Chapter 1: Green: The Fenian Dynamiters

1 Alvin Jackson, Ireland 1798-1998 (Oxford 1999) pp. 177-8

2 For these preliminary remarks see especially Paul Bew, Ireland. The Politics of Enmity (Oxford 2007) pp. 240ff. and Jackson, Ireland 1798-1998

3 The best recent book on Irish nationalism is Richard English, Irish Freedom. The History of Nationalism in Ireland (London 2006) pp. 179ff.

4 Patrick Quinlivan and Paul Rose, The Fenians in England 1865-1872 (London 1982) p. 5

5 R. V. Comerford, The Fenians in Context. Irish Politics and Society 1848-82 (Dublin 1985)

6 Alan O’Day, Irish Home Rule (Manchester 1998) p. 8

7 The Times 14 December 1867 has detailed reports on the atrocity in Clerkenwell

8 See the comprehensive study by Sean McConville, Irish Political Prisoners, 1848-1922. Theatres of War (London 2003)

9 See especially Lindsay Clutterbuck, ‘The Progenitors of Terrorism: Russian Revolutionaries or Extreme Irish Republicans?’ Terrorism and Political Violence (2004) 16, pp. 154-81

10 G. I. Brown, The Big Bang. A History of Explosives (Thrupp 2005) pp. 92ff.

11 See especially K. R. M. Short, The Dynamite War. Irish-American Bombers in Victorian Britain (Dublin 1979) pp. 218-19

12 Henri le Caron, Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Service. The Recollections of a Spy (London 1893)

13 On Sullivan see Terry Golway, Irish Rebel. John Devoy and America’s Fight for Ireland’s Freedom (New York 1998) pp. 155ff.

14 The Times 21 May 1883

15 Roland Quinault, ‘Underground Attacks’ History Today September 2005 pp. 18-19 has some charming illustrations

16 Richard English, Armed Struggle. The History of the IRA (London 2003) pp. 3-13

17 Bew, Ireland p. 375; for Pearse and Republican Catholic nationalism see Conor Cruise O’Brien, Ancestral Voices. Religion and Nationalism in Ireland (Dublin 1994) pp. 103-17

18 English, Armed Struggle p. 18

19 Peter Hart, The IRA at War 1916-1923 (Oxford 2003) pp. 141ff.

20 See the excellent account in Jackson, Ireland 1798-1998 pp. 257ff.

21 Christopher Murray, Sean O’Casey. Writer at Work (Dublin 2004) pp. 163ff.

22 Jackson, Ireland 1798-1998 pp. 345-6

Chapter 2: Russian Nihilists and Revolutionaries

1 Edvard Radzinsky, Alexander II. The Last Great Tsar (New York 2005)

2 For the general issues see John Horgan ‘The Search for the Terrorist Personality’ in Andrew Silke (ed.), Terrorists, Victims, and Society. Psychological Perspectives on Terrorism and its Consequences (Chichester 2003) PP. 3-27

3 All details from Vera Figner, Memoirs of a Revolutionist (DeKalb, Illinois 1991)

4 Jay Berman, Vera Zasulich. A Biography (Stanford 1983) p. 4

5 On Populism see Franco Venturi, Roots of Revolution. A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in 19th Century Russia (London 2001)

6 Gary Saul Morson, ‘What is the Intelligentsia? Once More, an Old Russian Question’ Academic Questions (1993) 6, pp. 20-38; see also Martin Malia ‘What is the Intelligentsia?’ in Richard Pipes (ed.), The Russian Intelligentsia (New York 1961)

7 Ronald Hingley, Nihilists. Russian Radicals and Revolutionaries in the Reign of Alexander II (1855-81) (London 1967)

8 Nikolai Chernyshevsky, What is to be Done? Tales of the New People (Moscow 1983); William F. Woehrlin, Chernyshevskii. The Man and the Journalist (Cambridge, Massachusetts 1971); Irina Paperno, Chernyshevsky and the Age of Realism. A Study in the Semiotics of Behavior(Stanford, California 1988). There is much insight on these issues and personalities too in Joseph Frank, Dostoevsky (Princeton 1976-2002) five volumes

9 Richard Pipes, Russia under the Old Regime (London 1974) pp. 271-2

10 Adam B. Ulam, Prophets and Conspirators in Pre-Revolutionary Russia (New Brunswick 1998) pp. 1-3

11 See Roger Scruton, ‘The Nature of Evil’ in his A Political Philosophy. Arguments for Conservatism (London 2006) pp. 176ff.

12 References from Berman, Vera Zasulich

13 Richard Pipes, The Degaev Affair. Terror and Treason in Tsarist Russia (New Haven 2003) tells the story with great skill

14 These debates are carefully charted by Norman Naimark, Terrorists and Social Democrats. The Russian Revolutionary Movement under Alexander III (Cambridge, Massachusetts 1983)

15 Anna Geifman, Thou Shalt Not Kill. Revolutionary Terrorism in Russia, 1894-1917 (Princeton 1993) p. 16

16 On this see now Simon Sebag Montefiore’s gripping Young Stalin (London 2007)

17 Boris Souvarine, Stalin. A Critical Survey of Bolshevism (New York 1939) pp. 94ff. is still the best account

Chapter 3: Black: Anarchists and Terrorism

1 See James Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men. Origins of the Revolutionary Faith (New York 1980) pp. 72-92 and François Furet and Mona Ozouf (eds), Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (Cambridge, Massachusetts 1989) pp. 179-85. The quotation from Kropotkin is from Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible. A History of Anarchism (London 1992) p. 316. For an excellent collection of key texts on the influences that comprised modern terrorism see Walter Laqueur (ed.), Voices of Terror(New York 2004)

2 Carl Wittke, Against the Current. The Life of Karl Heinzen (Chicago, Illinois 1945) is reliable but overly sympathetic; as a corrective see Benjamin Grob-Fitzgibbon, ‘From the Dagger to the Bomb: Karl Heinzen and the Evolution of Political Terror’ Terrorism and Political Violence(2004) 16, pp. 97ff.

3 Frederic Trautmann, The Voice of Terror. A Biography of Johann Most (Westport, Connecticut 1980) for these details of Most’s life

4 See ‘Assassination’ Alarm 18 April 1885; ‘Dynamite’ Alarm 27 June 1885; ‘Explosives’ Alarm 18 April 1885; ‘Dynamite’ Alarm 21 February 1885

5 James Green, Death in the Haymarket (New York 2006)

6 Arthur Holitscher, Ravachol und die pariser Anarchisten (Berlin 1925) is sympathetic to Ravachol and his successors

7 See the reports in The Times dated 16 and 21 February 1894 and David Mulry, ‘Popular Accounts of the Greenwich Bombing in Conrad’s The Secret Agent’ Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature (2000) 54, pp. 43-64

8 Conrad to Edward Garnett 4 October 1907 in Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies (eds), The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad (Cambridge 1988) vol. 3, p. 488

9 John Batchelor, The Life of Joseph Conrad. A Critical Biography (Oxford 1994) pp. 156-7 and Ian Watt, Essays on Conrad (Cambridge 2000) pp. 112ff.

10 Joseph Conrad, The Secret Agent (London 1963) quotations from pp. 74, 93,101-3, 265. See also Ben MacIntyre, ‘Insignificant, Shabby, Miserable - The Banal Stamp of a Terrorist’ The Times 13 May 2006 p. 21 for some astute reflections on literature and Britain’s 7/7 bombers

Chapter 4: Death in the Sun: Terror and Decolonisation

1 Stefan Wild, ‘Zum Selbstverstandnis palästinensisch-arabischer Nationalität’ in Helmut Mejcher (ed.), Die Palästina-Frage 1917-1948 (Paderborn 1993) p. 79

2 Anton La Guardia, War without End. Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for a Promised Land (New York 2003) p. 77. This is an extraordinarily fair-minded account by a distinguished British journalist of a conflict where rival passions mean that an agreed version is impossible

3 Yehoshuah Porath, The Palestinian Arab National Movement vol. 1: The Emergence of the Palestinian Arab National Movement 1918-29 (London 1974) pp. 31ff.

4 See A. J. Sherman, Mandate Days. British Lives in Palestine 1918-1948 (London 1997)

5 For this outline see Martin Gilbert’s fair-minded Israel. A History (London 1998) which sympathetically portrays the British view

6 See the discussion in Ilan Pappé, A History of Modern Palestine. One Land, Two Peoples (Cambridge 2004) especially pp. 109-16

7 Uri M. Kupferschmidt, The Supreme Muslim Council of Islam under the British Mandate for Palestine (Leiden 1987)p. 250

8 Martin Gilbert, Churchill and the Jews (London 2007)

9 Amos Perlmutter, The Life and Times of Menachem Begin (New York 1987) p. 33 is an outstanding guide to the politics of Revisionist Zionism

10 The best account of Hassan Salameh is in Michael Bar-Zohar and Eitan Haber, The Quest for the Red Prince (Guilford, Connecticut 1983) pp. 17-44

11 Naomi Shepherd, Ploughing Sand. British Rule in Palestine (London 1999) is a well-documented account

12 Porath, The Palestinian Arab National Movement pp. 178ff.

13 Joseph Heller, The Stern Gang. Ideology, Politics, and Terror 1940-1949 (London 1995) pp. 78-91

14 Gerald Cromer, ‘“In the Mirror of the Past”: The Use of History in the Justification of Terrorism’ Terrorism and Political Violence (1991) 3, p. 171

15 Michael Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion (London 1978) p. 123

16 As recalled by my late friend Amos Perlmutter

17 The Times 23 July 1946 p. 4 for the details of the bombing

18 Sherman, Mandate Days p. 205

19 Ibid., pp. 207-8

20 Christopher Sykes, Crossroads to Israel (London 1965) pp. 380-84. I am deeply grateful to the late Frank Johnson for recommending this fascinating book by a former diplomat and SAS officer during a memorable lunch hosted by Antony Beevor and Artemis Cooper a few weeks before Frank died

21 Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism (New York 2006) p. 53

22 See Ilan Pappé, The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1947-1951 (London 2001) pp. 87ff.

23 Abu Iyad, My Home, My Land: A Narrative of the Palestinian Struggle (New York 1981) pp. 4 and 12

24 Pappé, History of Modern Palestine p. 177

25 La Guardia, War without End p. 190

26 John Ruedy, Modern Algeria. The Origins and Development of a Nation (Bloomington, Indiana 2005) pp. 150-52

27 Alistair Horne, A Savage War of Peace. Algeria 1954-1962 (New York 2006) p. 17. This is not only the best single book on Algeria, but one of the finest examples of modern historical writing known to me

28 Paul Aussaresses, The Battle of the Casbah. Counter-Terrorism and Torture (New York 2005) pp. 33ff.

29 Entry dated 9 March 1956 in Mouloud Feraoun, Journal 1955-1962. Reflections on the French-Algerian War trans. Mary Ellen Wolf and Claude Fouillade (Lincoln, Nebraska 2000) pp. 84-5

30 Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper, Forgotten Wars. The End of Britain’s Asian Empire (London 2007) p. 489

31 Horne, Savage War of Peace pp. 262-3

32 Martha Crenshaw Hutchinson, Revolutionary Terrorism. The FLN in Algeria 1954-1965 (Stanford 1978) pp. 121-2

33 Benjamin Stora, Algeria 1830-2000 (Ithaca 2001) pp. 51-2

34 Alf Andrew Heggoy, Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Algeria (Bloomington, Indiana 1972) p. 236

35 Aussaresses, Battle of the Casbah p. 77

36 Hoffman, Inside Terrorism p. 58

37 Horne, Savage War of Peace p. 186

38 Alexander Zervoudakis, ‘A Case of Successful Pacification: The 584th Bataillon du Train at Bordj de l’Agha (1956-57)’ in Martin Alexander and J. F. V. Krieger (eds), France and the Algerian War 1954-62. Strategy, Operations and Diplomacy(London 2002) pp. 54-64

39 Tony Walker and Andrew Gowers, Arafat. The Biography (London 2003) pp. 20-32

40 On Habash see John K. Cooley, Green March, Black September. The Story of the Palestinian Arabs (London 1973) pp. 133ff.

41 Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom vol. 1: 1918-1962 (London 2002) p. 135

42 T. Dunbar Moodie, The Rise of Afrikanerdom. Power, Apartheid and the Afrikaner Civil Religion (Berkeley 1975)

43 The best recent history of South Africa is R. W. Johnson, South Africa. The First Man, the Last Nation (London 2004) especially pp. 139ff.

44 David Harrison, The White Tribe of Africa (Berkeley 1981) p. 129

45 Ibid., pp. 301-400 for Mandela’s account of these debates

46 Oliver Tambo, Beyond the Engeli Mountains (Durban 2004) pp. 318ft”

47 For these details see Stephen M. Davis, Apartheid’s Rebels. Inside South Africa’s Hidden War (New Haven 1987) pp. 36ff.

48 Adrian Guelke, Terrorism and Global Disorder (London 2006) p. 224

49 Steven Mufson, Fighting Years. Black Resistance and the Struggle for a New South Africa (Boston 1990) pp. 199-200

50 For examples see Francis Meli, South Africa Belongs to Us. A History of the ANC (London 1989) pp. 195-8

51 See the website ‘Afriforum’ for these issues

Chapter 5: Attention-Seeking: Black September and International Terrorism

1 On the early history of hijacking see Timothy Naftali, Blind Spot. The Secret History of American Counterterrorism (New York 2005) pp. 19ff.

2 Patrick Seale, Abu Nidal. A Gun for Hire (London 1992) pp. 77-8

3 Tony Walker and Andrew Gowers, Arafat. The Biography (London 2003) p. 139

4 Simon Reeves, One Day in September (London 2000) p. 41

5 On the leadership see Christopher Dobson, Black September (London 1974) pp. 51ff.

6 For these biographical details see Michael Bar-Zohar and Eitan Haber, The Quest for the Red Prince (Guilford, Connecticut 1983) pp. 92ff.

7 For these quotations see William R. Farrell, Blood and Rage. The Story of the Japanese Red Army (Lexington, Massachusetts 1990) pp. 130-44

8 See especially Aaron J. Klein, Striking Back. The 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and Israel’s Deadly Response (New York 2005)

9 Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, Yasir Arafat. A Political Biography (London 2003) pp. 63-5

10 Dobson, Black September p. 129

11 Bruce Hoffman ‘All You Need is Love: How the Terrorists Stopped Terrorism’ Atlantic Monthly December 2001. Since Hoffman is one of the world’s leading authorities on terrorism, there seems little reason to doubt this story, even if his Palestinian interlocutors obviously seek to exonerate PLO terrorism

12 On this see Yossi Melman, The Master Terrorist. The True Story behind Abu Nidal (New York 1986) pp. 108ff.

13 Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Carlos Complex. A Pattern of Violence (London 1977) pp. 103ff.

Chapter 6: Guilty White Kids: The Red Brigades and the Red Army Faction

1 Leonard Weinberg, ‘Violent Life: Left-wing and Right-wing Terrorism in Italy’ in Peter Merkl (ed.), Political Violence and Terror. Motifs and Motivations (Berkeley 1986) pp. 147-8

2 Paul Ginsburg, A History of Contemporary Italy 1943-1980 (London 1990) pp. 354ff.

3 Alison Jamieson, The Heart Attacked. Terrorism and Conflict in the Italian State (London 1989) pp. 19-21 for these statistics. These obviously exclude casualties from later terrorist attacks, which have continued sporadically into the early 2000s

4 Alberto Ronchey, ‘Guns and Grey Matter: Terrorism in Italy’ Foreign Affairs (1979) 57, p. 930

5 Stefan Wisniewski, Wir waren so unheimlich konsequent … Ein Gespräch zur Geschichte der RAF (Berlin 2003) P. 17

6 Raimondo Catanzaro, ‘Subjective Experience and Objective Reality: An Account of Violence in the Words of its Protagonists’ in Catanzaro (ed.), The Red Brigades and Left-wing Terrorism in Italy (London 1991) p. 184

7 Richard Drake, The Revolutionary Mystique and Terrorism in Contemporary Italy (Bloomington, Indiana 1989) p. 96

8 Salvatore Veca, ‘Sixty-eight: Ideas, Politics, Culture’ in Omar Calabrese (ed.), Modern Italy. Images and History of a National Identity (Milan 1985) vol. 4 p. 81

9 Mario Moretti, Brigate Rosse. Eine italienische Geschichte (Berlin 2006) pp. 24-34

10 Mara Cagol, Una donna nelle prime Brigate Rosse (Venice 1980) pp. 119-20

11 Ibid., p. 64

12 Alberto Franceschini, Mara, Renato e io. Storia dei fondatori delle BR (Milan 1988) p. 204

13 Moretti, Brigate Rosse p. 49

14 Adriana Faranda interviewed in Jamieson, The Heart Attacked p. 271

15 Catanzaro, ‘Subjective Experience and Objective Reality: An Account of Violence in the Words of its Protagonists’ p. 184

16 Moretti, Brigate Rosse pp. 111-13

17 Jamieson, The Heart Attacked p. 157

18 Patrizio Peci, Io l’infame (Milan 1983) pp. 81-106

19 Ibid., p. 63

20 Ibid., pp. 14-15

21 Ibid., p. 195

22 Rino Genova, Missione antiterrorismo (Milan 1985) p. 150

23 Richard Drake, The Aldo Moro Murder Case (Cambridge, Massachusetts 1995) is admirably tough-minded in refuting all the conspiracy charges that have enveloped the facts of the Moro case

24 Dennis Bark and David Gress, A History of West Germany. Democracy and its Discontents 1963-1988 (Oxford 1989) vol. 2 pp. 120-21

25 Butz Peters, Tödlicher Irrtum. Die Geschichte der RAF (Frankfurt am Main 2006) pp. 81-4

26 Wolfgang Kraushaar, ‘Antizionismus als trojanisches Pferd. Zur antisemitischen Dimension in den Kooperation von Tupermaros West-Berlin, RAF und RZ mit den Palästinensern’ in Kraushaar (ed.), Die RAF und der linke Terrorismus (Hamburg 2006) vol. 1 pp. 676ff. This line is still fashionable among such former salon Marxists as New York University’s self-regarding Tony Judt and his attempts to construe himself as a martyr to the likes of Abraham Foxman, the head of the Anti-Defamation League

27 Bommi Baumann, Wie alles anfing (Munich 1979)

28 See especially Klaus Stern and Jörg Herrmann, Andreas Baader. Das Leben eines Staatsfeindes (Munich 2007)

29 Wolfgang Kraushaar, ‘Rudi Dutschke und der bewaffnete Kampf’ in Kraushaar (ed.), Die RAF vol. 1 pp. 222-5; and Kraushaar, Karen Wieland and Jan Philipp Reemsta, Rudi Dutschke, Andreas Baader und die RAF (Hamburg 2005)

30 Herfried Münkler, ‘Sehnsucht nach dem Ausnahmezustand. Die Faszination des Untergrunds und ihre Demontage durch die Strategie des Terrors’ in Kraushaar (ed.), Die RAF vol. 2 pp. 1220-21

31 Susanne Bressen and Martin Jander, ‘Gudrun Ensslin’ in Kraushaar (ed.), Die RAF vol. 1 p. 428

32 Martin Jander, ‘Horst Mahler’ in Kraushaar (ed.), Die RAF vol. 1 p. 381

33 The best biography of her is Alois Prinz, Lieber wütend als traurig. Die Lebensgeschichte der Ulrike Meinhof (Weinheim 2003)

34 Stefan Aust, Der Baader-Meinhof Komplex (Hamburg 1998) p. 107

35 Ibid., pp. 155-6

36 Wisniewski, Wir waren so unheimlich konsequent p. 38

37 Hans Josef Horchem, ‘The Decline of the Red Army Faction’ Terrorism and Political Violence (1991) 3, pp. 67ff.

38 Jander, ‘Horst Mahler’ pp. 390-97

39 Rolf Sachsse, ‘Prada Meinhof. Die RAF als Marke. Ein Versuch in politischer Ikonologie’ in Kraushaar (ed.), Die RAF vol. 2 p. 1260

Chapter 7: Small-Nation Terror

1 An analogy made by a Basque nationalist who appears in Julio Medem’s polyphonic 2004 documentary Basque Ball (available on DVD from Tartan DVDs). The Spanish Partido Popular and ETA had difficulties in participating in the film so in a sense it is incomplete

2 ‘Starkoch gibt Restaurantkomplex auf’ Der Spiegel 19 February 2007

3 Robert P. Clark, The Basque Insurgents. ETA, 1952 -1980 (Madison, Wisconsin 1984) p. 15

4 Robert P. Clark, ‘Patterns in the Lives of ETA Members’ in Peter Merkl (ed.), Political Violence and Terror. Motifs and Motivation (Berkeley 1986) p. 296

5 See the discussion in Matthew Carr, Unknown Soldiers. How Terrorism Transformed the Modern World (London 2006) pp. 109ff.

6 Barbara Loyer, ‘Basque Nationalism Undermined by ETA’ Le Monde Diplomatique (February 1998) pp. 1-7

7 Ibid., pp. 181-3

8 See the detailed account by Paddy Woodworth, Dirty War, Clean Hands. ETA, the GAL and Spanish Democracy (New Haven 2001) from which all quotations are taken

9 ‘Pay Up or Else, ETA Terrorists Tell 2,000 Spanish Businesses’ Daily Telegraph 7 August 2007 p. 15

10 See F. S. L. Lyons, Ireland since the Famine (London 1971) pp. 741-2 for these statistics

11 Glenn Patterson’s novel Burning your Own (London 1988) is a vivid depiction of life on a predominantly Protestant housing estate in 1969 which sheds light on these subtle cultural matters. The book’s hero, a ten-year-old boy, is the son of mixed-religious parents, who christened him ‘Malachy’ but always shorten this to the less Catholic ‘Mal’. ‘“Read the birth certificate,” her husband said. “You’ll find no Malachy there.” “Because you cheated me,” she shouted. “Cheated me when I was too sick from having him to fight you.” “Look!” Mr Martin thumped the table. “We compromised, remember? Mal we would christen him and Mal we would always call him. Right?” … “Ignoramus!” Mrs Martin burst out. Her laughter was feverish. “Terrified people will think he’s a Catholic when if they had an ounce of education they’d know the name’s Hebrew.” “I don’t care if it’s flaming Zulu, it sounds Catholic”’ (p. 69).

12 Roy Foster, Modern Ireland 1600-1972 (Oxford 1988) pp. 582-5; Peter Taylor, Loyalists (London 1999) p. 50

13 The best study of Paisley is still Steve Bruce, God Save Ulster!The Religion and Politics of Paisleyism (Oxford 1986)

14 One of the most brilliantly evocative histories of Ulster is A. T. Q. Stewart, The Narrow Ground. Aspects of Ulster 1609-1969 (Belfast 1977). For a study of the group mindset see Susan McKay, Northern Protestants. An Unsettled People (Belfast 2000) and Sarah Nelson’s earlier Ulster’s Uncertain Defenders. Loyalists and the Northern Ireland Conflict (Belfast 1984)

15 Conor Cruise O’Brien, States of Ireland (New York 1972) pp. 168-9

16 David McKittrick and David McVea, Making Sense of the Troubles (London 2001) pp. 26ff.

17 Simon Prince, ‘The Global Revolt of 1968 and Northern Ireland’ Historical Journal (2006) 49, pp. 851-75

18 Max Hastings, Ulster 1969. The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland (London 1970) pp. 28-30. I am grateful to Max for interesting discussions about this period

19 See especially Paul Bew, Ireland. The Politics of Enmity (Oxford 2007) especially pp. 492ff. I am grateful to my friend Lord Bew for his help with everything related to Northern Ireland terrorism

20 Hastings, Ulster 1969 p. 114

21 Ibid., p. 149

22 Gerry Adams, Falls Memories (Dingle, Co. Kerry 1993)

23 Ed Moloney, A Secret History of the IRA (London 2003) pp. 74ff.

24 See David McKittrick, Seamus Kelters, Brian Feeney, Chris Thornton and David McVea, Lost Lives (Edinburgh 2004) pp. 70-73. This outstanding book is the most sombre memorial to the Troubles

25 Peter R. Neumann, Britain’s Long War. British Strategy in the Northern Ireland Conflict, 1969-98 (London 2003) p. 57

26 Peter Taylor, Provos. The IRA & Sinn Fein (London 1997) pp. 163ff.

27 Martin Dillon, The Shankill Butchers. A Case Study in Mass Murder (London 1989) is gruesomely definitive

28 Eamon Collins, Killing Rage (London 1997) pp. 98ff.

29 Liam Clarke and Kathryn Johnston, Martin McGuinness. From Guns to Government (London 2003) p. 41

30 J. J. Barrett, Martin Ferris. Man of Kerry (Dingle, Co. Kerry 2006) pp. 44-5

31 Sean O’Callaghan, The Informer (London 1998) p. 55. I am grateful to Sean O’Callaghan for many memorable conversations about terrorism

32 Toby Harnden, ‘Bandit Country’. The IRA & South Armagh (London 1999) pp. 36ff.

33 For examples see Martin Dillon, God and the Gun. The Church and Irish Terrorism (London 1997)

34 See the insightful discussion of Church politics in Moloney, A Secret History of the IRA pp. 228ff.

35 Taylor, Provos p. 267

36 See Bruce Hoffman ‘All You Need is Love: How the Terrorists Stopped Terrorism’ Atlantic Monthly December 2001 pp. 1-4

37 Richard English, Armed Struggle. The History of the IRA (London 2003) p. 123

38 Maxwell Taylor and Ethel Quayle, Terrorist Lives (London 1994) pp. 28-34

39 See the important book by Kevin Toolis, Rebel Hearts. Journeys within the IRA’s Soul (London 1995) p. 288

40 David Lister and Hugh Jordan, Mad Dog. The Rise and Fall of Johnny Adair and ‘C Company’ (Edinburgh 2007) p. 37

41 Ibid., pp. 100-101

42 Ibid., p. 140

43 Andrew Silke, ‘Rebel’s Dilemma: The Changing Relationship between the IRA, Sinn Fein, and Paramilitary Vigilantism in Northern Ireland’ Terrorism and Political Violence (1999) 11, p. 62

44 Roy Mason, Paying the Price (London 1999) p. 163

45 Mark Urban, Big Boys’ Rules. The Secret Struggle against the IRA (London 1992) pp. 69-78 for an insightful discussion of the army and the law

46 Martin Ingram and Greg Harkin, Stakeknife. Britain’s Secret Agents in Ireland (Dublin 2004) pp. 6off. for Scappaticci’s background and character by one of his former handlers

47 Peter Taylor, Brits. The War against the IRA (London 2001) pp. 288-96

48 Taylor, Provos pp. 259-65

49 Bew, Ireland p. 532

50 Neumann, Britain’s Long War p. 157

51 McKittrick et al., Lost Lives pp. 1393-5

52 Brian Graham, ‘The Past in the Present: The Shaping of Identity in Loyalist Ulster’ Terrorism and Political Violence (2004) 16, pp. 12-14

53 For the grim details see Chris Ryder and Vincent Kearney, Drumcree. The Orange Order’s Last Stand (London 2002)

54 For this see Dean Godson’s excellent Himself Alone. David Trimble and the Ordeal of Unionism (London 2006)

55 Kate Kray, Hard Bastards (London 2002) pp. 35-48 and Johnny Adair, Mad Dog (London 2007) p. 250

56 See Keith Maguire, ‘Fraud, Extortion and Racketeering: The Black Economy in Northern Ireland’ Crime, Law and Social Change (1993) 20, pp. 273-92

57 Rachel Monaghan, ‘“An Imperfect Peace”: Paramilitary “Punishments” in Northern Ireland’ Terrorism and Political Violence (2004) 16, p. 444

58 ‘IRA plc Turns Terror into the Biggest Crime Gang in Europe’ The Times 25 February 2005. Obviously since these people are skilful, there may be further activities not mentioned here, some of which - involving front businesses on the UK mainland - are not given in great detail for legal reasons

59 Harnden, ‘Bandit Country’ pp. 451ff.

60 Edna Leahy, ‘Farc Rebel “Admits IRA Trained Him”’ The Times 15 May 2005

61 Michael Burleigh, ‘Sinister Mutations’ Spectator 18 February 2006 is based on interviews with serving PSNI officers regarding paramilitary criminality

62 For these statistics see the appendix in McKittrick et al., Lost Lives pp. 1525ff.

Chapter 8: World Rage: Islamist Terrorism

1 Gilles Kepel, The Revenge of God. The Resurgence of Islam, Christianity and Judaism in the Modern World (University Park, Pennsylvania 1994) is an excellent comparative study of the resurgence of the three Abrahamic faiths from the mid-1970s

2 Patrick Clawson and Michael Rubin, Eternal Iran. Continuity and Chaos (London 2005) pp. 87-93

3 Mike Davis, Buda’s Wagon. A Brief History of the Car Bomb (London 2007) pp. 78-86 and Robert Baer, See No Evil (London 2002) pp. 97ff

4 See especially Charles Allen, God’s Terrorists. The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden Roots of Modern Jihad (London 2006) pp. 42ff.

5 Gilles Kepel, Jihad. The Trail of Political Islam (London 2002) pp. 69-75

6 Jarret Brachman (ed.), Militant Ideology Atlas (West Point 2006) Appendix 1 p. 12

7 Steve Coll, Ghost Wars. The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (London 2005) pp. 24-37; Yaroslav Trofimov, The Siege of Mecca (London 2007)

8 Brynjar Lia, The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt. The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement (Reading 1998)

9 As discussed by Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit, Occidentalism. A Short History of Anti-Westernism (London 2004)

10 For a good explication of his views see Mary Habeck, Knowing the Enemy. Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror (New Haven 2006) pp. 35-7

11 For an informed discussion see Gilles Kepel, The Roots of Radical Islam (London 2005) pp. 36ff.

12 As starkly depicted in Alaa Al Aswany’s The Yacoubian Building (London 2007)

13 Carrie Rosefsky Wickham, Mobilizing Islam. Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt (New York 2002) pp. 36ff.

14 Ibid., pp. 145-55

15 For a brilliant memoir of contemporary Egypt see Mary Anne Weaver, A Portrait of Egypt. A Journey through the World of Militant Islam (New York 1999) which is especially good on the Sadat years

16 See Youssef H. Aboul-Enein, ‘Islamic Militant Cells and Sadat’s Assassination’ Military Review (2004) pp. 1-8; and Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror (New York 2002) pp. 81-5

17 Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower. Al-Qaeda’s Road to 9/11 (London 2006) pp. 49-59

18 Martin Stone, The Agony of Algeria (London 1997) p. 97

19 Benjamin Stora, Algeria 1830-2000. A Short History (Ithaca 2001) pp. 171ff.

20 See the very useful paper by Martin van Bruinessen, ‘Genealogies of Islamic Radicalism in Post-Suharto Indonesia’ at Bruinessen/personal/publications/ genealogies_islamic-r

21 Wright, Looming Tower p. 99

22 Coll, Ghost Wars pp. 81-2

23 Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia 2004) p. 57

24 Sean O’Neill and Daniel McGrory, The Suicide Factory. Abu Hamza and the Finsbury Park Mosque (London 2006) pp. 23-9 for the two versions of this story. In the other, the engineer Hamza was tracing the outlines of structures on the ground with a stick and triggered a land mine

25 J. Millard Burr and Robert O. Collins, Alms for Jihad. Charity and Terrorism in the Islamic World (Cambridge 2006) pp. 51-2. Alms for Jihad has been the subject of legal action in London. Citing it does not imply that I endorse all its assertions

26 See the astute interview in Abdel Bari Atwan, The Secret History of Al-Qaeda (London 2006) pp. 19-30

27 See Faisal Devji, Landscapes of Jihad. Militancy, Morality, Modernity (London 2005)

28 Jason Burke, Al-Qaeda. The True Story of the Radical Islam (London 2003) pp. 77-8

29 For extensive documentation on Al Qaeda see West Point Counter-Terrorism Center’s Harmony Project. Employment Contract AFGP-2002-600045 and Organisational arrangements AFGP-2002-00078 and AFGP-2002-000080

30 Terry McDermott, Perfect Soldiers. The 9/11 Hijackers (New York 2005) pp. 107-19

31 Peter Brookes, A Devil’s Triangle. Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Rogue States (Lanham, Maryland 2005) p. 102

32 Melanie Phillips, Londonistan. How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within (London 2006) tells it as it really is

33 Burr and Collins, Alms for Jihad p. 94

34 For the above see mainly Tony Walker and Andrew Gowers, Arafat. The Biography (London 2003) pp. 208ff.

35 Bernard Lewis, ‘The Other Middle East Problems’ in his collection From Babel to Dragomans. Interpreting the Middle East (London 2004) pp. 332-42

36 Ze’ev Schiff and Ehud Ya’Ari, Intifada. The Palestinian Uprising and Israel’s Third Front (New York 1989) p. 154

37 David Pratt, Intifada. The Long Day of Rage (Glasgow 2006) p. 51

38 As well as numerous obituaries of the sheikh, see Matthew Levitt, Hamas. Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad (New Haven 2006) pp. 34-7

39 Zaki Chehab, Inside Hamas. The Untold Story of Militants, Martyrs and Spies (London 2007) p. 23 and Shaul Mishal and Avraham Sela, The Palestinian Hamas. Vision, Violence, and Coexistence (New York 2006)

40 ‘Hamas Covenant 1988’ in the Avalon Project edition available at hamas.htm pp. 1-25 and as an appendix in Mishal and Sela, The Palestinian Hamas pp. 175-99

41 Samuel M. Katz, The Hunt for the Engineer. How Israeli Agents Tracked the Master Bomber (Guilford, Connecticut 2002) is a brilliant account of Ayyash’s career

42 Pratt, Intifada pp. 108ff is vivid

43 See especially Ami Pedahzur, Suicide Terrorism (Cambridge 2005) pp. 134ff. and the less interesting Robert A. Pape, Dying to Win. Why Suicide Terrorists Do It (London 2006) and Diego Gambetta (ed.), Making Sense of Suicide Missions (Oxford 2005)

44 Anat Berko and Edna Erez, ‘“Ordinary People” and “Death Work”: Palestinian Suicide Bombers as Victimizers and Victims’ Violence and Victims (2006) 20, pp. 603-23

45 Ed Husain, The Islamist (London 2007) pp. 74-81

46 Noel Malcolm, Bosnia. A Short History (London 1994) pp. 220-22 is characteristically humane and intelligent

47 Lorenzo Vidonio, Al Qaeda in Europe. The New Battleground of International Jihad (Amherst, New York 2006) pp. 215-31

48 Evan Kohlmann, Al-Qaeda’s Jihad in Europe. The Afghan-Bosnian Network (Oxford 2004) pp. 85-6

49 ‘The 1995 and 1998 Renditions’ Human Rights Watch at http://dR// reports/2005/egypt0505h5.htm

50 Kepel, Jihad pp. 251-3

51 Paul Murphy, The Wolves of Islam. Russia and the Faces of Chechen Terror (Washington DC 2006) pp. 20-24

52 Andrew Higgins and Alan Cullison, ‘Saga of Dr Zawahiri Sheds Light on the Roots of Al Qaeda Terror’ Wall Street Journal 3 July 2002

53 Evan Kohlmann, ‘Two Decades of Jihad in Algeria: The GIA, the GSPC, and Al-Qaida’ (2007) pp. 1-28. Mohammed Samraoui, Chronique des années de sang (Paris 2003) should be used with caution as it has been the object of libel actions in French courts. See especially Martin Evans and John Phillips, Algeria. Anger of the Dispossessed (New Haven 2007) pp. 235ff.

54 Stora, Algeria 1830 -2000 pp. 213ff. is good on politics in the 1990s

55 For the first point see Mark Allen, Arabs (London 2006) p. 30

56 Habeck, Knowing the Enemy pp. 83ff.

57 Simon Reeve, The New Jackals. Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism (London 1999) pp. 125-32 is a persuasive account of Yousef’s mind

58 Richard A. Clarke, Against All Enemies. Inside America’s War on Terror (New York 2004) pp. 140-47

59 Burke, Al-Qaeda p. 127

60 See mainly Ahmed Rashid, Taliban. The Story of the Afghan Warlords (London 2001) pp. 72-5

61 See Alan Cullison, ‘Inside Al-Qaeda’s Hard Drive’ Atlantic Monthly (September 2004) pp. 1-16. Cullison’s brilliant reporting from Afghanistan for the Wall Street Journal includes details from abandoned Al Qaeda computers he purchased in Kabul

62 Daniel Byman, Deadly Connections. States that Sponsor Terrorism (Cambridge 2005) pp. 205-9

63 McDermott, Perfect Soldiers Appendix C p. 264 for most of this text

64 Baradan Kuppusamy, ‘Hambali: The Driven Man’ Asia Times 19 August 2003

65 Lucien Vandenbroucke, ‘Eyewitness to Terror: Nairobi’s Day of Infamy’ and Patience Bushnell, ‘After Nairobi: Recovering from Terror’ American Foreign Service Bulletin (2000) June, July issues

66 Michael Griffin, Reaping the Whirlwind. Afghanistan, Al Qaeda and the Holy War (Sterling, Virginia 2003) p. 174

67 Jean-Charles Brisard and Damien Martinez, Zarqawi. The New Face of Al-Qaeda (Cambridge 2005) is essential on Zarqawi as it is based on extensive Jordanian documentation

68 Vidino, Al Qaeda in Europe pp. 147ff.

69 McDermott, Perfect Soldiers pp. 37-46

70 DIGOS (Italian secret service) report ‘Al Muhajroun 3’ dated 21 November 2001

71 Shiv Malik, ‘My Brother the Bomber’ Prospect (June 2007) p. 34

72 Gerald Robbins, ‘Dutch Treat: The Netherlands Tries to Assimilate its Muslim Immigrants’ Weekly Standard 13 July 2007 pp. 1-2

73 George Walden, Time to Emigrate? (London 2006)

74 Paul M. Sniderman and Louk Hagendoorn, When Ways of Life Collide (Princeton 2007) pp. 27ff.

75 See especially Nick Cohen’s honest and informed What’s Left? How the Liberals Lost their Way (London 2006)

76 Walter Laqueur, The Last Days of Europe. Epitaph for an Old Continent (New York 2007) p. 85; and for the final discussion see the clear-minded piece by Rod Liddle, ‘The Public Know How These Attacks Happen - Unlike the Politicians’ Spectator 7 July 2007 pp. 14-15

77 This important point is made by Ed Husain, The Islamist pp. 69-70

78 Jamie Doward, ‘Extremists Train Young Convicts for Terror Plots’ Observer 15 July 2007

79 Jason Burke, Evening Standard 8 August 2007

80 Thomas H. Kean and others, The 9/11 Commission Report (New York 2002) p. 166

81 Barton Gellman and Jo Becker, ‘Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency’ Part ii, Washington Post 24 June 2007 p. 5

82 Fawaz A. Gerges, Journey of the Jihadist. Inside Muslim Militancy (Orlando 2006) pp. 207-9

83 See the useful discussion by Michael Howard, ‘War against Terrorism’ Royal United Services Institute Address 30 October 2001 pp. 1-5

84 Ron Suskind, The One Per Cent Doctrine. Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of its Enemies since 9/11 (London 2006) p. 17

85 See the interesting memoir by Tyler Drumheller, On the Brink (New York 2006) p. 48. Drumheller was the head of CIA clandestine operations in Europe

86 Christina Lamb, ‘The Invisible Man’ Sunday Times magazine 18 March 2007 pp. 48-57 is an informed account of the search effort

87 David Gartenstein-Ross and Kyle Dabruzzi, ‘The Convergence of Crime and Terror: Law Enforcement Opportunities and Perils’ Center for Policing Terrorism 26 March 2007 pp. 1-24

88 For the above see David Rivkin and Lee A. Casey, ‘Family Feud: The Law in War and Peace’ National Interest (2007) 89, pp. 66-75 and John Yoo, War by Other Means. An Insider’s Account of the War on Terror (New York 2006)

89 See the thoughtful review by Alasdair Palmer, ‘American “Oppressors” Have a Right to a Fair Trial Too’ Sunday Telegraph 3 June 2007 reviewing Clive Stafford Smith’s new book on Guantánamo Bay

90 Mark Bowden, ‘Jihadists in Paradise’ Atlantic Monthly March 2007 pp. 54-75

91 West Point Counter-Terrorism Center Harmony Project Adl to Muktar dated 13 June 2002

92 See Rohan Gunaratna, ‘Terrorism in Southeast Asia: Threat and Response’ Hudson Institute (New York 2006) pp. 1-12

93 Jason Burke, ‘Al Qaeda after Madrid’ Prospect (June 2004)

94 See the discussion by David Tucker, ‘What’s New about the New Terrorism and How Dangerous is It?’ Terrorism and Political Violence (2001) 13, pp. 1-14

95 See the important paper by Stanford University’s Jacob Shapiro, ‘The Terrorist’s Challenge: Security, Efficiency, Control’ Center for International Security and Cooperation 26 April 2007 pp. 1-36

96 For recent examples see Lee Kuan Yew, ‘Winning the War on Terrorism’ Foreign Affairs January/February (2007) 86, pp. 2-7

97 Simon Elegant, ‘The Terrorist Talks’ Time/CNN 5 October 2003 p. 2 which quotes from CIA briefings

98 The most detailed account is by Maria Ressa, Seeds of Terror. An Eyewitness Account of Al-Qaeda’s Newest Center of Operations in Southeast Asia (New York 2003) pp. 143ff.

99 Arabinda Acharya, ‘The Bali Bombings: Impact on Indonesia and Southeast Asia’ Hudson Institute (New York 2006) pp. 1-5

100 Kumar Ramakrishna, ‘The Making of the Jemaah Islamiyah Terrorist’ in James J. F. Forest (ed.), Teaching Terror: Strategic and Tactical Learning in the Terrorist World (Oxford 2006) pp. 223ff.

101 For a splendid account of contemporary Indonesia see Tracy Dahlby, Allah’s Torch. A Report from behind the Scenes in Asia’s War on Terror (New York 2005) as well as the equally informative John T. Sidel, Riots, Pogroms, Jihad. Religious Violence in Indonesia (Ithaca 2006) especially pp. 196ff.

102 Zachary Abuza, ‘JI’s Moneyman and Top Recruiter: A Profile of Noordin Mohammed Top’ Terrorism Focus (25 July 2006) 3, pp. 1-2 and Jay Solomon and James Hookway, ‘In Indonesia, War on Terror Shows Both Gains and Worrisome Trends’ Wall Street Journal 8 September 2006

103 ‘Terrorists Proving Harder to Profile’ Washington Post 11 March 2007

104 Michael Moss and Souad Mekhennet, ‘The Guidebook for Taking a Life’ New York Times 10 June 2007 pp. 1-4

105 See Lawrence Wright, ‘The Terror Web’ New Yorker 2 August 2004

106 Kathy Gannon, ‘Cameraman Sheds Light on al-Qaida Tactics’ Associated Press 26 June 2006

107 Douglas Farah, Blood from Stones. The Secret Financial Network of Terror (New York 2004) is the authoritative account by the Washington Post West African bureau chief

108 House of Commons Intelligence and Security Committee (Chairman Paul Murphy MP) Report into the London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005 (London 2006) for these remarks on the Committee’s findings. That the Committee is heavy with MPs with intelligence and military connections tends to render it the elected version of what it is supposed to monitor rather than a forum that asks original questions. The need for secrecy (pervasive in Britain) counts for more than the ability to pose questions from beyond the security community’s conceptual horizons. An important corrective is Crispin Black, 7/7. The London Bombs. What Went Wrong? (London 2005)

109 Report of the Official Account of the Bombings in London on 7th July 2005, HM Stationery Office (London 2006) for these details

110 Sean O’Neill, ‘Silence in (and out) of Court’ The Times 12 May 2006 p. 24. This point was made by Peter Clarke in Learning from Experience. Counter-Terrorism in the UK since 9/11 Colin Cramphorn Memorial Lecture at Policy Exchange (London 2007) pp. 34-5

111 Sean O’Neill, ‘Refugees Who Tried to Wage War on London’ The Times 10 July 2007 front page and pp. 6-7

112 ‘How 7/7 killers Slipped MI5 Net’ and related stories in Daily Mail 1 May 2007

113 Anon., ‘An Army on Operations’. I am grateful to Antony Beevor for a copy of this Kermit Roosevelt address by a senior British general to a US audience

114 Terence Henry, ‘Get Out of Jihad Free’ Atlantic Monthly June 2007 pp. 39-40

115 Christopher Boucek, ‘Extremist Reeducation and Rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia’ Terrorism Monitor (2007) 5, pp. 1-4; a similar Egyptian scheme has been hampered by lack of funds, see Manal El-Jesri, ‘Given the Chance’ Egypt Today October 2007

116 Peter Coleman, A Liberal Conspiracy (New York 1989)

117 Gerald Robbins, ‘Dutch Treat. The Netherlands Tries to Assimilate its Muslim Immigrants’ Weekly Standard 13 July 2007

118 Pascale Combelles Sigel, ‘An Inside Look at France’s Mosque Surveillance Program’ Terrorism Monitor (2007) 5, pp. 1-3 is an excellent analysis of French domestic security measures

119 See Frank Gaffney and others, War Footing (Annapolis, Maryland 2006) pp. 68-70

120 See Mitchell D. Silber and Arvin Bhatt, Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat New York City Police Department Intelligence Division (New York 2007)

121 Solomon and Hookway, ‘In Indonesia’

122 Peter Grier, ‘Where Does Al Qaeda Stand Now?’ Christian Science Monitor 5 March 2007; for an up-to-date assessment of where Al Qaeda is now see Fred Burton and Scott Stewart, ‘Gunning for Al Qaeda Prime’ Stratfor Terrorism Intelligence Report 27 June 2007 pp. 1-4


1 See John A. Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife. Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam (Chicago 2005) pp. 59ff.

2 Jeffrey Imm ‘Who is America Fighting - Jihadists or Extremists?’ Counter-terrorism Blog 25 April 2008 pp. 1-6

3 For example Frederick W. Kagan, ‘How We’ll Know We’ve Won: A Definition of Success in Iraq’ Weekly Standard 5 May 2008 pp. 1-6

4 Lieutenant Colonel (Dr) David Kilcullen, ‘Countering Global Insurgency’, paper delivered on 30 November 2004, p. 39

5 The term Islamofascism is used by Martin Amis, Christopher Hitchens and countless commentators. Islamobolshevism is less frequently employed by among others Niall Ferguson

6 See Michael Doran, ‘Statement on CIST Strategy’, which argues that Muslim self-perception is more important than how the US is perceived by others. I am grateful for the opportunity to have discussed these issues with Mr Doran

7 See Steve Coll’s marvellous The Bin Ladens (London 2008)

8 Jonathan Powell, Great Hatred; Little Room. Making Peace in Northern Ireland (Oxford 2008); briefing session with Under-Secretary Eric Edelman at the Carlton Club, London, 14 March 2008. The Irish anecdote comes from a source who prefers to remain anonymous

9 Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London 1999). There is a much better book by Peter Coleman, the former editor of Quadrant, called The Liberal Conspiracy. The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for the Mind of Postwar Europe (London 1989)

10 Ed Husain, The Islamist (London 2007) is an important account of Trotskyite-style entryism by Islamists into Britain’s low-grade higher- and further-education colleges

11 See the forthcoming Centre for Social Cohesion report by Anthony Glees, Islam in Britain. The Government’s Security-driven Plans to Reform the Teaching of Islam in English Universities (London 2008)

12 Martin Evans and John Phillips, Algeria. Anger of the Dispossessed (New Haven 2007) p. 170

13 For a good discussion of the internet and terrorism see Marc Sageman, Leaderless Jihad. Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century (Philadelphia 2008) pp. 109-23. The Dutch intelligence services have also produced a number of high-grade reports on this issue. Of course, one should not neglect the radicalising impact of satellite TV, especially in the ‘dish cities’ of the Netherlands, or of mainstream satellite and terrestrial news broadcasters who recycle scenes of atrocity at half-hourly intervals. See also Fred Burton, ‘The Web of Jihad: Strategic Utility and Tactical Weakness’ Stratfor 13 June 2006 pp. 1-4

14 Damian Thompson, Counterknowledge. How We Surrendered to Conspiracy Theories, Quack Medicine, Bogus Science and Fake History (London 2008) is one of many recent titles dealing with these broader cultural issues

15 See the director Maajid Nawaz’s In and Out of Islamism (London 2008) and Quilliam Foundation (ed.), Pulling Together to Defeat Terrorism. Recommendations for Uprooting Islamist Extremism (London 2008)

16 See Michael Burleigh, ‘Lawyers Sap our Will to Combat Terrorism’ The Times 27 July 2007 p. 17

17 Floyd Abrahams, ‘Foreign Law and the First Amendment’ Wall Street Journal 30 April 2008. Unfortunately, the laws of libel prevent my being any more specific, but interested readers can consult the magazine Private Eye for some relevant examples of the problem

18 Sean O’Neill, ‘Terror Suspect Who Won Court Battle Identified as “Senior Al-Qaeda Agent”’ The Times 26 April 2008

19 Relevant books include Nick Cohen, What’s Left? (London 2007) and Andrew Anthony, The Fallout (London 2007)

20 For an interesting discussion on the Churches and 9/11 see Jean Bethke Elshtain, Just War against Terror. The Burden of American Power in a Violent World (New York 2003)

21 Among the many commentaries on Williams’ remarks see Melanie Phillips, ‘Seven Deadly Reasons Why the Archbishop Should Not be Allowed to Get Away with It’ Daily Mail 13 February 2008 p. 14. The archbishop was essentially responding to aggressive Islamist self-assertion by saying that Britain should become a bit more Muslim. He was also unmindful of a worldwide flock that in some countries (including areas of the UK as well as Nigeria, Pakistan, Somalia and Sudan) is under siege by Muslim extremists

22 Philip Jenkins, God’s Continent. Christianity, Islam and Europe’s Religious Crisis (Oxford 2007) pp. 52-3

23 See the important article by John Cornwell, ‘Are Muslim Enclaves No-go Areas, Forcing Other People Out?’ Sunday Times 16 March 2008 pp. 1-7, and Ian Buruma, Murder in Amsterdam (London 2006)

24 ‘Terror Suspect Obtained Visa’ Star 25 April 2008; recent books on nuclear proliferation include William Langewiesche, The Atomic Bazaar. The Rise of the Nuclear Poor (London 2007)

25 Center for Combating Terrorism (West Point) (ed.), Cracks in the Foundations. Leadership Schisms in al-Qa’ida 1989-2006 (West Point, NY 2007) is a well-documented study of these divisions

26 Josh Lefkowitz, ‘Terrorists behind Bars’ NEFA Foundation Report 5 May 2008 pp. 31-6. This also deals with Singapore’s Religious Rehabilitation Group

27 Olivier Roy, The Politics of Chaos in the Middle East (London 2007) pp. 141ff.

28 Olivier Guitta, ‘Africa is the Next Stage of the War’ Examiner 6-7 October 2007; Jane Novak, ‘Yemen’s Truce with Al Qaeda’ Weekly Standard 31 October 2007 pp. 1-2; Andrew McGregor, ‘Military Rebellion and Islamism in Mauritania’ Terrorism Monitor(2005) 3, pp. 1-3; J. Peter Pham, ‘Violence, Islamism, and Terror in the Sahel’ World Defence Review 22 February 2007

29 Thomas Renard, ‘Police Raids Uncover Al-Qaeda’s Parallel World in Turkey’ Terrorism Focus (2008) 5, pp. 5-7

30 Akbar Ahmed, Resistance and Control in Pakistan (London 1991), a book informed by the author’s role as a frontier officer in Waziristan as well as by his anthropological training

31 Notably by British human rights lawyer Philippe Sands, Torture Team (London 2008)

32 Marc Reuel Gerecht and Gary Schmitt, ‘What France Does Best’ American March/April 2008 pp. 1-4, and Craig Whitlock, ‘French Push Limits in Fight against Terrorism’ Washington Post 2 November 2004

33 ‘Britain is Europe’s Top Terror Centre, Arrests Show’ Sunday Telegraph 27 April 2008

34 Andy Dolan, ‘Fanatic Tried to Brainwash Son’ Daily Mail 19 February 2008 pp. 20-1

35 Shmuel Bar, Warrant for Terror. The Fatwas of Radical Islam and the Duty of Jihad (Stanford 2006)

36 Mohamed Sifaoui, Inside Al Qaeda (London 2003) p. 65

37 Lefkowitz, ‘Terrorists behind Bars’ pp. 9-13 for the European and US prison statistics

38 Bat Ye’or, Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis (Madison 2005) and Ralph Peters, ‘The “Eurabia” Myth’ in his Wars of Blood and Faith. The Conflicts that will Shape the Twenty-First Century (Mechanicsburg, PA 2007) pp. 332-4. See also Walter Laqueur, The Last Days of Europe. Epitaph for an Old Continent (New York 2007)

39 Roy, Politics of Chaos p. 66

40 I am referring to Michael Burleigh, Earthly Powers. Politics and Religion from the French Revolution to the Great War (London/New York 2005) and Sacred Causes. Politics and Religion from the European Dictators to Al-Qaeda (London/New York 2006)

41 For a pre-emptive reordering of our legal universe see Phillip Bobbitt’s Terror and Consent (London 2008)

42 Gerard Henderson, Islam in Australia. Democratic Bi-partisanship in Action (London 2007). I am grateful to Gerard for the opportunity to discuss these questions at the Sydney Institute

43 Peter Zimonjic, Into the Darkness. An Account of 7/7 (London 2008) pp. 196ff.

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