Military history

Source Notes

Abbreviations

EVK-GP Ekaterina Vasilievna Korotkova-Grossman Papers RGALI Rossiisky Gosudarstvenny Arkhiv Literatury I Iskusstva (Russian State Archive for Literature and the Arts), Moscow

RGASPI Rossiisky Gosudarstvenny Arkhiv Sotsialno-Politeskoi Istorii (Russian State Archive for Social-Political History), Moscow

TsAMO Tsentralny Arkhiv Ministerstva Oborony (Central Archive of the Ministry of Defence), Podolsk

Introduction

p. vii Grossman family names russified, Garrard and Garrard, p. 53

p. viii On the 150,000 Jews murdered in civil war, S. Yelisavetsky, Berdichevskaya tragedia, Kiev, 1991, p. 13, quoted in Garrard and Garrard, p. 61

p. viii ‘At first glance, Father . . .’, interview with Ekaterina Korotkova-Grossman, 24 December 2004

p. viii ‘The wolfhound century’, Mandelstam, Sobranie Sochinenii, vol. 1 (Munich, 1967), p. 162

p. viii For estimates of famine victims, see Donald Rayfield, p. 185

p. x ‘He was an extremely kind . . .’, Ehrenburg, p. 35

p. x On the arrest of Olga Mikhailovna, for the most detailed account, see Garrard and Garrard, pp. 121–5

p. xii ‘I’ll tell you about myself’, Guber, p. 100

p. xiii ‘During the whole war . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/50

p. xiii ‘talks with soldiers withdrawn . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/50

p. xiii ‘the penetrating, sharp foreboding . . .’, Grossman, 1974, p. 37

p. xiv ‘I know that the fact . . .’, Ortenberg, 1991, p. 27

p. xv ‘the usual smell of the front line . . .’, Grossman, 1985, p. 740

p. xv ‘Ever since he had arrived in Stalingrad . . .’, Grossman, 1985 pp. 236–7

p. xv for Ehrenburg’s telephone call from Stalin, see Rubenstein, p. 187

p. xvii ‘I think that those who . . .’, ‘Infantryman’, Grossman, 1989

p. xvii ‘The ruthless truth of war’, quoted in Ortenberg, 1982, p. 293

Chapter 1: Baptism of Fire

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/43 with the following exceptions:

p. 5 ‘I remember how Grossman . . .’, Ortenberg, 1991, pp. 358–9

p. 5 ‘His tunic was all wrinkled . . .’, Ortenberg, quoted in Bocharov, p. 127.

p. 6 ‘We are leaving for the Central Front . . .’, Voprosy literatury, no. 5, 1968, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 12 ‘On the outbreak of war . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 12 ‘My dear [Father], I arrived at my destination . . .’, 8 August 1941, EVK-GP

p. 13 ‘Bogaryov saw a family of boletus . . .’, Grossman, 1962, p. 316

p. 15 ‘Ours, ours?’, excerpt from Grossman’s The People Immortal published in Krasnaya Zvezda, 19 July 1942

Chapter 2: Terrible Retreat

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/43 with the following exceptions:

p. 21 ‘Who can describe the austerity . . .’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 24 July 1942

p. 21 ‘The next day we were able . . .’, Ortenberg, 1984, p. 162

p. 22 ‘If you remember, in Travel to Arzrum . . .’, Grossman, 1962, p. 380.

p. 23 ‘We were driving and driving . . .’, Troyanovsky, p. 23

Chapter 3: The Bryansk Front

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49 with the following exceptions:

p. 27 ‘Drive to the front . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/43

p. 29 ‘I am in good health . . .’, 9 September 1941 (Stamp: Checked by Military Censorship), EVK-GP

p. 29 ‘Dear Lyusenka . . .’, 16 September 1941, Guber, 1990

p. 30 ‘German trenches . . .’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 14 September 1941

Chapter 4: With the 50th Army

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49 with the following exceptions:

p. 34 ‘Shlyapin is intelligent, strong . . .’, Grossman, 1989, p. 263

p. 35 ‘My dear [Father], I’ve received . . .’, 1 October 1941, EVK-GP

Chapter 5: Back into the Ukraine

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49 with the following exceptions:

p. 38 ‘Grossman decided to write . . .’, Ortenberg, 1979 pp. 313–28

p. 39 ‘The first time that we, military correspondents . . .’, November 1945, RGALI 1710/3/21 ‘A Soviet Officer’

Chapter 6: The German Capture of Orel

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49.

Chapter 7: The Withdrawal Before Moscow

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49 with the following exceptions:

p. 55 ‘Tula, seized with that deadly fever . . .’, Grossman, 1989, p. 288

p. 56 ‘People say that [Ortenberg] is a good editor . . .’, Grossman, 1989, p. 289

p. 57 ‘The morning and evening reports from the Sovinformburo . . .’, Ortenberg, 1984, p. 191

p. 60 ‘It’s a fact, Comrade Commissar,’ Grossman, 1962, p. 96

p. 61 ‘My dear and good [Father], I was mortally upset . . .’, 17 November 1941, EVK-GP

p. 61 ‘We were given an apartment . . .’, Ehrenburg, 1990, p. 349

p. 62 ‘Vasily Grossman has returned . . .’, Ortenberg, 1984, p. 327

p. 62 ‘It is still too early to be looking . . .’, Grossman to M.M. Shkapskaya quoted, Guber, 1990

p. 63 ‘There are very nice people around me . . .’, Grossman to Olga Mikhailovna, 20 December 1941, quoted, Guber, 1990

p. 63 ‘When marching into European capitals . . .’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 26 December 1941

Chapter 8: In the South

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49 with the following exceptions:

p. 67 ‘Vasily Grossman persuaded me . . .’, Ortenberg, 1982, p. 70

p. 68 ‘Division Commander Lazko . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/44

p. 73 422,700 men died in punishment units, John Erickson, ‘Red Army Battlefield Performance’, in Addison and Calder, p. 236

Chapter 9: The Air War in the South

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49 with the following exceptions:

p. 79 ‘Dearest Lyusenka, well, we’ve celebrated . . .’, 1 January 1942, quoted in Guber, 1990

p. 79 ‘My articles are published . . .’, 11 January 1942, quoted in Guber, 1990

p. 80 ‘It is still stinging cold here . . .’, 1 February 1942, EVK-GP

Chapter 10: On the Donets with the Black Division

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49.

Chapter 11: With the Khasin Tank Brigade

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/49.

Chapter 12: ‘The Ruthless Truth of War’

p. 110 ‘Sometimes it feels that I’ve spent . . .’, 6 March 1942, EVKGP

p. 110 ‘Winter has come back to where . . .’, 7 March 1942, EVK-GP

p. 110 ‘Vasily Grossman came to see me . . .’, Ortenberg, 1982, p. 263

p. 110 ‘I’ve been given leave . . .’, 8 April 1942, EVK-GP

p. 111 ‘Action has started at the front . . .’, 15 May 1942, EVK-GP

p. 112 ‘I am doing a great deal of work here . . .’, 31 May 1942, EVKGP

p. 113 ‘Things seem to be going well . . .’ 12 June 1942, EVK-GP

p. 113 ‘I am a key person at the editorial office now . . .’, quoted in Guber, 1990

p. 114 ‘[After] precisely two months . . .’, Ortenberg, 1982, p. 263

p. 114 ‘Krasnaya Zvezda started serialising . . .’, 14 July 1942, EVK-GP

p. 114 ‘Today we published the final . . .’, Ortenberg, 1982 p. 293

p. 114 ‘Yesterday Kostya Budkovsky . . .’, 22 July 1942, Guber, 1990

p. 115 ‘I am leaving for the front . . .’, 19 August 1942, EVK-GP

Chapter 13: The Road to Stalingrad

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/50 with the following exceptions:

p. 117 ‘When the famous order was issued . . .’, interview with Ekaterina Korotkova-Grossman, 24 December 2004

p. 118 ‘We were retreating from the battle . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/46

p. 121 for the debate over Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, see Pravda, 26 November 2002

p. 123 ‘What’s the matter with them?’, quoted in Volkogonov, p. 461

p. 123 Stalingrad Defence Committee, numerous examples can be found in RGASPI 17/43/1774

p. 130 ‘Those were hard and dreadful days . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/102

Chapter 14: The September Battles

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/50 with the following exceptions:

p. 136 ‘We arrived in Stalingrad soon after an air raid, Krasnaya Zvezda 6 September, 1942, RGALI 1710/1/102

p. 139 ‘He was not a stranger . . .’, Ortenberg, 1982, p. 382

p. 140 ‘When on the march, one’s shoulder . . .’ Krasnaya Zvezda, 20 September 1942, RGALI 1710/1/102

p. 141 ‘three to five well-armed . . .’, 16 August 1942, TsAMO 48/486/28

p. 141 Execution in 45th Rifle Division, TsAMO 48/486/25

p. 144 ‘“Comrade Chuikov,” said Khrushchev’, Chuikov, 1963, p. 84

p. 148 ‘The road turned south-west . . .’, ‘The Stalingrad Battle’, RGALI 1710/1/102

p. 151 ‘My own one, my good one . . .’, Guber, 1990

p. 152 ‘You already know about . . .’, 5 October 1942, Guber, 1990

Chapter 15: The Stalingrad Academy

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/50 with the following exceptions:

p. 154 ‘Sometimes, the trenches dug . . .’, ‘Stalingrad Army’, RGALI 618/2/107

p. 158 ‘Sometimes it is very quiet . . .’, ‘With Chekhov’s Eyes’, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 158 ‘It was probably because Grossman . . .’, 14 November 1942, Ortenberg, 1982, p. 415

p. 159 Zaitsev as a sniper, Zaitsev, p. 59

p. 160 ‘for days’, Grossman, 1985, p. 236

p. 168 ‘The earth around the landing point . . .’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 4 November 1942

Chapter 16: The October Battles

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/50 with the following exceptions:

p. 174 ‘You know, I am a superstitious man . . .’, Ortenberg, 1979, pp. 313–28

p. 180 ‘All the correspondents . . .’, 12 January 1943, Ortenberg, 1991, p. 25

p. 180 ‘When he wrote . . .’, ‘I remember how he would . . .’, Ortenberg, 1982 p. 392

p. 180 ‘I’ve written an angry letter to the editor . . .’, Guber, 1990

p. 181 ‘It is only here that people know . . .’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 26 November 1942, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 187 ‘In the light of rockets . . .’, ‘The Stalingrad Battle’, RGALI 1710/1/102

p. 188 ‘Once, in mid-October, he told officers . . .’, Ortenberg, 1979, pp. 313–28

Chapter 17: The Tide Turned

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/50 with the following exceptions:

p. 190 ‘I work a lot, the work is stressful . . .’, 13 November 1942, EVK-GP

p. 192 ‘watched the beginning of . . .’, 1 December 1942, Ortenberg, 1982, p. 429

p. 193 ‘We wandered into an empty house . . .’, interview with Ekaterina Vasilievna Korotkova-Grossman, 24 December 2004

p. 193 ‘Old women’s kerchiefs and earrings . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 193 ‘A babushka told us how . . .’ RGALI 1710/3/50

p. 194 ‘Ice is moving down the Volga . . .’ ‘On the Roads of the Advance’, RGALI 618/2/107

p. 197 ‘When one enters a bunker . . .’, ‘Military Council’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 29 December 1942, RGALI 618/2/107

p. 198 ‘I work a lot . . .’, Guber, 1990

p. 199 ‘All those who, for a hundred days . . .,’ ‘The New Day’, RGALI 618/2/107

p. 199 ‘We are walking on a waste land . . .’, ‘Stalingrad Army’, RGALI 618/2/107

p. 200 ‘I think I will be in Moscow in January . . .’, 11 December 1942, EVK-GP

p. 200 ‘Red Army soldiers wound the gramophone up . . .’, RGALI 618/2/107

Chapter 18: After the Battle

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/50 with the following exceptions:

p. 203 ‘My dearest Lyusenka, I’ve just come back . . .’, Guber, 1990

p. 204 ‘There is no one to cry for him . . .’, 31 December 1942, EVK-GP

p. 204 ‘The winter sun is shining over mass graves . . .’, ‘Today in Stalingrad’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 1 January 1943

p. 205 ‘Why did General Ortenberg order Grossman . . .’, Ehrenburg, 1990, p. 350

p. 205 ‘Well, my [dear Father] . . .’, 2 January 1943, EVK-GP

p. 209 ‘The old teacher . . .’, RGALI 618/2/107

p. 211 ‘I am waiting for the plane . . .’, Grossman to Olga Mikhailovna, 17 February 1943, Guber, 1990

p. 211 ‘I was very disturbed and offended . . .’, Guber, 1990

p. 211 ‘People say that some are born . . .’, Ehrenburg, 1990, p. 350

p. 212 ‘we received a note . . .’, 25 May 1943, Ortenberg, 1991, p. 246

Chapter 19: Winning Back the Motherland

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/51 with the following exceptions:

p. 213 ‘Months of war passed one another . . .’, Ortenberg, 1982, p. 459

p. 219 ‘absolutely incorrect attitude . . .’, TsAMO 48/486/25

pp. 219–20 ‘Soviet brotherhood’ and ‘To indoctrinate soldiers and officers . . .’, TsAMO 48/486/24

p. 224 ‘They keep promising to give me leave . . .’, 20 March 1943, EVK-GP

p. 224 ‘Just as I thought, my trip was useless . . .’, 4 April 1943, EVKGP

Chapter 20: The Battle of Kursk

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/51 with the following exceptions:

p. 225 ‘I’ve arrived at the 62nd Stalingrad Army . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/50

p. 226 ‘Rodimtsev’s division could have fought better . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/50

pp. 231–2 ‘The brigade had to confront . . .’, Ortenberg, 1991, pp. 355–6

p. 234 ‘This battle lasted three days and three nights . . .’, typescript for editorial board of the journal Oktyabr, RGALI 619/1/953

p. 234 ‘Grossman remained true . . .’, Ortenberg, 1991, pp. 355–6

p. 235 ‘There wasn’t anyone in the whole world . . .’, Krasnaya Zvezda, July 1943, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 238 ‘From the point of view of artillery . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/50

p. 239 ‘I must say that I had never forgotten . . .’, Ortenberg, 1991, pp. 379–80

p. 240 ‘We reached Orel on the afternoon . . .’, ‘Return’, Krasnaya Zvezda, August 1943, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 242 ‘Dear Papa, I’ve been driving . . .’, 28 June 1943, EVK-GP

p. 243 ‘With your name . . .’, quoted Rubenstein, p. 198

p. 243 ‘You are fighting . . .’, quoted Rubenstein, p. 205

p. 243 ‘The soldiers want to hear . . .’, quoted Rubenstein, p. 207

p. 243 ‘Vasily Semyonovich Grossman came to Moscow . . .’, Ehrenburg, 1990, p. 347

p. 243 On the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, see Rubenstein pp. 214–16, and Rubenstein and Naumov

Chapter 21: The Killing Ground of Berdichev

All entries are from RGALI 619/1/953 with the following exceptions:

p. 247 ‘A report arrived that a girl . . .’, ‘In the Advance’, 15 October 1943, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 251 ‘There are no Jews in the Ukraine . . .’, quoted in Garrard and Garrard, p. 170

p. 252 ‘There’s no one left in Kazary . . .’, ‘Murder of the People’, September 1943, typescript, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 254 ‘Dearest Lyusenka, I reached my destination today . . .’, Guber, 1990

p. 255 ‘I am going to Berdichev today . . .’, n.d., EVK-GP

p. 255 ‘About 30,000 Jews were killed in Berdichev . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/104

p. 256 ‘They called me Mitya Ostapchuk . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/123

p. 256 ‘The seizure of Berdichev by the Germans . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/123

p. 260 ‘My darling, twenty years . . .’, Guber, 1990

Chapter 22: Across the Ukraine to Odessa

All entries are from RGALI 1710/1/100 with the following exceptions:

p. 263 ‘Finally, the sun is getting hotter and hotter . . .’, ‘Thoughts about the Advance’, RGALI 1710/1/101

p. 269 ‘a short, calm and good-natured . . .’, Ortenberg, 1979, pp. 313–28

Chapter 23: Operation Bagration

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/50 with the following exceptions:

p. 272 ‘Sometimes you are so shaken by what you’ve seen . . .’, Grossman, 1989

p. 274 ‘Leutnant-General [sic] Lützov does not praise . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 275 ‘A German map had been captured . . .’, RGALI 1710/1/100

p. 276 ‘Italians executed by Vlasov men . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/47

p. 276 ‘A partisan, a small man . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/47

p. 277 ‘Signaller Skvortsov is small . . .’, RGALI 1710/3/47

p. 277 Training before an offensive.’, RGALI 1710/3/47

p. 279 ‘From deciduous forests, from marshes . . .’, ‘In the Towns and Villages of Poland’, RGALI 1710/3/21

Chapter 24: Treblinka

All entries are from RGALI 1710/1/123 with the following exceptions:

p. 280 ‘The road to Lublin . . .’, Troyanovsky, p. 182

p. 280 ‘What about Lublin? . . .’, Troyanovsky, p. 183

p. 306 On Grossman’s nervous exhaustion, see Rubenstein p. 425, n. 64, and Jean Cathala, Sans Fleur ni Fusil (Paris, 1981)

Chapter 25: Warsaw and ód

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/51 with the following exceptions:

p. 309 ‘An old man in Kaluga, reasonable and prone . . .’, ‘The Road to Berlin’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 9 February 1945, RGALI 1710/3/21

p. 312 ‘It’s the first time in my life . . .’, Ortenberg, 1991, p. 359

p. 312 ‘Along the crumpled and explosion-twisted . . .’, ‘The Road to Berlin’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 9 February 1945, RGALI 1710/3/21

p. 313 ‘When we arrived, liberated Warsaw . . .’, ‘The Road to Berlin’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 9 February 1945, RGALI 1710/3/21

p. 314 ‘We have visited the “bunker” . . .’, ‘The Road to Berlin’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 9 February 1945, RGALI 1710/3/21

Chapter 26: Into the Lair of the Fascist Beast

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/51 with the following exceptions:

p. 326 ‘changed for the worse . . .’, interview with Ekaterina Korotkova-Grossman, 24 December 2004.

p. 330 ‘We reached the Oder on a sunny morning . . .’ ‘The Road to Berlin’, Krasnaya Zvezda, 28 February 1945, RGALI 1710/3/21

Chapter 27: The Battle for Berlin

All entries are from RGALI 1710/3/51 with the following exceptions:

p. 331 ‘On 14 April, correspondents . . .’, Troyanovsky, ‘While Taking Berlin’, Zhurnalisty na voine, p. 180

p. 332 ‘A village that had been burned by the Germans . . .’, ‘On the Borderline between War and Peace’, RGALI 618/11/52

p. 341 ‘It was in Germany, particularly here in Berlin . . .’, ‘On the Borderline between War and Peace’, RGALI 618/11/52

Afterword: The Lies of Victory

p. 346 ‘grave political errors’, Rubenstein, p. 217

p. 347 ‘how much I hate our enemies’, Rubenstein and Naumov, pp. xii–xiii

p. 348 ‘A large empty room . . .’, Songs from the War, memoir by Ekaterina Korotkova-Grossman

p. 349 ‘Grossman replied that this . . .’, interview with Ekaterina Korotkova-Grossman, 24 December 2004

p. 349 ‘Well, it’s clear to me . . .’, interview with Ekaterina Korotkova-Grossman, 24 December 2004

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