Military history


The following list contains only titles cited in the Notes. It is confined to primary sources, including those biographies and special studies, like Ritter’s Schlieffen Plan, which include primary material. A short list of secondary works is given separately. All titles are given in English or French translation where these exist.

A full bibliography of the subject would fill a book. No other episode in history has been more fully documented by its participants. They seem to have known, while they lived it, that like the French Revolution, the First World War was one of the great convulsions of history, and each felt the hand of history heavily on his own shoulder. When it was over, despite courage, skill, and sacrifice, the war they had fought proved to have been, on the whole, a monument of failure, tragedy, and disillusion. It had not led to a better world. Men who had taken part at the command level, political and military, felt driven to explain their decisions and actions. Men who had fallen from high command, whether for cause or as scapegoats—and these included most of the commanders of August—wrote their private justifications. As each account appeared, inevitably shifting responsibility or blame to someone else, another was provoked. Private feuds became public; public controversies expanded. Men who would otherwise have remained mute were stung to publish, as Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien by Sir John French. Books proliferated. Whole schools of partisans, like those of Gallieni and Joffre, produced libraries of controversy.

Through this forest of special pleading the historian gropes his way, trying to recapture the truth of past events and find out “what really happened.” He discovers that truth is subjective and separate, made up of little bits seen, experienced, and recorded by different people. It is like a design seen through a kaleidoscope; when the cylinder is shaken the countless colored fragments form a new picture. Yet they are the same fragments that made a different picture a moment earlier. This is the problem inherent in the records left by actors in past events. That famous goal, “wie es wirklich war,” is never wholly within our grasp.

Official Government Publications

CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE, Diplomatic Documents Relating to the Outbreak of the European War, 2 vols., ed. James Brown Scott, New York, Oxford, 1916. Contains the official publications of the various Foreign Offices which appeared at intervals after the outbreak, beginning with the hurriedly assembled and highly selective German White Book issued on August 4, 1914. Included are the Austro-Hungarian Red, Belgian Grey, French Yellow, German White, British Blue I and II, Italian Green, Russian Orange I and II and Serbian Blue Books.

FRANCE, Assemblée Nationale, Chambre des Deputés, Session de 1919. Procès-Verbaux de la Commission d’Enquète sur le rôle et la situation de la metal-lurgie en France: defense du Bassin de Briey, 1re et 2me parties.

———. Rapport de la Commission d’Enquète par M. Fernand Engerand, deputé. 1re partie: “Concentration de la metallurgic française sur la frontière de l’Est.” 2me partie: “La perte de Briey.”

These hearings (referred to in Notes as “Briey”), at which the principal chiefs of the French General Staff as well as field commanders were called to testify, are the basic source for French military policy in August, 1914. They grew out of the loss of the Briey iron ore basin which became critical as the war went on. Certain sinister underpinnings of the munitions industry with its interlocking Franco-German directorates led a deputy, M. Fernand Engerand, to pursue a persistent investigation into the circumstances of the loss of Briey and this led by natural stages to an investigation of French strategy at the outset of the war. When the war was over, M. Engerand succeeded in getting a Committee of Inquiry appointed of which he was named rapporteur. “As our inquiry unrolled with all its illustrious witnesses,” he wrote in his Report, it was plain that the truth about the origins and failure of Plan 17 was being “obstinately hidden” from the government and the Chamber of Deputies, but “we have tried to unravel the tangled and hidden threads of this month of August, 1914, the most tragic, perhaps, in all history of France.”

FRANCE, Ministère de la Guerre; Etat-major de l’Armée, Service Historique, Les Armées Françaises dans la grande guerre, Tome I, Vols. 1 and 2 and Annexes Paris, Imprimerie Nationale 1922–1925. Referred to in Notes as AF. The first volume of the Official History, beginning with the pre-1914 war plans and the Michel incident of 1911, covers the war through the Battle of the Frontiers. The second volume covers the Retreat up to the eve of the Battle of the Marne. The real value is in the two volumes of Annexes containing the texts of orders and communications between GQG and the armies. These are the most vivid and immediate source material of all.

GERMANY, Foreign Office, Outbreak of the World War; German documents collected by Karl Kautsky and edited by Max Montgelas and Walther Schucking, translated by Carnegie Endowment, New York, Oxford, 1924. Referred to in Notes as “Kautsky.” Assembled and published by the Weimar Government to supplement the original German White Book.

GERMANY, Genralstaab, Kriegsbrauch im Landkriege (Usages of War on Land), translated as The German War Book by J. H. Morgan, London, Murray, 1915.

GERMANY, Marine-Archiv, Der Krieg zur See, 1914–18, No. 5, Band 1, Der Krieg in dem Turkische Gewassen; Die Mittelmeer Division, Berlin, Mittler, 1928.

GERMANY, Reichsarchiv, Der Weltkrieg 1914–18, Band 1, Die Militärische Operationen zu Lande; Die Grenzschlachten im Westen, Band 3, Von der Sambre bis zur Marne, Berlin, Mittler, 1924.

GREAT BRITAIN, Committee of Imperial Defence, Historical Section, CORBETT, SIR JULIAN, Naval Operations: History of the Great War Based on Official Documents, Vol. I, New York, Longmans, 1920. Referred to in Notes as “Corbett.”

———, EDMONDS, BRIGADIER-GENERAL JAMES E., Military Operations: France and Belgium, 1914, Vol. I and volume of maps, 3rd ed., London, Macmillan, 1933. Referred to in Notes as “Edmonds.” This work of superb scholarship is particularly valuable for its selections from German and French sources, showing for a given date the actual situation of the BEF’s enemies and allies and how each appeared to the other.

———, FAYLE, C. ERNEST, Seaborne Trade, Vol. I, London, Murray, 1920.

GREAT BRITAIN, Foreign Office. British Documents on the Origins of the War, 1898–1914, 11 vols., eds. G. P. Gooch and H. W. V. Temperley, London, 1927–38. Referred to in Notes as “BD.”

UNITED STATES, Department of State. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the U. S. Supplements, World War, 1914, Washington, G.P.O., 1928

Non-Official Sources

On Belgium

BASSOMPIERRE, BARON ALFRED DE, The Night of August 2–3, 1914, at the Belgian Foreign Office, tr. London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1916.

BEYENS, BARON, Deux Années à Berlin, 1912–14, 2 vols., Paris, Plon, 1931.

CAMMAERTS, EMILE, Albert of Belgium, tr. New York, Macmillan, 1935.

CARTON DE WIART, HENRY (Belgian Minister of Justice in 1914). Souvenirs politiques, Brussels, Brouwer, 1948.

COBB, IRWIN S., Paths of Glory—Impressions of War Written at and near the Front, New York, Dutton, 1914.

DAVIS, RICHARD HARDING, With the Allies, New York, Scribner’s, 1914.

DEMBLON, CELESTIN (deputy of Liège), La Guerre a Liège: Pages d’un témoin, Paris, Lib. Anglo-Française, 1915.

D’YDEWALLE, CHARLES, Albert and the Belgians, tr. New York, Morrow, 1935.

ESSEN, LéON VAN DER, The Invasion and the War in Belgium from Liège to the Yser, tr. London, Unwin, 1917.

GALET, GENERAL EMILE JOSEPH, Albert, King of the Belgians, in the Great War, tr. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1931. This record by King Albert’s personal military adviser and later Chief of Staff, is authoritative, thorough, detailed, and indispensable.

GIBSON, HUGH (First Secretary of the American Legation), A Journal from Our Legation in Belgium, New York, Doubleday, 1917.

KLOBUKOWSKI, A. (French Minister in Brussels), “Souvenirs de Belgique,” Revue de Paris, Sept.-Oct., 1927.

———, “La Résistance belge à l’invasion allemande,” Revue d’Histoire de la Guerre, July 1932.

MALCOLM, IAN, ed., Scraps of Paper: German Proclamations in Belgium and France, New York, Doran, 1916.

MILLARD, OSCAR E., Burgomaster Max, London, Hutchinson, 1936.

POWELL, E. ALEXANDER (correspondent of the New York World attached to the Belgian forces in 1914), Fighting in Flanders, New York, Scribner’s, 1914.

SCHRYVER, COL. A. DE, La Bataille de Liège, Liège, Vaillant-Carmanne, 1922.

SUTHERLAND, MILLICENT, DUCHESS OF (leader of a volunteer ambulance corps of nurses to Belgium in August, 1914), Six Weeks at the War, Chicago, McCluny, 1915.

VERHAEREN, EMILE, La Belgique sanglante, Paris, Nouvelle Revue Française, 1915.

WHITLOCK, BRAND, Belgium: A Personal Narrative, Vol. I, New York, Appleton, 1910. President Wilson’s appointment as Minister to Belgium of the lawyer and former journalist who had won fame as Independent mayor of Toledo for four terms proved fortunate for history. A progressive in politics, outspoken and courageous, Whitlock was also a writer of distinction. His book, together with that of Hugh Gibson who, though a professional diplomat, wrote without wraps, constitute a remarkable record of a fatal month in the history of a nation.

On England and the BEF

ADDISON, CHRISTOPHER (Parliamentary Secretary to Board of Education), Four and a Half Years: A Personal Diary from June 1914 to January 1919, London, Hutchinson, 1934.

ANGELL, NORMAN, The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power to National Advantage, 4th ed., New York, Putnam’s, 1913.

ARMY QUARTERLY, London. Referred to in Notes as AQ. This journal’s reviews of foreign books on the war, as they came out during the 1920s, provide the most inclusive and informative guide in English to the literature of the First World War.

ARTHUR, SIR GEORGE, Life of Lord Kitchener, Vol. III, New York, Macmillan, 1920.

———, George V, New York, Cape, 1930.

ASQUITH, EARL OF OXFORD AND, Memories and Reflections, 2 vols., London, Cassell, 1928.

ASTON, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR GEORGE, Biography of the Late Marshal Foch, London, Hutchinson, 1930.

BACON, ADMIRAL SIR REGINALD, Life of Lord Fisher, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1929.

BEAVERBROOK, LORD, Politicians and the War, 1914–16, New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1928.

BERTIE, LORD, Diary of Lord Bertie of Thame, Vol. I, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1924.

BIRKENHEAD, VISCOUNT, Points of View, Vol. I, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1922.

BLAKE, ROBERT, ed., Haig: Private Papers, 1914–18, London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1952.

BRIDGES, LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR TOM (Officer in the 2nd Cavalry Brigade of the BEF and formerly military attaché in Brussels), Alarms and Excursions, London, Longmans, 1938.

CALLWELL, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR CHARLES E. (Became Director of Operations and Intelligence at the War Office in August, 1914, when Wilson and Macdonogh went to France), Experiences of a Dug-Out, 1914–18, London, Constable, 1920.

———, Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson: His Life and Diaries, Vol. I, New York, Scribner’s, 1927. All quotations in the text from Wilson’s Diaries are from this book, referred to in the Notes as “Wilson.”

CHAMBERLAIN, SIR AUSTEN, Down the Years, London, Cassell, 1935.


CHILDS, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR WYNDHAM, Episodes and Reflections, London, Cassell, 1930.

CHURCHILL, SIR WINSTON, The World Crisis, Vol. 1, 1911–1914, New York, Scribner’s, 1928. This is the single most important book among English sources by a person holding key office at the outbreak. Further comment in Notes to Chapter 10. All references to Churchill in the Notes are to this book unless otherwise specified.

———, The Aftermath, Vol. 4 of The World Crisis, New York, Scribner’s, 1929.

———, Great Contemporaries, New York, Putnam’s, 1937.

CORBETT-SMITH, MAJOR A. (artillery officer in Smith-Dorrien’s Corps), The Retreat from Mons, London, Cassell, 1917.

CUST, SIR LIONEL, King Edward and His Court: Some Reminiscences, London, Murray, 1930.

CUSTANCE, ADMIRAL SIR REGINALD, A Study of War, London, Constable, 1924.

DUGDALE, BLANCHE E. C., Arthur James Balfour, 2 vols., New York, Putnam, 1937.

ESHER, REGINALD, VISCOUNT, The Influence of King Edward and Other Essays, London, Murray, 1915.

———, The Tragedy of Lord Kitchener, New York, Dutton, 1921.

———, Journals and Letters, Vol. 3, 1910–15, London, Nicolson & Watson, 1938.

FISHER, ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET, LORD, Memories, London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1919.

———, Fear God and Dread Nought: Correspondence of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher of Kilverstone, 3 vols., ed. Arthur J. Marder, London, Cape, 1952–56–59.

FRENCH, FIELD MARSHAL VISCOUNT, OF YPRES, 1914, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1919. The weight of animus and selective omissions in Sir John French’s account makes it impossible to use this record as a reliable source for anything but the author’s character.

GARDINER, A. G., The War Lords, London, Dent, 1915.

GREY, VISCOUNT, OF FALLODON, Twenty-Five Years, 2 vols., London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1925.

HALDANE, RICHARD BURDON, VISCOUNT, An Autobiography, New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1929. All references are to this book unless otherwise specified.

———, Before the War, New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1920.

HAMILTON, CAPTAIN ERNEST W. (Captain of 11th Hussars in Allenby’s Cavalry Division), The First Seven Divisions, New York, Dutton, 1916.

HURD, SIR ARCHIBALD, The German Fleet, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1915.

———, The British Fleet in the Great War, London, Constable. 1919.

JELLICOE, ADMIRAL VISCOUNT, The Grand Fleet, 1914–16, New York, Doran, 1919.

KENWORTHY, J. M. (Lord Strabolgi), Soldiers, Statesmen and Others, London, Rich & Cowen, 1933.

LEE, SIR SIDNEY, King Edward VII, 2 vols., New York, Macmillan, 1925–27.

LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID, War Memoirs, Vol. I, Boston, Little, Brown, 1933.

MACREADY, GENERAL SIR NEVIL (Adjutant-General in the BEF), Annals of an Active Life, Vol. I., London, Hutchinson, n.d.

MACDONAGH, MICHAEL, In London During the Great War: Diary of a Journalist, London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1935.

MAGNUS, SIR PHILIP, Kitchener, New York, Dutton, 1959.

MAURICE, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR FREDERICK (staff officer of BEF, 3rd Division, August, 1914) Forty Days in 1914, New York, Doran, 1919.

MCKENNA, STEPHEN, While I Remember, New York, Doran, 1921.

MILNE, ADMIRAL SIR ARCHIBALD BERKELEY, The Flight of the Goeben and the Breslau, London, Eveleigh Nash, 1921.

MORLEY, JOHN, VISCOUNT, Memorandum on Resignation, New York, Macmillan, 1928.

NEWTON, THOMAS, LORD, Lord Lansdowne, London, Macmillan, 1929.

NICOLSON, HAROLD, King George the Fifth, London, Constable, 1952.

———, Portrait of a Diplomatist: Being the Life of Sir Arthur Nicolson, First Lord Carnock, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1930.

PEEL, MRS. C. S., How We Lived Then, 1914–18, London, John Lane, 1929.

REPINGTON, LT. COL. CHARLES à COURT, The First World War, 1914–18, Vol. I, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1920.

ROBERTSON, FIELD MARSHAL SIR WILLIAM, From Private to Field Marshal, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1921.

———, Soldiers and Statesmen, 1914–18, Vol. I, New York, Scribner’s, 1926.

SHAW, GEORGE BERNARD, What I Really Wrote About the War, New York, Brentano’s, 1932.

SMITH-DORRIEN, GENERAL SIR HORACE, Memories of 48 Years’ Service, London, Murray, 1925.

SPEARS, BRIG.-GEN. EDWARD L., Liaison, 1914: A Narrative of the Great Retreat, New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1931. A spirited, colorful and brilliantly written memoir of war, fascinating in its richness of detail, this is by far the most interesting book in English on the opening campaign in France. When the author’s personal prejudices become involved he exercises a certain freedom in manipulating the facts. See Notes to Chapters 15 and 22.

STEED, WICKHAM H. (Foreign Editor of The Times), Through Thirty Years, New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1929.

TREVELYAN, GEORGE MACAULAY, Grey of Fallodon, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1937.


On France

ADAM, H. PEARL, Paris Sees It Through: A Diary, 1914–19, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1919.

ALLARD, PAUL, Les Généraux Limogés pendant la guerre, Paris, Editions de France, 1933.

BIENAIMÉ, ADMIRAL AMADÉE, La Guerre navale: fautes et responsabilités, Paris, Taillander, 1920.

BRUUN, GEOFFREY, Clemenceau, Cambridge, Harvard, 1943.

CHARBONNEAU, COL. JEAN, La Bataille des frontières, Paris, Lavanzelle, 1932.

CHEVALIER, JACQUES, Entretiens avec Bergson, Paris, Plon, 1959.

CLERGERIE, GÉNÉRAL (Chief of Staff of GMP), Le Rôle du Gouvernement Militaire de Paris, du 1er au 12 Septembre, 1914, Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1920.

CORDAY, MICHEL, The Paris Front, tr., New York, Dutton, 1934.

DEMAZES, GÉNÉRAL, Joffre, la victoire du caractère, Paris, Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1955.

DUBAIL, GÉNÉRAL AUGUSTIN, Quatres années de commandement, 1914–18: Journal de Campagne, Tome I, 1ere Armée, Paris, Fournier, 1920.

DUPONT, GÉNÉRAL CHARLES (Chief of Deuxième Bureau in 1914), Le Haut Commandement allemand en 1914: du point de vue allemand, Paris, Chapelot, 1922.

ENGERAND, FERNAND (deputy from Calvados and rapporteur of the Briey Commission of Inquiry), La Bataille de la frontière, Aôut, 1914: Briey, Paris, Brossard, 1920.

———, Le Secret de la frontière, 1815–1871–1914; Charleroi, Paris, Brossard, 1918. All references in Notes are to this book unless otherwise specified.

———, Lanrezac, Paris, Brossard, 1926.

FOCH, MARSHAL FERDINAND, Memoirs, tr. Col. T. Bentley Mott, New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1931.

GALLIENI, GÉNÉRAL, MÉmoires: défense du Paris, 25 Aôut-11 Septembre, 1914, Paris, Payot, 1920.

———, Les Carnets de Gallieni, eds. Gaetan Gallieni & P. B. Gheusi, Paris, Michel, 1932.

———, Gallieni Parle, eds. Marius-Ary et Leblond, Paris, Michel, 1920. Gallieni died in 1916 before he had completed a finished version of his memoirs. They were supplemented by the Notebooks, edited by his son and a former aide, and by the Conversations, edited by his former secretaries.

GAULLE, GÉNÉRAL CHARLES DE, La France et son armée, Paris, Plon, 1938.

GIBBONS, HERBERT ADAMS, Paris Reborn, New York, Century, 1915.

GIRAUD, VICTOR, Le Général de Castelnau, Paris, Cres, 1921.

GRASSET, COLONEL A., La Bataille des deux Morins: Franchet d’Esperey à la Marne, 6–9 Septembre, 1914, Paris, Payot, 1934.

GROUARD, LT.-COL. AUGUSTE, La Guerre éventuelle: France et Allemagne, Paris, Chapelot, 1913.

———, La Conduite de la guerre jusqu’à la bataille de la Marne, Paris, Chapelot, 1922.

GUARD, WILLIAM J., The Soul of Paris—Two Months in 1914 by an American Newspaperman, New York, Sun Publishing Co., 1914.

HANOTAUX, GABRIEL, Histoire illustrée de la guerre de 1914, 17 vols., Paris, 1916. Especially useful for its excerpts from French and captured German officers’ war diaries.

HIRSCHAUER, GÉNÉRAL, and KLÉIN, GÉNÉRAL (Chief and Deputy Chief of Engineers of Military Government of Paris in 1914), Paris en état de défense, Paris, Payot, 1927.

HUDDLESTON, SISLEY, Poincaré. A Biographical Portrait, Boston, Little, Brown, 1924.

HUGUET, GENERAL A., Britain and the War: a French Indictment, London, Cassell, 1928. The bitterness, which tarnishes the value of Huguet’s record, is openly expressed in the title.

ISAAC, JULES, Joffre et Lanrezac, Paris, Chiron, 1922.

———, “L’Utilisation des reserves en 1914,” Revue d’Histoire de la Guerre, 1924, pp. 316–337.

JOFFRE, MARSHAL JOSEPH J. C., Memoirs, Vol. I, tr. Col. T. Bentley Mott, New York, Harper’s, 1932. Not a book of personal memoirs, but devoted entirely to the conduct of the war, this is by far the most complete and thorough of the records of any of the major commanders—but it is not Joffre. Compared to his characteristically opaque testimony at the Briey hearings, this is lucid, precise, detailed, explanatory, and comprehensible. It shows every evidence of having been written by a devoted staff working from the official records and suffering from perhaps excessive zeal to make the Commander appear the fount and origin of all decisions. On every page he is made to say such statements as, “The conception which I caused to be set down in Col. Pont’s memorandum” (228). Nevertheless, with useful sketch maps and in an admirable translation, this is an essential source, if checked against other accounts.

LANGLE DE CARY, GÉNÉRAL DE, Souvenirs de commandement, 1914–16, Paris, Payot, 1935.

LANREZAC, GÉNÉRAL CHARLES, Le Plan de campagne français et le premier mois de la guerre, Paris, Payot, 1920.

LIBERMANN, HENRI, Ce qu’a vu en officier de chasseurs à pied. Ardennes belges-Marne-St. Gond, 2 Aôut-28 Septembre, 1914, Paris, Plon, 1916.

MARCELLIN, LEOPOLD, Politique et politiciens pendant la guerre, Vol. I, Paris, Renaissance, 1923.

MAYER, LT.-COL. EMILE, Nos chefs de 1914, Paris, Stock, 1930.

MESSIMY, GÉNÉRAL ADOLPHE, Mes Souvenirs, Paris, Plon, 1937. There is something about everything in Messimy. As packed with information as Galet’s book on Belgium, it is, in contrast, as effervescent, voluble, and uninhibited as Galet’s is taciturn and disciplined. The work of a man who was Minister of War at two crucial periods, July 1911 and August 1914, it is, like Galet, Churchill, and the Kautsky documents, an essential source for material not published elsewhere.

MOTT, COL., T. BENTLEY, Myron T. Herrick, Friend of France, New York, Doubleday, Doran, 1929. (Chiefly excerpts from diary and letters.)

MULLER, COMMANDANT VIRGILE (aide-de-camp to Joffre), Joffre et la Marne, Paris, Cres, 1931.

PALAT, GÉNÉRAL BARTHÉLMY, La Grande Guerre sur le front occidental, Vols. I-IV, Paris, Chapelot, 1920–27.

PALÉOLOGUE, MAURICE, Un Grand Tournant de la politique mondiale, 1904–06, Paris, Plon, 1934.

———, “Un Prélude à l’invasion de Belgique,” Revue des Deux Mondes, October, 1932.

PERCIN, GÉNÉRAL ALEXANDRE (Member of Supreme War Council in 1911 and Governor of Lille in 1914), 1914, Les erreurs du haut commandement, Paris, Michel, 1920.

PIERREFEU, JEAN DE (a journalist by profession who, as an officer, was attached to GQG to prepare the communiqués for publication), GQG. Secteur I, Paris, Edition française Illustrée, 1920.

———, Plutarque a menti, Paris, Grasset, 1923.

POINCARÉ, RAYMOND, Mémoirs, 4 vols., tr. Sir George Arthur, New York, Doubleday, 1926–29. In fact, if not in name, Poincaré was the central figure politically as Joffre was militarily, and his record is invaluable as guide and commentary to the war, French politics, international affairs, and the civil conflict with GQG. The English edition is abridged and has a confusing habit of referring under diary entries of a certain date to events that have not yet happened.

TANANT, GÉNÉRAL (Chief of Operations in the French Third Army), La Troisième Armée dans la bataille, Paris, Renaissance, 1923.

VIVIANI, RENÉ, As We See It, tr. New York, Harper’s, 1923.

WHARTON, EDITH (who was living in Paris in August, 1914), Fighting France, New York, Scribner’s, 1915.

On Germany

BAUER, COLONEL M. (Chief of Artillery section at OHL), Der Grosse Krieg in Feld und Heimat, Tübingen, Osiander, 1921.

BERNHARDI, GENERAL FRIEDRICH VON, Germany and the Next War, tr. Allen H. Powles, London, E. Arnold, 1914.

BETHMANN-HOLLWEG, THEODOR VON, Reflections on the World War, tr. London, Butterworth, 1920.

BLOEM, WALTER (Reserve Captain of Brandenburg Grenadiers in IIIrd Corps of von Kluck’s Army), The Advance from Mons, 1914, tr. G. C. Wynne, London, Davies, 1930.

BLüCHER, EVELYN, PRINCESS, An English Wife in Berlin, London, Constable, 1920.

BüLOW, BERNHARD, PRINCE VON, Memoirs, 4 vols., tr. Boston, Little, Brown, 1931–32.

BüLOW, GENERAL KARL VON, Mon Rapport sur la Bataille de la Marne, tr. J. Netter, Paris, Payot, 1920.

CLAUSEWITZ, GENERAL CARL VON, On War, tr. Col. J. J. Graham, 3 vols., London, Kegan Paul, 1911.

CONRAD VON HöTZENDORFF, FELDMARSCHALL FRANZ, Aus Meiner Dienstzeit, 1906–18, 5 vols., Vienna, 1921–25.

ECKHARDSTEIN, BARON H. VON, Ten Years at the Court of St. James, 1895–1905, tr., London, Butterworth, 1921.

ERZBERGER, MATTHIAS, Souvenirs de guerre, tr., Paris, Payot, 1921.

FOERSTER, WOLFGANG, Le Comte Schlieffen et la Grande Guerre Mondiale, tr. Paris, Payot, 1929.

FRANçOIS, GENERAL HERMANN VON, Marneschlacht und Tannenberg, Berlin, Scherl, 1920.

FREYTAG-LORINGHOVEN, FREIHERR VON, Menschen und Dinge wie ich sie in meinem Leben sah, Berlin, Mittler, 1923.

GERARD, JAMES W., My Four Years in Germany, New York, Doran, 1917.

GRELLING, RICHARD, J’Accuse, tr., A. Grey, New York, Doran, 1915.

HALLAYS, ANDRÉ, L’Opinion allemande pendant la guerre, 1914–18, Paris, Perrin, 1919.

HANSSEN, HANS PETER (deputy of Schleswig-Holstein in the Reichstag), Diary of a Dying Empire, tr. O. O. Winter, Indiana University Press, 1955.

HAUSEN, GENERAL FREIHERR MAX VON, Souvenirs de campagne de la Marne en 1914, tr., Paris, Payot, 1922.

HAUSSMAN, CONRAD, Journal d’un deputé au Reichstag, tr., Paris, Payot, 1928.

HINDENBURG, FIELD MARSHAL PAUL VON, Out of My Life, Vol. I, tr. New York, Harper’s, 1921.

HOFFMANN, GENERAL MAX, The War of Lost Opportunities, tr., New York, International, 1925.

———, The Truth About Tannenberg, included in Vol. II of his War Diaries and Other Papers, tr., Eric Sutton; Intro. by K. F. Nowak, London, Secker, 1929.

KLUCK, GENERAL ALEXANDER VON, The March on Paris and Battle of the Marne, 1914, tr., New York, Longmans, 1920.

KOPP, GEORG (a member of the crew of the Goeben), Das Teufelschiff und seine kleine Schwester, tr. as Two Lone Ships, Goeben and Breslau, by Arthur Chambers, London, Hutchinson, 1931.

KRAFFT VON DELLMENSINGEN, GENERAL (Chief of Staff of Rupprecht’s Army), Die Führung des Kronprinzen Rupprecht von Bayern auf dem linken Deutschen Heeresflügel bis zur Schlact im Lothringen im August, 1914, Wissen und Wehr, Sonderheft, Berlin, Mittler, 1925.

KUHL, GENERAL HERMANN VON (Chief of Staff of Kluck’s Army), Le grand état-major allemand avant et pendant la guerre mondiale, tr. & ed. by General Douchy, Paris, Payot, 1922.

KURENBERG, JOACHIM VON, The Kaiser, tr. Russell and Hagen, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1955.

LICHNOWSKY, PRINCE KARL, Memorandum (published in English under the title The Guilt of Germany) with Introduction by Viscount Bryce, New York, Putnam’s, 1918.

LUDENDORFF, GENERAL ERICH, Ludendorff’s Own Story, August 1914–November 1918, Vol. I, tr., New York, Harper’s, 1919.

LUDWIG, EMIL, Wilhelm Hohenzollern, New York, Putnam’s, 1926.

MOLTKE, GENERALOBERST HELMUTH VON, Erinnerungen-Briefe-Dokumente, 1877–1916, Stuttgart, Der Kommendetag, 1922.

MüHLON, WILHELM (a director of Krupp’s), L’Europe devastée: notes prises dans les premiers mois de la guerre, tr., Paris, Payot, 1918.

RITTER, GERARD, The Schlieffen Plan, Critique of a Myth, tr. (contains first published text of many of Schlieffen’s papers), London, Oswald Wolff, 1958.

RUPPRECHT, CROWN PRINCE OF BAVARIA, Mein Kriegstagebuch, Vol. I, Munich, Deutscher National Verlag, 1929.

SANTAYANA, GEORGE, Egotism in German Philosophy, 2nd ed., New York, Scribner’s, 1940.

SCHINDLER, OBERLEUTNANT D., Eine 42 cm. Mörser-Batterie im Weltkrieg, Breslau, Hoffmann, 1934. The author served as artillery officer with the 420s at Liège and afterward. His book is the only firsthand account of the operation of the siege guns.

SCHLIEFFEN, ALFRED, FELDMARSHALL GRAF VON, Cannae, tr. Fort Leavenworth, Command and General Staff School Press, 1936.

SCHOEN, FREIHERR WILHELM VON, Memoirs of an Ambassador, tr., New York, Brentano’s, 1923.

SOUCHON, ADMIRAL WILHELM, La Percée de SMS Goeben et Breslau de Messine aux Dardanelles in Les marins allemands au combat, ed. Vice-Admiral Eberhard von Mantey, Reichs Marine-Archiv, tr. Capitain R. Jouan, Paris, Payot, 1930.

STÜRGKH, GENERAL GRAF JOSEF (Austrian representative at OHL), Im Deutschen Grossen Hauptquartier, Leipzig, List, 1921.

TAPPEN, GENERAL GERHARD (Chief of Operations at OHL), Jusqu’à la Marne en 1914 in Documents allemands sur la bataille de la Marne, tr. and ed. by Lt.-Col. L. Koeltz of the French General Staff, Paris, Payot, 1930.

TIRPITZ, GRAND ADMIRAL ALFRED VON, My Memoirs, 2 vols., tr., New York, Dodd, Mead, 1919.

TOPHAM, ANNE (Governess to the Kaiser’s daughter), Memories of the Kaiser’s Court, New York, Dodd, Mead, 1914. An invaluable view from the inside by an outsider.

WETTERLÉ, ABBÉ E. (deputy in the Reichstag from Alsace-Lorraine), Behind the Scenes in the Reichstag, tr., New York, Doran, 1918.

WILE, FREDERIC WILLIAM, Men Around the Kaiser, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1913.

———, The Assault: Germany Before—and England After—the Outbreak, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1916.

WILHELM, CROWN PRINCE OF GERMANY, My War Experiences, tr., London, Hurst, 1922.

———, Memoirs, tr., New York, Scribner’s, 1922.

WILHELM II, The Kaiser’s Memoirs, New York, tr., Harper’s, 1922. Reticence having unhappily overtaken the author late in life, this meagre volume by a central figure of his time is thin and disappointing.

———, Letters from the Kaiser to the Czar, ed. Isaac Don Levine, New York, Doubleday Page, 1920. Generally known as the Willy-Nicky Letters.

WOLFF, THEODOR (editor of the Berliner Tageblatt), Eve of 1914, tr. E. W. Dickes, New York, Knopf, 1936.

ZEDLITZ-TRUTZSCHLER, ROBERT, GRAF VON, Twelve Years at the Imperial German Court, tr., New York, Doran, 1924. A particularly revealing study of the Kaiser by his unhappy Court Chamberlain.

On Russia

AGOURTINE, LéON, Le Général Soukhomlinov, Clichy, l’Auteur, 1951.

ALEXANDRA, EMPRESS OF RUSSIA, Letters of the Tsaritsa to the Tsar, 1914–16, ed. and intro. by Sir Bernard Pares, London, Duckworth, 1923.

BOTKIN, GLEB (son of the Czar’s physician), The Real Romanovs, New York, Revell, 1931.

BUCHANAN, SIR GEORGE, My Mission to Russia, Boston, Little, Brown, 1923.

BRUSILOV, GENERAL A. A., A Soldier’s Notebook, tr., London, Macmillan, 1930.

DANILOV, GENERAL YOURI, La Russie dans la guerre mondiale, tr., Col. A. Kaznakov, Paris, Payot, 1927.

———, Le Premier Généralissime des armées russes: le grand-duc Nicolas, tr., Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1932.

DOBROROLSKY, GENERAL SERGE (Chief of Mobilization Service in the Ministry of War in 1914), “La Mobilisation de l’armée russe en 1914,” Revue d’Histoire de la Guerre, 1923, pp. 53–69 and 144–165.

GILLIARD, PIERRE (tutor to the Czar’s children), Thirteen Years at the Russian Court, tr., New York, Doran, 1922.

GOLOVIN, LIEUT.-GENERAL NICHOLAS N., The Russian Army in the World War, tr., New Haven, Yale, 1931.

———, The Russian Campaign of 1914, tr., Captain Muntz, A.G.S. Command and General Staff School Press, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1933. The first of these on the organization, and the second on the military operations, of the Russian Army are the outstanding sources on the Russian war effort in the early months.

GOURKO, GENERAL VASILII (BASIL) (Commander of a Cavalry Division in Rennenkampf’s Army), War and Revolution in Russia, 1914–17, tr., New York, Macmillan, 1919.

GOURKO, VLADIMIR, Features and Figures of the Past: Government and Opinion in the Reign of Nicholas II, tr., Stanford University Press, 1939.

IRONSIDE, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR EDMUND, Tannenberg: The First Thirty Days in East Prussia, Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1925.

KNOX, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ALFRED, With the Russian Army, London, Hutchinson, 1921.

KOKOVTSOV, COUNT V. N. (Premier, 1911–14), Out of My Past, tr., Stanford Univ. Press, 1935.

NIKOLAIEFF, COL. A. M., “Russian Plan of Campaign in the World War, 1914,” tr., Infantry Journal, September-October, 1932.

PALÉOLOGUE, MAURICE, An Ambassador’s Memoirs, tr., F. A. Holt, Vol. I, London, Hutchinson, 1923.

RADZIWILL, PRINCESS CATHERINE, Nicholas II, Last of the Czars, London, Cassell, 1931.

———, Sovereigns and Statesmen of Europe, New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1916.

RODZIANKO, M. V. (President of the Duma), Memoirs: Reign of Rasputin, tr., London, Philpot, 1927.

SAZONOV, SERGEI, Fateful Years, 1909–16, tr., New York, Stokes, 1928.

SUKHOMLINOV, VLADIMIR, Erinnerungen, Berlin, Hobbing, 1924.

WITTE, COUNT SERGIUS, Memoirs, tr., New York, Doubleday, Page, 1921. Among the rash of memoirs inspired by the fall of the Czarist regime, this is the most solid and informative, although Witte’s official career ended in 1906.

WRANGEL, BARON NICHOLAS, Memoirs, 1847–1920, tr., Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1927.

On Turkey

DJEMAL PASHA, Memoirs of a Turkish Statesman, 1913–1919, tr., New York, Doran, 1922.

EMIN, AHMED, Turkey in the World War, New Haven, Yale, 1930.

KANNENGIESSER, GENERAL HANS (a member of the German military mission to Turkey in 1914), The Campaign in Gallipoli, tr., London, Hutchinson, 1928.

MORGENTHAU, HENRY, Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story, New York, Doubleday, Page, 1918.

NOGALES, GENERAL RAFAEL DE, Four Years Beneath the Crescent, New York, Scribner’s, 1926.

Secondary Works

BENSON, E. F., The Kaiser and English Relations, London, Longmans, 1936.

BUCHAN, JOHN, A History of the Great War, Vol. I, London, Nelson, 1922.

CRAIG, GORDON, A., The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640–1945, New York, Oxford, 1956.

CRUTTWELL, C. R. M., A History of the Great War, 1914–18, Oxford Univ. Press, 1936.

DE WEERD, H. A., Great Soldiers of Two World Wars, New York, Norton, 1941.

EARLE, EDWARD MEADE, ed., et al., Makers of Modern Stategy, Princeton Univ. Press, 1943.

———, Modern France, Princeton Univ. Press, 1951.

FLORINSKY, MICHAEL T., The End of the Russian Empire, New Haven, Yale, 1931.

FROTHINGHAM, CAPT. THOMAS G., The Naval History of the World War, Vol. I, Offensive Operations, 1914–15, Cambridge, Harvard, 1925.

GOERLITZ, WALTER, History of the German General Staff, tr. Brian Battershaw, New York, Praeger, 1955.

HALÉVY, ELIE, A History of the English People, Epilogue, Vol. II, 1905–1915. London, Benn, 1934.

MAUROIS, ANDRÉ, Edwardian Era, tr., New York, Appleton-Century, 1933.

MCENTEE, COL. GIRARD L., Military History of the World War, New York, Scribner’s, 1937.

MONTEIL, VINCENT, Les Officiers, Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1958.

NEAME, LT.-COL. PHILIP, German Strategy in the Great War (Lectures at Staff College, Camberley), London, Arnold, 1923.

PONSONBY, ARTHUR, Falsehood in Wartime, New York, Dutton, 1928.

RENOUVIN, PIERRE, The Forms of War Government in France, New Haven, Yale, 1927.

ROSINSKI, HERBERT, The German Army, London, Hogarth, 1939.

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