APPENDIX 2: Casualties

A: HANNIBAL’S ARMY

(i) Polybius (3. 117. 6)

- c. 4,000 Gauls, 1,500 Spanish and Africans, and 200 cavalry: Total: 5,700 (11.4% of the army).

(ii) Livy (22. 52. 6)

- c. 8,000 'of his [Hannibal’s] bravest men' (16% of the army).

B: THE ROMAN ARMY

(i) Polybius (3. 117. 1-3)

Killed; c. 70,000 infantry and presumably c. 5,630 cavalry either killed or captured.

Captured: c. 10,000 infantry

Escaped: 3,000 infantry and 370 cavalry

Total: c. 85,630 killed or captured

Since Polybius gives the Roman strength as 6,000 horse and 80,000 foot before the battle his total of 89,000 for casualties and survivors must be questioned.

(ii) Livy

Killed: 45,500 infantry and 2,700 cavalry (22. 49. 15)

Captured: 3,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry on the battlefield (22. 49. 19)

2,000 men who had fled into the ruins of Cannae (22. 49. 13)

6,400 in the smaller camp (22. 49. 13, 50. 11)

5,800 in the larger camp (22. 49. 13, 52. 4) or 6,400 if Livy included in the total of fugitives from this camp the 600 men led by the tribune Sempronius.

Total prisoners = 18,700 (or possibly 19,300).

Escaped: 50 with Varro to Venusia immediately after the battle (22. 49. 14)

4,500 subsequently joined Varro at Venusia (22. 54. 1)

10,000 to Canusium (22. 54. 4)

Total survivors = 14,550

Sub Totals:

Killed = 48,200

Captured = 18,700 (or 19,300)

Escaped = 14,550

Total = 81,450 (or 82,050)

Livy rounds up the number of dead at Cannae from 48,200 to 50,000 in several speeches (22. 59. 5, 60. 14, 25. 6. 13).

(iii) Other sources:-

(a) Plutarch, Fabius Maximus 16 = 50,000 killed

(b) Appian, Hann. 25 = 50,000 killed

(c) Eutropius 3. 10 = 40,000 infantry and 3,500 cavalry killed

(d) Quintilian 8. 6. 26 = 60,000 killed

C: ROMAN OFFICERS

(i) Known to be with the army:

2 consuls

1 proconsul

2 quaestors 48 tribunes

(ii) Killed:

1 consul - Lucius Aemilius Paullus (consul 219, 216)

1 proconsul - Cnaeus Servilius Geminus (consul 217)

2 quaestors - Lucius Atilius and Lucius Furius Bibaculus

29 tribunes - including Marcus Minucius Rufus (consul 221)

80 senators - including some men who were due for enrolment, but had not yet been admitted

(iii) Known survivors:

1 consul - Caius Terentius Varro (consul 216)

6 (7?) tribunes - Cnaeus Lentulus

- Publius Sempronius Tuditanus

- Quintus Fabius Maximus (consul 213)

- Lucius Publicius Bibulus

- Publius Cornelius Scipio (consul 205, 194)

- Appius Claudius Pulcher (consul 212)

All of these men are named by Livy (22. 49. 6, 50. 6, 53. 1-2). Another tribune, Cnaeus Octavius, is said by the late first century AD source Frontinus to have escaped with Tuditanus (Strategemata 4. 5. 7). If there were eight legions at Cannae and all had their full complement of six tribunes then nineteen survived.

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