NOTE

Introduction

1 See, for example, Padfield, Himmler, or, for a more up-to-date picture, Longerich, Heinrich Himmler.

2 See Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka.

3 Hathaway, In Perfect Formation, p. 11.

Chapter One: The Defeat of Wilhelmine Germany and the Origins of the National Socialist Party

1 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 80.

2 Hitler, Mein Kampf, p. 192.

3 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 110.

4 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 119.

5 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 114.

6 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 16.

7 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 17.

8 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 158.

9 Koehl, The SS, p. 20.

10 USNA BDC, SSO Personalakte Hewel.

11 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 208.

Chapter Two: The Rebirth of National Socialism and the Creation of the SS

1 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 211.

2 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 211.

3 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 213.

4 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 195.

5 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 195.

6 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 217.

7 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 196.

8 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 196.

9 Quoted in Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 196.

10 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 217.

11 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 196.

12 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 219.

13 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 225.

14 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 224.

15 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 234.

16 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 201.

17 Koehl, The SS, p. 24.

18 Koehl, The SS, p. 28.

19 Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk, p. 167.

20 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 119.

21 BDC, SSO072B.

22 Koehl, The SS, p. 29.

23 Trevor-Roper, Hitler’s Table Talk.

24 BDC, Personalakt Bednarek.

25 Bullock, Hitler, p. 128.

26 NARA, T-580/87.

27 Koehl, The SS, p. 30.

28 BDC, SSO100B.

29 BDC, SSO027A.

30 NARA, T-580/87.

31 NARA, T-580/87.

32 NARA, T-580/87.

33 NARA, T-580/87.

34 Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich, p. 206.

35 NARA, T-580/87.

36 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 24.

37 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 22.

38 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 22.

Chapter Three: Heinrich Himmler

1 K. Himmler, The Himmler Brothers, p. 24.

2 Longerich, Heinrich Himmler, p. 18.

3 K. Himmler, The Himmler Brothers, p. 26.

4 Padfield, Himmler, p. 20.

5 George Hallgarten, a Jewish classmate of Himmler, quoted in Padfield, Himmler, p. 24.

6 Padfield, Himmler, p. 28.

7 Longerich, Heinrich Himmler, pp. 31–32.

8 Longerich, Heinrich Himmler, p. 32.

9 Padfield, Himmler, p. 37.

10 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 31.

11 Padfield, Himmler, p. 38.

12 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 34.

13 NARA BDC, SSO99A Personalakt Heinrich Himmler.

14 Padfield, Himmler, p. 67.

15 Padfield, Himmler, pp. 68–72.

16 Longerich, Heinrich Himmler, p. 88

17 Otto Strasser quoting his brother Gregor, quoted in Padfield, Himmler, p. 80.

18 NARA BDC, SSO99A, Personalakt Heinrich Himmler.

19 Karin Himmler, The Himmler Brothers, p. 118.

20 Quoted in Padfield, Himmler, p. 83.

21 NARA, T-580/87.

22 Koehl, The SS, p. 37.

23 Koehl, The SS, p. 38.

Chapter Four: A New Broom

1 NARA, T-580/87.

2 The best account of Dietrich’s life, avoiding the “fanboy” hagiography of much writing about him, is to be found in Messenger, Hitler’s Gladiator.

3 Messenger, Hitler’s Gladiator, p. 7

4 Messenger, Hitler’s Gladiator, p. 209

5 NARA, T-580/87.

6 Koehl, The SS, p. 46.

7 Yerger, Allgemeine-SS, p. 53.

8 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 334.

9 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 326.

10 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 327.

11 NARA BDC, SSO0134 Personalakt Kurt Daluege.

12 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 55.

13 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 57.

14 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 58.

15 Koehl, The SS, p. 46.

16 Koehl, The SS, p. 47.

17 NARA, T-580/87.

18 Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, p. 124.

19 NARA BDC, SSO0134 Personalakt Kurt Daluege.

20 Koehl, The SS, p. 58.

21 Wistrich, Who’s Who in Nazi Germany, p. 59.

22 Hathaway, In Perfect Formation, pp. 23ff. This is an excellent account of Darré’s “blood and soil” ideas.

23 This account of eugenics is based on Weale, Science and the Swastika, pp. 31ff.

24 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 47.

25 NARA, T-580/87.

26 Koehl, The SS, p. 84.

27 H. Himmler, Die SS. This is a brief history of the SS and an explanation of its ideology, originally published under Himmler’s name in 1939 although drafted by the SS propagandist Gunther D’Alquen. It was widely reproduced, with revisions, until 1945, appearing in publications like SS pocket diaries and recruitment material.

28 Hathaway, In Perfect Formation, p. 47.

29 Neil Gregor, How to Read Hitler, p. 103 onwards.

Chapter Five: Taking Control

1 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 363.

2 Bullock, Hitler, p. 253.

3 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 156.

4 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 153.

5 Quoted in Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 147.

6 Padfield, Himmler, p. 107. Padfield speculates on the motivation of many leading National Socialists, and he suggests quite strongly that Naval Intelligence infiltrated Heydrich into the SS.

7 Schellenberg, The Memoirs of Hitler’s Spymaster, p. 31.

8 Padfield, Himmler, p. 155.

9 Quoted in Whiting, Heydrich, Henchman of Death, p. 35.

10 Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State, p. 26.

11 Himmler, “Rede zur Officeseinführung von Ernst Kaltenbrunner als neuer RSHA-Chef am 30.1.43,” quoted in Wildt, Nachrichtendienst, politische Elite und Mordeinheit, p. 9.

12 Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State, p. 28.

13 Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State, p. 27.

14 Bullock, Hitler, p. 261.

15 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 456.

16 Evans, The Third Reich in Power, p. 11.

17 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 459.

18 Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State, p. 54.

19 Evans, The Third Reich in Power, p. 11.

20 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 461.

21 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 468.

22 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 70.

23 Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State, pp. 67–68.

24 Westermann, Hitler’s Police Battalions, p. 39.

25 Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State, pp. 55–62. This is an excellent account of the early days of the Gestapo.

26 Westermann, Hitler’s Police Battalions, pp. 39–40.

Chapter Six: Consolidation

1 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 85.

2 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 87.

3 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 87.

4 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 505.

5 Evans, The Third Reich in Power, p. 30, and Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, pp. 90–2, for the machinations of Heydrich against Röhm and the SA.

6 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 91.

7 Reportedly Hitler’s words to von Blomberg, quoted in Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 96.

8 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 511.

9 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 102.

10 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 513.

11 Messenger, Hitler’s Gladiator, p. 61.

12 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 116.

13 Koehl, The SS, p. 100.

14 Koehl, The SS, p. 98.

15 Koehl, The SS, p. 100.

16 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 522.

Chapter Seven: Dachau and the Establishment of the Concentration Camps

1 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Eicke.

2 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 4.

3 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 5.

4 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Eicke.

5 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Eicke.

6 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Eicke.

7 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 8.

8 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Eicke.

9 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 9.

10 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, pp. 10–11.

11 Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz, p. 65.

12 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 13.

13 Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 126ff.

14 Quoted in Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 127.

15 Quoted in Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 132.

16 NARA BDC, SSO007B Personalakt Rascher.

17 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 10.

18 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakt Eicke.

19 Caplan and Wachsmann, Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, p. 21.

20 Caplan and Wachsmann, Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, p. 23.

21 For details of the concentration camps, see Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction; Krausnick and Broszat, Anatomy of the SS State; and Allen, The Business of Genocide.

22 Caplan and Wachsmann, Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany, p. 33.

Chapter Eight: The Central Organisation of the SS

1 The following organisational structures are derived primarily from Gelwick, Evolution and Structure of the Waffen-SS and “Personnel Policies and Procedures of the Waffen-SS” Koehl, The SS; and Yerger, Allgemeine-SS.

2 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Pohl.

3 Allen, The Business of Genocide, p. 26.

4 Goldensohn, The Nuremberg Interviews, p. 398.

5 Allen, The Business of Genocide, p. 24.

6 Goldensohn, The Nuremberg Interviews, p. 399.

7 Goldensohn, The Nuremberg Interviews, p. 400.

8 Allen, The Business of Genocide, pp. 27–29.

9 Allen, The Business of Genocide, pp. 31–33.

10 Allen, The Business of Genocide, pp. 33–35.

11 Allen, The Business of Genocide, p. 59.

12 Allen, The Business of Genocide, p. 85.

13 Gelwick, Evolution and Structure of the Waffen-SS, p. 70.

14 Gelwick, Evolution and Structure of the Waffen-SS, p. 72.

15 NARA BDC, SSO058 Personalakte Berger.

16 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 417.

17 NARA BDC, SSO058 Personalakte Berger.

18 UKNA, KV2/172.

19 NARA BDC, SSO058 Personalakte Berger.

Chapter Nine: The Race and Settlement Office

1 Hathaway, In Perfect Formation, p. 26.

2 Evans, The Third Reich in Power, p. 27.

3 Yerger, Allgemeine-SS, p. 15.

4 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, pp. 271–72.

5 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 145.

6 Koehl, The SS, p. 114.

7 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakt Himmler.

8 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakt Steiner.

9 Yerger, Allgemeine-SS, p. 15.

10 Gelwick, Evolution and Structures of the Waffen-SS, p. 90.

11 Koehl, The SS, p. 116.

12 Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 178.

13 Pringle, The Master Plan, p. 47.

14 Pringle, The Master Plan, p. 47.

15 Pringle, The Master Plan, p. 49.

16 Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 187.

17 Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 191.

18 Pringle, The Master Plan, p. 50.

19 Pringle, The Master Plan, pp. 57–62.

20 For a full account of the SS mission to Tibet, see Hale, Himmler’s Crusade. The mission forms the backdrop to the Hollywood movie Seven Years in Tibet (1997).

21 Pringle, The Master Plan, p. 191.

22 Yerger, Allgemeine-SS, p. 15.

Chapter Ten: The SD—The Intelligence and Security Wing of the SS

1 In his monumental work on the leadership corps of the SD: Wildt, Generation des Unbedingten.

2 Wildt, Generation des Unbedingten, p. 10 (from a lecture given at the International Institute of Holocaust Research).

3 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 162.

4 Kershaw, Hitler: Hubris, p. 365.

5 Westermann, Hitler’s Police Battalions, p. 56.

6 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 185.

7 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakt Six.

8 Browder, Hitler’s Enforcers, p. 180.

9 Cesarani, Eichmann, p. 48.

10 NARA, T-175/265.

11 UKNA, KV2/2646.

12 UKNA, KV2/279.

13 UKNA, KV2/279.

14 UKNA, KV2/279.

15 UKNA, KV2/279.

16 UKNA, KV2/279.

17 UKNA, KV2/279.

18 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 281.

19 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 237.

20 UKNA, KV2/95.

21 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 236.

22 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 235.

23 Wildt, Generation des Unbedingten, p. 11.

24 Wildt, Generation des Unbedingten, p. 13.

25 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 235.

26 UKNA, KV3/249.

27 UKNA, KV3/249.

28 UKNA, KV3/249.

29 UKNA, KV3/249.

30 Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 671.

31 UKNA, KV2/397.

32 UKNA, KV2/397.

33 UKNA, KV2/397.

34 Fest, Plotting Hitler’s Death, p. 199.

35 UKNA, KV2/95.

36 UKNA, KV2/95.

37 Hinsley and Simkins, British Intelligence in the Second World War, IV, p. 195.

38 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, pp. 456–57.

39 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakt Daluege.

40 This was revealed by Schellenberg during his post-war interrogation: See UKNA, KV2/95.

Chapter Eleven: The Path to Genocide

1 See, for example, Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews.

2 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 28 (all references to Hilberg are from the single-volume, abridged version, unless a volume number is given).

3 Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 40.

4 Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 40.

5 Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, p. 80.

6 Quoted in Gellately, The Gestapo and German Society, p. 109.

7 Browder, Hitler’s Enforcers, p. 81.

8 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 303.

9 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakt Eichmann.

10 Lang and Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated, p. 14.

11 Lang and Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated, p. 16.

12 Lang and Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated, p. 23.

13 Lang and Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated, p. 23.

14 Lozowick, Hitler’s Bureaucrats, p. 26.

15 Lang and Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated, pp. 32–33.

16 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 309.

17 Lang and Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated, p. 34.

18 Cesarani, Eichmann, p. 58.

19 Cesarani, Eichmann, p. 65.

20 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 311.

21 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 311.

22 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 314.

23 Overy, Goering.

24 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 319.

Chapter Twelve: Euthanasia and the Beginning of Mass Murder

1 Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 44.

2 Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 45.

3 Wolfgang Eckhardt, quoted in Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 47.

4 Quoted in Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 64.

5 Quoted in Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 66.

6 Quoted in Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 382.

7 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, pp. 99–100. This is the best and most accessible discussion of the National Socialist euthanasia programme.

8 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 98.

9 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 98.

10 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 114.

11 Franz Stangl, quoted in Gitta Sereny, Into that Darkness, p. 50.

12 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 125.

13 Quoted in Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 79.

14 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 17.

15 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 149.

16 Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide, p. 151.

Chapter Thirteen: Origins of the Waffen-SS

1 UKNA, KV2/172.

2 NARA BDC, SSO105a Personalakt Höss.

3 SS-Colonel Karl Heinz Bühler, letter to author, 3 March 1981.

4 UKNA, KV2/172.

5 UKNA, KV2/172.

6 NARA, T-354/194/3853322.

7 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 6.

8 NARA, T-354/203/3865608.

9 Gelwick, Evolution and Structure of the Waffen-SS, p. 32.

10 NARA, T-580/87, directive dated 16 December 1934.

11 Gelwick, Evolution and Structure of the Waffen-SS, p. 31.

12 NARA, T-175/153/682779ff.

13 NARA, T-175/91/2613342.

14 NARA, T-175/153/682747.

Chapter Fourteen: Militarising the “Political Soldiers”

1 Quoted in Hathaway, In Perfect Formation, p. 141.

2 UKNA, KV2/397.

3 Wegner, The Waffen-SS, p. 159.

4 Wegner, The Waffen-SS, p. 160.

5 Hathaway, In Perfect Formation, p. 103.

6 Wegner, The Waffen-SS, p. 154.

7 Wegner, The Waffen-SS, p. 271.

8 Quoted in Weale, Renegades: Hitler’s Englishmen, p. 149.

9 USNA, SSO153B.

10 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 14.

11 Der Freiwillige, May 1982.

12 NARA BDC, SSO152.

13 UKNA, KV2/172.

14 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Gille.

15 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Jüttner.

Chapter Fifteen: Expansion of the Militarised SS

1 Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 53.

2 Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 54.

3 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 230.

4 Gelwick, Evolution and Structure of the Waffen-SS, p. 61.

5 Nuremberg Doc 467-PS.

6 NARA, T-580/87.

7 Mooney, Dietrich’s Warriors, p. 30.

8 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 416.

Chapter Sixteen: The Invasion of Poland and the Special Task Groups

1 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 275.

2 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 277.

3 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 129.

4 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 130.

5 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 230.

6 Heydrich, letter to Special Task Force commanders, 21 September 1939, quoted in Aly, “Final Solution,” p. 14.

7 Aly, “Final Solution,” p. 15.

8 Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland, pp. 90‖91.

9 Westermann, Hitler’s Police Battalions, p. 121.

10 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 280.

11 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 280.

12 Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland, p. 96.

13 Westermann, Hitler’s Police Battalions, p. 144.

14 USNA, T-175/237/725997ff.

Chapter Seventeen: The SS and the Polish Jews

1 Cesarani, Eichmann, p. 78.

2 Cesarani, Eichmann, p. 79.

3 Cesarani, Eichmann, p. 79.

4 For a detailed discussion of the resettlement programme as it impacted on the Jews of Poland, see Aly, “Final Solution.

5 Yerger, Allgemeine-SS, p. 20.

6 Aly, “Final Solution,” p. 107.

7 Cesarani, Eichmann, p. 83.

8 Padfield, Himmler, p. 301.

9 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 161.

10 Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners, p. 146.

11 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, pp. 74ff.

12 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, pp. 80ff.

13 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 90.

14 Browning, The Path to Genocide, p. 43.

15 Browning, The Path to Genocide, p. 51.

16 Browning, The Path to Genocide, p. 44.

17 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 338.

Chapter Eighteen: Gottlob Berger and the Creation of the Waffen-SS

1 UKNA, KV2/172.

2 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 419.

3 Private Bob Brown, Royal Norfolk Regiment, quoted in “Britannia and Castle,” Journal of the Royal Norfolk Regiment, Number 104, December 2018.

4 NARA, SSO186A Personalakte Knöchlein.

5 Brunnegger, Saat in dem Sturm, p. 76.

6 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 106.

7 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 109.

8 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 109.

9 Brian Fahey, account on www.jazzprofessional.com, accessed 19 February 2018.

10 Mooney, Dietrich’s Warriors, p. 40.

11 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 420.

12 NARA, T-175/104/626381.

Chapter Nineteen: Making Up the Numbers: Foreign Volunteers and Criminals in the Waffen-SS

1 Gelwick, “Personnel Policies and Procedures of the Waffen-SS,” p. 537.

2 Gelwick, “Personnel Policies and Procedures of the Waffen-SS,” p. 539.

3 Eichmann, quoted in Lang and Sibyll, Eichmann Interrogated, pp. 16’17.

4 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Riedweg.

5 UKNA, KV2/376.

6 Sydnor, Soldiers of Destruction, p. 41.

7 Michaelis, SS-Heimwehr Danzig, p. 38.

8 UKNA, KV2/376.

9 USNA, T-175/50/2564266.

10 UKNA, HO336/2.

11 UKNA, HO45/25805.

12 UKNA, HO45/25805.

13 NARA, T-175/104/626381.

14 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 422.

15 USNA, T-175/19/2523362-2523363.

16 Littlejohn, Foreign Legions of the Third Reich, I, p. 35.

17 USNA, T-175/19/2523346.

18 Quoted in Gelwick, “Personnel Policies and Procedures of the Waffen-SS,” p. 545.

19 Gelwick, “Personnel Policies and Procedures of the Waffen-SS,” p. 547.

20 USNA, T-175/103/2625971, quoted in Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 101.

21 BA, R 22/1019, Bl. 23, quoted in Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 32.

22 IMT Nuremberg, testimony of Gottlob Berger.

23 IMT Nuremberg, testimony of Gottlob Berger.

24 BA, R 22/1019, Bl. 25, quoted in Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 32.

25 Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 33.

26 Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 35.

27 Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 35.

28 NARA, SSO, Personalakt Dirlewanger.

29 NARA, SSO, Personalakt Dirlewanger.

30 NARA, SSO, Personalakt Dirlewanger.

31 BA, R 22/1019, Bl. 25, quoted in Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 33.

32 Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 46.

33 Maclean, The Cruel Hunters, p. 58.

34 Klausch, Antifaschisten in SS-Uniform, p. 52.

35 Rubinstein, William D, “The Secret of Leopold Amery,” History Today, Volume 49, Issue 2, February 1999, pp. 17’23.

36 SS-Hauptsturmführer Alexander Dolezalek, letter to author, 1994.

37 UKNA, WO71/Wilson.

38 UKNA, WO71.

39 3./SS-Frw.-Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 11.

40 UKNA, KV2.

41 UKNA, KV2.

42 UKNA, HO45.

43 UKNA, KV2/631.

44 See, for example, SSO files on Dad Quan Allah and Gurbacan (sic) Singh Mangat: NARA BDC series.

45 Quoted in 46Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 195.

47 Bergmeier and Lotz, Hitler’s Airwaves, pp. 79’80.

48 Du Vair family Web site: http://www.du-vair.nom.fr/index.htm.

49 Bergmeier and Lotz, Hitler’s Airwaves, p. 81.

50 Bergmeier and Lotz, Hitler’s Airwaves, p. 82.

51 USNA, SSO058, Personalakte Gottlob Berger, fr. 66178.

52 USNA, SSO058, Personalakte Gottlob Berger, fr. 66177.

Chapter Twenty: The Waffen-SS Heads East

1 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 120.

2 Stein, The Waffen SS, pp. 130–32.

3 Oxford Companion to the Second World War, p. 113.

4 Oxford Companion to the Second World War, p. 437.

5 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 152.

6 Buss and Mollo, Hitler’s Germanic Legions, p. 17.

7 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 155.

8 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 162.

9 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 170.

10 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 180.

11 Stein, The Waffen SS, p. 181.

12 Lepre, Himmler’s Bosnian Division, pp. 82–108, is the best account of the mutiny.

13 See Stein, The Waffen SS, pp. 184–88. Few of these formations either achieved divisional size or entered combat. Some confusion about this is caused by the German practice of “battlegrouping” unconnected units with established formation headquarters.

14 Wegner, The Waffen-SS, p. 227.

Chapter Twenty-one: Operation Barbarossa and the First and Second Sweeps

1 Rhodes, Masters of Death, p. 14.

2 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 103.

3 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 328.

4 Höhne, The Order of the Death’s Head, p. 329.

5 NARA, SSO076 Personalakte Blobel.

6 Rhodes, Masters of Death, p. 11.

7 Evidence given at the Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

8 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 107.

9 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 109.

10 Einsatzgruppen reports, quoted at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

11 Einsatzgruppen reports, quoted at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

12 Einsatzgruppen reports, quoted at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

13 Einsatzgruppen reports, quoted at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

14 Evidence given at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

15 Einsatzgruppen reports, quoted at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

16 Evidence given at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

17 Evidence given at Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Einsatzgruppen Trial.

18 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 136.

19 Lang, Top Nazi, p. 180.

20 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 221.

21 Burleigh, Death and Deliverance, p. 221.

22 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 138.

23 Browning, Ordinary Men.

24 NARA BDC, SSO Personalakte Fegelein.

25 Burleigh, The Third Reich, p. 563.

26 Yerger, Riding East, p. 104.

27 Yerger, Riding East, p. 104.

Chapter Twenty-two: The Wannsee Conference

1 Quoted in Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 162.

2 Quoted in Klee, Dressen and Riess, The Good Old Days, pp. 219•20.

3 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

4 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

5 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

6 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

7 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

8 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

9 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

10 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

11 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

12 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

13 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

14 Minutes of the Wannsee Conference, International Military Tribunal Documents.

Chapter Twenty-three: The Extermination Camps

1 Poprzeczny, Odilo Globocnik, p. 32.

2 Poprzeczny, Odilo Globocnik, p. 208.

3 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 16.

4 TAL/ZStL, File No. 208 AR-Z 252/59: Case Against Josef Oberhauser et al.

5 IMT, Vol 6. PS-1553 on 30 January 1946.

6 Sereny, Into That Darkness, p. 36.

7 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 78.

8 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 76.

9 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 80.

10 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 87.

11 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 195.

12 Oxford Companion to the Second World War, p. 1260.

13 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 298.

14 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, III, p. 1219.

15 Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, p. 379.

16 This telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British signals intelligence service: UKNA, HW 16/23, decode GPDD 355a, distributed on 15 January 1943, radio telegrams nos. 12 and 13/15, transmitted on 11 January 1943.

17 USNA, SSO023a Personalakt Globocnik.

18 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, III, p. 951.

Chapter Twenty-four: Auschwitz

1 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, passim.

2 Biographical information on Höss is from USNA BDC, SSO Personalakte Höss and Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz.

3 Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz, p. 82.

4 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, p. 29.

5 See, for example, USNA BDC, SSEM Personalakte Otto Moll.

6 Interview with Sam Pivnik, prisoner 135913, 3 October 2024.

7 Interview with Sam Pivnik, prisoner 135913, 3 October 2024.

8 Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz, p. 144.

9 Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz, p. 147.

10 Interview with Sam Pivnik, prisoner 135913, 3 October 2024.

11 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, p. 247.

12 Müller, Eyewitness Auschwitz, p. 71.

13 Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz, p. 198.

14 Interview with Sam Pivnik, prisoner 135913, 3 October 2024.

15 Interview with Sam Pivnik, prisoner 135913, 3 October 2024.

16 USNA BDC, SSO Personalakte Mengele.

17 Weale, Science and the Swastika, p. 148.

18 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, p. 58.

19 Interview with Sam Pivnik, prisoner 135913, 3 October 2024.

20 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 611.

21 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 609.

22 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 657.

23 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 594.

24 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 608.

25 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 568.

26 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 672.

27 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 674.

28 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 679.

29 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 688.

30 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 692.

31 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 698.

32 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 708.

33 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 801.

34 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 824.

35 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 844.

36 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 845.

37 Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, II, p. 855.

38 Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz, p. 158.

39 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, pp. 59․60.

40 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, p. 121.

41 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, p. 124.

42 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, p. 125.

43 Interview with Sam Pivnik, prisoner 135913, 3 October 2024.

44 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, p. 127.

45 Langer, Cap Arcona, p. 108.

46 Steinbacher, Auschwitz, pp. 134․36.

Chapter Twenty-five: The Final Act

1 UKNA, KV2/97.

2 Schellenberg, The Memoirs of Hitlers Spymaster, p. 352.

3 Fest, Plotting Hitlers Death, p. 202.

4 Fest, Plotting Hitlers Death, p. 216.

5 Fest, Plotting Hitlers Death, p. 235.

6 Fest, Plotting Hitlers Death, pp. 258‥60.

7 UKNA, KV2/1668.

8 Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 675.

9 Fest, Plotting Hitlers Death, pp. 292ff.

10 Padfield, Himmler, p. 546.

11 Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 745.

12 Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 758.

13 Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 759.

14 Padfield, Himmler, p. 565.

15 Schellenberg, The Memoirs of Hitlers Spymaster, pp. 434ff.

16 Padfield, Himmler, p. 573.

17 Lang, Top Nazi, p. 290.

18 Lang, Top Nazi, p. 296.

19 UKNA, KV2/97.

20 Kershaw, Hitler: Nemesis, p. 817.

21 Fest, Inside Hitlers Bunker, p. 99.

22 Padfield, Himmler, p. 596.

23 Fest, Inside Hitlers Bunker, p. 100.

24 Fest, Inside Hitlers Bunker, p. 100.

25 Padfield, Himmler, p. 598.

26 For a detailed account of the contacts between Himmler and Dönitz, see Padfield, Himmler, pp. 600‥05.

27 Padfield, Himmler, p. 609.

28 Quoted in Padfield, Himmler, p. 609.

29 Padfield, Himmler, p. 610.

30 Padfield, Himmler, p. 611.

Epilogue

1 UKNA, FO1038/13.

2 Poprzeczny, Odilo Globocnik, p. 369.

3 UKNA, KV2/271.

4 Walters, Hunting Evil, p. 37.

5 Allen, The Business of Genocide, p. 270.

6 The most comprehensive and credible account of the escapes of Nazi war criminals and subsequent efforts to capture them is Walters, Hunting Evil.

7 Höhne, The Order of the Deaths Head, p. 536.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!