Military history

Ancient Chinese Warfare

Ancient Chinese Warfare

The history of China is a history of warfare. Rarely in its 3,000-year existence has the country not been beset by war, rebellion, or raids. Warfare was a primary source of innovation, social evolution, and material progress in the Legendary Era, Hsia dynasty, and Shang dynasty-indeed, war was the force that formed the first cohesive Chinese empire, setting China on a trajectory of state building and aggressive activity that continues to this day.

Chapter 1 - PRELIMINARY ORIENTATIONS AND LEGENDARY CONFLICTS

THE SEMILEGENDARY PERIOD

Chapter 2 - ANCIENT FORTIFICATIONS, I

CHARACTER AND FUNCTION OF EARLY WALLS

EVOLUTION OF THE FORTIFIED TOWN

Chapter 3 - ANCIENT FORTIFICATIONS, II

SICHUAN PRECURSORS

FORTIFICATION TECHNOLOGY AND METHODS

Chapter 4 - THE HSIA

ORIGINS AND PREHISTORY

EARLY SITES AND CAPITALS

RESOURCE CONTROL POINTS

Chapter 5 - WARFARE IN THE HSIA

POLITICAL ORGANIZATION AND MILITARY STRUCTURE

Chapter 6 - THE SHANG DYNASTY

TRADITIONAL ACCOUNT OF THE SHANG’S RISE

CONQUEST OF THE HSIA

Chapter 7 - SHANG CAPITALS, CITADELS, AND FORTIFICATIONS

STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT AND HISTORICAL IMPLICATIONS

SHANG EXTENT AND FLUCTUATIONS

Chapter 8 - CHAOS, CONTRACTION, AND RESURGENCE

LATE SHANG: THE ANYANG PERIOD

MARTIAL ACTIVITIES IN THE ANYANG ERA

Chapter 9 - KING WU TING, I

WU TING’S EARLY PERIOD

WU TING’S MIDDLE PERIOD

Chapter 10 - KING WU TING, II

WU TING’S LATE PERIOD

WU TING’S COMMANDERS

Chapter 11 - THE LAST REIGNS

CONFLICTS AND CAMPAIGNS

Chapter 12 - THE SHANG MARTIAL EDIFICE

SHANG MARTIAL COMMAND

SHANG MILITARY CONTINGENTS

Chapter 13 - TROOPS, INTELLIGENCE, AND TACTICS

SHANG MILITARY INTELLIGENCE

OPERATIONAL TACTICS

TRAINING

Chapter 14 - METALLURGICAL EVOLUTION IN CHINA

THE SHANG REALIZATION

Chapter 15 - EARLY WEAPONS AND THE AXE

THE AXE

Chapter 16 - KNIVES, DAGGERS, AND SWORDS

DAGGERS AND SWORDS

Chapter 17 - THE KO OR DAGGER-AXE

THE CHI

Chapter 18 - SPEARS AND ARMOR

ARMOR AND SHIELDS

Chapter 19 - ANCIENT ARCHERY

DESIGN, POWER, AND ACCURACY OF THE BOW

EARLY CHINESE BOWS

THE ARROW

Chapter 20 - THE CHARIOT IN CHINA

DESIGN AND SPECIFICATIONS

ORIGINS

Chapter 21 - THE HORSE IN CHINA

TRAINING

ROLE AND EFFECTS

HORSEPOWER

Chapter 22 - THE CHARIOT IN BATTLE

WARRIOR COMPLEMENT AND ACTIONS

INTEGRATION WITH ACCOMPANYING FORCES

Chapter 23 - CHARIOT LIMITATIONS AND DIFFICULTIES

COMBAT ISSUES

Chapter 24 - ANCIENT LOGISTICS

Chapter 25 - MUSINGS AND IMPONDERABLES

CONQUEST AND DISPLACEMENT

✦ NOTES ✦

✦ INTEGRATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ✦