ENDNOTES

PART ONE: 14 JUNE 1940

Chapter One: The American Mayor of Paris

p. 9 Two million people Henri Michel, Paris Allemand, Paris: Albin Michel, 1981, p. 29.

p. 9 ‘The only living’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors: Secret Decisions that Changed the World, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 55.

p. 10 ‘We in the embassy felt’ Ibid., p. 53.

p. 10 The exiled American Ambassador Herbert Lottman, The Fall of Paris: June 1940, London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1992, p. 250.

p. 11 ‘The few people who remained’ Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 53.

p. 11 ‘Contrary to rumors’ Letter from Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter, quoted in Orville H. Bullitt (ed.), For the President: Personal and Secret, Correspondence Between Franklin D. Roosevelt and William C. Bullitt, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972, p. 469.

p. 11 Robert Murphy, rather than let Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 53.

p. 12 ‘Most Americans Staying’ New York Times, 19 May 1940, p. 1.

p. 12 ‘They showed us’ ‘U.S. Flier Returns, Bitter at France’, New York Times, 3 August 1940, p. 10.

p. 13 The embassy issued more ‘U.S. Property in France Has Light War Toll’, Chicago Daily Tribune, 16 July 1940, p. 9.

p. 13 ‘The American Church will’ ‘The American Church in Paris’, Sunday Bulletin, 9 June 1940, p. 2, from the Archives of the American Church, 63–65 Quai d’Orsay, not catalogued.

p. 13 ‘No American ambassador’ Bullitt to Roosevelt, 30 May 1940, in Bullitt (ed.), For the President, p. 441.

p. 14 ‘But our government’ Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt, New York: Macmillan, 1987, p. 94.

p. 14 ‘This isn’t a treaty’ Ibid.

p. 14 Ernest Hemingway, who had left Ibid., p. 203.

p. 15 ‘the French Army’ ‘Salient Excerpts from the White Book Issued by the German Foreign Office’, New York Times, 30 March 1940, p. 4.

p. 15 He had even arranged ‘Chemidlin’s Last Ride’, Time, 6 February 1939. The secret programme to train French pilots on the latest American warplanes became public when a Douglas Aircraft light bomber crashed and one of those injured turned out to be Captain Paul Chemidlin of the French army. The Senate Military Affairs Committee then discovered that, after the US army had turned down Bullitt’s request to train the French, he persuaded the army to arrange the test flights anyway. Time magazine correctly described Roosevelt’s intervention as ‘not a spy story but a new chapter in U.S. foreign policy’.

p. 15 ‘This Embassy is’ Bullitt to Hull, 11 June 1940, in Bullitt (ed.), For the President, p. 466.

p. 15 Gallup published its latest Norman Moss, Nineteen Weeks: Britain, America and the Fateful Summer of 1940, London: Aurum Press, 2004, p. 124.

p. 15 ‘I have talked with’ Bullitt (ed.), For the President, p. 462.

p. 16 ‘As I said to you’ Ibid., p. 466.

p. 16 ‘I propose to send’ Ibid., p. 467.

p. 16 His communications, like everyone Cable from Bullitt to Franklin Roosevelt, 12 June 1940, in ibid., p. 467.

p. 16 ‘Paris has been declared’ Cable from Chargé d’Affaires in Germany to Secretary of State, 13 June 1940, in ibid., p. 471.

p. 17 ‘Delegates till 5 a.m.’ Gerald Walter, Paris under the Occupation, New York: Orion Press, 1960, p. 18.

p. 17 Dentz acquiesced, sending Lottman, The Fall of Paris, pp. 337–40. Lottman’s account of the surrender is one of the most thorough and reliable. See also John Williams, The Ides of May: The Defeat of France, May–June 1940, London: Constable, 1968, pp. 316–20. p. 17 Some Germans did not Williams, The Ides of May, p. 37.

p. 18 ‘That doesn’t matter’ William Smith Gardner, ‘The Oldest Negro in Paris’, Ebony, vol. 8, no. 2, February 1952, pp. 65–72.

p. 18 General Bogislav von Studnitz, commander Roger Langeron, Paris, juin 1940, Paris: Flammarion, 1946, p. 42.

p. 18 ‘were born with monocles’ Michel, Paris Allemand, p. 59.

p. 19 ‘the moment had arrived’ Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 56.

p. 19 ‘You are Americans … The whole city’ Ibid., pp. 56–7.

p. 19 Inside the Crillon’s gilt Ibid., p. 57.

p. 19 ‘as if we were’ Ibid., pp. 57–8.

p. 20 Von Studnitz gave … ‘brushed aside this’ Ibid., p. 58.

p. 20 The war he added … ‘none of us’ Ibid., p. 58.

p. 20 ‘although it was only 10.30’ Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter letter to Orville H. Bullitt, reproduced in Bullitt (ed.), For the President, p. 469.

p. 20 Von Studnitz invited Hillenkoetter letter in Ibid., p. 470.

p. 20 ‘Colonel Fuller was’ Quentin Reynolds, The Wounded Don’t Cry, London: Cassell and Compay, 1941, p. 40.

p. 20 ‘Never … We’re confident’ Virginia Cowles, Looking for Trouble, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1941, pp. 374–5.

p. 20 ‘His hands trembled’ Clare Boothe, ‘Europe in the Spring: An American Playwright Reports on a Continent’s Last Days of Freedom’, Life, 25 July 1940, p. 80.

p. 21 Back in his office … ‘nice fellas’ Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 59. Murphy wrote that Mitchell came to Paris with Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show and remained when it went bankrupt. The show opened in Paris in 1889 as part of the World Exposition, and it did not go bankrupt until long after its return to the United States.

p. 21 Von Studnitz, recalled … Fuller and Hillenkoetter Hillenkoetter letter in Bullitt (ed.), For the President, p. 470.

p. 22 ‘The general wanted’ Lottman, The Fall of Paris, p. 361

p. 22 From an upper window Author’s interview with Mme Colette Faus, Paris, 22 January 2007.

p. 22 ‘On that day’ Philip W. Whitcomb, testimony in France during the German Occupation, 1940–1944: A Collection of 292 Statements on the Government of Maréchal Pétain and Pierre Laval, translated from the French by Philip W. Whitcomb, Palo Alto, CA: The Hoover Institution, Stanford University, vol. III, 1957, p. 1606.

p. 23 The triumphalism of Roger Manville and Heinrich Fraenkel, The July Plot: The Attempt on Hitler’s Life in July 1944, London: The Bodley Head, 1964, p. 63.

p. 23 Martial parades established Early that morning, the French writer Paul Léautaud was leaving his house in the Paris suburbs when he saw the wife of the local mayor at her door. He wrote in his diary, ‘She tells me that the radio has announced that Paris is under the protection of the American ambassador. I say, “We’re doing well. The American ambassador in front of the German army! That should prevent us from being bumped off. The American ambassador will come: Look here! He’s dead!” As usual, I mimed what I said. I made her laugh, her and her children.’ See Paul Léautaud, Journal littéraire, vol. XIII, February 1940–June 1941, Paris: Mercure de France, 1962, p. 81.

Chapter Two: The Bookseller

p. 24 As the first German Adrienne Monnier, Trois agendas d’Adrienne Monnier, Texte établi et annoté par Maurice Saillet, Paris: published ‘par ses amis’, 1960, p. 37. Sylvia’s autobiography, written twenty years later, disagrees with Adrienne Monnier’s diary on Sylvia’s whereabouts when the Germans marched in. In Shakespeare and Company (London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 218), Sylvia wrote that she was in the office of a doctor friend, Thérèse Bertrand-Fontaine, when she saw refugees leaving Paris and German soldiers marching in after them. This is more likely a recollection that compressed distinct events, because all of Paris’s refugees had left at least one day before the Germans entered the city. I have relied on Adrienne’s diary, which was written at the time.

p. 24 ‘endless procession of’ Beach, Shakespeare and Company, p. 218.

p. 24 ‘Those boots always’ Niall Sheridan, interview with Sylvia Beach, Sylvia Beach: Self-Portrait, documentary film on Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 25 ‘ I never left Paris’ Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1983, p. 401.

p. 26 Alice B. Toklas called Ibid., p. 100.

p. 26 ‘these two extraordinary’ Janet Flanner, ‘The Infinite Pleasure: Sylvia Beach’, Janet Flanner’s World: Uncollected Writings 1932–1975, London: Secker and Warburg, 1980, p. 310.

p. 27 ‘DAMN the right bank’ Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 61.

p. 28 ‘loved to browse’ William L. Shirer, Twentieth Century Journey: Memoir of a Life and the Times, vol. I: The Start, 1904–1930, Boston: Little Brown, 1984, p. 241.

p. 28 ‘Probably I was’ Sylvia Beach wrote this in an unpublished draft of her memoirs, Shakespeare and Company. Quoted in Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 78.

p. 28 ‘the intrepid, unselfish’ Flanner, ‘The Infinite Pleasure: Sylvia Beach’, p. 309.

p. 29 ‘probably the best known’ Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 41.

p. 29 ‘their club, mail drop’ Flanner, ‘The Infinite Pleasure: Sylvia Beach’, p. 310.

p. 30 ‘But something must’ Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 355.

p. 31 ‘He was beginning’ ‘Hemingway Curses, Kisses, Reads’, Paris Herald Tribune, 14 March 1937.

p. 31 A year later Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 386. The award is also listed in Sylvia’s entry in Americans in France: A Directory, 1939–1940, Paris: American Chamber of Commerce in France, 1940, p. 72.

p. 32 ‘Loud noise of planes … we should live’ Monnier, Trois agendas de Adrienne Monnier, p. 36.

p. 32 ‘she could not be’ Beach, Shakespeare and Company, p. 213.

p. 32 ‘did try to get away’ Ibid., pp. 217–18ff.

p. 32 ‘fell right between’ Monnier, Trois Agendas de Adrienne Monnier, p. 29.

p. 32 Adrienne kissed the spot Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 398.

p. 33 ‘I still had some’ Arthur Koestler, The Scum of the Earth, London: Cape, 1941, reprinted London: Eland Books, 1991, p. 103.

p. 33 ‘For a few days’ Arthur Koestler, Arrow in the Blue, vol. II, The Invisible Writing, London: Collins with Hamish Hamilton, 1954, p. 420.

p. 33 The president of International PEN Emmanuelle Loyer, Paris à New York: Intellectuels et artistes français en exil 1940–1947, Paris: Bernard Grasset, 2005.

p. 33 ‘It is impossible’ ‘Celebrities Forced to Flee France Arrive Here by Way of Lisbon’, New York Times, 16 July 1940, p. 1.

p. 33 Two American diplomats Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 400.

p. 33 ‘From the day the Jews’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘On Anti-Semitism’, La Gazette des Amis des Livres, Paris, December 1938, reprinted in Adrienne Monnier, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier: An Intimate Portrait of the Literary and Artistic Life in Paris Between the Wars, translated by Richard McDougall, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976, p. 378.

p. 33 Sylvia had sold artists’ prints Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 383.

p. 34 ‘What if the Germans’ Monnier, Trois agendas d’Adrienne Monnier, p. 38. There is an excellent translation of Adrienne’s occupation diary in The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier, pp. 391–402.

p. 35 ‘I was amazed’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors: Secret Decisions that Changed the World, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, pp. 59–60. Murphy added, ‘I reflected ruefully that the United States Government might have practiced to advantage some of that German foresight. In our own early ventures in military government, Washington’s neglect of this phase of waging war created unnecessary difficulties for General Eisenhower, and especially for me as his political adviser.’ That was twenty years before the US occupation of Vietnam and forty before its occupation of Iraq.

p. 35 ‘The German soldiers’ Roger Langeron, Paris, juin 1940, Paris: Flammarion, 1946, p. 45.

p. 35 The Germans honoured Telegram of 4 July 1940 from Bullitt to Department of State, in Orville H. Bullitt (ed.), For the President, Personal and Secret: Correspondence between Franklin Delano Roosevelt and William C. Bullitt, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972, p. 478.

p. 35 Married to an aristocrat David Pryce-Jones, Paris in the Third Reich: A History of the German Occupation, 1940–1944, London: Collins, 1981, p. 24.

p. 35 Another American loss ‘U.S. Property in France Has Light War Toll’, Chicago Daily Tribune, 16 July 1940, p. 9.

p. 35 ‘So these are Bullitt’s’ Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 60.

p. 36 In the evening, Bullitt Langeron, Paris, juin 1940, p. 54.

p. 36 ‘If order is maintained’ Ibid., p. 46.

Chapter Three: The Countess from Ohio

p. 37 The American Embassy beat The embassy left the Hôtel Bristol on 1 December 1940. See Dorothy Reeder, ‘The American Library in Paris: September 1939–June 1941, CONFIDENTIAL’, Report to the American Library Association, 19 July 1941, American Library Association Archives, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, p. 9.

p. 38 ‘promised to remain’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 101.

p. 38 ‘Was it really’ Dorothy Reeder: ‘The American Library in Paris: September 1939–June 1941, Confidential’.

p. 38 ‘theory that, should’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 99.

p. 38 ‘My temperamental dislike’ Ibid., p. 99.

p. 38 Pierre, who as the eldest Americans in France: A Directory, 1939–1940, Paris: American Chamber of Commerce in France, 1940, p. 83: the Marquis de Chambrun listed his residences as 19 avenue Rapp, Paris 7, and the Château l’Empery-Carrières, Lozère.

p. 39 ‘My husband argued’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 99.

p. 39 ‘There were trucks’ Ibid., pp. 103–4.

p. 39 ‘I recall the silhouettes’ Ibid., p. 105.

p. 40 ‘an excited servant … compromised by giving … all thought of self’ Ibid., p. 109.

p. 40 ‘By birth and education’ Ibid., p. 3.

p. 41 Impressions of Lincoln and the Civil War Adolphe de Chambrun, Impressions of Lincoln and the Civil War: A Foreigner’s Account, translated by General Aldebert de Chambrun, New York: Random House, 1952.

p. 41 recounted his friendship Chambrun declined, because his Catholicism would not let him attend the theatre on Good Friday.

p. 41 ‘never considered the … Like all his family’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Like Myself, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936, p. 93.

p. 42 She perfected her French Clara became a close friend of Aldebert’s older sister, Thérèse, who was married to Count Savorgnan de Brazza, the Italian-born French explorer for whom Brazzaville in West Africa was named. She was close to others in the same aristocratic circle. See Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Like Myself, p. 29.

p. 42 The award was presented Pétain’s full name was Henri-Philippe-Bénoni-Omer Pétain, but he was usually called Philippe Pétain.

p. 43 ‘But there is an end’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Like Myself, p. 243.

p. 43 ‘the appearance of General’ Ibid., p. 277.

p. 43 It was said that American Colonel Charles E. Stanton, in a speech at Lafayette’s tomb in the Picpus Cemetery on 4 July 1917, said, ‘Lafayette, we are here!’ See ‘Immortal War Slogans’, New York Times, 11 January 1942, p. 25.

p. 43 ‘In the spring of 1925’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Like Myself, p. 327.

p. 43 The French Academy awarded Mary Niles Mack, ‘Between Two Worlds: The American Library in Paris during the War, Occupation and Liberation (1939–1945)’, Library Trends, Winter 2007, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, p. 7.

p. 44 Two years later Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnet’s intimes, Paris, Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, p. 105. See also ‘Miss Laval is Bride; Becomes U.S. Citizen’, Chicago Daily Tribune, 20 August 1935, p. 17.

p. 44 ‘Swarthy as a Greek’ ‘Man of the Year’, Time, 4 January 1932.

p. 44 In October 1931 Time commented on Laval’s meeting with President Herbert Hoover at the White House: ‘President Hoover is well known to dislike almost all Frenchmen. He and Premier Laval had high words which they called “free and frank”. Smoking U.S. cigarettes at the furious rate of 80 per day, the didactic Frenchman in striped trousers, black jacket, white tie and suede-topped buttoned shoes wagged his short forefinger at the President in high-laced shoes and conservative business suit, making hotly such points as that France will not stand for having another Moratorium [on German war reparations payments to France] thrust forward from the U.S. “suddenly and brutally”.’ See Ibid.

p. 44 Friends said that Interview with Thierry Bertmann, godson of René de Chambrun’s close American friend, Seymour Weller, Paris, March 2006.

p. 45 ‘There was too much of it’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 109.

p. 45 ‘a wild scheme’ Ibid.

p. 45 Although Clara favoured … René founded the Ibid., p. 53.

p. 45 ‘she had referred’ Vincent Sheean, Between the Thunder and the Sun, New York: Random House, 1943, p. 67.

p. 46 ‘There we found’ General Aldebert de Chambrun, ‘Financial Crisis in 1935; Attempted Assassination at Versailles’, in France during the German Occupation, 1940–1944: A Collection of 292 Statements on the Government of Maréchal Pétain and Pierre Laval, translated from the French by Philip W. Whitcomb, Palo Alto, CA: The Hoover Institution, Stanford University, vol. III, 1957, p. 1558.

p. 46 ‘The sights on the road’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 110.

p. 46 ‘Madame de Polignac’ Ibid., p. 111.

p. 46 ‘No gas Madame’ … ‘There is if you heat it.’ Ibid., pp. 111–12.

p. 47 ‘Having explored … he was in fact’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Like Myself, p. 113.

p. 48 ‘And then, just as’ René de Chambrun, I Saw France Fall, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1940, pp. 155–6.

p. 48 ‘It is historically interesting’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 98.

p. 48 ‘That any man’ Ibid., p. 107.

p. 48 ‘nothing would have been left’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Like Myself, p. 114.

p. 49 ‘the very symbol’ Ibid., p. 116.

p. 49 ‘Both of them were’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun (Document No. 167) in France During the German Occupation, 1940–1944, vol. III, 1957, p. 1362.

p. 49 ‘Our three weeks there’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 113.

Chapter Four: All Blood Runs Red

p. 50 ‘I said good-bye’ From Bullard’s unpublished memoir, ‘All Blood Runs Red’, reproduced in P. J. Carisella and James W. Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, Boston: Marlborough House, 1972, p. 236.

p. 50 ‘I had a stroke’ Quoted ibid., p. 238.

p. 50 ‘During the bombardments … lay cut in half’ Ibid., p. 239.

p. 51 ‘This near lynching’ Craig Lloyd, Eugene Bullard: Black Expatriate in Jazz-Age Paris, Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2000, p. 12.

p. 51 ‘there never was any name-calling’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, p. 70.

p. 52 ‘I was always’ Ibid., p. 156.

p. 52 ‘a certain person in Paris’ Ibid.

p. 53 The squadrons in which Lloyd, Eugene Bullard, p. 58.

p. 53 He was also the only black A subsequent investigation by the US air force found that the US Army had initially recommended Bullard ‘for transfer to the [US] Air Service as a sergeant rather than receive a commission’. William C. Hemidahl, Chief, Reference Division, Center of Air Force History, ‘Memorandum for AF/DPP, From: Center for Air Force History, Subject: Application for Correction of Military Records–Bullard, Eugene J.’, 3 August 1994, p. 1. All other American flyers were granted immediate American officers’ commissions. Major General Michael McGinty, the director of Air Force Personnel Programs, concluded in 1994 that ‘Eugene Bullard was not granted entry into the American Air Service because of his race.’ Michael McGinty, Major General, USAF, ‘Memorandum for SAF/MIBR, From: HQ USAF/DPP, 1040 Air Force Pentagon, Subject: Application for Correction of Military Records (DD Form 149)–Bullard, Eugene J., 123-45-6789’, 8 August 1994. No African-American pilot was commissioned until 1943, and that was in a racially segregated squadron.

p. 54 ‘If someone needed’ Quoted in Lloyd, Eugene Bullard, p. 103.

p. 55 Bullard opened another William Shack, Harlem in Montmartre, Berkeley, CA and London: University of California Press, 2001, p. 109.

p. 55 ‘Like most American men’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, p. 229.

p. 55 Fluent in German, French Lloyd, Eugene Bullard, p. 111.

p. 55 ‘Of course, they figured’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, p. 231.

p. 56 ‘Bullard, I didn’t know’ Ibid., p. 233.

p. 56 Trumpeter Arthur Briggs Rudolph Dunbar, ‘Trumpet Player Briggs Freed After Four Years in Camp near Paris’, Chicago Daily Defender, 23 September 1945, p. 3.

p. 57 ‘Major Bader assigned’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, p. 241.

p. 58 ‘to take advantage’ Letter from Roger Bader, Galeries Saint-Michel, boulevard Saint-Michel, Paris V, 20 September 1947.

p. 58 Bullard walked and hitch-hiked Lloyd, Eugene Bullard, pp. 118–20.

p. 58 ‘By the time … I made such good time … Better get out of that’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, pp. 237–43.

p. 59 ‘I told him I had never’ Ibid.

p. 59 ‘Columbus, Georgia, October 9, 1894’ Bullard gave his year of birth as 1894 in his memoirs (see ibid., p. 244), but another biographer, Craig Lloyd, who did thorough documentary research, wrote that the date was 9 October 1895, as given in the family’s Bible (see Craig Lloyd, Eugene Bullard, p. 8). He may have added a year to his age in 1914 to join the Foreign Legion.

p. 59 On 12 July, Bullard left ‘Americans Report Nazis Fill Spain’, New York Times, 19 July 1940, p. 10.

p. 59 ‘My bicycle had vanished’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, p. 246.

Chapter Five: Le Millionnaire américain

p. 60 ‘We wandered like’ Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 68.

p. 60 ‘didn’t want to believe me’ Ibid.

p. 60 As the Germans deployed Ibid.

p. 60 Ambassador Bullitt and Counsellor Murphy ‘Embassy Refuge Picked’, New York Times, 3 December 1939, p. 5.

p. 61 Bedaux, who granted a lease Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux. A copy of the uncashed cheque is reproduced in an appendix.

p. 61 The dining table seated Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism I’, The New Yorker, 22 September 1945, p. 40.

p. 61 ‘The chateau has one’ ‘Embassy Refuge Picked’, New York Times, 3 December 1939, p. 5.

p. 61 Hagerman, an amateur artist’ ‘Le Château de Candé ou le premier “Americain Présence Post” en France’, Echos des USA, publication of the American Embassy, Paris, no. 8, March–April 2007, p. 2.

p. 61 By early June 1940 Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism I’, The New Yorker, 22 September 1945, p. 29.

p. 62 Fullerton found Bedaux Jim Christy, The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 214.

p. 62 ‘slothful and unbridled’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 40.

p. 62 Bedaux, who believed George Ungar, The Champagne Safari, documentary film, Canada, 1995, at 1:04:00.

p. 62 ‘I can be of more’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 214.

p. 62 ‘She grumbled that’ Quentin Reynolds, The Wounded Don’t Cry, London: Cassell and Company, p. 70.

p. 63 ‘We were a bit’ Ibid.

p. 63 ‘No one woke’ Ibid., p. 71.

p. 63 When a German battalion Roster of the American Field Service Volunteers, French Units, 1939–1940.

p. 63 ‘There were quite’ Peter Muir, War without Music, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1940, p. 249.

p. 64 He finally found Ibid., p. 262.

p. 64 ‘we had better start’ ‘Americans Report Nazis Fill Spain’, New York Times, 19 July 1940, p. 10.

p. 64 ‘It was then’ Muir, War without Music, p. 252.

p. 64 ‘On our arrival’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, pp. 247–8.

p. 65 At Charles Bedaux’s luxurious Robert Gildea, Marianne in Chains: In Search of the German Occupation of France, 1940–45, London: Macmillan, 2002, p. 43.

p. 65 The German army was encircling Ibid., p. 46.

p. 65 The hospital dispatched Christy, The Price of Power., p. 214.

Chapter Six: The Yankee Doctor

p. 66 Back in Paris … By the time Bullitt Dr Charles Bove with Dana Lee Thomas, Paris: A Surgeon’s Story, New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1956, p. 223. Dr Bove’s account differs slightly from the majority of historians’. He wrote that de Martel took an overdose of Luminal and turned on the gas jets ‘to make doubly certain that he would be dead on the day the Germans entered Paris’. De Martel’s suicide did not come as a shock. Bove found his colleague ‘so deep in melancholy that nothing could arouse him’. Before the German advance on Paris, Bove wrote, ‘Martel had always been one of the jolliest members of staff. He was a debonair dresser with perpetually smiling eyes and a tongue that was always ready to burst into a humorous sally. He was the eternal playboy who had refused to surrender to his years. But now he had become a man transformed. For days he had scarcely spoken a word to us, and then only on business.’

On 10 June, the writer André Maurois had a worrying conversation with de Martel:

‘As for me’, he had said to us, ‘my mind is made up: the moment I learn that they are in the city I shall kill myself.’

And then he explained to us at length that most people do not know how to kill themselves, and bungle the job, but that a surgeon holds the revolver as precisely as he holds a scalpel and always hits a vital spot. Then, half-seriously, he added: ‘If you, too, have no desire to survive our misfortunes, I offer you my services …’

At ten o’clock in the evening, when I was already on the ’plane bound for England, the sound of the telephone interrupted my wife, who was sadly selecting the few objects she could take with her. It was Thierry de Martel.

‘I wanted to find out’, he said, ‘whether you and your husband were still in Paris.’

‘André has been sent on a mission to London’, she replied, ‘and, as for me, I am leaving tomorrow at dawn.’

‘I am going to leave too’, he said in a strange tone, ‘but for a much longer voyage …’

… ‘You can still do so much good’, she said. ‘Your patients, your assistants, your nurses, all of them need you …’

‘I cannot go on living’, Martel said. ‘My only son was killed in the last war. Until now I have tried to believe that he died to save France. And now here is France, lost in her turn. Everything I have lived for is going to disappear. I cannot go on.’

(From André Maurois, Why France Fell, translated from the French by Denver Lindley, London: The Bodley Head, 1941, pp. 115–16.)

p. 66 ‘disgustingly stupid novels’ Adrienne Monnier, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier: An Intimate Portrait of the Literary and Artistic Life in Paris between the Wars, translated by Richard McDougall, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976, p. 522.

p. 67 ‘Do not cry!’ Quoted in Charles Robertson, An American Poet in Paris: Pauline Avery Crawford and the Herald Tribune, Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 2001, p. 32. See also Pauline Avery Crawford, The Enchanted Isle, unpublished manuscript, Smith College Archives.

p. 67 ‘one attempt to … His gaze wandered’ Bove, Paris, p. 223.

p. 67 ‘I know … We Americans’ Ibid., p. 222.

p. 67 ‘There is a kind’ Paul Léautaud, Journal littéraire, vol. XIII, February 1940–June 1941, Paris, Mercure de France, 1962, p. 174.

p. 68 Thomas Kernan, the American editor Thomas Kernan, Paris on Berlin Time, Philadelphia and New York: J. P. Lippincott Company, 1941, p. 162.

p. 68 ‘In him we lost’ Maurois, Why France Fell, p. 117. When Maurois reached London, Charles de Gaulle asked him to condemn Maréchal Pétain on a BBC radio transmission to France. Maurois could not comply, because Pétain had defended him years before against anti-Semites in the Académie Française. See Emmanuel Loyer, Paris à New York: Intellectuels et artistes français en exil, 1940–1947, Paris: Grasset, 2005, p. 113.

p. 68 ‘The surgeon, who was at the end’ ‘Mort du Docteur de Martel’, Le Matin, 18 June 1940, from the Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: ‘The Second World War’.

p. 69 ‘He wore only’ Clemence Bock, Souvenirs sur le Docteur Jackson, quoted in Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied France, Washington: Brassey’s, 2004, p. 19.

p. 69 Captain Sumner Jackson transferred General Services Administration, Statement of Service, Date: 19 April 1965, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Dr. Sumner Jackson. The document shows that Jackson was commissioned a first lieutenant of the US Medical Reserve Corps on 23 July 1917. See also, in the same file, Headquarters, United States Army Cantonment, Camp Devens, Massachusetts Special Orders No. 221, 12 September 1919, Discharge Papers, when Jackson was honourably discharged as a captain.

p. 70 When Jackson left the army Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 15.

p. 70 ‘This hospital is a little’ Bove, Paris, p. 32.

p. 71 The little hospital that admitted American Hospital entry in Alfred M. Brace (ed.), Americans in France: A Directory, 1926, Paris: American Chamber of Commerce in France, 1927, p. 32.

p. 71 Dr Bove removed his appendix Bove, Paris, p. 60.

p. 71 James Joyce was made Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, New York: W. W. Norton, 1983, p. 141.

p. 71 ‘The permanent American … break into that’ Eric Sevareid, Not So Wild a Dream, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946, p. 95.

p. 72 ‘Dean [Frederick Warren] Beekman’ Ibid., p. 96.

p. 72 His entry in Americans in France: A Directory, 1939–1940, Paris: American Chamber of Commerce in France, 1940, p. 126.

p. 73 ‘selected a building’ ‘American Hospital to Open New Angoulême Hospital’, New York Herald Tribune, 8 June 1940.

p. 73 French General Lannois came ‘The American Hospital of Paris in the Second World War’, an official history prepared by the hospital staff, printed in France, 1940, p. 13, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944.

p. 73 With the general Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, pp. 36–7.

p. 73 ‘When the Allies, pushed Bove, Paris, pp. 218–19.

p. 74 ‘It’s only a matter’ Ibid., p. 220. Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 37.

p. 75 ‘At the end of May’ ‘Ambulances from America’, Time, 3 June 1940.

p. 76 One American ambulance driver ‘Driver of American Ambulance Hit by German Shell Missing’, New York Herald Tribune, 7 May 1940, p. 1.

p. 76 ‘I received a telegram’ Letter to the editor, Life, 24 June 1940, p. 4.

p. 76 At least two American drivers ‘Ambulances from America’, Time, 3 June 1940.

p. 76 ‘Coster was in the Colonel’s office’ Muir, War without Music, pp. 69–70.

p. 76 ‘with the knowledge … At noon I gave up’ Ibid., p. 90.

p. 76 ‘ Lovering Hill, commander’ ‘Search for Drivers of Ambulance Fails’, New York Times, 26 May 1940, p. 29.

p. 77 The French government awarded George Rock, History of the American Field Service, 1920–1955, New York: American Field Service Publication, 1956, p. 7.

p. 77 ‘I walked into … He turned his gun’ Donald Q. Coster, ‘Behind German Lines’, Reader’s Digest, 3 November 1940 (pp. 115–25), p. 117.

p. 77 ‘There … we were …You may may have seen’ Ibid., p. 117.

p. 78 ‘The general … Beautiful to watch’ Ibid., p. 123.

p. 78 ‘In the fraction … Ah–we never see’ Ibid., p. 120.

p. 79 ‘We hurried to the Kommandant Ibid., p. 123.

p. 79 ‘We were stopped three’ Ibid., p. 125.

p. 79 ‘one of the American ambulance’ George Kennan, Sketches from a Life, New York: Pantheon Books, 1989, p. 70 (diary entry for 2 July 1940, Paris–Brussels).

p. 79 ‘Refugees were laboriously … Her dress was torn’ Ibid., pp. 71–2 (same diary date).

p. 80 ‘At the hotel the ambulance’ Ibid., p. 73 (same diary date). The next-door neighbour may have been Dorothy Reeder, who was then residing at the Bristol.

p. 80 ‘Was there not some Greek’ Ibid., p. 74 (diary entry for 3 July 1940).

p. 80 ‘This explained why King’ Coster, ‘Behind German Lines’, Reader’s Digest, 3 November 1940 (pp. 115–25), p. 125.

p. 81 Until the false identity Donald Coster interview with Kathleen Keating, ‘The American Hospital in Paris During the German Occupation’, 19 May 1981, 14-page typescript, p. 6, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944.

p. 81 ‘The Germans permitted Dr. Jackson’ Dr Morris Sanders, ‘The Mission of Dr. Sumner Jackson’, The News of Massachusetts General Hospital, vol. 24, no. 5, June–July 1965, p. 6.

p. 81 ‘With the Occupation of Paris’ Quoted in Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 60.

p. 81 ‘An impressive line of ambulances’ Otto Gresser, ‘History of the American Hospital of Paris’, 28 September 1978, 14-page typescript, p. 4, Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: History by Otto Gresser.

p. 82 He blamed what he called Quoted in an interview with Phillip Jackson, in Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 48.

p. 82 ‘Too much praise cannot be’ ‘The American Hospital in Paris in the Second World War’, printed in France, 1940, p. 31, Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944.

p. 82 Dr Thierry de Martel left a nephew ‘Drue Tartière, Back from Paris, Tells of Hiding Flyers from Foe’, New York Herald Tribune, 7 January 1945, p. 6.

p. 82 ‘for I had grown weary’ Drue Tartière with M. R. Werner, The House near Paris: An American Woman’s Story of Traffic in Patriots, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946, p. 9.

p. 83 German radio announced Ibid., p. 18.

p. 83 ‘grandmothers holding dead babies’ Ibid., p. 12.

p. 83 ‘we realized that the so-called’ Ibid., p. 13.

p. 83 ‘Lingerie is on the next floor’ Brian Moynahan, The French Century, London: Flammarion, 2007, p. 271.

p. 83 ‘The day was stifling’ Drue Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 16.

p. 84 ‘In Tours, there was even greater’ Ibid., p. 17.

p. 84 ‘From the Bordeaux radio station’ Ibid., pp. 18–19.

p. 84 ‘a boy was arranging … I had stood next to him’ Ibid., p. 4.

p. 85 ‘old Citroën with a motor’ A. J. Liebling, The Road Back to Paris, London: Michael Joseph, 1944, p. 85. See also ‘War Babies’, Time, 17 June 1940.

p. 85 ‘We had our café au lait Liebling, The Road Back to Paris, pp. 90–91.

p. 85 Many Frenchmen had already Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Wartime Writings, 1939–1944, New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1986, pp. xiv and 52.

p. 86 ‘The voice spoke of resistance’ Liebling, The Road Back to Paris, p. 137.

p. 86 ‘Within three years … the last bare-knuckle’ Ibid., p. 98.

PART TWO: 1940

Chapter Seven: Bookshop Row

p. 89 Sylvia Beach and Adrienne Monnier Adrienne Monnier, Trois agendas d’Adrienne Monnier, Texte établie et annoté par Maurice Saillet, Paris:

published ‘par ses amis’, 1960, p. 38.

p. 89 ‘Sylvia, who left’ Ibid., pp. 39–40.

p. 90 ‘Fouquet’s open … another orchestra’ Ibid., pp. 40–41.

p. 90 ‘open with terrace … No, only when’ Ibid., pp. 42–3.

p. 90 ‘ravishing, books in profusion … Nothing at the market’ Ibid., pp. 44–8.

p. 91 ‘This morning, saw’ Ibid., p. 48.

p. 91 ‘We often have’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘A Letter to Friends in the Free Zone’, originally published in Le Figaro Littéraire, February 1942, in Adrienne Monnier, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier: An Intimate Portrait of the Literary and Artistic Life in Paris between the Wars, translated with introduction and commentaries by Richard McDougall, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976, p. 404.

p. 91 ‘Parisians who survived’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 218.

p. 92 Eleanor Beach had originally … ‘The cinema for my sister’ Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, Box 14. Miscellaneous note. p. 92 ‘She was not pretty’ Katherine Anne Porter, ‘Paris: A Little Incident in the rue de l’Odéon’, Ladies Home Journal, August 1964 (pp. 54–5), p. 54.

p. 92 ‘Cyprian was so beautiful … Among my sister’s admirers’ Beach, Shakespeare and Company, pp. 22–3.

p. 93 The poet Léon-Paul Lafargue Cyprian was born in 1893, six years after Sylvia. She was named Eleanor after her mother, but she changed it to Cyprian. Her stage name was Cyprian Gilles. Her other Paris films were The Fortune Teller (1920), L’Aiglonne(1921) and Amie d’enfance(1922).

p. 93 An unexpected tragedy further Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1983, pp. 260–61.

p. 93 ‘It’s pleasant to think’ Letter from Sylvia Beach to Holly Beach Dennis, 9 January 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 20, Folder 8. Majority Style Folder.

p. 94 ‘If only I could’ Letter from Sylvia Beach to Rev. Sylvester Beach, 10 April 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 20, Folder 7.

p. 94 ‘Of course … we can’t’ Letter from Holly Beach Dennis to Sylvia Beach, 20 May 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University, CO108, Box 14, Folder 18.

p. 94 ‘very glad to read … Are you still’ Letter from Carlotta Welles Briggs to Sylvia Beach, 25 August 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 58, Folder 2.

p. 94 A mutual friend Don and Petie Kladstrup, Wine and War, New York: Broadway Books, 2001, p. 106.

p. 95 ‘But the really unpleasant’ Letter from Gertrude de Gallaix to Sylvia Beach, 2 September 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 14, Folder 18.

p. 95 ‘The most dangerous time’ Ibid.

p. 96 In the American beauty’s suite In this coterie of writers and would-be writers, the Germans were more anti-Nazi than the French. Jünger was on the fringes of the July Plot to kill Hitler, and Heller had grave misgivings about occupying France. Jouhandeau, Drieu La Rochelle and the other Frenchmen praised Hitler and derided the Jews.

p. 96 ‘stupified to be shaking’ C. Mauriac, Bergène ô tour Eiffel, Paris: B. Grasset, 1985, pp. 222–5.

p. 96 ‘She was beautiful, great’ Gerhard Heller, Un Allemand à Paris, Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1981, p. 62.

p. 96 ‘Among the collaborationists’ Silas P., ‘Letter from France II (July)’, Horizon, vol. 4, no. 23, November 1942, p. 351.

p. 97 ‘He was there when [Paul] Valéry’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘Benoist-Méchin’, in Monnier, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier, pp. 133–4.

p. 97 She did not write what became In Laval’s government of 18 April 1942, Jacques Benoist-Méchain was promoted to ‘secrétariat d’Etat chargé de la main d’oeuvre française en Allemagne’. In September, he assumed the new post of ‘secrétariat général à la Police’ under René Bousquet and stood down in January 1944.

Chapter Eight: Americans at Vichy

p. 98 Miss Morgan, who had returned ‘Five Women Sail to Assist Allies’, New York Times, 3 March 1940, p. 3.

p. 98 ‘About that time … Finno-hysteria broke out’ Polly Peabody, Occupied Territory, London: The Cresset Press, 1941, p. 3.

p. 98 The American-Scandinavian Field Hospital’s ‘Hospital Formed to Help Finland’, New York Times, 11 February 1940, p. 28. The group’s headquarters were at 340 Park Avenue, and among the sponsors were Prince Carl, chief of the Swedish Red Cross, former President Herbert Hoover, Mrs Frederic Guest and Mrs Winston Guest.

p. 98 ‘the Black Eagle of Harlem’ Peabody, Occupied Territory, p. 7. (I met ‘Colonel’ Julian in Beirut in 1975, when he announced an offer to restore Emperor Haile Selasse to his throne in Ethiopia. He may actually have come to Lebanon to sell arms to one faction or another in the nascent civil war. The adventures of this flamboyant character had already been recorded in Peter Nugent’s The Black Eagle of Harlem, New York: Bantam Books, 1972.)

p. 99 ‘At each station’ Peabody, Occupied Territory, p. 104.

p. 99 ‘Hell, we’ll be just … I turned on him’ Ibid., pp. 105–6.

p. 99 ‘“Where is everybody”’ Ibid., pp. 110–11.

p. 99 ‘The people were’ Ibid., p. 114.

p. 100 ‘the Mayor had not waited’ Ibid., p. 115.

p. 100 ‘Stepping into the street’ Ibid., pp. 117–18.

p. 100 ‘During the first few days’ Ibid., p. 119.

p. 101 ‘a French duchess’ Ibid., p. 122.

p. 101 The American Embassy made its ‘Office Memorandum, American Consul Walter W. Orebaugh, to S. Pinckney Tuck, Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, Vichy’, 31 October 1942, Enclosure: List of Properties, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, General Records of the State Department, Decimal File Box 1168, 351.115/136.

p. 101 ‘They made up their minds’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 129.

p. 101 Ambassador Bullitt had left Orville Bullitt (ed.), For the President, Personal and Secret: Correspondence Between Franklin D. Roosevelt and William C. Bullitt, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972, p. 476. Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt, New York; Macmillan, 1987, pp. 261–2.

p. 101 Bullitt caught up with Paul Saurin, ‘The Allied Landing in North Africa’, in France During the German Occupation, 1940–1944: A Collection of 292 Statements on the Government of Maréchal Pétain and Pierre Laval, Translated from the French by Philip W. Whitcomb, Palo Alto, CA: The Hoover Institution, Stanford University, vol. II, 1957, p. 600. Saurin, parliamentary deputy for Oran, met Bullitt and Murphy at the Hôtel de Charlannes just after their arrival.

p. 101 ‘seemed to have lost’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 129.

p. 102 The Americans tended See Robert O. Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940–1944, New York: W. W. Norton and Company (also London: Barrie and Jenkins), 1972, pp. 60–63. Part of the thesis of Paxton’s excellent book is that the Vichy initiatives seeking collaboration with Germany were supported by Pétain, Admiral Darlan and a majority of ministers, rather than by Laval alone.

p. 102 Pétain not only cut Paxton, Vichy France, p. 56. Laval was reported to have said to Pétain when he ordered the attack on the British, ‘You have just lost one war. Do you want to lose another?’

p. 102 The dissenter was ‘Lone Dissenting Senator In France Is a U.S. Citizen’, New York Times, 10 July 1940, p. 4.

p. 102 ‘During that morning’ Peabody, Occupied Territory, p. 119.

p. 103 ‘the single example of courage’ Bullitt (ed.), For the President, pp. 490–91.

p. 104 ‘Vive la République Ibid., p. 491. Brownell and Billings, So Close to Greatness, p. 262. See also William L. Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1969, p. 942. Shirer wrote that the voice was that of Senator Astier. He added, ‘The Third Republic was dead. It had committed suicide.’

p. 104 ‘The last scene’ Bullitt (ed.), For the President.

p. 104 ‘Say there, Aldebert’ Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, p. 235. This story comes from a diary of Josée Laval de Chambrun. The diaries are held by the Fondation Josée et René de Chambrun in René and Josée’s former house at 6-bis Place du Palais Bourbon, Paris 75007. The directors of the foundation allowed me to read, but not to copy, Josée’s diaries for the occupation years. Many of the entries, however, are reproduced in Pourcher’s book. The directors did permit me to read and copy René and Josée de Chambrun’s letters and other documents.

p. 104 ‘I was introduced’ Peabody, Occupied Territory, p. 122.

p. 104 ‘I am going to … Of all the people’ Ibid., p. 123.

p. 105 ‘Without suspecting that’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 132.

p. 105 ‘A row of high screens Ibid., p. 128.

p. 105 ‘What a kowtowing’ Ibid.

p. 105 ‘Of course not’ Brownell and Billings, So Close to Greatness, p. 262.

p. 105 ‘In those first weeks … I think most’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 71.

p. 106 ‘The old soldier … The Marshal was then Ibid., pp. 72–3.

p. 107 ‘The president wants’ René de Chambrun, Mission and Betrayal, 1940–1945: Working with Franklin Roosevelt to Help Save Britain and Europe, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1992, p. 66.

p. 107 ‘Radiograms reporting the advance’ Letter from René de Chambrun to New York, recipient’s name blocked out by the FBI, 31 May 1945, from FBI files supplied under Freedom of Information Act, unnumbered file, FOIPA No. 1088544-001. See also de Chambrun, Mission and Betrayal, pp. 67–8. René de Chambrun, I Saw France Fall: Will She Rise Again?, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1940, p. 199.

p. 108 ‘I maintain that’ Chambrun, Mission and Betrayal, p. 69.

p. 108 Alice had once caught ‘Two for Cissy’, Time, 2 August 1937.

p. 109 ‘You have been able’ René de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984, p. 62.

p. 109 Aware of food shortages de Chambrun, Mission and Betrayal, p. 115.

p. 110 ‘refreshed and ready’ ‘Black Week’, Time, 24 June 1940.

p. 110 ‘France will remain firmly’ de Chambrun, Pierre Laval, p. 63.

p. 111 ‘The president has’ Ibid., p. 64.

p. 111 ‘René de Chambrun’ ‘Concrete Guy’, Time, 21 October 1940.

p. 111 ‘like his mother’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 137.

p. 112 ‘He is a plausible’ British Embassy, Washington, Telegram from Mr Butler (Washington), No. 2675, Registry Number C 12267/7407/17, Foreign Office Files p. 211, British National Archives, Kew.

p. 112 ‘we don’t like’ Ibid.

Chapter Nine: Back to Paris

p. 113 ‘It was late’ Polly Peabody, Occupied Territory, London: The Cresset Press, 1941, pp. 151–2.

p. 113 ‘put both fists … This was my’ Ibid., p. 155.

p. 114 ‘My old lady’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 139.

p. 114 ‘a German official … The use of the’ Ibid., p. 139.

p. 115 ‘During those first’ Ibid., p. 142.

p. 115 ‘young, attractive … a grand sense’ ‘Life in Paris, Special Wednesday Reportage’, First Library Broadcast, Paris-Mondiale, 21 February 1940, in the Archives of the American Library of Paris, Box 20, File K.5 (American Library Clippings, 1939–1940).

p. 116 ‘pasted U.S. seals’ Dorothy Reeder, ‘The American Library in Paris: September 1939–June 1941, CONFIDENTIAL’, Report to the American Library Association, 19 July 1941, American Library Association Archives, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, p. 9.

p. 116 ‘It is a funny point’ Ibid., p. 10.

p. 116 The occupation meant Ibid., p. 12.

p. 116 ‘a stiff Prussian-looking’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 144.

p. 117 ‘held each other’ Ibid.

p. 117 ‘You will necessarily … No, my dear young’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, pp. 144–5.

p. 117 Works by Ernest Hemingway ‘L’Histoire de la Librairie Américaine de Paris’, Account written by Dorothy Reeder during the occupation in Paris, beginning, ‘When the war broke out …’, p. 1, American Library in Paris Archives, Box 20, File K.26. See also, in same file, Milton E. Lord, ‘A Report upon the American Library in Paris: Findings and Recommendations’, p. 1. See also Edgar Ansel Mowrer, ‘Nazis Forcing Own Culture on French People’, Chicago Daily News, 16 October 1940, p. 1: the Bernhard List ‘includes 143 items on four pages … Four other Americans appear on the Bernhard list: the newspapermen, Louis Fischer and H. R. Knickerbocker, Prof. Calvin B. Hoover, and Leon G. Turrou, formerly of the F.B.I.’ Mowrer added, ‘The American Lending Library in Paris was also visited but upon the librarian’s promise to respect German wishes, nothing was taken away.’

p. 117 ‘for purposes of study’ Ibid.

p. 117 ‘No Jews are’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 145.

p. 117 ‘My simple solution’ Ibid.

p. 118 ‘GREETINGS BEST WISHES’ American Library of Paris Archives, Box 20, File K5.2 War Years (September–November 1940).

p. 118 ‘We are now open’ American Library of Paris Archives, Box 9, File E.3, Letter from Dorothy Reeder to Mr Michel Gunn, Rockefeller Foundation, 49 West 49th Street, New York, 19 September 1940. The letter is sparing with information, perhaps because it would have to pass the German censor. She added, ‘The Comtesse and the General are back.’

p. 118 ‘Few people came’ ‘L’Histoire de la Librairie Américaine de Paris’, Account written by Dorothy Reeder during the occupation in Paris, beginning, ‘When the war broke out …’, p. 1, American Library in Paris Archives, Box 20, File K.26.

p. 118 ‘It is enough to say’ Ibid.

p. 119 ‘I want particularly’ American Library of Paris Archives, Box 20, File K5.2 War Years (September–November 1940).

p. 119 ‘Dr. Gros has’ American Library of Paris Archives, Box 9, File E.3, Letter from Dorothy Reeder to Mr Michel Gunn, Rockefeller Foundation, 49 West 49th Street, New York, 19 September 1940.

Chapter Ten: In Love with Love

p. 121 ‘a Mephistophelean little’ Time, 15 November 1937.

p. 121 ‘He reminded himself’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism I’, The New Yorker, 22 September 1945, p. 29.

p. 121 ‘Franco-American’ Bedaux His biographers differ on his date of birth. Jim Christy, in The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, on p. 3 gives it as 10 October 1886. George Ungar’s film biography, The Champagne Safari, Canada, 1995, said it was 26 May 1886. Bedaux’s passport renewal form of 1941 also states that he was born on 10 October 1886. It is reproduced in C. M. Hardwick, Time Study in Treason: Charles E. Bedaux, Patriot or Collaborator, Chelmsford, Essex: Peter Horsnell, publisher, undated, probably 1990, p. 7.

p. 121 ‘a real Horatio’ ‘Wally’s Host–A Tale of Sandhog to Millionaire’, Chicago Daily Tribune, 31 March 1937, p. 6.

p. 121 When a woman Christy, The Price of Power, p. 15.

p. 122 Arriving aged 19 Ibid., p. 21. Ungar, The Champagne Safari.

p. 122 ‘I soon found’ Liberty magazine, 1930, quoted in Christy, The Price of Power, pp. 25–6.

p. 122 American labour unions … ‘proper use of’ ‘Bedaux Arrested in Deal with Foe’, New York Times, 14 January 1943, pp. 1 and 3.

p. 122 In 1936, Charlie Chaplin See Internet Movie Data Base, Modern Times.

p. 123 ‘Let us be the missionary’ Ungar, The Champagne Safari, Bedaux speech at 18 minutes 40 seconds.

p. 123 ‘stripped of its’ ‘Mr. Bedaux’s Friends’, Time, 15 November 1937.

p. 123 ‘the most completely’ Ibid.

p. 123 Among them was ‘Colonel’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 63.

p. 123 The next year, his first Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism I’, The New Yorker, 22 September 1945, p. 29.

p. 124 He claimed later Ibid., p. 34.

p. 124 ‘Men, women, children … worldly, boldly battered’ Ibid., pp. 30 and 29.

p. 124 In 1924, Bedaux Christy, The Price of Power, p. 62. ‘Parisys Silenced?’, Time, 15 February 1926.

p. 124 The Bedauxs, who had no Ungar, The Champagne Safari. The film includes footage of the Bedauxs that Charles commissioned to record his 1934 expedition.

p. 125 Bedaux loved inventing Christy, The Price of Power, p. 61.

p. 125 ‘A man loves’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 48.

p. 125 Within ten years Yves Levant and Marc Nikitin, ‘Should Charles Eugene Bedaux be Revisited?’, Paper presented to the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Business Research Unit, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, Wales, 14–15 September 2006, p. 11. See also Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism I’, The New Yorker, 22 September 1945, p. 29.

p. 125 The young counts Franz Joseph was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary from 1848 to 1916.

p. 125 Friederich met Bedaux Author’s correspondence with von Ledebur’s family in Vienna, June 2008.

p. 125 He approached a German Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 32.

p. 125 Through him, Bedaux became Ibid.

p. 125 Bedaux commissioned her Ibid.

p. 126 ‘My wife and I believe’ ‘Wally’s Host–A Tale of Sandhog to Millionaire’, Chicago Daily Tribune, 31 March 1937, p. 6.

p. 127 ‘my wife and I’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 146.

p. 127 ‘She was so much finer’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism I’, The New Yorker, 22 September 1945, p. 40.

p. 127 ‘unceasing affection … knew how to help’ Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 88.

p. 127 Bedaux’s wedding present Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 32; and Christy, The Price of Power, p. 59.

p. 127 Friedrich von Ledebur, who met Federal Bureau of Investigation interview with Frederick Ledebur, Telemeter, 21 January 1944, US Department of Justice Communications Section, from FBI files supplied under Freedom of Information Act, unnumbered file, pp. 64692, 64693 and 64694. FOIPA No. 1088544-001. (All records released by the FBI are from RG65, Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, World War II, FBI Headquarters Files, 100-49901 Sections 1–2, Charles Bedaux (FOIPA), Box number 113.) FBI agents questioned Ledebur in Ventura, California, on 20 January 1944.

p. 128 Subsequently, the duke Fritz Wiedemann had been a captain in the 16th Bavarian Regiment, commanding Corporal Adolf Hitler. He became Hitler’s adjutant in 1934 and was close enough to the dictator to be able to criticize him from time to time. However, in 1938, after the savagery of the Kristallnacht pogroms in Germany, Hitler dismissed Wiedemann and Dr Hjalmar Schacht, who had criticized the thugs responsible. Wiedemann was assigned, along with his mistress, the half-Jewish Princess Stefanie von Hohenlohe, as German Consul-General in San Francisco. See John Toland, Adolf Hitler, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1976, p. 509.

p. 128 Watson had enjoyed a private Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America’s Most Powerful Corporation, New York: Crown Publishers, 2001, pp. 132–3.

p. 128 ‘the slightest concern’ ‘Mr. Bedaux’s Friends’, Time, 15 November 1937.

p. 129 Bedaux suffered what was This story is told, in differing details, in Christy, The Price of Power, pp. 167–83; Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 34; and Martin Allen, Hidden Agenda, London: Macmillan, 2000, pp. 86–98. Gaston Bedaux’s privately printed biography of his brother, La Vie ardente de Charles E. Bedaux, on p. 61, refers to the incident briefly: ‘Unhappily, from the other side of the ocean, for reasons that I shall ignore, an angry reception had been prepared.’ Charles told his brother that, from that day, ‘his life was constantly in danger’.

p. 130 Bedaux went to Britain Christy, The Price of Power, p. 206.

p. 130 When Bedaux discovered Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 36.

p. 130 At the end of June ‘U.S. Property in France Has Light War Toll’, Chicago Daily Tribune,16 July 1940, p. 6.

p. 131 The Bedaux Company’s Dutch headquarters Federal Bureau of Investigation interview with Frederick Ledebur, Telemeter, 21 January 1944, U.S. Department of Justice Communications Section, from F.B.I. files supplied under Freedom of Information Act, unnumbered file, pp. 64692, 64693 and 64694. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 132 An excellent horseman Christy, The Price of Power, p. 202. Friedrich von Ledebur later worked in films as a coordinator of horse stunts and an actor. He appeared in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1946 Notorious and played Queequeeg in John Huston’s Moby-Dick in 1956. Also in Moby-Dickwas his English ex-wife, Iris Tree, the daughter of Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree. His last film role was as Admiral Aulent in Fellini’s Ginger and Fred in 1976. See Internet Movie Database at www.imdb.com/name/nm0496428/. He died, aged 86, in 1986.

p. 132 Abetz was married W. Sternfeld, ‘Ambassador Abetz’, Contemporary Review, London, August 1942, p. 86. See also ‘There It Goes?’, Newsweek, 4 January 1943, p. 38. Newsweek wrote, ‘Handsome, elegant, speaking perfect French, Abetz penetrated the most exclusive circles.’

p. 132 ‘Bedaux was more dynamic’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 217.

p. 133 ‘This millionaire, French’ Bernard Ullmann, Lisette de Brinon, ma mère: Une Juive dans la tourment de la Collaboration, Paris: Editions Complexe, 2004, p. 96.r

p. 133 He invited Bedaux Ungar, The Champagne Safari, at 1:02:30. See also Christy, The Price of Power, p. 216.

p. 133 The friendship that Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism I’, The New Yorker, 22 September 1945, p. 31.

p. 134 ‘He is a man drafted’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 216.

p. 134 ‘During this preliminary’ Pierre Laval, The Unpublished Diary of Pierre Laval, with an introduction by Josée Laval, Countess R. de Chambrun, London: Falcon Press, 1948, p. 71.

p. 134 Medicus supplied Bedaux Henri Michel, Paris Allemand, Paris: Albin Michel, 1981, p. 46.

p. 134 Dr Franz Medicus was a regular Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 32.

p. 134 Before the war, de Brinon Alexander Werth, France: 1940–1944, London: Robert Hale Ltd, 1956, p. 126. Werth gives a thorough account of de Brinon’s career on pp. 126–30. See also William Shirer, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1969, p. 385n.

p. 135 The Germans declared Ullmann, Lisette de Brinon, ma mère, pp. 44 and 108.

p. 135 Bedaux gave Pierre-Jérôme In the confused world of ideological commitments of that time, Pierre-Jérôme was attracted to groups that his openly fascist stepfather admired. His brother wrote, ‘As an adolescent in the 1930s, he adhered to the youth movements of the extreme right that flourished in the Latin Quarter without realizing that hate or contempt for Jews was in integral part of their doctrine.’ See Ibid., p. 16. Pierre-Jérôme had enlisted in the army in 1939 and was among the cadets at Saumur who resisted the German advance. Bernard wrote that his brother took provisional employment in a prefecture in the Basses-Pyrénées soon after the beginning of the occupation. See Ibid., p. 113. Bedaux’s son, Charles Emile, told his father’s biographer Jim Christy that Charles Eugene employed de Brinon’s stepson in his French company. Author’s correspondence with Jim Christy, July 2008.

p. 135 His wife’s absence Ullmann, Lisette de Brinon, ma mère, p. 124. Lisette knew of the affair and was jealous of Mittre.

p. 135 For her part, Lisette Werth, France: 1940–1944, p. 126.

Chapter Eleven: A French Prisoner with the Americans

p. 136 ‘the flowers, the walkways’ André Guillon, ‘Testimony of a French PoW on His Time at the American Hospital of Paris’, 13-page typescript in French, p. 1, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: André Guillon. (My translation.)

p. 136 ‘neutrality that we … There were no sentries’ Ibid., p. 2.

p. 137 Later, it was revealed Note: Coster went to North Africa as one of the vice-consuls in the spy network that Robert Murphy had established under the Murphy–Weygand Agreement ostensibly to monitor American relief shipments. Afterwards, he took part in the Normandy landings as an intelligence officer. After the war, he had a career with the CIA in Vietnam and Algeria.

p. 137 ‘I remember Dr Jackson … this ethnic group … The nurses imposed … I went out regularly’ Guillon, ‘Testimony of a French PoW on His Time at the American Hospital of Paris’, p. 5.

p. 138 ‘He was taken to’ ‘U.S. Hospital Aid Expanded in Paris’, New York Times, 29 June 1940, p. 22.

Chapter Twelve: American Grandees

p. 139 Dean Jay and his wife Americans in France: A Directory, 1939–1940, Paris: American Chamber of Commerce in France, 1940, p. 126. Jackson lived and maintained a medical practice at 11 avenue Foch, just up the hill from the Jays.

p. 139 Mr Post had been ‘Reshuffle’, Time, 23 December 1935.

p. 140 ‘At present … we have’ ‘Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris’, 26 July 1940, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Bound book: Minutes of the American Hospital of Paris, 1940.

p. 140 The Count de Chambrun René de Chambrun, Sorti du Rang, Paris: Atelier Marcel Jullian, 1980, p. 224. Gresser was from Thurgovie and Comte from Vaud.

p. 140 ‘should endeavor to slow’ ‘Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris’, 22 August 1940, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Bound book: Minutes of the American Hospital of Paris, 1940.

p. 141 ‘in the event of’ ‘Minutes of a Regular Meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris’, 19 September 1940, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence and Reports, 1941, and Minutes, 19 September 1940 to 7 November 1941.

p. 141 The last item of business The 31-page report was published two months later under the title ‘The American Hospital of Paris in the Second World War’, and was used for publicity and fund raising in the United States. American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944. The report stated on p. 9, ‘Too much praise cannot be given to Dr. Sumner Jackson, who has been a member of the Attending Staff since 1925 and who accepted the professional supervision of the wounded for the period of the war.’

p. 142 ‘sevices or municipal’ ‘Minutes of a Regular Meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris’, 21 November 1940, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Bound book: Minutes of the American Hospital of Paris, 1940.

p. 142 ‘The Winter 1940–1941’ Otto Gresser, ‘History of the American Hospital of Paris’, 28 September 1978, 14-page typescript, p. 5, Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: History by Otto Gresser.

p. 142 ‘Then I noticed’ Interview with Otto Gresser in Kathleen Keating, German Ocupation and Various Other Histories, p. 9.

p. 143 ‘After more questions’ Ibid.

p. 143 With no gas for cooking Otto Gresser, ‘Histoire de l’Hôpital Américain–4ème Partie’, American Hospital of Paris Newsletter, vol. 3, no. 11, March 1975, Paris, p. 4.

Chapter Thirteen: Polly’s Paris

p. 144 ‘Thus we sailed’ Polly Peabody, Occupied Territory, London: The Cresset Press, 1941, p. 177.

p. 144 ‘The room was full’ Ibid., pp. 179–80.

p. 145 ‘The curfew hour’ Ibid., pp. 180–81. Polly’s idiosyncratic punctuation is in the original.

p. 145 ‘We cannot dance’ Ibid., p. 181.

p. 145 ‘A new hope’ Ibid., p. 185.

p. 145 ‘At the camps … In any event’ Ibid., p. 187.

p. 146 ‘they either hadn’t heard’ Ibid., p. 194.

p. 146 ‘With no more work’ Ibid., p. 197.

p. 146 ‘The first of October … You can’t have him’ Ibid., p. 203.

p. 147 ‘One day in September … The following days’ Thomas Kernan, Paris on Berlin Time, Philadelphia and New York: J. P. Lippincott Company, 1941, pp. 182–4.

p. 147 ‘The newspaper France Peabody, Occupied Territory, p. 205.

p. 148 ‘pedestrians hooted and’ Ibid., p. 210.

p. 148 Polly and the journalist … ‘The cyclist rode’ Ibid., pp. 210–11.

Chapter Fourteen: Rugged Individualists

p. 150 ‘The Germans were … This is probably’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 36.

p. 150 Yet Bedaux endangered his wealth Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, privately published, Paris, 3 June 1959, p. 71.

p. 150 He did the same for Alexandra Martin Allen, Hidden Agenda: How the Duke of Windsor Betrayed the Allies, London: Macmillan, 2000, p. 58.

p. 150 Bedaux also helped Christy, The Price of Power, p. 217.

p. 151 ‘He must be speaking’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 153.

p. 151 In the meantime, Hitler Four months earlier, Franco had asked the British Ambassador in Madrid, Sir Samuel Hoare, ‘Why do you not end the war now? You can never win it.’ See Peter Collier, 1940: The World in Flames, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1979, p. 153. The Battle of Britain, which the Luftwaffe was losing to British fighters, changed his mind about the British: ‘They’ll fight and go on fighting: and if they are driven out of Britain, they’ll carry on the fight from Canada: they’ll get the Americans to come in with them. Germany has not won the war.’ See John Toland, Adolf Hitler, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1976, p. 636.

p. 152 ‘the two million French’ Toland, Adolf Hitler, p. 639.

p. 152 ‘This collaboration must’ Ibid., p. 640.

p. 152 At the same time Herbert Lottman, Pétain: Hero or Traitor, The Untold Story, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1985, p. 215.

p. 152 ‘careful notes’ Pierre Laval, The Unpublished Diary of Pierre Laval, with an introduction by Josée Laval, Countess R. de Chambrun, London: Falcon Press, 1948, p. 75.

p. 152 ‘I was placed to the right … his differences with … Laval was happy … So long as I have’ Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris, privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 72.

p. 153 When Laval criticized Ibid., p. 73.

p. 153 ‘a lively intelligence’ Ibid.

p. 153 At this time, according Christy, The Price of Power, pp. 220–21.

p. 153 ‘With unconcealed pride’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘Lust’, in Adrienne Monnier, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier, translated by Richard McDougall, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, p. 169. Laure Murat in Passage de l’Odéon: Sylvia Beach, Adrienne Monnier et la vie littéraire à Paris dans l’entre-deux-guerres, Paris: Fayard, 2003, p. 34, wrote that Valéry’s first reading of ‘Mon Faust’ took place in Adrienne’s flat on 1 March 1941, for the silver anniversary of Adrienne’s bookshop.

p. 153 ‘the feminine character … an ingenuous intellectual’ Ibid., pp. 170–72.

p. 154 Carlotta sent her a cheque Letter from Carlotta Briggs to Sylvia Beach, 17 October 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 58, Folder 2.

p. 154 ‘In case she is’ Letter from Carlotta Briggs to Sylvia Beach, 2 November 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 58, Folder 2.

p. 154 ‘I told you’ Holly Beach Dennis to Sylvia Beach, 13 November 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 14, Folder 18.

p. 155 ‘The greatest blessing’ Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, New York: W. W. Norton, 1983, p. 401.

p. 155 ‘happily till the very’ Ibid., p. 402.

p. 155 ‘He told me between’ André Guillon, ‘Testimony of a French PoW on His Time at the American Hospital of Paris’, 13-page typescript in French, p. 7, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: André Guillon. (My translation.)

p. 155 ‘I found myself’ Ibid.

p. 156 ‘How the Americans’ Ibid., p. 8.

p. 156 ‘The American doctor’ Ibid., p. 9.

p. 156 ‘Operating by day’ Otto Gresser, ‘History of the American Hospital –Part III’, American Hospital of Paris Newsletter, vol. 2, no. 10, November 1974, Paris, p. 3.

p. 156 General Huntziger and his wife Le Journal Officiel de l’Etat Français of 19 November 1941 recorded that four other hospital employees had been granted the Médaille d’Honneur du Service de Santé, Medal of Honour of the Health Service: volunteer driver Gertrude Hamilton, an American; Marie Thion de la Chaume, French director of ambulance services; and Else Rye, the chief night nurse, Danish.

p. 157 ‘I read them’ André Guillon, ‘Testimony of a French PoW on His Time at the American Hospital of Paris’, p. 12.

p. 157 ‘She had the grace’ Ibid., p. 11.

p. 157 ‘He was alone’ ‘Personnel Reste à L’Hôpital le 14 Juin 1940’, p. 5, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Testimony of a Wounded French PoW on his time at A.H.P, 1940, and Personnel, 1940. Mlle Svetchine is the only nurse listed whose name is Russian and begins with an S.

p. 157 ‘You undress … There was obviously’ Guillon, ‘Testimony of a French PoW on His Time at the American Hospital of Paris’, p. 12.

p. 158 Mademoiselle D. was probably ‘U.S. Acts on Clerk Jailed by Gestapo’, New York Times, 7 December 1940, p. 2.

Chapter Fifteen: Germany’s Confidential American Agent

p. 159 On 12 December Herbert Lottman, Pétain: Hero or Traitor, The Untold Story, New York: William Morrow, 1985, p. 227.

p. 159 L’Aiglon, or ‘the little eagle’ ‘The Dead Eaglet’, Time, 23 December 1940.

p. 159 Laval warned Abetz Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval: Vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, p. 207. Herbert Lottman, a reliable historian, writes in Pétain: Hero or Traitor, p. 227, that Laval drove from Paris to Vichy with Fernand de Brinon, without giving a source.

p. 160 ‘I had scarcely entered’ Pierre Laval, The Unpublished Diary of Pierre Laval, with an introduction by Josée Laval, Countess R. de Chambrun, London: Falcon Press, 1948, p. 82.

p. 160 At the Hôtel du Parc Fernand de Brinon, Mémoires, Paris: La P. Internationale, 1949, pp. 52–4. See also Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval, p. 210, quoting Josée Laval’s diary. Historian Herbert Lottman explained, ‘If Action Française [the extreme rightist, Catholic and monarchist group founded by Charles Maurras], a major influence in the cabinet, was anti-Semitic and anti-Freemason, even a certain degree anti-British, it was above all anti-German.’ See Herbert Lottman, Pétain: Hero or Traitor, p. 233.

p. 160 ‘a palace revolution’ Pourcher, Pierre Laval, p. 209.

p. 160 Pétain announced his René de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984, p. 59.

p. 160 He sent Hitler David Irving, Hitler’s War and the War Path, 1933–1945, London: Focal Point, 1991, p. 333.

p. 160 ‘This is a heavy … Even if we now’ Ulrich von Hassell, The von Hassell Diaries: 1938–1944, London: Hamish Hamilton, 1948, p. 150.

p. 161 Hitler accepted Ribbentrop’s Lottman, Pétain: Hero or Traitor?, p. 231.

p. 161 On Sunday, 15 December Ian Ousby, Occupation: The Ordeal of France, 1940–1944, London: Pimlico, 1999, p. 117.

p. 161 The ceremony was ‘The Dead Eaglet’, Time, 23 December 1940.

p. 161 ‘I saw for the first time’ Pourcher, Pierre Laval, p. 212, quoting Josée Laval de Chambrun’s diary.

p. 161 ‘The people from … where he is safe’ Pourcher, Pierre Laval, p. 213.

p. 161 ‘I spent the saddest’ de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, p. 65.

p. 161 Worse came the next Jim Christy, in The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 222, writes that ‘on December 15, Joseph von Ledebur left for the Russian front’. There would be no Russian front until Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.

p. 162 On Tuesday morning, 17 December Pourcher, Pierre Laval, p. 213. Josée Laval in her diary for 20 December 1940 reports seeing Lisette de Brinon in Vichy with a friend named Fernande. Bernard Ullmann, Lisette de Brinon, ma mère: Une Juive dans la tourmente de la Collaboration, Paris: Editions Complexe, 2004, pp. 116–18.

p. 162 ‘We played no’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 88.

p. 163 ‘You are worth a thousand men’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 224.

p. 163 ‘The beautiful palace’ von Hassell, The von Hassell Diaries: 1938–1944, p. 153.

p. 164 This may have been to Irving, Hitler’s War and the War Path, p. 38. This office, Irving writes, had the monopoly of wiretapping from April 1933. Its printed reports on brown paper were called the ‘Brown Pages’, and were distributed to senior Nazis in locked dispatch boxes. On p. 39, Irving writes that the conversations of Julius Streicher, Unity Mitford, Princess Stephanie von Hohenlohe, her lover Fritz Wiedemann and other ‘fringe actors’ were routinely monitored.

p. 164 ‘I like to look at you’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration–Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 36.

p. 164 Still out of earshot Raymond Aron, The Vichy Regime: 1940–44, New York: Macmillan, 1958, p. 267.

p. 164 ‘We would rather’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 39; and Christy, The Price of Power, p. 225.

p. 165 The Germans had seized Ibid., p. 123: ‘we were reduced to three million tons of coal when 39½ millions represented our minimum needs’.

p. 165 ‘ The last time I saw Paris’ ‘The Last Time I Saw Paris’, Time, 23 December 1940. Music and lyrics copyright Chappell and Company, New York, 1940.

PART THREE: 1941

Chapter Sixteen: The Coldest Winter

p. 169 ‘Charles was amused’ Gaston Bedaux, La vie ardente de Charles Eugene Bedaux, privately published, Paris, June 1959, p. 74.

p. 170 De Gaulle asked him to Milton Viorst, Hostile Allies: FDR and De Gaulle, New York: Macmillan, 1965, p. 60.

p. 170 ‘I consider this’ Jim Christy, The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 226.

p. 170 ‘Weygand and his’ Viorst, Hostile Allies, p. 60.

p. 171 ‘To demonstrate his’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 107.

p. 171 Weygand called Bedaux Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 39.

p. 171 With Medicus’s support Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 39.

p. 172 ‘Bunny gave me’ Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, p. 218.

p. 173 The American Hospital’s board ‘Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris’, 13 February 1941, Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: Correspondence and Reports, 1941, and Minutes, 19 September 1940 to 7 November 1941.

p. 173 ‘Another hospital year … I report with’ ‘Report of the First Vice-President, March 20th, 1941’, Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: Correspondence and Reports, 1941, and Minutes, 19 September 1940 to 7 November 1941.

Chapter Seventeen: Time to Go?

p. 174 ‘had a higher opinion’ Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on his Notes and Diaries Made at the Time, London: Victor Gollancz, 1950, p. 42.

p. 174 ‘Please tell her not’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 165.

p. 174 ‘Why should the United States’ ‘American Wife of French General Sees No Reason U.S. Should Fight’, Cincinnati Times-Star, 3 October 1939, p. 1.

p. 175 ‘Extreme politeness was … A considerable number’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 150.

p. 175 On 15 April, the hospital’s Report of General Aldebert de Chambrun, Managing Director of the American Hospital of Paris, to the Board of Directors, 9 December 1944, p. 1, American Hospital of Paris Archives, American Hospital Reports: 1940–1944.

p. 175 ‘the same formula’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 166.

p. 175 Officially, the American Hospital Dorothy Lagard, American Hospital of Paris: A Century of Adventure, 1906–2006, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, 2006, p. 51. (This is the official history of the hospital.) See also ‘Proposal to affiliate to French Red Cross’, at Meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris, 4 April 1941, p. 2, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence and Reports 1941, and Minutes, 19 September 1940 to 7 November 1941.

p. 176 ‘a cable was sent’ Letter from E. A. Sumner to Dr John Marshall, Rockefeller Foundation, 5 May 1941, American Library of Paris Archives, Box 9, File E.3.

p. 177 ‘When our popular directress’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 167.

p. 177 ‘Accordingly, here I was’ Ibid.

p. 177 ‘overcoats, mufflers and gloves’ ‘Our Library in Paris’, New York Times, 21 June 1945.

p. 177 ‘the individual designated’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 168.

p. 178 When Maynard Barnes ‘Embassy in Paris Gets a Phone Call’, New York Times, 26 August 1944, p. 5. ‘Caffery Thanks Aids Who Held U.S. Embassy’, New York Herald Tribune, 11 January 1945, p. 4. Mme Blanchard was assisted in maintaining the empty embassy by Pierre Bizet, the guardian; Georges Rivière, electrician; and Antoine Mertens, who took care of the ambassador’s residence in the avenue d’Iéna.

p. 178 After reporting to Ambassador Leahy Leahy, I Was There, p. 42. Leahy wrote, ‘The Germans had ordered our Embassy office in Paris to be closed, and Maynard Barnes, who had been in charge there since Bullitt’s departure after the Armistice, arrived in Vichy en route to the United States. I tried to search his mind, but found only that he had a higher opinion of Laval than prevailed generally. I got a fairly unfavorable opinion of Barnes, because he did not seem to be in full agreement with what the President was trying to do.’

p. 178 Close sailed to the United States Cable from Allan Arragon, Morgan and Cie., Châtel-Guyon, Puy de Dôme, to Nelson Dean Jay, New York, 7 May 1941, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945.

p. 178 ‘After the departure’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 165.

p. 178 ‘accumulated and buried’ Leahy, I Was There, p. 41.

Chapter Eighteen: New Perils in Paris

p. 180 ‘I traveled to Vichy … stressed how greatly’ René de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984, p. 68. See also Ralph Heinzen, ‘Laval and the United States, Laval and Communism, Scuttling of the Fleet–Montoire’, testimony in France during the German Occupation, 1940–1944: A Collection of 292 Statements on the Government of Maréchal Pétain and Pierre Laval, translated from the French by Philip W. Whitcomb, Palo Alto, CA: The Hoover Institution, Stanford University, vol. III, 1957, pp. 1601–3, for full details of the interview.

p. 180 ‘I have just received’ Letter from Sumner W. Jackson to Edward B. Close, 3 June 1941, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence and Reports, 1941.

p. 181 Keeping his War RiskBulletin d’Entrée’, American Hospital of Paris document, 1 June 1940, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Sumner Jackson.

p. 181 ‘JAY MORGAN BANK’ Telegram from General de Chambrun to Nelson Dean Jay, 18 June 1940, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence and Reports, 1941.

p. 181 ‘practically all of the’ Letter from William Nelson Cromwell to Nelson Dean Jay, 20 June 1941, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945.

p. 181 ‘June deficit francs’ Morgan and Cie, Cable, 9 July 1941, 41/8882 to [Nelson Dean] Jay, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945.

p. 182 ‘Since the hospital’ Letter from Max Shoop, Sullivan and Cromwell, to Nelson Dean Jay, J. P. Morgan and Company, 10 July 1941, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945.

p. 182 ‘His breathing was’ ‘Financial Crisis in 1935, Attempted Assassination at Versailles’, Statement of General Aldebert de Chambrun, France During the German Occupation, 1940–1944, vol. III, p. 1560.

p. 182 ‘He always paid’ ‘Memories of Laval, His Rescue of an Englishwoman’, Statement by Countess Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Ibid., p. 1362.

p. 183 ‘The car has left’ René de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984, p. 69.

p. 183 ‘I don’t know’ ‘Financial Crisis in 1935, Attempted Assassination at Versailles’, Statement of General Aldebert de Chambrun, p. 1560.

p. 183 ‘a tough 21-year-old’ ‘Terrorism Cuts Both Ways’, Time, 8 September 1941.

p. 184 ‘I had taken a vow’ Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille, d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, pp. 228–9.

p. 184 ‘a haven for French’ ‘Our Library in Paris’, New York Times, 21 June 1945.

p. 184 On Memorial Day ‘Services Curtailed in Occupied France’, New York Times, 31 May 1941, p. 1.

p. 185 ‘We surely were’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 109.

p. 185 One of the twelve Coster and some of the other vice-consuls spoke French, but none could speak Arabic. Lack of linguistic expertise in the field would be a recurring motif in OSS operations, as in those of its successor, the Central Intelligence Agency. Another theme that emerged early was the agency’s propensity for staging coups. Donovan almost immediately became involved in a misguided coup d’état attempt, when he set aside a secret fund of $50,000 to overthrow the Arab bey of Algiers and replace him with another chieftain who was pro-Allied. Murphy wrote, ‘Nothing would have enraged our French colleagues more than this kind of monkey business, or been more ruinous to our chances of obtaining the support of French military forces. As for fifty thousand dollars! Our whole operation in Africa had not cost that much over a period of many months.’ Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 110. Donovan was saved from folly by the US naval attaché in Tangier, Marine Colonel William A. Eddy. Murphy wrote that Eddy ‘had grown up in the Middle East and was fluent in Arabic … and no American knew more about Arabs or about power politics in Africa’.

p. 185 ‘I did not know … I soon found’ Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on his Notes and Diaries Made at the Time, London: Victor Gollancz, 1950, p. 32.

p. 185 ‘found both the … Gift books are distributed … Since General de Chambrun’ Ralph Heinzen, dispatch of 16 September 1941, United Press, Paris via Air Mail, original typescript, p. 3, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Newspaper cuttings.

p. 186 Aldebert and Clara de Chambrun ‘Nazis Give Notice’, New York Times, 22 May 1941, p. 1. The paper reported, ‘There are approximately 2,000 [Americans] there.’

p. 187 ‘We have already’ … An order for Memorandum from General de Chambrun to Messrs Nelson Dean Jay and Edward B. Close, 6 November 1941, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence and Reports, 1941, and Minutes, 19 September 1940 to 7 November 1941.

Chapter Nineteen: Utopia in Les Landes

p. 188 ‘Distribution of products’ Charles Emile Bedaux, ‘The American-Radical, Equivalism: The Revolt of the Consumer’, reprinted in The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 301.

p. 189 In 1939, Bedaux Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 35.

p. 189 Hitler had since dismissed John Toland, Adolf Hitler, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1976, p. 508. Schacht’s criticism ceased when he was told that, far from being an unofficial pogrom, Kristallnacht had been contrived by Hitler and his subordinates.

p. 189 ‘Monsieur, are you’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 35.

p. 189 As Schacht continued Ibid.

p. 190 ‘This war will not’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 203. Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, privately published, Paris, 3 June 1959, p. 67; Gaston recalled that his brother said the same thing, but to the Prefect of Beauvais, M. Bussière.

p. 190 ‘He understood nothing’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 220.

p. 190 Bedaux asked for authorization Roquefort cheese is made in Roquefort-sur-Soulzon in Aveyron.

p. 190 Roquefort lay inland Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 42.

p. 191 The Bedaux model Jim Christy’s and Janet Flanner’s assessments of Roquefort disagree. Christy wrote that Bedaux created ‘a prosperous, peaceful society, a haven of reason in a world gone mad’ (The Price of Power, p. 231). Flanner held that the brier business was not run on an equivalist basis at all and that the whole scheme died quickly (‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, p. 42). Yves Levant and Marc Nikitin went to Roquefort in 2004 to see what memories remained of the Bedaux experiment. They met five people who had worked at the paper mill. ‘They all remember the visit of the Bedaux engineers and the coming of C. E. Bedaux himself, as well as the setting up of the Bedaux pay system in the paper mill of Roquefort … On the other hand, none of these workers remembers any social project … It is therefore highly likely for us that the social aspect of his work had been for C. E. Bedaux but an alibi aimed at finding favour in the eyes of his close friends and of posterity’ (Yves Levant and Marc Nikitin, ‘Should Charles Eugene Bedaux be Revisited?’, Paper presented to the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Business Research Unit, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, Wales, 14–15 September 2006, pp. 22–3).

p. 191 ‘sold lock, stock’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 237.

p. 192 ‘the little nine-hole’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors: Secret Decisions that Changed the World, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 180.

p. 192 ‘the roster of’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 238.

p. 192 ‘let it be known’ ‘Paraphrase of Telegram, From: Vichy (Paris), To: The Secretary of State, 29 September 1941’, File Number 100-49901, Section Number 1, Serials 1–100, Subject: Charles E. Bedaux, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

Chapter Twenty: To Resist, to Collaborate or to Endure

p. 193 ‘There were a few’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 218.

p. 193 ‘young friend Violaine’ Letter from Sylvia Beach to Rev. Sylvester Beach, 27 February 1940, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 20, Folder 7.

p. 194 ‘very pure, truly’ Paul Valéry, ‘Discours sur Henri Bergson’, 9 January 1941, Reproduced at http://www.uqac.uquebec.ca/zone30/Classiques_des_sciences_sociales/index.html.

p. 194 At Shakespeare and Company Françoise Bernheim was born on 24 July 1912.

p. 194 ‘I wasn’t on good’ Sylvia Beach, Interview with Niall Sheridan, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, documentary film on Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 195 While Rome burns … soon after the 15th’ Letter from Sylvia Beach to Carlotta Welles Briggs, 14 August 1941, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO 108, Box 58, Folder 16.

p. 195 ‘Food is missing’ Letter from Sylvia Beach to Adrienne Monnier, 25 August 1941, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 58, Folder 16. Original in French. My translation.

p. 196 The last letter Letter from Holly Beach Dennis to the Secretary of State, 21 October 1942, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 14, Folder 18. Holly wrote that the last letter she had received from Sylvia was in June 1940, but she must have meant June 1941. There are many letters in the Beach Papers at Princeton and the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, Austin, between the two sisters up to that date and one from Sylvia to Carlotta Briggs written on 14 August 1941.

p. 196 A parcel of clothing ‘Nazis Give Notice’, New York Times, 22 May 1941, p. 1. The paper wrote that the US Post Office stopped accepting parcels for France, ‘because the British censors were seizing all packages as contraband’.

p. 196 George Antheil, Ernest Hemingway Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1983, p. 404.

p. 196 At one of Candé’s Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 44.

p. 197 ‘I advanced the philosophy’ Jim Christy, The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 235.

p. 197 ‘My idea was’ Ibid., p. 236.

p. 198 Janet Flanner wrote Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 44.

p. 199 ‘Many people in Germany’ Christy, The Price of Power, pp. 239–40.

p. 199 His activities came ‘Memorandum for Mr. Tamm, Federal Bureau of Investigation’, from H. E. Kreisker, Commander, USNR, Office of Naval Intelligence, Washington, 15 December 1941, United States National Archives, College Park, Maryland, File 100-49901, Section Number 1, Serials 1–100.

p. 199 ‘The Paris stock market’ Gerhard Heller, Un Allemand à Paris, Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1981, p. 64.

p. 200 ‘let it be known’ ‘Paraphrase of Telegram, From: Vichy (Paris): To: The Secretary of State; Date September 29, 1941’, United States National Archives, College Park, Maryland, File 100-49901, Section Number 1, Serials 1–100.

p. 200 ‘Mrs. Rogers stated’ ‘COMMENTS ON THE ALLEGED CURRENT ACTIVITIES OF MR CHARLES BEDAUX IN OCCUPIED FRANCE’, Department of State, Division of European Affairs, 24 November 1941, United States National Archives, College Park, Maryland, File 100-49901, Section Number 1, Serials 1–100.

p. 200 ‘in Rome, Italy … He is a man’ Ibid., p. 2 of the memorandum.

p. 201 ‘Dear Mr. Hagerman … He wishes to return’ Letter from Charles E. Bedaux to W. E. Hagerman, Esq., 6 December 1941, United States National Archives, College Park, Maryland, File 100-49901, Section Number 1, Serials 1–100, Number 65167.

p. 203 They went to Les Landes Cable from W. E. Hagerman, to Secretary of State, 16 January 1942, Confidential, ‘Whereabouts of Charles E. Bedaux, a naturalized American citizen’, File Number 130–Bedaux, C.E., Document 100-49901-08, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland. Hagerman received Bedaux’s letter on 31 December 1941.

Chapter Twenty-one: Enemy Aliens

p. 204 ‘was permitted to’ Ibid. The New York Times reported that Jackson came from Germantown, Pennsylvania, although he was from Maine. Pennsylvania had been his last workplace in the United States.

p. 204 Ninety-five of the internees Beate Husser, Le Camp de Royallieu à Compiègne: Etude historique, Paris: Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Déportation, September 2001.

p. 204 The men were installed Ibid., p. 48.

p. 204 ‘He came to tell me’ Letter from René de Chambrun to New York, recipient’s name blocked out by the FBI, 31 May 1945, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, File provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 205 One week after the Nazis ‘3 Americans Taken from Paris’, New York Times, 24 December 1941, p. 3.

p. 205 A distinguished, 70-year-old Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1983, p. 404.

p. 205 ‘My German customers’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, Faber and Faber, London, 1960, p. 219.

p. 206 At Christmas, Sylvia Sylvia Beach Notebook, Christmas presents, 1940–1945, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 22, Folder 6.

p. 206 ‘“Well,” I said … He came back’ Interview by Niall Sheridan with Sylvia Beach, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, documentary film on Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 207 ‘You ask me how’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘A Letter to Friends in the Free Zone’, originally published in Le Figaro Littéraire, February 1942, in Adrienne Monnier, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier: An Intimate Portrait of the Literary and Artistic Life in Paris between the Wars, translated with introduction and commentaries by Richard McDougall, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976, p. 407.

p. 207 ‘After escaping from’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, in Jackson Mathews and Maurice Saillet, Sylvia Beach (1887–1962), Paris: Mercure de France, 1963, p. 136.

p. 207 ‘succeeded in stiring up’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 175.

p. 208 As soon as the United States David H. Stevens, Rockefeller Foundation, letter to Edward A. Sumner, 16 December 1941, American Library of Paris Archives, Box 9, File E.3, 1941.

p. 208 ‘the Library is being … keep an open mind’ Edward A. Sumner, letter to the Rockefeller Foundation, 19 December 1941, American Library of Paris Archives, Box 9, File E.3, 1941.

p. 208 ‘might become a tool’ Mary Niles Mack, ‘Between Two Worlds: The American Library in Paris during the War, Occupation and Liberation (1939–1945)’, University of California at Los Angeles Department of Information Studies, p. 24.

p. 208 Clara was assisted Ibid., p. 25.

p. 209 ‘The hospital feast’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 175.

p. 209 ‘we encouraged one another’ Ibid., p. 166.

PART FOUR: 1942

Chapter Twenty-two: First Round-up

p. 213 In mid-January, the Germans ‘Vichy Curbs Americans’, New York Times, 14 January 1942, p. 6.

p. 213 ‘no women yet interned’ ‘AMERICAN INTERESTS, OCCUPIED FRANCE, RUSH’, Telegram from Huddle, US Embassy, Berne, to Secretary of State, 9 February 1942, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2141, Compiègne (2).

p. 213 ‘should be considered’ Ibid.

p. 213 ‘The German authorities’ ‘Nazis Ease Plight of Seized Americans’, United Press report, Vichy, New York Times, 29 January 1942, p. 6. There was only one American hospital in Paris, and enemy alien internees were not hostages under international law.

p. 213 ‘consider this information … They are not allowed’ Enclosure No. 2 to Dispatch No. 749, 2 February 1942, Letter from S. Pinckney Tuck, Counsellor of Embassy, to the Secretary of State, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Entry 460A, Box 2141, File: Addresses, France, American Prisoner of War Information Bureau Records Branch.

p. 214 ‘At the same time’ Ibid.

p. 214 The Vichy authorities ‘Three U.S. Banks Licensed in France’, New York Times, 31 January 1942, p. 25.

p. 215 ‘Institutions such as the’ ‘200 Americans in Paris Said to Be Nazi Hostages’, New York Times, 29 January 1942, p. 1, continued on p. 8.

p. 215 The American Chamber of Commerce ‘American Places to Reopen in Paris’, New York Times, 31 August 1944, p. 4.

p. 215 ‘These patients were’ Otto Gresser interview in Kathleen Keating, ‘The American Hospital in Paris during the German Occupation’, 19 May 1981, 14-page typescript, p. 7, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944.

p. 215 Many of the 340 men ‘American Freed in Paris’, New York Times, 9 February 1942, p. 4.

p. 215 Dr Morris Sanders was ‘Nazis Free U.S. Doctor, Morris Sanders Back at Work at Paris Hospital’, New York Times, 2 May 1942, p. 2.

p. 215 ‘no other interference’ Otto Gresser, ‘History of the American Hospital of Paris’, 14-page typescript, p. 6, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: History by Otto Gresser.

p. 216 A proposal came in January Max Wallace, The American Axis, New York: St Martin’s Press, 2003, p. 94.

p 216 ‘should be humanely’ Quoted in Ibid., p. 98.

p. 216 ‘It’s the Nazis’ Quoted in Ibid., p. 244.

p. 216 ‘From this time on’ General Aldebert de Chambrun, Managing Governor, Letter to the Board of Directors of the American Hospital of Paris, 9 December 1944, pp. 2–3, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Report, 1940–1944.

p. 217 ‘There were so few’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 219.

p. 217 ‘the Gestapo kept’ Interview with Sylvia Beach by Niall Sheridan, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, documentary film on Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 217 ‘Hardest to put up’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘A Letter to Friends in the Free Zone’, originally published in Le Figaro Littéraire, February 1942, in Adrienne Monnier, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier: An Intimate Portrait of the Literary and Artistic Life in Paris between the Wars, translated with introduction and commentaries by Richard McDougall, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976, p. 404.

p. 217 ‘I shared the strange’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, in Jackson Mathews and Maurice Saillet, Sylvia Beach (1887–1962), Paris: Mercure de France, 1963, pp. 136–7.

p. 217 ‘An average bottle’ ‘U.S. Films Appear in Paris Secretly’, New York Times, 27 April 1942, p. 6.

p. 217 ‘Even the electricity’ Ninetta Jucker, Curfew in Paris: A Record of the German Occupation, London: The Hogarth Press, 1960, p. 175. p. 218 ‘No one who has’ Ibid.

p. 219 In February 1942, Rittmeister Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism II’, The New Yorker, 6 October 1945, p. 45. Flanner wrote of Ledebur’s new posting, ‘That simplified everything.’

p. 219 ‘I was therefore authorized’ Gaston Bedaux, La vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, privately published, Paris, 3 June 1959, p. 49.

p. 219 ‘Charles told me’ Ibid., p. 104.

p. 219 ‘In 1941 … he adopted’ Ibid., p. 79.

p. 220 ‘This idea crystallized’ Ibid.

p. 220 ‘One day, my brother’ Ibid., pp. 79–80.

p. 221 ‘My dear Frederic … My friend returned to see me’ Enclosure, Foreign Travel Control, ‘Memorandum for Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation’, 10 January 1944, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, File provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001. (Note: of 109 pages reviewed by the FBI, only 83 pages were declassified for release. Most of those released had long passages blocked out.) Bedaux’s letter was read by British Censorship, which gave a copy to the FBI. Mrs Waite received the letter and showed it to Ledebur.

p. 221 Frederic, as Friedrich called Federal Bureau of Investigation, Form Number 1, NY File Number 66-6045, 14 October 1942, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, File provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 222 ‘written on a typewriter’ Agent E. P. Coffey, ‘Memorandum for Mr. Tracy’, 26 August 1942, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, File provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 222 ‘Our overwhelming superiority’ ‘France Bombed with U.S. Leaflets Giving Goals of War Production’, New York Times, 6 February 1942, p. 6. Vidkun Quisling was the Nazi-imposed prime minister of Norway.

p. 223 ‘The U.S. is polite’ ‘U.S. Rejects Vichy’s Explanation of Its Working With the Nazis’, Life, 16 March 1942, p. 29.

Chapter Twenty-three: The Vichy Web

p. 224 ‘His father-in-law’ René de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984, p. 71.

p. 224 Monahan was on the board of governors ‘Minutes of the Special Meeting of the Board of Governors of the American Hospital of Paris Held on April 4th, 1941’, p. 2, in American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence and Reports 1941, and Minutes, 19 September 1940 to 7 November 1941.

p. 225 ‘Laval knew how’ Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Patriot or Traitor?, p. 72.

p. 226 ‘My father-in-law and I’ Ibid., p. 73. Georges Féat, a naval captain in Pétain’s military cabinet, confirmed de Chambrun’s version of events in his testimony for the Hoover Institution Collection. See ‘Laval’s Return in 1942’, France During the German Occupation, 1940–1944: A Collection of 292 Statements on the Government of Maréchal Pétain and Pierre Laval, translated from the French by Philip W. Whitcomb, Palo Alto, CA: The Hoover Institution, Stanford University, 1957, vol. III, pp. 1564–5. However, in the French edition of the same volume, La Vie de la France sous L’Occupation (1940–1944), Paris: Librarie Plon for Institut Hoover, 1957, pp. 1694–7, Féat stated that the impulse for the meeting came from Laval, who had met Marshal Hermann Goering in Paris in March 1942. Goering warned Laval, according to Féat, that Germany was going to take direct control of France.

p. 226 ‘Ralph Heinzen, of the United Press’ Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on his Notes and Diaries Made at the Time, London: Victor Gollancz, 1950, p. 109.

p. 226 On 1 April 1942, Josée From the diaries of Josée de Chambrun, in Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, pp. 241–2. Josée’s dates conflict with those given by René in his Pierre Laval: Patriot or Traitor?, pp. 72–3. René wrote that he went to Vichy two days after 31 March, when Monahan contacted him. However, the date of the meeting between Pétain and Laval was 25 March, so it is more probable that Monahan contacted René some time before. Josée’s diary dates with the references to her birthday, their stay at Château de Candé and Easter in Biarritz were made at the time. René’s account was written forty years later.

p. 227 In Paris, Josée From the diaries of Josée de Chambrun, Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, p. 242.

p. 227 A few days later Ibid., p. 243.

p. 228 They went instead to Major-General Robert Gildea, Marianne in Chains: In Search of the German Occupation of France, 1940–1944, New York: Macmillan, 2002, p. 265.

p. 228 Oberg was the protégé Maurice Larkin, France since the Popular Front: Government and People, 1936–1996, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998, p. 98.

p. 228 ‘They all must go’ H. R. Kenward, Occupied France: Collaboration and Resistance, 1940–1944, Oxford: Blackwell, 1985, p. 63. See also Marcel Ophuls’s1971 documentary film, Le Chagrin et la pitié, in which Ophuls questioned René de Chambrun about Laval’s refusal to spare the children.

p. 228 The Vélodrome d’Hiver was Robert O. Paxton, Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940–1944, New York: W. W. Norton, 1972, pp. 181–2. On p. 183, Paxton wrote, ‘In the end, some 60,000–65,000 Jews were deported from France, mostly foreigners who had relied upon traditional French hospitality. Perhaps 6,000 French citizens also took that gruesome journey. Some 2,800 of the deportees got back.’

p. 229 ‘One. All close male’ Gérard Walter, Paris under the Occupation, translated from the French by Tony White, New York: Orion Books, 1960, p. 188.

p. 229 Oberg hunted down ‘Sparing the Butcher’s Life’, Time, 5 May 1958.

p. 229 ‘let it be known’ Walter, Paris under the Occupation, p. 140.

p. 229 The star had a practical purpose Ibid., p. 147. (Walter reproduced General Oberg’s list of seventeen types of public space forbidden to Jews.)

p. 230 ‘as I went about’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 219.

p. 230 When Sylvia, Françoise and an American Noel Riley Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1983, p. 402.

p. 230 ‘“They dare …” he yelled’ Sylvia Beach, ‘French Literature Went Underground’, New York Herald Tribune, Paris edition, 4 January 1945, p. 2.

p. 231 ‘Papa adores these’ Fitch, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation, p. 403.

p. 231 ‘The morale in the camp … From the hygienic’ ‘Camp for Interned Americans at Compiègne: Visited June 16, 1942, by Drs. Schirmer and J. de Morsier’, from the Special Division, Department of State to the War Department, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Entry 460A, Box 2142, General Subject File, 1942–1946, Camp Reports: France.

p. 231 ‘There are no air’ ‘Confidential, Report No. 1–Compiègne’, from Fred O. Auckenthaler and Dr Alfred Castelberg, from the Special Division of the Department of State to the War Department, Information Bureau, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2141, Compiègne (2).

p. 231 ‘British planes last’ ‘Camp Reported Hit’, New York Times, 25 June 1942, p. 6.

p. 232 ‘four Americans were’ ‘4 U.S. Internees Killed’, New York Times, 26 July 1942, p. 4.

p. 232 ‘German planes, in reprisal’ ‘Paraphrase of Telegram Received, From: Bern; To: Secretary of State; Dated: August 4, 1942, 2 p.m.; Number 3586’, From the Special Division of the Department of State to the War Department (PMG), 19 August 1942, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2141, Compiègne (2).

p. 232 ‘foreign airplane which … since that occurence’ Ibid.

p. 232 ‘Some of the internees’ ‘Confidential, Date of Visit: July 25th, 1942’, From the Special Division of the Department of State to the War Department (Information Bureau), 3 September 1942, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2141, Compiègne (2).

p. 233 Almost as soon as Laval Sarah Fishman, ‘Grand Delusions: The Unintended Consequences of Vichy France’s Prisoner of War Propaganda’, Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 26, no. 21, April 1991, p. 233. (Article is on pp. 229–54.)

p. 233 In June, Laval Ibid., p. 239.

p. 233 Laval reached an accord Ibid., p. 237.

p. 234 On 24 August 1942 ‘Black List’, Life, 24 August 1942, p. 86.

p. 234 ‘My estimate of Charles’ S. Pinckney Tuck, Vichy, to Secretary of State, ‘Subject: Conversation with Mr. Charles Bedaux’, 25 July 1942, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, File and box numbers unknown.

p. 234 ‘Germany had been’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 169.

p. 235 ‘confronted by an officer … I guarantee that … I gave my word’ Ibid., p. 169–70.

p. 235 ‘seated at a tiny’ Ibid., p. 105. The yellow star decree was issued on 1 June 1942. See Walter, Paris under the Occupation, p. 144.

p. 235 ‘I met them walking’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 105.

p. 235 The library staff still Gérard Walter wrote that of 200,000 Jews, about half of them French nationals, in Paris before the German invasion, many had not been able to return after the June 1940 exodus. (In Greater Paris, the total had been about 300,000, according to most sources.) The Germans deported 5,000 foreign Jews in May 1941. ‘In fact, the check made in November, 1941, established the number of Jews in Paris as 92,864 aged over fifteen, and 17,728 children between the ages of six and fifteen.’ Walter,Paris under the Occupation, p. 138.

p. 236 ‘Without actually raising’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 170.

p. 236 ‘which being a few blocks’ Ibid., p. 173.

p. 236 ‘There was a deafening … What had happened’ Ibid.

p. 237 The culprit, 21-year-old Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965, p. 279.

p. 237 On 20 October 1941 Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on His Notes and Diaries Made at the Time, London: Victor Gollancz, 1950, p. 65.

p. 237 ‘Everyone on the platform’ ‘A Letter from Paris’, The Nation, 10 January 1942, p. 39.

p. 237 After the killing Walter, Paris under the Occupation, p. 167.

p. 237 ‘harder and harder’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 174.

p. 237 ‘Général de Chambrun received’ Ibid.

p. 238 In Princeton, New Jersey Sylvia Beach Notebook, Christmas presents, 1940–1945, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University Library, CO108, Box 20, Unnumbered folder. The folder includes Holly’s letter to Secretary of State Cordell Hull stating her doubts about the letters, but there is no reply from Hull. The handwriting in the letter allegedly written by Françoise Bernheim bears some resemblance to authentic letters by Françoise, which may imply that she was forced by the Germans to write the letter. Sylvia did not refer to the letters in her subsequent writing about the occupation.

Chapter Twenty-four: The Second Round-up

p. 239 ‘Before leaving … I was given’ Clemence Bock diary, quoted in Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied France, Washington: Brassey’s, 2004, p. 54.

p. 240 ‘and the English … That evening we were at’ Ibid.

p. 240 While Dr Jackson Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 34.

p. 241 The French driver Jim Christy, The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 252.

p. 241 On 28 September, the French ‘Embassy in Vichy Gets Arrest Data’, New York Times, 29 September 1942, p. 7.

p. 241 ‘On the grounds of’ ‘Paraphrase of Telegram Received, From: (Paris) Vichy; To: Secretary of State, Washington, D.C.’, 28 September 1942, Re: Arrests of Americans in Paris, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Entry 460A, Box 2142, General Subject File, 1942–1946, Camp Reports: France.

p. 242 ‘circular letters urging’ ‘Embassy in Vichy Gets Arrest Data’, New York Times, 29 September 1942, p. 7.

p. 242 ‘The new arrivals’ Donald A. Lowrie, Enclosure No. 1 to No. 3721, dated 3 November 1942, from the American Legation, Berne, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2141, Compiègne (2).

p. 242 ‘that there was a fine … The kitchen was’ ‘Report on Visit by Messrs. Auguste Senaud and Hemming Andermo to the American Internment Camp at Compiègne, October 16, 1942’, Enclosure No. 1 to Despatch No. 3822 dated 16 November 1942, from American Legation, Berne, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2141, Compiègne (2).

p. 243 ‘The visit was passionate’ Gaston Bedaux, La vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 74.

p. 243 ‘My brother … spoke to me’ Ibid., p. 75.

p. 243 ‘undertake a study’ Robert Murphy to the Secretary of State, ‘Interview with Mr. Charles E. Bedaux’, 30 October 1942, Document Number 851T.OO/52, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 243 ‘You are comfortably lodged’ Ibid.

p. 244 He witnessed guards beating Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 56.

p. 244 ‘The Boches continued … came to get me’ Clemence Bock diary, quoted in Ibid., pp. 54–5.

p. 244 ‘Several Americans Released’ ‘Several Americans Released in France, Dr. Jackson of Hospital at Neuilly Is Among Those Freed’, New York Times, 3 October 1942, p. 6. The paper added that another released detainee was Mrs Charles Bedaux, ‘but her French-born husband is still interned at St. Denis’. Bedaux was by then at Compiègne.

p. 245 He sent ambulances Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 62.

p. 245 Through trusted friends Goélette-Frégate’s nomenclature was distinctly nautical. Goélette is French for schooner, frégate is frigate; and a chaloupe is a rowing boat. Saint-Jacques is a scallop. Although they helped résistants and Allied soldiers to go by sea from Spain and Portugal to England, all their operations were on land in France.

p. 245 Charles Bedaux, meanwhile, turned Robert Murphy to the Secretary of State, ‘Interview with Mr. Charles E. Bedaux’, 30 October 1942, Document Number 851T.OO/52, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland. Box and Serial Numbers unknown.

Chapter Twenty-five: ‘Inturned’

p. 246 ‘the Gestapo would come’ Interview with Sylvia Beach by Niall Sheridan, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, documentary film on Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 246 ‘I must pack up’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, in Jackson Mathews and Maurice Saillet, Sylvia Beach (1887–1962), Paris: Mercure de France, 1963, p. 137.

p. 247 ‘dressed as though’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 137.

p. 247 ‘Caroline Dudley had been’ Craig Lloyd, Eugene Bullard: Black Expatriate in Jazz-Age Paris, Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2000, pp. 100–102.

p. 247 She was taking care of Gertrude Stein Donald Gallup (ed.), The Flowers of Friendship: Letters Written to Gertrude Stein, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1953, pp. 370–71.

p. 247 ‘After they had … we were the only’ Lansing Warren, ‘1,400 Americans Seized in France’, New York Times, 30 September 1942, p. 1.

p. 247 ‘The arrests began’ ‘Report of the Swiss Consulate at Paris Regarding the Internment of American Citizens at Vittel’, Enclosure No.1 to Despatch No. 3652 of 26 October 1942, from American Legation, Berne, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2142.

p. 248 ‘in a minute garden’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, p. 138.

p. 248 ‘A crowd was gathered’ Drue Tartière, The House near Paris, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946, p. 103.

p. 248 ‘On Sunday visitors’ Donald A. Lowrie, YMCA representative, ‘Report on Camps at Vittel and Compiègne’, 29 October 1942, Enclosure No. 1 to Despatch No. 3732 dated 3 November 1942 from the American Legation, Berne, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG389, Box 2142. The accounts of the internees, like Sylvia Beach and Drue Tartière, contradict those of the observers from the Red Cross and the YMCA on one important point. The women wrote that they were held in the monkey cage, and the observers’ reports said they were held in the Salle des Fleurs or the restaurant of the zoo. The observers, however, appear not to have seen the women until they were sent to Vittel.

p. 248 ‘The first person’ Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 104.

p. 249 ‘our lovely … Noel Murphy’ Ibid., pp. 104–5.

p. 250 ‘My attention was’ Ibid., p. 105.

p. 250 ‘There were Americans’ Beach, ‘Inturned’, p. 138.

p. 250 ‘busy trying to make’ Ibid., p. 138.

p. 250 ‘Sick women were lying … did not seem’ Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 105.

p. 251 ‘All night long’ Interview with Sylvia Beach by Niall Sheridan, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, film documentary on Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 251 ‘As they were putting’ Tartière, The House near Paris, pp. 104–5.

p. 251 ‘group of French collaborationists’ Ibid., p. 105.

p. 251 ‘Mrs. Charles Bedaux’ ‘Several Americans Released in France’, United Press, Vichy, New York Times, 3 October 1942, p. 6.

p. 251 On Monday morning, 28 September ‘Report of the Swiss Consulate at Paris Regarding the Internment of American Citizens at Vittel’, Enclosure No. 1 to Despatch No. 3652 of 26 October 1942, from American Legation, Berne, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG389, Box 2142.

p. 252 ‘I’m going to get’ Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 108.

p. 253 ‘to a remote railway’ Beach, ‘Inturned’, pp. 138–9.

p. 253 ‘took pleasure in throwing’ Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 111.

p. 254 ‘As we marched along’ Ibid.

p. 254 ‘The haste with which’ ‘Report of the Swiss Consulate at Paris Regarding the Internment of American Citizens at Vittel’, Enclosure No.1 to Despatch No. 3652 of 26 October 1942, from American Legation, Berne, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2142.

p. 254 ‘While awaiting the opening’ Ibid.

p. 254 Frontstalag 194 already Report of Red Cross delegates Rudolph Iselin and Dr Hans Wehrle, Vittel, 22 and 23 July 1942, p. 1, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland. RG 389, Box 2142.

p. 255 ‘paper, envelopes, flashlights … There’s nothing in there’ Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 113.

p. 255 She looked terribly … our big room’ Ibid., p. 114.

p. 256 ‘the Giraff’ Readers should, by now, be accustomed to Sylvia Beach’s idiosyncratic spelling (and punctuation).

p. 256 ‘All the previous reports’ Donald A. Lowrie, YMCA representative, ‘Report on Camps at Vittel and Compiègne’, 29 October 1942, Enclosure No. 1 to Despatch No. 3732 dated 3 November 1942 from the American Legation, Berne, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2142.

p. 257 ‘tea, coffee, butter … a dozen eggs’ Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 116.

p. 257 ‘fattened up considerably’ Beach, ‘Inturned’, p. 141.

p. 257 ‘We American internees’ Ibid., p. 142.

p. 257 ‘For the first few weeks’ Ninetta Jucker, Curfew in Paris: A Record of the German Occupation, London: The Hogarth Press, 1960, pp. 158–9. See also pp. 159–64 on American women at Vittel.

p. 258 ‘antagonisms cropped up … The Englishwomen hissed’ Tartière, The House near Paris, p. 138.

p. 258 ‘beautiful fruit … Set me free’ Letter from Sylvia Beach to Adrienne Monnier, 15 October 1942, in French, translation mine, Maurice Saillet Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Series II, Box 2, File 6.

p. 258 ‘A can of condensed milk’ Beach, ‘Inturned’, p. 143.

p. 258 In October 1942, Dr Edmond Gros ‘Dr. Gros, Headed Neuilly Hospital’, New York Times, 18 October 1942, Obituaries.

p. 259 ‘There is no one’ Red Cross cable from N. D. Jay and E. B. Close to Mrs Edmund L. Gros, 20 October 1942, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945.

p. 259 ‘English, Canadian or Free’ Letter from Eugene J. Bullard to Army Information Office, Washington, DC, 22 September 1941, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 59, Box 5027, Document 842.2221.222 PS/PLS.

p. 260 ‘Your extended sojourn’ Carisella and Ryan, The Black Swallow of Death, Boston: Marlborough House, 1972, p. 250.

Chapter Twenty-six: Uniting Africa

p. 261 ‘The German authorities … the required raw materials’ Gaston Bedaux, La vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 81.

p. 261 Dr Franz Medicus’s Department Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 34.

p. 262 ‘This peanut scheme’ Ibid., p. 32.

p. 262 ‘When I put myself’ Ibid., p. 34.

p. 263 ‘The bewildered man’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors: Secret Decisions that Changed the World, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 121.

p. 264 ‘I explained how seriously’ Ibid., p. 123.

p. 265 ‘Mr. Bedaux’s release’ Robert Murphy, Memorandum to the Secretary of State, ‘Subject: Interview with Mr. Charles E. Bedaux, Strictly Confidential’, 30 October 1942, Document Number 851T.00/52, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 265 ‘had been definitely abandoned … According to this plan’ Ibid.

p. 266 ‘a leading member’ ‘The Dangerous Middle’, Time, 27 June 1955.

p. 266 ‘sleek Jacques Lemaigre-Dubreuil’ ‘Despair on the Even’, Time, 12 June 1944.

p. 266 A few days after this interview Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 35. Jim Christy, The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 257.

p. 266 ‘Here opinions are divided’ Ibid., p. 257.

p. 267 ‘I am on the right side’ Federal Bureau of Investigation interview with Frederick Ledebur, Telemeter, 21 January 1944, US Department of Justice Communications Section, from FBI files supplied under Freedom of Information Act, unnumbered file, pp. 64692, 64693 and 64694. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 267 ‘The last word’ Bedaux, La vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, p. 85.

Chapter Twenty-seven: Americans Go to War

p. 268 ‘He treated me politely’ Drue Tartière with M. R.Werner, The House near Paris: An American Woman’s Story of Traffic in Patriots, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946, pp. 121–2.

p. 268 Jean Fraysse, Drue’s friend … ‘I can understand’ Ibid., pp. 124–5.

p. 269 ‘Darlin’, it’s awfully nice’ Ibid., p. 127.

p. 269 ‘Have a crise Ibid., p. 145.

p. 270 Von Weber came into my room … ‘I was thoroughly scared’ Ibid., pp. 130–32.

p. 271 ‘I think it’s a disgrace’ Ibid., p. 133.

p. 271 ‘So, for two hours’ Robert Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors: Secret Decisions that Changed the World, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1964, p. 146.

p. 271 ‘seized the telegraph … After a resistence’ A. J. Liebling, The Road Back to Paris, London: Michael Joseph, 1944, pp. 197–8.

p. 271 Charles Bedaux was … the German officer Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 35.

p. 272 ‘By that time’ Murphy, Diplomat among Warriors, p. 154.

p. 272 ‘Only a few hours’ Ibid., p. 154. p. 273 ‘I am sending word … Dr. Lévy and Dr. Pigache’ Tartière, The

House near Paris, p. 134.

Chapter Twenty-eight: Murphy Forgets a Friend

p. 275 ‘knocked on my door … not knowing whether’ Keeler Faus, Diary, Sunday, 8 November 1942. (Faus’s meticulous daily diaries for the years 1940 to 1944 were made available to me by his wife, Mme Colette Faus, in Paris.)

p. 276 ‘The night before the Germans’ Margaret Collins Weitz, Sisters in the Resistance: How Women Fought to Free France, 1940–1945, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1995, p. 198.

p. 276 ‘one goon had’ Adam Nossiter, The Algeria Hotel: France, Memory and the Second World War, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001, p. 163.

p. 276 ‘a German stuck the point’ Keeler Faus, Diary, Wednesday, 11 November 1942.

p. 277 ‘not retard French’ Jim Christy, The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 268.

p. 277 ‘I am carrying out’ John MacVane, ‘Department of Amplification’, letter to the editor, The New Yorker, 3 November 1945, pp. 80–81.

p. 278 ‘Carrying through the study’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 270.

p. 278 ‘It is almost impossible’ A. J. Liebling, The Road Back to Paris, London: Michael Joseph, 1944, p. 198.

p. 279 The New York Metropolitan … ‘the Fighting French’ ‘Photo of the Week’, Life, 7 December 1942, pp. 40–41.

Chapter Twenty-nine: Alone at Vittel

p. 280 ‘His eyes filled’ Drue Tartière with M. R.Werner, The House near Paris: An American Woman’s Story of Traffic in Patriots, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946, p. 139.

p. 280 Noel Murphy and Sarah Watson The Foyer International des Etudiantes had been founded by Mrs John Jacob Hoff, an American who had been president of the Detroit YWCA. She gave it to the University of Paris. See ‘Mrs. Labouchere, A Welfare Worker’, New York Times, 14 April 1943, p. 23.

p. 280 A Hungarian priest with Drue Tartière said a Hungarian priest had arranged Miss Watson’s release, and Sylvia Beach wrote that the person responsible was the rector of the University of Paris.

p. 280 ‘Suddenly, on Christmas … Ours [the Hôtel Central]’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, in Jackson Mathews and Maurice Saillet, Sylvia Beach (1887–1962), Paris: Mercure de France, 1963, p. 140.

p. 281 ‘Dis à notre ami Letter from Sylvia Beach to Adrienne Monnier, 30 December 1942, Maurice Saillet Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Box 3, Folder 2 (Vittel).

p. 281 Wilkinson had assured Letter from Tudor Wilkinson to Adrienne Monnier, 7 November 1942, Maurice Saillet Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Box 3, Folder 3.

p. 281 Christmas at Vittel ‘Report on a Visit to the British and American Camp, Vittel, on Monday, January 4th, 1943, by Mr. August Senaud, War Prisoners’ Aid of the YMCA, Paris Office’, p. 2, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2142, Camp Reports: France, File: Vittel Vosges (Frontstalag 194).

p. 282 ‘Every day I went’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, p. 141.

Chapter Thirty: The Bedaux Dossier

p. 283 ‘From acquaintances in’ Edmond Taylor, Awakening from History, Boston: Gambit, 1969, pp. 327–8.

p. 284 ‘Charles Bedaux, the stretch-out’ Commander Harry C. Butcher, ‘Diary–Butcher (November 30, 1942–January 7, 1943) (2)’, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Papers, 1916–1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas, Principal File, Box 166. (Ellipses in the original.)

p. 284 ‘I tried to broadcast’ John MacVane, ‘Department of Amplification’, letter to the editor, The New Yorker, 3 November 1945, pp. 80–81.

p. 285 ‘German, Italian, French’ Percy E. Foxworth to Director, FBI, 18 February 1942, Serial 100-49901-5, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 285 Bedaux’s name ‘Paraphrase of Telegraph, Vichy (Paris) to Secretary of State, September 29, 1941, Subject: Charles E. Bedaux’, File Number 100-49901, Section Number 1, Serials 1–100, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 285 ‘no futher action’ P. E. Foxworth, Assistant Director, New York, to Director, Washington, 29 April 1942, 100-49901-6X, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland. Foxworth enclosed a verbatim copy of a report on Marie Claude Carpenter, ‘formerly secretary to Henri Bidaux’. This gossip included her answer to a question in New York about ‘Bidaux’s’ current activities. ‘Working for the Germans, of course,’ was the laconic reply. The conversation further revealed that at that particular moment Bidaux [sic] was ‘working for the Germans in Spain’. If he wanted to close the file at that time, his enclosure was bound to keep it open.

p. 286 ‘where they frequented … Mr. Bedaux’s brother’ Worthing E. Hagerman, Lisbon, ‘Memorandum to Secretary of State, Whereabouts of Charles E. Bedaux, a naturalized American citizen’, 9 June 1942, 100- 49901-8, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 286 ‘It is also requested’ J. Edgar Hoover to Special Agent in Charge, New York, 1 August 1942, FBI Files, unnumbered, released under Freedom of Information Act, FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 286 ‘He is reported’ N. L. Pieper, FBI, San Francisco, to Director, FBI, 2 September 1942, FBI Files, unnumbered, released under Freedom of Information Act. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 287 ‘Fred Ledebur is alleged’ G. R. Levy, FBI, New York, ‘Memorandum for Mr. Ladd, Re: Frederic Ledebur, Espionage–G’, 31 July 1942, FBI Files, unnumbered, released under Freedom of Information Act. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 287 ‘Will you please forward’ Wendell Berge, Assistant Attorney General, ‘Memorandum for the Director, FBI, Re: Charles E. Bedaux’, 16 October 1942, FBI Files, unnumbered, released under Freedom of Information Act. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

PART FIVE: 1943

Chapter Thirty-one: Murphy versus Bedaux

p. 291 ‘there are six documents’ John Edgar Hoover, Director, FBI, ‘Memorandum for Mr. Tolson, Mr. Tamm, Mr. Ladd’, Document 100- 49901-[illegible], Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, file provided under a Freedom of Information Act request. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 292 ‘inquire of General Eisenhower’ John Edgar Hoover, Director, FBI, ‘Memorandum for the Attorney General’, 4 January 1943, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, unnumbered file provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001. (The FBI and Department of Defense declined to supply the author with the War Department’s file on Bedaux that Ladd had attached to the memorandum.)

p. 292 ‘lodged comfortably in a villa’ Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 85.

p. 292 ‘I have had photostatic’ D. M. Ladd, ‘Memorandum for the Director’, 10 January 1943, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, file provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 293 ‘Mr. Foxworth attempted’ G. O. Burton, ‘Memorandum for Mr. D. M. Ladd’, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, File 100-49901-30 provided under a Freedom of Information Act request. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 293 ‘Charles E. Bedaux, friend’ ‘Bedaux Arrested in Deals with Foe’, New York Times, 14 January 1943, p. 1. See also ‘Windsors’ Host Held as Trader with the Enemy’, Chicago Daily Tribune, 14 January 1943, p. 5.

p. 293 ‘quite disappointing’ D. M. Ladd, ‘Memorandum for Mr. Tamm’, 14 January 1943, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, File No. 100-49901-22 provided under a Freedom of Information Act request. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 293 Someone, probably in the State ‘Too Many Systems’, Time, 25 January 1943. Time wrote, ‘Unofficially it was said he had tried to buy up the North African orange crop for the Nazis. Bedaux’s record would indicate that his zest for chasing dollars had involved him more deeply.’

p. 294 ‘a man who loves danger’ ‘Bedaux Arrested in Deals with Foe’, New York Times, 14 January 1943, p. 5.

p. 294 ‘sadness and disheartenment’ Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, p. 103.

Chapter Thirty-two: Sylvia’s War

p. 298 ‘After receiving your’ Letter from Tudor Wilkinson to Adrienne Monnier, 7 November 1942, Maurice Saillet Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Box 3, Folder 3.

p. 298 ‘I stood there in shock’ Mary Berg (Miriam Wattenberg), The Diary of Mary Berg: Growing Up in the Warsaw Ghetto (originally published in English as Warsaw Ghetto: A Diary, New York: L. B. Fischer, 1945), translation from the Polish by Susan Glass, Oxford: Oneworld, 2006, p. xxviii.

p. 299 ‘While we are waiting’ Ibid., p. 210.

p. 299 ‘Not a trace of the snow’ Ibid., p. 213.

p. 299 ‘When I told them’ Ibid., p. 214.

p. 299 ‘His wife and child … It seems that the Germans’ Ibid., p. 234.

p. 300 ‘A problem which concerns’ ‘Report on Visit to the Internment Camp of Vittel by Mrs. Andermo and Messrs. Senaud and Andermo on February 8, 1943’, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland, RG 389, Box 2142, File: Vittel Vosges (Frontstalag 194), Camp Reports: France.

p. 300 ‘Resistance was overcome’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, in Jackson Mathews and Maurice Saillet, Sylvia Beach (1887–1962), Paris: Mercure de France, 1963, p. 143.

p. 300 ‘There is no more wonderful … The Internees try’ Berg, The Diary of Mary Berg, p. 216.

p. 300 ‘The relations between them … The Nazis gave the’ Ibid., p. 218.

p. 300 Sylvia’s detention allowed Letter from Holly Beach Dennis to Sylvia Beach, 28 January 1945, in which Holly wrote, ‘I have heard from you three times since June 1940: your letter from camp of October 1942, which reached me in March 1943; your letter of October 1944 (mailed in Washington), which I received on October 10th and your post card of October 16th, 1944.’ Sylvia Beach Collection, CO108, Box 14, Folder 18, Princeton University Library.

p. 301 ‘And what if my dear’ Sylvia Beach, ‘Inturned’, p. 143.

p. 301 ‘I came back to Paris’ Interview with Sylvia Beach by Niall Sheridan, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, documentary film for Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 301 ‘Miss Sarah Watson undertook’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 220.

p. 302 ‘nobody let on’ Interview with Sylvia Beach by Niall Sheridan, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, documentary film for Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 302 ‘active in bringing out’ Sylvia Beach, ‘French Literature Went Underground’, New York Herald Tribune, Paris edition, 4 January 1945, p. 2.

p. 302 ‘Ce volume, publié Beach, Shakespeare and Company, p. 221. ‘Midnight Editions’, Time, 25 September 1944.

p. 303 ‘Sylvia has been to see’ Handwritten letter from Adrienne Monnier to Maurice Saillet, 30 March 1943, 6 pages (this passage is on p. 6), Maurice Saillet Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Box 3, Folder 3. Original in French. My translation.

p. 303 ‘to keep them from’ Drue Tartière, with M. R. Werner, The House near Paris: An American Woman’s Story of Traffic in Patriots, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944, p. 206.

Chapter Thirty-three: German Agents?

p. 304 ‘The society charged’ ‘De Chambrun Criticized’, New York Times, 7 March 1943.

p. 304 ‘restore the dignity’ Michael R. Marrus and Robert O. Paxton, Vichy France and the Jews, New York: Basic Books, 1981, p. 312.

p. 304 For a time, Vichy Ibid., pp. 310–15.

p. 305 ‘organizing a series’ Cable from the Ministry of Economic Warfare to W. Simpson, HM Embassy, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 23 July 1943, R.700/924/2, British National Archives, Kew.

p. 305 No evidence emerged Secret cable from F. W. McCombe, British Embassy, Washington, DC, 30 November 1943, to H. S. Gregory, Trading with the Enemy Department, 24 Kingsway, London WC2, Number: TED.275, British National Archives, Kew: ‘By a very roundabout process I learn that you have asked Censorship to include the two Polignacs [Guy and Gladys de Polignac], René de Chambrun etc., in the Special Watch List, presumably as part of the chase which involves Laval, the Bank of Worms and Eastern Provinces Administration Ltd.’

p. 305 Although his arrest made Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 85.

p. 305 United Press correspondent Geoffrey Warner, Pierre Laval and the Eclipse of France, New York: Macmillan, 1968, p. 359. Warner relied mainly on documents from German military intelligence, the Abwehr, that survived the war.

p. 306 ‘The Germans are going’ Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on his Notes and Diaries Made at the Time, London: Victor Gollancz, 1950, pp. 73–4.

p. 307 ‘Dr Keller was a repulsive’ André Enfière, ‘Edouard Herriot et Pierre Laval’, testimony in La Vie de la France sous L’Occupation (1940–1944), vol. II, Paris: Librairie Plon, 1957, p. 1067.

p. 307 ‘I must admit that’ Ibid., pp. 1067–8.

p. 308 ‘No indication subject … Acquaintances characterize subject’ FBI Form Number 1, ‘Title: Frederic Ledebur’, 8 April 1943, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, file provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 309 ‘Did Watchdog, who was’ ‘Minutes of the Working Committee, Hemisphere Intelligence Conference, Wednesday, March 24, 1943, New York City’, Federal Bureau of Investigation Archives, file provided under a Freedom of Information Act request and unnumbered. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 309 ‘Charles Eugene Bedaux’ The FBI refused to provide the transcript of that interview and other documents sixty years later, despite repeated Freedom of Information appeals.

Chapter Thirty-four: A Hospital at War

p. 310 On 4 April 1943 ‘133 Flying Fortresses Raid Paris Plant After R.A.F. Hammers at Essen; U.S. Units Gain Six Miles in Tunisia’, New York Times, 5 April 1943, p. 1.

p. 311 ‘German propaganda was’ Ninetta Jucker, Curfew in Paris: A Record of the German Occupation, London: The Hogarth Press, 1960, p. 75.

p. 311 ‘reached its crucial point’ General Aldebert de Chambrun, Managing Governor, Letter to the Board of Directors of the American Hospital of Paris, 9 December 1944, p. 4, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Report, 1940–1944.

p. 311 ‘He was suffering’ Jucker, Curfew in Paris, pp. 168–9.

p. 312 ‘The problem was solved’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 174.

p. 312 Otto Gresser recalled Otto Gresser, ‘Histoire de l’Hôpital Américain –5ème Partie’, American Hospital of Paris Newsletter, vol. III, no. 11, March 1975, p. 4.

p. 312 ‘So … we did some’ Otto Gresser interview in Kathleen Keating, ‘The American Hospital in Paris during the German Occupation’, 19 May 1981, 14-page typescript, p. 7, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944, p. 10. See also Otto Gresser, ‘History of the American Hospital of Paris’, 28 September 1978, 14-page typescript, p. 5, Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: History by Otto Gresser: ‘Fearing a possible shortage of water in case of bombardment, after digging in the middle of the garden, an underground Seine was discovered ready to be used in case of emergency.’ The well was not needed.

p. 312 René Rocher, the French Rocher, who had also had a successful career as an actor, was one of a series of temporary directors during the war. They were all filling in for the Odéon’s longstanding Jewish director, Paul Abram, who was dismissed when the Germans occupied Paris in 1940. He resumed the directorship in 1945.

p. 312 ‘The Life and Death Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 176.

p. 312 ‘The play is short’ Ibid., p. 177. The book actually states, ‘The play is short, demanded no cuts, and could not be produced even during the brief playing-time which was allowed, for curtains had to be down and lights extinguished by ten-fifty.’ I have removed ‘not’, which appears to be a typographical error.

p. 313 ‘How can we begin’ Ibid., p. 177.

p. 313 King John opened Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris, Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, p. 286.

p. 313 A week later, someone Gérard Walter, Paris Under the Occupation, translated from French by Tony White, New York: Orion Press, 1960, p. 191.

Chapter Thirty-five: The Adolescent Spy

p. 314 German U-boats trawled My father, Commander Charles Glass, Jr, took part in the convoys and recalled German torpedoes sinking ships around his. One U-boat torpedo missed his ship by a few feet.

p. 314 A picturesque town ‘British Photograph Bombing of the Nazi U-Boat Hideout at St. Nazaire’, Life, 11 May 1942, pp. 30–31.

p. 314 During one raid ‘U.S. Raid Blasts St. Nazaire; 6 Bombers Lost in Battle’, New York Times, 17 February 1943, p. 1.

p. 314 ‘the toughest target’ ‘Saint Nazaire Raided; Clouds Curb Blow’, New York Times, 3 May 1943, p. 5.

p. 315 In Paris, R went Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied France, Washington: Brassey’s, 2004, pp. 71–6, based on lengthy interviews with Phillip Jackson.

Chapter Thirty-six: Clara under Suspicion

p. 318 ‘new and peculiar … in case we’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 186.

p. 318 When Clara and Hilda walked ‘News of the American Library’, Library Journal, December 1944, p. 1068. See also ‘Milton Lord Reports from Paris’, Library Journal, July 1945, pp. 622–4.

p. 319 ‘If they have been circulated’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 187.

p. 319 ‘Madame, I am very’ Ibid. (Italics in original.)

p. 319 To avoid further German ‘News of the American Library’, Library Journal, December 1944, p. 1068.

p. 320 After three years Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, pp. 189–90.

p. 320 But, in New York, expatriate ‘French Add a “Little Bit of Paris” to Old New York for Bastille Day’, New York Times, 15 July 1943, p. 13.

p. 321 ‘Portrait of an American’ Quoted in Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 91.

p. 321 Sumner was operating Ibid., pp. 79–80. Phillip Jackson recounted the story to Vaughan in Paris in 2002.

p. 323 ‘a nice place … Everything, bed and linens’ After-action report, quoted in Ibid., p. 93.

p. 323 ‘I suppose my mother’ Ibid., p. 94.

p. 324 In late October Frank Griffiths, Winged Hours, London: William Kimber, 1981, p. 123.

p. 324 Spanish police arrested Joe Ibid., p. 178.

p. 324 Back in England Of the seven other B-17 crew who survived, two were captured and the other five received help from the Resistance to escape to Spain.

Chapter Thirty-seven: Calumnies

p. 325 Her son and his wife Château Haut-Brion had belonged to American banker Clarence Dillon since 1935. Weller was Dillon’s cousin. Aldebert de Chambrun had alerted Dillon to the sale of Haut-Brion, and Pierre Laval was Weller’s sponsor for French citizenship. Dillon was a mentor to René de Chambrun during his time in New York.

p. 325 René rarely missed From the diary of Josée de Chambrun, in Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, pp. 302–4.

p. 326 ‘brought to America’ Paul Wohl, ‘Laval’s Personal Fortune Reported Safe in US’, New York Herald Tribune, 5 December 1943, p. 1.

p. 326 No proof was offered When Laval was tried for treason in 1945, financial impropriety was not among the many charges against him. His biographers do not mention them.

p. 326 René admitted that René de Chambrun, Mission and Betrayal, 1940–1945: Working with Franklin Roosevelt to Help Save Britain and France, Palo Alto, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1992, p. 66.

p. 326 ‘At present he is attached … The Paris building’ Paul Wohl, ‘Laval’s Personal Fortune Reported Safe in US’, New York Herald Tribune, 5 December 1943, p. 1.

p. 327 The most likely source The British, who circulated anti-de Chambrun rumours throughout the war, may have found in Paul Wohl a vulnerable conduit for disinformation. Wohl was born in Berlin in 1901, and he had moved to the United States in 1938 as a correspondent for the Czech press. In 1941, the Christian Science Monitor hired him, although he also wrote for other papers, including the New York Herald Tribune. The US did not intern him as an enemy alien, although it could have. He was unmarried and kept forty-seven turtles at his apartment in Greenwich Village. See his obituary, ‘Paul Wohl, Journalist, Dead; Wrote About Political Affairs’, New York Times, 4 April 1985.

p. 327 ‘instructing that they be’ D. M. Ladd, FBI Washington, ‘Memorandum for Mr. E. A. Tamm’, 12 January 1943, Document 100- 49901-29, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 327 ‘My own Charles darling’ The translations of the three letters with a covering letter from the Adjutant General’s office to the Justice Department are reproduced in C. M. Hardwick, Time Study in Treason: Charles E. Bedaux, Patriot or Collaborator, Chelmsford, Essex: Peter Horsnell, 1990, pp. 61–3.

p. 329 ‘an invaluable, meticulous’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 35.

p. 329 ‘code telegrams; business’ Ibid., p. 36.

p. 330 ‘Coming home from’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, pp. 175–6.

PART SIX: 1944

Chapter Thirty-eight: The Trial of Citizen Bedaux

p. 335 ‘extremely straightforward person’ FBI Form Number 1, Title: Changed, Frederic Ledebur, Mrs. Isabella Cameron Waite, File No. 65- 6045 KJH, 25 February 1943, New York.

p. 335 But Bedaux, despite Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 89.

p. 336 ‘I will be here’ Jim Christy, The Price of Power: A Biography of Charles Eugene Bedaux, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1984, p. 282.

p. 336 ‘What assurance do’ Ibid., p. 280.

p. 337 ‘he showed an ebullience’ Janet Flanner, ‘Annals of Collaboration: Equivalism III’, The New Yorker, 13 October 1945, p. 39.

p. 337 ‘that [Frederic] Ledebur’ J. Edgar Hoover, FBI cable to SAC, San Francisco, 18 January 1944, from FBI files supplied under Freedom of Information Act, unnumbered file. FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 337 ‘OUR WASHINGTON ATTORNEY’ FBI File Number 65-3349, ‘Title: Frederick George Ledebur, Espionage G[erman]’, 12 typewritten pages, from FBI files supplied under Freedom of Information Act, FOIPA No. 1088544-001.

p. 338 ‘in the event BEDAUX’ Ibid.

p. 338 ‘I received your … It was always’ Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, p. 110. (The letter is reproduced in its entirety in French, but wartime restrictions meant that Gaston’s card and Charles’s letter would have taken circuitous routes through neutral countries to reach their destinations.)

p. 338 ‘Well, one of these days’ Christy, The Price of Power, p. 283.

p. 339 ‘Dear friend, I cannot’ Ibid., p. 295.

p. 340 ‘is seriously ill’ ‘Charles Bedaux Seriously Ill in Miami Hospital’, Associated Press, Miami, 17 February 1944, in Chicago Daily Tribune, 18 February 1944, p. 7.

Chapter Thirty-nine: The Underground Railway

p. 341 ‘Just have news’ Copy of Incoming Cablegram, Max Shoop to Nelson Dean Jay, 9 February 1944, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945.

p. 341 Miss M. Thevoz, former chief The official list of Personnel reste à l’Hôpital le 14 Juin 1940 refers to Mlle M. Thevoz, Directrice des Infirmières, directress of nurses. Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: Personnel, 1940.

p. 341 ‘understand Shoop’s reference’ Letter from N. D. Jay to Leslie Allen, 23 Wall Street, New York, NY, 14 February 1944, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945.

p. 341 ‘Please say that none’ Second letter from N. D. Jay to Leslie Allen, 23 Wall Street, New York, NY, 14 February, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence, 1940–1945. It is not clear why Jay wrote two letters to Leslie Allen, giving the same information in different words, on the same day.

p. 341 The board attributed Neal H. Petersen (ed.), From Hitler’s Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996, p. 544. Shoop’s former partner in the Paris office of Sullivan and Cromwell, Philippe Monod, was OSS Agent 405 with the code name Martel. Monod, a Frenchman, represented the combined Resistance body, Forces Françaises Combattantes de la Metropole (FFCM), with Allen Dulles in Switzerland (ibid., p. 53). Shoop, who liaised between the OSS and the Resistance, had known Dr Jackson in Paris. He and Monod should have had details of Dr Jackson’s escape network.

p. 342 ‘about starvation and the family’s’ ‘Tracing Noted Surgeon’, Boston Herald, 5 September 1944, in Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Sumner Jackson.

p. 342 ‘He was drawn’ Diary of Clemence Bock, p. 9, quoted in Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied France, Washington: Brassey’s, 2004, p. 108.

p. 342 ‘He from time to time’ Otto Gresser interview, Kathleen Keating, ‘The American Hospital in Paris During the German Occupation’, 14-page typescript, p. 6, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944.

p. 343 ‘Nothing, of course, could’ Alice-Leone Moats, No Passport for Paris, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1945, p. 172.

p. 343 ‘were directly connected … Usually the men’ Ibid., p. 193.

p. 344 ‘Not daring to knock … “Gee”, one of the boys’ Ibid., pp. 195–6.

p. 344 Jane and Rosemary told Alice-Leone … ‘It was safe’ Ibid., p. 199.

p. 345 Rosemary prepared Carlow Ibid., p. 200.

p. 346 ‘You will always be followed … Once they have grilled’ Ibid., p. 180.

p. 346 In February 1944, Drue Drue Tartière with M. R. Werner, The House near Paris: An American Woman’s Story of Traffic in Patriots, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944, pp. 235–6.

Chapter Forty: Conspiracies

p. 347 ‘Charles E. Bedaux was’ ‘Bedaux Legendary As Mystery Man’, New York Times, 20 February 1944, p. 28.

p. 347 ‘consider whether he should’ ‘Bedaux Ends Life as He Faces Trial on Treason Count’, New York Times, 20 February 1944, p. 1.

p. 347 ‘Bedaux submitted a list’ Edwin A. Lahey, ‘Bedaux and His Friends’, New Republic, 6 March 1944, p. 308. (Full article: pp. 307–8.)

p. 348 ‘They subjected investigators’ ‘Dead Men Don’t Blab’, The Nation, no. 158, 11 March 1944, p. 297.

p. 348 ‘I had been so used’ Gaston Bedaux, La Vie ardente de Charles Bedaux, Paris: privately published, 3 June 1959, p. 88.

p. 349 ‘Perhaps I would not’ Edmond Taylor, Awakening from History, Boston: Gambit, 1969, p. 328.

Chapter Forty-one: Springtime in Paris

p. 350 ‘They have come from America’ Mary Berg (Miriam Wattenberg), The Diary of Mary Berg: Growing Up in the Warsaw Ghetto (originally published in English as Warsaw Ghetto: A Diary, New York: L. B. Fischer,1945), translation from the Polish by Susan Glass, Oxford: Oneworld, 2006, p. 245.

p. 350 On board the Gripsholm ‘128 Still Aboard Liner Gripsholm’, New York Times, 17 March 1944, p. 5.

p. 351 ‘boarded by an official’ Frank S. Adams, ‘35 Soldiers, Ill but Happy, First to Leave Gripsholm’, New York Times, 16 March 1944, p. 1.

p. 351 One passenger was … ‘The Paris air’ ‘Paris Ghost City, Repatriate Says’, New York Times, 17 March 1944, p. 4.

p. 352 ‘Life in Paris’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 181.

p. 353 ‘Those who listened … We could not then’ Ibid., p. 182.

p. 353 ‘the fallen houses … as he did’ Ibid., p. 183.

p. 353 ‘It was an ironical’ Ibid., p. 181.

p. 354 ‘The quarter presented … People in this’ Alice-Leone Moats, No Passport for Paris, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1945, pp. 237–8.

p. 355 On 9 April, she and René Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris, Le Cherche-Midi, 2002, p. 315.

p. 355 ‘I am not unhappy’ Julian Jackson, France: The Dark Years 1940–1944, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 310.

p. 355 Josée de Chambrun, one of the most Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, p. 312.

p. 355 Moreover … they even consented’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 183.

p. 356 ‘I hesitated a moment’ Ibid.

p. 356 ‘During this ceremony’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, pp. 184–5.

p. 357 ‘I imagine that … tracked it down’ Alice-Leone Moats, No Passport for Paris, pp. 217 and 222.

Chapter Forty-two: The Maquis to Arms!

p. 359 ‘From German sources’ Neal H. Petersen (ed.), From Hitler’s Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996, p. 37.

p. 359 Help came from an unexpected Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965, pp. 190–91n.

p. 360 While in Niort Ibid.

p. 360 Posch-Pastor adopted the alias Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied France, Washington: Brassey’s, 2004, p. 105.

p. 361 ‘The lawyer was quite’ Alice-Leone Moats, No Passport for Paris, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1945, p. 243.

p. 361 ‘We all admire’ Ibid., p. 244.

p. 361 That night, Alice-Leone Moats Ibid., p. 274.

Chapter Forty-three: Résistants Unmasked

p. 363 ‘all general meetings’ Telegram 48-52 to London, 3 July 1943, from Allen Dulles, in Neal H. Petersen (ed.), From Hitler’s Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996, p. 77.

p. 364 ‘compromising letters addressed’ Incoming Telegram, [US Minister to Switzerland Leland] Harrison to Secretary of State, 7 August 1944, RG 59, Decimal File 1940–44, Box 1160, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./8-744, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 364 Hints that something was wrong Hal Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance: The Heroic Story of an American Surgeon and His Family in Occupied France, Washington: Brassey’s, 2004, p. 105, p. 109.

p. 366 ‘We were all arrested’ Handwritten letter from Charlotte (Toquette) Jackson to her sister-in-law, Mrs Clifford (Freda) Swensen, 18 May 1945, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Sumner Jackson.

p. 366 ‘Today is the day … My courage is’ Letter from Charlotte (Toquette) Jackson to her sister, Alice (Tat) Barrelet de Ricou, 31 May 1944, quoted in Vaughan, Ibid., p. 112.

p. 367 ‘We had spent 8 days’ Phillip Jackson, handwritten letter, ‘Dear Friends’, 10 May 1945, from Neustadt, Holstein, Germany, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Sumner Jackson.

p. 367 ‘We were then separated’ Ibid.

p. 367 ‘As I was an’ Interview with Phillip Jackson, May 2000, Paris, in Vaughan, Doctor to the Resistance, p. 114.

p. 368 ‘informed U.S. Legation’ Letter via airmail pouch from Minister, American Legation, Berne, to Secretary of State, 8 June 1944, Document 351.1121, Jackson, Sumner W./6-2944, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 368 ‘Swiss Legation Vichy’ Incoming Telegraph, Harrison to Secretary of State, 13 July 1944, RG 59, Decimal File, 1940–44, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./7-1344, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 368 ‘On June 27, 1944’ ‘Memorandum for the American Embassy in Paris’, Enclosure No. 1 to Despatch No. 1148 from American Embassy, Paris, 27 February 1945, 13 July 1944, RG 59, Decimal File, 1940–44, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./3-545, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 368 ‘At the same time’ Ibid.

p. 369 ‘We are not in the war’ ‘The Unliberated–The France Still in Chains Writhed with Hope and Hate’, Time, 19 June 1944.

p. 369 The Resistance did ‘Patriots Cut Rails From Paris South’, New York Times, 11 August 1944, p. 3.

p. 369 ‘The star of hope’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 212.

p. 370 Paris, as its supply Dominiqe Lapierre, ‘August 1944, When Allied Flags Began to Appear in Paris Windows’, International Herald Tribune, Paris, 22 August 1994.

Chapter Forty-four: Via Dolorosa

p. 371 ‘One fine day’ Phillip Jackson, handwritten letter, ‘Dear Friends’, 10 May 1945, from Neustadt, Holstein, Germany, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Sumner Jackson. See also State Department typed transcript of the same letter, RG 59, Decimal File, 1945–49, Box 1710, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./5-2445. On p. 367 Phillip is quoted that he spent 16 days in the Gestrapo prison, however, in this quote it is 14 days.

p. 371 ‘finally had been’ ‘Memorandum for the American Embassy in Paris’, Enclosure No. 1 to Despatch No. 1148 from American Embassy, Paris, 27 February 1945, 13 July 1944, RG 59, Decimal File, 1940–44, Box 5280, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./3-545, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 371 ‘Inquiry of Swiss Foreign’ Incoming Telegram, Harrison to Secretary of State, 28 August 1944, RG 59, Decimal File, 1940–44, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./8-2844, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 372 ‘Journey by bus’ Phillip Jackson, handwritten letter, ‘Dear Friends’, 10 May 1945, from Neustadt, Holstein, Germany, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Sumner Jackson. See also State Department typed transcript of the same letter, RG 59, Decimal File, 1945–49, Box 1710, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./5-2445.

p. 372 When he and Phillip ‘Paragraph of a Cable Received’, from Leland Harrison, US Minister to Switzerland, to Secretary of State, 2 June 1944, Cable number 3504, RG 389: Records of the Provost Marshal General, American POW Information Bureau, General Subject File, 1942–1946, File: Vittel Vosges (Frontstalag 194), US National Archives, College Park, Maryland. Harrison wrote that the Germans moved the camp because ‘black market operations were indulged in by certain elements at Compiègne for quite a while’.

p. 372 ‘Red Cross parcels’ Phillip Jackson, handwritten letter, ‘Dear Friends’, 10 May 1945, from Neustadt, Holstein, Germany, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, File: Sumner Jackson. See also State Department typed transcript of the same letter, RG 59, Decimal File, 1945–49, Box 1710, Document 351.1121 Jackson, Sumner W./5- 2445.

p. 372 ‘We were escorted’ Ibid.

Chapter Forty-five: Schwarze Kapelle

p. 374 ‘Hitler’s dead’ Roger Manville and Heinrich Fraenkel, The July Plot: The Attempt on Hitler’s Life in July 1944, London: The Bodley Head, 1964, p. 130.

p. 375 ‘the nightmare of a shadowy’ Edmond Taylor, Awakening from History, Boston: Gambit, 1969, p. 328.

Chapter Forty-six: Slaves of the Reich

p. 376 ‘Nobody knew why … A man of’ George Martelli with Michel Hollard, The Man Who Saved London: The Story of Michel Hollard, D.S.O., Croix de Guerre, London: Companion Book Club, 1960, pp. 235–6.

Chapter Forty-seven: One Family Now

p. 379 ‘Kindly make it clear’ Neal H. Petersen (ed.), From Hitler’s Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942–1945, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996, p. 334.

p. 379 Enfière informed Laval Hubert Cole, Laval: A Biography, London: Heinemann, 1963, p. 262.

p. 379 On the morning of Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965, p. 75.

p. 379 Laval was having dinner Pierre Laval, The Unpublished Diary of Pierre Laval, London: Falcon Press, 1948, p. 172.

p. 380 ‘A notice of arrest’ Ibid., p. 175.

p. 380 ‘President Herriot and you’ René de Chambrun, Sorti du rang, Paris: Atelier Marcel Jullian, 1980, p. 237.

p. 380 ‘it was a marvelous summer day’ Josée Laval de Chambrun, ‘The Last Luncheon with Pierre Laval’, in René de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984, Exhibit I, p. 193. See also Josée Laval de Chambrun, in ‘A Luncheon on 17 August 1944’, France During the German Occupation, 1940–1944: A Collection of 292 Statements on the Government of Maréchal Pétain and Pierre Laval, translated from the French by Philip W. Whitcomb, vol. II, Palo Alto, CA: The Hoover Institution, Stanford University, 1957, pp. 1022–5.

p. 380 ‘Abetz looked very much embarrassed … anecdotes and reminiscences’ de Chambrun, pp. 194–5.

p. 381 René followed his wife Ibid., Sorti du rang, p. 239.

p. 381 ‘There is a side’ de Chambrun, Pierre Laval: Traitor or Patriot?, p. 110. Seymour Weller was the cousin of Clarence Dillon, who bought Château Haut-Brion in 1935 at the suggestion of Aldebert de Chambrun. René had been sponsored by Dillon in New York and was a regular guest at his house in Far Hills, New Jersey, before the war.

p. 381 The American was his friend Seymour Weller’s cousin, Joan de Mouchy, told the author in 2006 that, when a German officer warned him he was about to be interned, he would check into the American Hospital for a supposed operation. Weller was the cousin of Joan’s grandfather, Clarence Dillon, who owned the Château de Haut-Brion vineyards. Pierre Laval sponsored Weller for French citizenship in 1939.

p. 382 ‘I hurried to Matignon … She knew that I’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 216.

p. 382 ‘in whose hands’ Laval, The Unpublished Diary of Pierre Laval, p. 175.

p. 382 ‘The German police’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 217. Laval wrote that, in fact, three of his ministers managed to disappear: Cathala, Grasset and Chassaigne (Pierre Laval, The Unpublished Diary of Pierre Laval, p. 175).

p. 382 The three Chambruns Collins and Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, p. 93.

p. 383 ‘I was in love with the daughter’ Yves Pourcher, Pierre Laval vu par sa fille d’après ses carnets intimes, Paris: Le Cherche-Midi, p. 70.

p. 383 The Federal Reserve chief Sylvia Jukes Morris, Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe Luce, New York: Random House, 1997. On p. 17, the author wrote that Clara and Aldebert had dinner in Washington with Eugene and Agnes Meyer in 1932 just before Meyer bought theWashington Post. René was living in New York at the time. The author added, ‘Not many years before, Alice’s [Roosevelt’s] husband, Nicholas, Speaker of the House, had been surprised in flagrante delicto with Cissy [Patterson] on a bathroom floor.’

p. 383 There was also an aversion Clara confessed that, when her cousin Margaret married Pierre de Chambrun in 1895, ‘I could not disguise from myself that I felt badly about Margaret’s marriage, just as two years before I had taken her conversion [to Catholicism] rather hard, not that my own Protestantism was at all of a militant character, for we had all been brought up in the atmosphere of tolerance which is one of the best characteristics of Cincinnati’ (Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Like Myself, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1936, p. 29). For Clara, tolerance won out when she married Pierre’s brother, the Catholic Aldebert, six years later. For René to marry a woman of German-Jewish background, though, may have been less acceptable. René’s reluctance to stray beyond family bounds explained, in part, his loyalty to a father-in-law whom the Allies believed incarnated French submission to Germany. Eugene Meyer bought the Washington Post at a bankruptcy sale in 1933, and in 1939 Florence Meyer married Austrian character actor Oscar Homulka. Her younger sister, Katharine, married Philip Graham and later became publisher of the Washington Post.

p. 384 ‘We had risked spending’ René de Chambrun, Sorti du rang, p. 239.

p. 384 ‘Come now! Good’ Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt, New York: Macmillan, 1987, p. 302.

p. 384 Ibid., p. 304.

Chapter Forty-eight: The Paris Front

p. 385–6 ‘Heartbroken as I was … Inside the gardens’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, pp. 219–20.

p. 386 ‘Whatever happens … the Führer’ Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965, p. 141.

p. 387 ‘Amateurish barricades sprang’ de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 224.

p. 387 ‘The children engaged’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, pp. 222–3.

p. 388 ‘We heard that ‘“they”’ Ibid., p. 223.

p. 388 The area commander General Aldebert de Chambrun to the Board of Directors of the American Hospital of Paris, 9 December 1944, p. 5 (of a 7 page typescript), in Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: American Hospital Report: 1940–1944. Otto Gresser, the hospital’s superintendent of administrative services during the occupation, wrote that the Germans in Neuilly had ‘18 guns, 5 tanks, 60 trucks and a large supply of munitions’.

p. 389 ‘I ask you to consider’ René de Chambrun, Sorti du rang, Paris: Atelier Marcel Jullian, 1980, p. 229.

p. 389 On the morning of 19 August Collins and Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, p. 113.

p. 389 ‘a fortress capable’ de Chambrun, Sorti du rang, p. 230.

p. 390 ‘It is impossible’ Ibid., p. 229.

p. 390 ‘Strange spectacle that’ Ibid.

p. 390 The French and German soldiers Interview with Otto Gresser, in Kathleen Keating, ‘The American Hospital of Paris During the German Occupation’, May 1981, 14-page typescript, Archives of the American Hospital of Paris, File: The German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories.

p. 391 ‘many persons of extremely’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 221.

p. 391 ‘I recognized her’ Ibid., p. 221.

p. 392 Clara had promised … ‘arrived safely at home’ Ibid., p. 223.

Chapter Forty-nine: Tout Mourir

p. 393 The Nazis had sent Telegram sent (Secretary of State Cordell) Hull to American Embassy London, 14 September 1944, RG 59, Decimal File 1940–1944, Box 1160, Document 351.1121, Jackson, Sumner W./9- 1444, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

p. 393 The others were Lucienne Catherine Rothman-Le Dret, L’Amérique déportée: Virginia d’Albert-Lake de la Résistance à Ravensbrück, Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy, 1994, pp. 17 and 41.

p. 393 Toquette’s sister, Tat Letter from Julia Barrelet de Ricou, American wife of Toquette’s brother, to Mrs Franklin Roosevelt, 1 November 1944, RG 59, Decimal File 1940–1944, Box 1160, Document 351.1121, Jackson, Sumner W./9-664.

p. 394 ‘I am full of hope’ Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965, p. 62.

p. 394 ‘his gigantic size … Nicht Messe Maisie Renault, La Grande Misère, Paris: Chavane, 1948, pp. 19–20.

p. 394 ‘Since this morning’ From the journal of Virginia d’Albert-Lake, quoted in Rothman-Le Dret, L’Amérique deportée, p. 96.

p. 394 ‘They pitied us’ Virginia d’Albert-Lake, An American Heroine in the French Resistance: The Diary and Memoir of Virginia d’Albert-Lake, New York: Fordham University Press, 2006, p. 144. See also Rothman-Le Dret, L’Amérique deportée, p. 97.

p. 394 The trains taking Renault, La Grande Misère, p. 21.

p. 396 His French Second Armoured Collins and Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, pp. 61–2n.

p. 396 ‘It is highly desirable’ John Lichfield, ‘Liberation of Paris: The Hidden Truth’, Independent, London, 31 January 2007. See also Olivier Wieviorka, Histoire du débarquement en Normandie, Paris: Seuil, 2007.

p. 397 ‘This guerilla warfare … was credibly informed’ Clara Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, pp. 224–5.

p. 398 Clara did not know Collins and Lapierre, Is Paris Burning?, pp. 249 and 279.

p. 398 ‘He came on his bicycle … and, before Joyce’ Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, p. 102.

p. 399 ‘Cannon is roaring’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 225.

p. 399 ‘The hospital found … I am, General’ René de Chambrun, Sorti du rang, Paris: Atelier Marcel Jullian, 1980, pp. 230–31. p. 399 ‘I asked why he’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen,

p. 226. There are accounts of the battle at Neuilly from Aldebert, Clara and René de Chambrun, as well as from Otto Gresser. They conflict on a few dates and times, as well as the exact statements made by the principals. My account emphasizes the points on which they agree and, where they do not, relies on the eyewitnesses, Aldebert and Gresser, more than the two who were told about it, Clara and René. Their versions agree, however, on the main points.

p. 399 ‘The French have to receive’ de Chambun, Sorti du rang, p. 231.

p. 400 ‘More wounded have … I did not need’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 226.

p. 400 Leclerc, she believed Clara was not alone in thinking the Resistance were ruffians. A Free French lieutenant, who ordered his MP not to allow Ernest Hemingway to get ahead of a regular armed column, added, ‘And none of that guerrilla rabble either.’ See Ernest Hemingway, ‘How We Came to Paris’, Collier’s, 7 October 1944, p. 65. Despite the fact that the Resistance was providing the Allies with minute by minute intelligence on the location of German tanks and defences, many of the regular officers distrusted them.

p. 401 ‘What you hear is’ Another version of this incident was that von Cholitz was asked by a secretary why the bells were ringing. He is said to have replied, ‘They are ringing for us, my little girl. They are ringing because the Allies are coming into Paris. Why else do you suppose they would be ringing?’ Collins and La pierne, op. cit., p. 258.

p. 401 ‘went to the roof’ Otto Gresser interview with Kathleen Keating, ‘The American Hospital in Paris during the German Occupation’, 19 May 1981, 14-page typescript, p. 11, American Hospital of Paris Archives, File: German Occupation by Kathleen Keating and Various Other Histories, 1940–1944.

p. 402 On schedule, a command car … ‘Stack arms’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen, p. 226.

p. 402 The ‘fanatic’ Major Goetz de Chambrun, Sorti du rang, p. 233.

p. 402 ‘we met within three’ Otto Gresser, ‘History of the American Hospital’, 14-page typescript, 28 September 1978, American Hospital of Paris Archives, unnumbered blue file: ‘Miscellaneous materials’.

p. 402 ‘Telegraph exact location’ Telegram, Hull to Harrison, Berne, 25 August 1944, RG 59, Decimal file 1945–1949, Box 1710, Document 351.1121, Jackson, Sumner W./8-744, US National Archives, College Park, Maryland.

PART SEVEN: 24–26 AUGUST 1944

Chapter Fifty: Liberating the Rooftops

p. 407 ‘It was Saturday’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘Americans in Paris’, in The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier: An Intimate Portrait of the Literary and Artistic Life in Paris Between the Wars, translated by Richard McDougall, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976, p. 416.

p. 407 ‘The way back’ Ibid.

p. 408 ‘Sylvia ran down’ Ibid., p. 416. Hemingway did not write of his reunion with Sylvia Beach in his Collier’s articles about the liberation of Paris, but Sylvia and Adrienne did. Most of their accounts are in Adrienne’s ‘Americans in Paris’ and in Sylvia’sShakespeare and Company, London: Faber and Faber, 1960, pp. 223–4. Sylvia discussed it with Niall Sheridan for the documentary film Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962. She was in Dublin for the dedication of the Martello Tower, where the first chapter of Ulysses opens, on 16 June 1962, the fifty-eighth anniversary of Bloomsday.

p. 408 ‘I flew downstairs’ Shakespeare and Company, p. 220.

p. 408 ‘War correspondents are’ Ernest Hemingway, ‘Battle for Paris’, Collier’s, 30 September 1944, p. 83.

p. 408 ‘I couldn’t say’ Ernest Hemingway, ‘How We Came to Paris’, Collier’s, 7 October 1944, p. 17.

p. 408 ‘For the moment’ Monnier, ‘Americans in Paris’, p. 417.

p. 409 ‘invited them to come’ Ibid.

p. 409 ‘We went up to Adrienne’s’ Shakespeare and Company, p. 220.

p. 409 ‘Hadn’t I, Adrienne’ Adrienne Monnier, ‘Americans in Paris’, p. 417.

p. 409 ‘He brought his men’ Interview by Niall Sheridan with Sylvia Beach, Self Portraits: Sylvia Beach, documentary film for Radio Telefis Eireann (RTE), Dublin, 1962.

p. 410 When Hemingway brought Beach, Shakespeare and Company, p. 224: ‘We heard firing for the last time in the rue de l’Odéon. Hemingway and his men came down again and rode off in their jeeps–“to liberate”, according to Hemingway, “the cellar of the Ritz”.’

p. 410 At the American Embassy ‘Caffery Thanks Aids Who Held U.S. Embassy’, New York Herald Tribune, Paris, 11 January 1945, p. 4.

Chapter Fifty-one: Libération, not Liberation

p. 412 Anderson folded his newspaper William Smith Gardner, ‘The Oldest Negro in Paris’, Ebony, vol. 8, no. 2, February 1952, pp. 65–72. Charles Anderson, then 91, told Gardner he had courted Eugénie Delmar for a year and a half before they married in 1922. She took him afterwards to meet her family in Calais. ‘They have never once even mentioned the fact that I’m a Negro,’ Anderson said. Anderson supplemented his income from de Brosse by teaching chess, English and music. Although a good musician who lived in Montmartre, he did not frequent its American black jazz clubs before the war. This may have been because he neither drank nor smoked and was devoted to his wife.

Epilogue

p. 414 ‘We eat quantities … She is sad’ Letter from Sylvia Beach to Holly Beach Dennis, 4 October 1944, Sylvia Beach Papers, Princeton University, CO108, Box 20, Unnumbered folder.

p. 414 ‘closed for the time being’ Sylvia Beach, ‘French Literature Went Underground’, Paris Herald Tribune, 4 January 1945, p. 2.

p. 415 ‘I must say’ Longworth de Chambrun, Shadows Lengthen: The Story of My Life, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1949, p. 233.

p. 416 At the Prefecture … Miss Comte took Aldebert Eric Hawkins, ‘Elder Chambruns Questioned in Paris Collaborationist Purge’, New York Herald Tribune, 11 September 1944.

p. 416 ‘Chambrun situation’ Letter from Edward A. Sumner to Dr David H. Stevens, Rockefeller Foundation, 12 March 1945, American Library of Paris Archives, File: Correspondence.

p. 416 Rather than pay ‘American Library in Paris Intact’, Library Journal, vol. 70, no. 1, February 1945, p. 111.

p. 417 Along with Aldebert ‘Member of Pioneer Family Dies in France’, Cincinnati Times Star, 2 June 1945. ‘Mme. De Chambrun Dies in Paris at 80’, New York Times, 2 June 1945, p. 31.

p. 417 ‘On the morning’ Letter from Phillip Jackson, 8–10 May 1945, written at Neustadt, Holstein, Germany, in Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, Dr Sumner Jackson file.

p. 418 ‘I want you to know Letter from Charlotte Jackson to Freda Swensen, 18 July 1945, Massachusetts General Hospital Archives, Dr Sumner Jackson file.

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