fall of Poland, September, 1939 (New York: Holt Rinehart Winston, 1973), p. 291.

32. Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1936–45: Nemesis (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), p. 202.

33. Hillgruber, p. 69; Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), pp. 361–62; Kershaw, Fateful Choices, p. 63.

34. John Lukacs, June 1941: Hitler and Stalin (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), pp. 22–23 (fn).

35. Henry A. Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 346.

36. Chamberlin, pp. 51, 49.

37. Taylor, English History, pp. 94–95, 108.

38. David Dutton, Neville Chamberlain (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 58; Taylor, Origins, p. 205; Graham Stewart, Burying Caesar: The Churchill-Chamberlain Rivalry (New York: Overlook Press, 2001), p. 355; Gene Smith, The Dark Summer: An Intimate History of the Events That Led to World War II (New York: Macmillan, 1987), p. 133.

39. Telford Taylor, Munich: The Price of Peace (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979), p. 970.

40. Sir Nevile Henderson, Failure of a Mission (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940), p. 226.

41. Robert K. Massie, Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War (New York: Ballantine, 1991), p. 901; Barbara W. Tuchman, The Guns of August (New York: Macmillan, 1962), p. 53.

42. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War (New York: Basic, 1999), p. xxxvii.

43. Winston Churchill, Great Contemporaries (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 38.

44. Ibid., p. 262; Francis Neilson, The Makers of War (Appleton, Wisc.: C. C. Nelson, 1950), p. 100; Hughes, p. 141.

45. Neilson, Makers of War, p. 109.

46. Ibid.; Hughes, p. 145.

47. Neilson, The Churchill Legend, p. 284.

48. Patrick J. Buchanan, A Republic, Not an Empire (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), pp. 277–78.

49. Jeffrey Herf, “Fact Free: Buchanan’s Hitler Problem, Part II,” The New Republic, October 18, 1999, p. 16.

50. Ibid., p. 17.

51. Roger Chesneau, Aircraft Carriers of the World: 1914 to the Present: An Illustrated Encyclopedia (London: Arms & Armor Press, 1992), p. 76.

52. Denman, p. 129.

53. Chesneau, p. 76.

54. Ibid., p. 77.

55. Michael Kelly, “Republican Stunts,” Washington Post, October 6, 1999, p. A33.

56. Gerhard L. Weinberg, Germany, Hitler & World War II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 196–97.

57. Bernard C. Nalty, The Air War (New York: MetroBooks, 1999), pp. 24–27.

58. Taylor, English History, p. 410.

59. Matthew Cooper, “Die Luftwaffe—Strategically a Failure,” in Hitler’s War Machine, p. 110.

60. Hughes, p. 189.

61. Charles Callan Tansill, Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933–41 (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1952), p. 551.

62. Niall Ferguson, The War for the World: Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), pp. 393–95.

63. James S. Corum, The Luftwaffe: Creating the Operational Air War, 1918–1940 (Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1997), p. 7.

64. Ibid., p. 281.

65. Richard Bernstein, “We’re Coming Over, and We Won’t Come Back Till It’s Over, Over There,” New York Times, July 4, 2001, p. B12.

66. David Eisenhower, Eisenhower at War 1943–1945 (New York: Random House, 1986), p. 72.

67. Chamberlin, p. 50.

68. John Lukacs, Five Days in London: May 1940 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p. 217.

69. Ibid., p. 206.

70. Bruce M. Russett, No Clear and Present Danger: A Skeptical View of the United States Entry into World War II (Boulder, Col.: Westview Press [HarperCollins], 1997), pp. 42–43.

71. Norman Cameron and R. H. Stevens, Translators, Hitler’s Table Talk: 1941–1944: His Private Conversations, Introduced and with a New Preface by H. R. Trevor-Roper (New York: Enigma, 2000), p. 490.

72. John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 14; John Meacham, “Bush, Yalta and the Blur of Hindsight,” Washington Post, Sunday, May 15, 2005, p. B1.

73. Taylor, Sarajevo to Potsdam, pp. 136–38.

74. Arnold Beichman, “The Surprising Roots of Fascism,” Policy Review, Hoover Institution. http://www.policyreview.org/aug00/beichman.

75. Ibid.

76. Robert Nisbet, Roosevelt and Stalin: The Failed Courtship (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1988), p. 24.

77. Cameron and Stevens, p. xxx.

78. Taylor, Origins, p. xxi.

79. David Calleo, The German Problem Reconsidered: Germany and the World Order, 1870 to the Present (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 103.

80. Hillgruber, p. 95.

81. Cameron and Stevens, p. 199.

82. Hillgruber, p. 96.

83. Ibid.

CHAPTER 14: MAN OF THE CENTURY

1. Ralph Raico, “Rethinking Churchill,” in The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories, Second Expanded Edition, John Denson, ed. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 321 (fn).

2. Emrys Hughes, Winston Churchill: British Bulldog (New York: Exposition Press, 1955), p. 35.

3. Robert Payne, The Great Man: A Portrait of Winston Churchill (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1974), p. 216.

4. Raico, p. 321.

5. Martin Gilbert, Churchill: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 274; Roy Jenkins, Churchill: A Biography (London: Plume, 2001), p. 240.

6. Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War (New York: Random House, 1979), p. 177.

7. Ibid., pp. 177, 222.

8. Ibid., p. 178.

9. Ibid., pp. 290–91.

10. George Dangerfield, The Strange Death of Liberal England (New York: Capricorn, 1961), p. 89.

11. Lynne Olson, Troublesome Young Men: The Rebels Who Brought Churchill to Power and Helped Save England (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), p. 45.

12. Ibid., p. 46.

13. Ibid.

14. Richard Toye, Lloyd George and Churchill: Rivals for Greatness (London: Macmillan, 2007), p. 162.

15. Ibid., p. 163.

16. Olson, p. 75.

17. Ibid., p. 76.

18. Toye, p. 282.

19. Ibid.

20. Olson, p. 76.

21. Ibid., p. 81.

22. Ibid., p. 82.

23. Ibid.

24. Ernest R. May, Strange Victory: Hitler’s Conquest of France (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000), p. 173.

25. Andrew Roberts, “Blood, Toil, Tears, etc.: Is There Anything New to Be Said About Winston Churchill?” Weekly Standard, September 26, 2005. http//www.weeklystandard.com.

26. May, p. 173.

27. Gilbert, p. 604; Graham Stewart, Burying Caesar: The Churchill-Chamberlain Rivalry (New York: Overlook Press, 2001), p. 341.

28. John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1993), p. 356.

29. Lord Blake, “Winston Churchill, the Historian,” Speech to the Winston S. Churchill Societies of Edmonton, Calgary and Vancouver, May 1988, p. 6. Published by the Churchill Centre, Washington, D.C., info@winstonchurchill.org.

30. John Lukacs, Five Days in London: May 1940 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p. 113.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.

33. Ibid., p. 120; Ian Kershaw, Fateful Choices: Ten Decisions That Changed the World, 1940–1941 (New York: Penguin Press, 2007), pp. 11, 35.

34. Niall Ferguson, The War of the World: Twentieth Century Conflict and the Descent of the West (New York: Penguin Press, 2006), p. 381.

35. Ibid.

36. F. H. Hinsley, Hitler’s Strategy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951), pp. 34–35.

37. Ibid., p. 79.

38. Ibid.

39. Alan Clark, “A Reputation Ripe for Revision,” London Times, January 2, 1993.

40. Hinsley, p. 82.

41. Ibid., p. 81.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., p. 130.

44. John Lukacs, June 1941: Hitler and Stalin (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006), p. 27.

45. Kershaw, p. 54.

46. Ibid., p. 66.

47. Ibid., p. 68.

48. Michael Bloch, Ribbentrop, Foreword by Hugh Trevor-Roper (London: Abacus, 2003), pp. 311–12.

49. Kershaw, p. 54.

50. Hinsley, p. 131.

51. Kershaw, p. 70.

52. Hinsley, p. 131.

53. Lukacs, June 1941, p. 92.

54. Ibid.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid.

57. Hinsley, p. 131.

58. Lukacs, June 1941, p. 137.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid.

61. Charmley, p. 453; Lukacs, June 1941, p. 104.

62. Robert Nisbet, Roosevelt and Stalin: The Failed Courtship (Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1988), p. 9.

63. George Kennan, Memoirs: 1925–1950 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967), p. 133.

64. Nisbet, p. 19.

65. Hughes, p. 178.

66. Gilbert, p. 632; Charmley, p. 472.

67. Nisbet, p. 30; Gilbert, p. 728.

68. Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar (New York: Vintage, 2003), p. 420.

69. Charmley, p. 508.

70. Hughes, pp. 217–18.

71. Raico, p. 324.

72. Ibid.

73. Charmley, p. 560.

74. Gregor Dallas, 1945: The War That Never Ended (New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 2005), p. 274.

75. William Henry Chamberlin, America’s Second Crusade (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950), p. 306; F.J.P. Veale, Advance to Barbarism: How the Reversion to Barbarism in Warfare and War-Trials Menaces Our Future, Foreword by the The Very Rev. William Ralph Inge, Dean of St. Paul’s (Appleton, Wisc.: C. C. Nelson, 1953), p. 153.

76. Dallas, p. 272.

77. Ibid., p. 273.

78. Ibid., p. 274.

79. Ibid., p. 275.

80. Montefiore, p. 476.

81. Ibid.

82. Nisbet, p. 71.

83. Charmley, p. 617; John Meacham, “Bush, Yalta and the Blur of Hindsight,” Washington Post, May 15, 2005, p. B1; Gilbert, p. 821.

84. Nisbet, p. 78.

85. Winston S. Churchill, The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), p. 322.

86. Ibid., p. 323.

87. Robert Holmes, In the Footsteps of Churchill: A Study in Character (New York: Basic, 2005), p. 188.

88. Andrew Roberts, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900 (New York: HarperCollins, 2007), p. 360.

89. Hughes, p. 94.

90. Gilbert, pp. 411–12; Hughes, p. 92.

91. Toye, p. 200.

92. Ibid.

93. John Lewis Gaddis, Now We Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 8.

94. Hughes, p. 109; Charmley, p. 556; Raico, “Rethinking Churchill,” p. 345.

95. Hughes, p. 240.

96. Raico, p. 345.

97. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), p. 361; Jenkins, p. 781.

98. Charmley, p. 619; Meacham, op. cit.

99. Ibidem; Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, p. 401.

100. Captain Russell Grenfell, R.N., Unconditional Hatred: German War Guilt and the Future of Europe (New York: Devin-Adair, 1953), pp. 152–53.

101. Luigi Villari, Italian Foreign Policy Under Mussolini (New York: Devin-Adair, 1956), p. 377; Hughes, p. 202.

102. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, p. 368.

103. Nikolai Tolstoy, Victims of Yalta (London: Corgi, 1986), p. 128.

104. A. N. Wilson, After the Victorians: The Decline of Britain in the World (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), p. 350.

105. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation II, Translated from the Russian by Thomas P. Whitney (New York: Harper & Row, 1974), pp. 259–60.

106. Ibid., p. 259.

107. Alfred M. de Zayas, Nemesis at Potsdam: The Expulsion of the Germans from the East, Third Edition Revised (Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1989), p. 38.

108. Winston Churchill, Closing the Ring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), p. 362; de Zayas, p. 38.

109. de Zayas, pp. 46–47.

110. Dallas, p. 292.

111. Ibid., p. 294.

112. Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, The German Expellees: Victims in War and Peace (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993), p. 84.

113. de Zayas, The Expellees, pp. 79–80.

114. Ibid., p. 80.

115. Ibid.

116. Ibid., p. 77.

117. de Zayas, Nemesis, p. 89.

118. Ibid.

119. de Zayas, Expellees, p. 81.

120. Ibid., p. 84.

121. Charmley, p. 645.

122. Ibid.

123. de Zayas, Nemesis, p. 108.

124. Ibid., p. 59.

125. Montefiore, p. 534.

126. Hinsley, p. 51.

127. Andrew Roberts, Hitler and Churchill: Secrets of Leadership (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003), pp. 71–72.

128. Winston S. Churchill, “House of Commons Speech, April 11, 1940,” Blood, Sweat and Tears (New York: Putnam, 1941), pp. 295–312.

129. Ibid.

130. Kershaw, p. 23.

131. Francis Neilson, The Churchill Legend (Brooklyn, N.Y.: 29 Books, 2004), p. 323.

132. Kennan, p. 123.

133. Winston S. Churchill, Step by Step: 1936–1939 (London: Odhams Press, 1947), p. 104.

134. Ibid., pp. 120–21.

135. Ibid., pp. 264, 265.

136. Roberts, Hitler and Churchill, p. 71.

137. Gilbert, pp. 99–100.

138. Jenkins, p. 35.

139. Robert K. Massie, Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War (New York: Ballantine, 1991), p. 895; Barbara W. Tuchman, The Guns of August (New York: Macmillan, 1962), p. 26.

140. Charles Callan Tansill, America Goes to War (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1965), p. 148.

141. Raico, p. 331.

142. Ralph Raico, “World War I: The Turning Point,” in The Costs of War: America’s Pyrrhic Victories, Second Expanded Edition, John Denson, ed. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1999), p. 222.

143. Toye, p. 193.

144. Churchill, Step by Step, p. 155.

145. Geoff Simons, Iraq: From Sumer to Saddam (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994), pp. 147, 179–181; Jonathan Glancy, “Gas, Chemical Bombs: Britain Has Used Them All Before in Iraq,” Guardian, April 9, 2003; Michael Lind, “Churchill for Dummies,” The Spectator, April 24, 2004; Ben Fenton, “Churchill Wanted to Use Gas on Enemies,” Daily Telegraph, January 3, 1997.

146. Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), p. 370; Gilbert, p. 668; A.J.P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 518; Davis, p. 69.

147. Johnson, Modern Times, p. 370.

148. Ibid.

149. Ibid.

150. Ibid.

151. Taylor, English History, p. 518.

152. Veale, p. 122.

153. Ibid., p. 128.

154. Ibid.

155. Ibid., p. 130.

156. George N. Crocker, Roosevelt’s Road to Russia (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1986), p. 167.

157. Gilbert, p. 727.

158. Ibid., pp. 727–28.

159. Mike Davis, Dead Cities (New York: New Press, 2002), p. 68.

160. John W. Wheeler-Bennett & Anthony Nicholls, The Semblance of Peace: The Political Settlement After the Second World War (London: Macmillan, 1972), p. 179.

161. C. P. Snow, Science and Government: The Godkin Lectures at Harvard University (London: Oxford University Press, 1961), p. 48.

162. Ibid., p. 49.

163. Veale, p. 121; Grenfell, p. 126.

164. Ibid.

165. Grenfell, p. 127.

166. Hughes, p. 146.

167. George Rosie, “UK Planned to Wipe Out Germany with Anthrax,” Glasgow Herald, September 14, 2001; Davis, p. 76.

168. Prime Minister’s Personal Minute to General Ismay for COS Committee, “Winston Churchill’s Secret Poison Gas Memo.” http://globalresearch.ca/articles/CHU407A.htm.

169. Davis, p. 76.

170. Patrick J. Buchanan, Where the Right Went Wrong (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004), p. 119.

171. Ibid., pp. 119–20.

172. Davis, p. 78; Veale, p. 135.

173. Raico, “Rethinking Churchill,” p. 353.

174. Veale, p. 130.

175. A.J.P. Taylor, From Sarajevo to Potsdam (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967), p. 178.

176. Veale, p. 138.

177. Roberts, Hitler and Churchill, p. xxv.

178. Jonathan Yardley, “A Distinguished Philosopher Asks If Killing Innocents Is Ever Justifiable,” Washington Post, Book World, April 9, 2006, p. 2.

179. Edward Short, “Winston Churchill and the Old Cause,” Crisis, December 2005, p. 27.

180. Pakenham, p. 291.

181. Short, p. 31.

182. Roberts, Eminent Churchillians (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), pp. 211–12; Michael Lind, op. cit.

183. Edwin Black, War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2003), p. 215.

184. Lind, op. cit.

185. Ibid.; Winston S. Churchill, “A Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People,” Illustrated Sunday Herald, February 8, 1920.

186. Churchill, “A Struggle” Lind, op. cit.

187. Roberts, Eminent Churchillians, p. 211.

188. Ibid.

189. Winston Churchill, The River War: An Account of the Reconquest of the Sudan (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 2006), p. 8.

190. Roberts, Eminent Churchillians, p. 213.

191. Gerhard L. Weinberg, Visions of Victory: The Hopes of Eight World War II Leaders (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 144–45.

192. Ibid., p. 145.

193. Lind, op. cit.

194. Roberts, Eminent Churchillians, p. 213.

195. Ibid.

196. Pankaj Mishra, “Exit Wounds: The Legacy of Indian Partition,” The New Yorker, August 13, 2007, p. 82.

197. Ibid.

198. Peter Hennessey, Having It So Good: Britain in the Fifties (London: Allen Lane, 2006), p. 221.

199. Roberts, Churchillians, p. 226.

200. Hennessey, p. 224.

201. Ibid.; Roberts, Churchillians, p. 225.

202. Roberts, Churchillians, p. 230.

203. Hennessey, p. 224.

204. Ibid.; Peter Catterall, ed., The Macmillan Diaries: The Cabinet Years, 1950–1957 (London: MacMillan, 2004), p. 382.

205. William Manchester, The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone 1932–1940 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988), pp. 682–83.

206. Grenfell, p. 92.

207. Ibid., p. 106.

208. Raico, “Rethinking Churchill,” p. 357.

209. Ibid.

210. Villari, p. 378.

211. Charmley, p. 438.

212. Clark, op. cit.

213. Gilbert, p. 687.

214. Ibid., p. 692; Charmley, p. 443.

215. Gilbert, p. 687.

216. Ibid.

217. Charmley, p. 443.

218. Taylor, Sarajevo to Potsdam, pp. 178–79.

219. Grenfell, pp. 233–34.

220. Peter Clarke, Hope and Glory: Britain 1900–1990 (London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press, 1996), p. 260.

221. Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (New York: William Morrow, 1972), p. 589.

222. Edward Ingram, “Hegemony, Global Reach, and World Power: Great Britain’s Long Cycle,” in Bridges and Boundaries: Historians, Political Scientists and the Study of International Relations, Colman Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman, eds. (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001), p. 229.

223. Ibid.

224. Gideon Rachman, “How Conflict in Iraq Has Put a Special Relationship Under Strain,” Financial Times, October 31, 2006, p. 15.

225. Charmley, p. 467.

226. Roberts, Eminent Churchillians, p. 52.

227. Ibid.

228. Bob Withers, The President Travels by Train: Politics and Pullmans (Lynchburg, Va.: TLC, 2000), p. 106.

229. Payne, p. 140.

230. Ibid., pp. 140–41; Charmley, p. 467.

CHAPTER 15: AMERICA INHERITS THE EMPIRE

1. Robert Debs Heinl, Jr., Dictionary of Military and Naval Quotations (Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute, 1967), p. 148.

2. George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy 1900–1950 (New York: New American Library, 1951), p. 51.

3. James A. Montanye, “The Apotheosis of American Democracy,” The Independent Review, Summer 2006, p. 5.

4. Ibid.

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