Notes

Chapter 1

1. Samuel Eliot Morison, Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier 22 July 1942–1 May 1944 (Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 1950), p. 62.

2. Commanding General Fifth Amphibious Corps, Serial 00334, Naval Gunfire Support, Tarawa, Recommendations On, 20 January 1944, p. 643.

3. Gerald Rawling, Cinderella Operation: The Battle for Walcheren 1944 (London: Cassell, 1980), p. 74.

4. Ibid., p. 74.

5. The Chief of the Bureau of Shipsto The Vice Chief of Naval Operations, letter of 7 July 1943, p. 6.

6. I am aware that this information is in conflict with the work of other historians. Samuel Eliot Morison (Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier, p. 294) states that the first two LCI(L)s converted were the 24 and 68. Norman Friedman (U.S. Amphibious Ships and Craft, p. 233) states that LCI(L)22, 24, 68, and 69 had been converted by August 1943. My assertion is based on the United States Pacific Fleet, Service Squadron, South Pacific Force, Force Maintenance Serial M-0252 letter from the Force Maintenance Officer (Captain R. T. Cowdrey) to the COs of LCI(L)21, 22, 23and 70 dated 11 October 1943. This letter describes stability adjustments for the ships that were under conversion at that time. In addition, ship movements and comments identifying the exact dates of conversions are found in the War Diary of LCI(L) Flotilla Five and the War Diary of LCI(L) Group Fourteen, as well as the individual ships’ war diaries.

7. United States Pacific Fleet Service Squadron, South Pacific Force, Force Maintenance Serial M-0252, 11 October 1943, Enclosure (B).

8. Louis V. Plant, Signalman 1/c, LCI(G) 24, Memories of World War II (typescript, 2000), p. 22.

9. Ibid., p. 22.

10. Chief of Naval Operations to Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, letter of 24 March 1944.

11. John E. Burchard, ed., Rockets Guns and Targets: Rockets, Target Information, Erosion Information, and Hypervelocity Guns Developed during World War II by the Office of Scientific Research and Development (Boston: Little, Brown, 1948), pp. 118–119.

12. Ibid., pp. 120–122.

13. Karl C. Dod, United States Army in World War II The Corps of Engineers: The War Against Japan (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History United States Army, 1966), p. 273.

14. Hugh. J. Casey, Major General, Engineers of the Southwest Pacific 1941–1945. Engineers in Theater Operations (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1947), p. 117.

15. Burchard, pp. 128–129.

16. Vice Admiral Daniel E. Barbey, MacArthur’s Amphibious Navy: Seventh Amphibious Force Operations 1943–1945 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1969), p. 112.

17. LCI(R) 73, Deck Log, March 31 to April 18, 1943.

18. USS LCI(G) 451 Serial 0126, Action Report of Beach Assault on Lingayen Gulf Luzon Island in the Philippines, 15 January 1945, p. 3.

19. USS LCI(G) 440 Serial 052, U.S.S. LCI(G) 440—Action Report of LINGAYEN Operation, 15 January 1945, p. 1.

20. USS LCI(G) 407 Serial—None, Action Report, Lingayen Operation, Luzon, P. I. 9 January 1945, 20 January 1945, p. 2.

21. USS LCI(G) 373 Serial 02-45. Initial Invasion Lingayen, Luzon Island, Philippines, Action Report of, 14 January 1945, 2nd Endorsement, 30 January 1945, p. 1.

22. Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance to the Coordinator of Research and Development, letter of 14 December 1943.

23. Leo P. Brophy, Wyndham D. Miles and Rexmond C. Cochrane, United States Army in World War II The Technical Services, The Chemical Warfare Service: From Laboratory to Field (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1988), p. 137.

24. Colonel George F. Unmacht Chemical Officer, C.P.A, letter of 24 April 1944, to Brigadier General Alden H. Waitt, Chemical Warfare Service, Washington, D.C.

25. Ibid.

26. Paul Lund and Harry Ludlam, The War of the Landing Craft (London: W. Foulsham & Co., 1976), pp. 92–104.

27. Colonel G. F. Unmacht, CWS USA, “Chemical Mortar Boats in the Pacific Ocean Area,” Military Review (November 1946): 16.

28. Departure Report, USS LCI 741, 28 January 1945, p. 1.

29. USS LCI(M) 739, War Diary, July-September 1944.

30. Commander Task Unit 79.6.21—Commander LCI(L) Group 17 Serial 114, Action Report, 4 November 1944, p. 4.

31. USS LCI(M) 638 Serial—None. Action and Operation Report, Okinawa Jima, Period from 1st April to 10 April 1945, Submittal of, 14 April 1945, p. 7.

32. Unmacht, 17–18.

33. USS LCI(L) #24 (G), Action Report—25 January 1944. MAVAVIA VILLAGE, EMPRESS AUGUSTA BAY, BOUGAINVILLE—SOLOMON ISLANDS, 10 February 1944, p. 5.

34. Commander Task Unit 52.23.2 (Commander LCI Group 55) Serial 040, Action Report—Nansei Shoto, Okinawa, Operation—1 May to 31 May 1945, 6 June 1945, p. 4.

35. Commander LCI(M) Group 18 (Temporary Commander Task Unit 79.7.3) Serial 051, Action Report, Invasion of Philippines, Island of Leyte, 23 October 1944, pp. 6–7.

36. LCI(L) 659, Serial-None, Action Report, 1 November 1944, p. 4.

37. The Chief of the Bureau of Shipsto the Vice Chief of Naval Operations, letter of July 7, 1943.

38. World War II History of the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, USN Portland, Oregon (circa 1946), IV-6.

39. SupShip, USN, Quincy, OinC. to George Lawley & Son’s Corp, letter of 15 May 1944.

40. Monthly War Diary of LCS(L) (3) 61, 81, 82, 83, 1 April 1945.

41. The Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance to Commander Amphibious Training Command, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Portland, Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Quincy. (OinC, George Lawley & Son Corp., Neponset, Mass.), letter of 14 August 1944.

42. Thomas Lee, GM 1/c, LCS(L) 31, interview of 26 September 2011.

43. Thomas Ryan, LCS(L) 81, interview of 21 February 2004.

44. Jim Mallin, QM 3/c, LCS 117, interview, 21 October 2011.

45. Supervisory Cost Inspector, Thirteenth Naval District to Chief of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts (Cost Inspection Service), Navy Department, Washington, D.C., letter of 31 October 1944.

46. World War II History of the Supervisor of Shipbuilding USN Portland, Oregon. VI—5.

47. Ibid., VI—5.

48. Ibid., VI—5.

Chapter 2

1. Vaughn E. Hampton, “Amphibious Ships with No Names,” http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Plains/5850/hampton.html, pp. 3–8.

2. Navy Department, History of the Navy’s Bases in World War II, History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineer Corps 1940–1946. Vol. I (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1947), p. 261.

3. John Rooney, Mighty Midget U.S.S. LCS 82 (Phoenixville, PA: self-published, 2001), p. 2.

4. Hulbert Footner, “Simple Life of Solomons Becomes a Thing of the Past as Result of War,” The [Baltimore] Sun, 17 January 1943: 20+.

5. Alberta Woodburn, “Is This ‘Solomons’ Anymore?” Calvert Independent (Barstow, MD), 10 June 1943.

6. Rooney, p. 1.

7. John H. Morrill, The Cincinnati (Wytheville, VA: self-published, 1994), pp. vii-2.

8. The Beachmaster Final Edition 36, U.S.N.A.T.B. (Solomons, MD: February 1945).

9. Allied Landing Craft of World War Two (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1989), pp. 45–47.

10. Edgar De Coursey, MM 2/c, LCS(L) 61, interview of 25 August 1995.

11. Joseph Staigar, LCS(L) 61Diary and Collected Papers.

12. Robin L. Rielly, Kamikaze Patrol: The LCS(L)(3)61 at War (Toms River, NJ: self-published, 1996), pp. 36–40.

13. Charles Thomas, Dolly Five (Chester, VA: Harrowgate Press, 1996), pp. 365–366.

14. Robert F. Rielly, QM 2/c, LCS(L) 61, interview, 20 September 2001.

15. Louis V. Plant, Staff Signalman, Flotilla 3, A Brief History of LCS 55, Typescript, 2000, p. 20.

16. Samuel Eliot Morison, The Struggle for Guadalcanal August 1942–February 1943 (Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2001), p. 269.

17. United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific) Naval Analysis Division, The Campaigns of the Pacific War (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1946), p. 175.

18. Robert Leckie, Strong Men Armed: The United States Marines vs. Japan (New York: Da Capo Press, 1997), p. 240.

19. Military Intelligence Service, War Department, Tactical and Technical Trends No. 43, 27 January 1944, p. 10.

20. “Japanese Barges,” U.S. Army-Navy Journal of Recognition (March 1944): 40.

21. Military Intelligence Service, War Department, Tactical and Technical Trends No. 43, 27 January 1944, p. 13.

22. Peter Schrijvers, Bloody Pacific American Soldiers at War with Japan (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), p. 119.

23. Masahiro Kawai, Lieutenant Colonel, The Operations of the Suicide-Boat Regiment in Okinawa Their Battle Results and the Countermeasures Taken by the U.S. Forces (National Institute for Defense Studies, Undated), p. 2.

24. Ibid.

25. Soemu Toyoda, Admiral, “Combined Fleet Ultrasecret Dispatch 041213,” The Campaigns of the Pacific War (Washington, D.C.: United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific) Naval Analysis Division, 1946), p. 233.

26. Kawai, p. 2.

27. Robin L. Rielly, Kamikazes, Corsairs, and Picket Ships: Okinawa 1945 (Philadelphia: Casemate, 2008), pp. 351–352.

28. Robert Wisner, LCS(L) 37, interview, 15 August, 2001.

Chapter 3

1. GHQ SWPA Warning Instructions 2, 6 May 43, in GHQ SWPA G-3 Jnl 6 May 43, cited in John Miller, Jr., Cartwheel: The Reduction of Rabaul (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History—Department of the Army, 1959), p. 26.

2. Grace Person Hayes, The History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in World War II—The War Against Japan (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1982), p. 425.

3. John Miller, Jr. Cartwheel: The Reduction of Rabaul (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History—Department of the Army, 1959), p. 235.

4. War Diary Commander LCI(L) Group Fourteen 1 September 1943–30 September 1943, p. 8.

5. Charles R. Ports, “My Life as an LCI Gunboat Sailor,” The Elsie Item No. 56 (June 2006): 20.

6. USS LCI(L) 23 Action Report; Support of Landing, Treasury Islands, 27 October 1943, p. 3.

7. USS LCI(L) 23 Action Report, Support of Landing, Treasury Islands, 27 October 1943, Second Endorsement, 24 November 1943.

8. Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier 22 July 1942–1 May 1944 (Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2001), pp. 316–328.

9. USS LCI(L) 2, No Serial, Action Report: Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville Islands, 29 November 194, 3 December 1943, Second Endorsement.

10. USS LCI(L) 24 (G), No Serial, Action Report—Night of 25, February 1944, MOTUPENA Pt.—GAZELE HARBOR AREA, BOUGAINVILLE—SOLOMON ISLANDS, 26 February 1944, pp. 1–3.

11. USS LCI(G) #69, No Serial, War Diary and Log, Month of May 1943, 29 May to 31 May 1944.

12. Commander LCI(G) Group 13. Serial 121. LCI Gunboat Operations of 1–4 July 1944. 7 July 1944, pp. 1–2.

13. Captain Walter Karig, Lieutenant Commander Russell L. Harris, and Lieutenant Commander Frank A. Manson, Battle Report: The End of an Empire (New York: Rinehart and Company, 1948), pp. 50–52.

14. Daniel E. Barbey, Vice Admiral, MacArthur’s Amphibious Navy: Seventh Amphibious Force Operations 1943–1945 (Annapolis: United States Naval Institute, 1969), p. 119.

15. “Yanks Use Rockets Against Japs,” The Deseret News (Salt Lake City), January 16, 1944: p. 2.

16. Barbey, pp. 144–157.

17. War Diary Commander LCI Group 45, September 1945, p. 3.

18. Commander Task Group 78.14, Serial 1073/08, Action Report—Mapia Islands and Asia Islands Operation, 27 November 1944, p. 1.

19. Commander Task Group 78.14, Serial 1073/08, Action Report—Mapia Islands and Asia Islands, 27 November 1944.

20. Henry I. Shaw, Jr., and Major Douglas T. Kane, USMC, History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II, Volume II, Isolation of Rabaul (Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1963), p. 538.

Chapter 4

1. Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume VII, Aleutians, Gilberts and Marshalls June 1942-April 1944 (Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2001), p. 70.

2. Vaughn. E. Hampton, Amphibious Ships with No Names, http://www.Geocities.com/Heartland/Plains/5850/Hampton.html, pp. 4–5.

3. Dominick C. Maurone, USS LCI Stories, “Dominick C. Maurone LCI 440,” USS Landing Craft Infantry National Association, pp. 4–6. http://www.usslci.com/maurone/maurone1.htm.

4. Commander LCI Group 8, Flotilla Three, Serial 15, War Diary, submission of, 10 March 1944, p. 24.

5. Commander Eniwetok Expeditionary Group (Commander Task Group FIFTY ONE POINT ELEVEN—Commander Group TWO, FIFTH Amphibious Force), ENIWETOK Operations—Report of, 7 March 1944, Enclosure (A), p. 76.

6. Ibid., Enclosure (A), p. 78.

7. Commander LCI Group 8, Flotilla Three, Serial 15, War Diary, submission of, 10 March 1944, pp. 18–19.

8. Commander LCI Group 9, War Diary 7–14 March 1944, pp. 1–6.

9. Commander Amphibious Forces, Pacific (Commander Joint Expeditionary Force) Serial 00704, Report of Amphibious Operations for the Capture of the Marianas Islands: Operation, 25 August 1944, p. 6.

10. Wyatt Blassingame, The U.S. Frogmen of World War II (New York: Random House, 1964), p. 77.

11. Commanding General, Fifth Amphibious Corps (Commander Task Group 56.1), Serial 0024A, Northern Troops and Landing Force Operations Report, Forager Phase I (Saipan), 12 August 1944, Enclosure (I), p. 6.

12. USS LCI(G) 458 Serial 1025-1, Marianas Operation, Saipan—Action Report of LCI(G) 458, 25 October 1944, Enclosure (A), Part 1.

13. Ibid., Enclosure (A), p. 5.

14. USS LCI(G) 452 No Serial, USS LCI(G) 452—Action Report, no date. p. 2.

15. Commander LCI(L) Flotilla 3, Serial 050-44, Engagement Between Enemy Troop Barges and LCI(G)’s of Flotilla Three, 26 June 1944, p. 1.

16. Commander Task Force FIFTY TWO (Commander Group TWO, Amphibious Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet), Serial 0232, Capture of TINIAN—Report of, 24 August 1944, Enclosure (A), pp. 65–66.

17. USS LCI(G) 453, Serial 063, Action Report (Delayed), Marianas Campaign, 11 October 1944, p. 4.

18. Commander LCI(G) Group 8, Serial 025, Action Report of LCI(G) Group Eight, Division Sixteen, 10 August 1944, p. 62.

19. United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific) Naval Analysis Division, The Campaigns of the Pacific War (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1946), pp. 219–220.

20. USS LCI(G) 468, Serial None, Action Report, 28 June 1944, p. 1.

21. Commander Task Force 53 (Commander Amphibious Forces, Pacific Group 3) Serial 00224, Report of Amphibious Operations for the Capture of Guam, 10 August 1944, pp. 8–9.

22. Officer in Charge UDT #3 Serial 00229, Underwater Demolition Team #3—Operation Report of, 18 August 1944.

23. USS LCI(G) 469, No Serial, Action Report on the Assault on the Island of Guam, 30 July 1944, p. 2.

24. The Commander, LCI(G) Group 37, No Serial, Action report for period 21 July to 31 July 1944, 1 August 1944, p. 2.

25. USS LCI(G) 469, No Serial, Action Report on encounter with enemy gunfire at Guam, 1 August 1944, p. 1.

26. USS LCI(G) 466, Serial—None, Action Report of September 1944, 5 October 1944, p. 2.

27. Headquarters, Third Marines, Third Marine Division, FMF, in the Field, Special Action Report Number Two, 12 September 1944, Annex “B,” p. 1.

28. Commander LCI(L) Flotilla Thirteen Group 37, War Diary 1 July to 30 September 1945.

29. Headquarters, Third Marines, Third Marine Division, FMF, in the Field, Special Action Report Number Two, 12 September 1944, Annex “B,” p. 2.

30. U.S.S. LCI(G) 471, No Serial, Action Report on Capture of One Hundred Jap Prisoners by LCI(G) 471, 30 September 1944, p. 6.

31. Commanding Officer, Underwater Demolition Team Four, Beaches Violet ONE and Violet TWO, Reconnaissance report of, 19 October 1944, p. 4.

32. United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific) Naval Analysis Division, The Campaigns of the Pacific War (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1946), p. 220.

33. Robert Leckie, Helmet for My Pillow: From Parris Island to the Pacific (New York: Bantam, 2010), p. 278.

34. USS LCI(M) 739, War Diary September 1944, 15–20 September 1944, p. 7.

35. USS LCI(G) 453, Serial 068, Action Report, PALAU Operation, 15 November 1944, p. 2.

36. U.S.S. LCI(G) 458, Serial 1101, Palau Campaign, Peleliu—Action Report of LCI(G) 458 for, 1 November 1944, pp. 4–5.

37. Commander LCI Group 9, War Diary 4 September through 30 September 1944, inclusive, Enclosure (A), pp. 3–7.

38. John H. Morrill, The Cincinnati (Wytheville, VA: self-published, 1994), pp. 126–127.

39. Ibid., pp. 175–177.

40. Dick Arnold, LCI(G) 730, “Dick Arnold’s Peleliu Memories,” http://www.home.sprvnet.com/~kier/arnold.htm, pp. 1–2.

41. Robert F. Heath, With the Black Cat USS LCI Flotilla 13 (Chico, CA: The Technical Education Press, 2003), p. 67.

42. USS LCI(G) 397, Serial 38, Action Report—Submission of, 9 March 1945, p. 2.

43. USS LCI(G) 405, No Serial, Action Report—Report of Action Morning of 24 December 1944, 15 February 1945, pp. 1–2.

44. USS LCI(L) 732, Serial 58, Enemy Action—Report of, 27 February 1945, pp. 1–2.

45. Morrill, p. 194.

46. Commander LCI(L) Flotilla THIRTEEN (U.S.S. LCI(G) 730, Flagship), War Diary for April 1945, 2 May 1945, p. 8.

47. LCI(L) Flotilla Thirteen, Serial 0627, War Diary for August 1945, 1 September 1945, p.4.

Chapter 5

1. Grace Person Hayes., The History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in World War II: The War Against Japan (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1982), p. 604.

2. Ibid., p. 605.

3. USS LCI(G) 451, Serial—None, War Diary and Action Report, 28 October 1944, p. 1.

4. Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Vol. XII, Leyte June 1944–January 1944 (Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2001), p. 120.

5. Commander Task Unit 78.3.5, No Serial, Action Report—Central Philippines—Panaon Attack Group, 30 November 1944, pp. 1–3.

6. M. Hamlon Cannon, United States Army I World War II The War in the Pacific: Leyte: The Return to the Philippines (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History United States Army, 1996), p. 65.

7. Edward H. Laylin, Lieutenant (jg), Commanding Officer of LCI(L) 1064, letter of 11 November 1944.

8. Joseph A. Dumenigo, LCI(G) 568, interview, 17 February 2011.

9. USS LCI(G) 72, Serial 027, Action Report—LEYTE Operation, 1 November, 1944, p. 5.

10. Commander Task Force 78 ( Commander Seventh Amphibious Force), Serial 00911, Leyte Operations—Report On, 10 November 1944, p. 13.

11. Underwater Demolition Team 10, Serial 02, Action Report, Assault Landings at Leyte Island, P.I. 24 October 1944, p. 9.

12. U. D. T. #9, No Serial, C. O., U. D. T. #9 Action Report, Leyte Operation, 3 November 1944, p. 4.

13. Commander Task Group 79.1 (Commander Amphibious Group 3), Serial 454, Report of Task Group 79.1 Participation in Amphibious Operations for the Capture of Leyte, P.I., 26 October 1944, p. 10B.

14. USS LCI(M) 660, No Serial, Action Report of 20 to 24 October 1944, 31 October 1944, p. 4.

15. Ibid., p. 8.

16. Commander LCI(M) Group 18 (Temporary Commander Task Unit 79.7.3), Serial 051, Action Report, Invasion of Philippines, Island of Leyte, 23 October 1944, p. 1.

17. Lieutenant Steward W. Hellman, “Leyte Landing,” in S. E. Smith, ed., The United States Navy in World War II (New York: William Morrow, 1966), pp. 836–837.

18. Commander LCI(L) Flotilla 6, Serial 132, Action Report—Submission of, 14 November 1944, p.4

19. USS LCI(L) 372, Serial 078, Action Report 3-44; Beach Assault on Leyte Island, 21 October 1944, p. 4.

20. Ibid., p. 5.

21. USS LCI(G) 422, Serial—None, Action Report Covering Operation of This Vessel 20 October, 1944., Undated, pp. 1–3.

22. USS LCI(G) 475, Serial None, Action Report, no date, pp. 1–2.

23. USS LCI(G) 568, No Serial, Action Report, no date, p. 2.

24. USS LCI(G) 462, No Serial, Action Report of USS LCI(G) 462 During Assault on Leyte Island, Philippines, 24 October 1944, p. 1.

25. “LCI Memories … A Lucky Japanese Dive-Bomber Spoils the Day for LCI(G) #23,” USS Landing Craft Infantry National Association, undated, pp. 1–2, http://usslcicom/html_L2/stories/divebomber.html

26. USS LCI(G) 752, Serial 131, War Damage, Report of, 5 November 1944.

27. U.S.S. LCI(G) 340, No Serial, Action Report—LEYTE Operation, 28 October 1944, pp. 6–7.

28. USS LCI(G) 342, Serial-None, Action Report San Pedro Bay, Central Philippines, 31 October 1945, p. 1.

29. Commander Task Unit 78.1.8 (Commander LCI(R) Group 20) Serial 160, Action Reports, Task Unit 78.1.8, Leyte Operation (20 Oct. to 20th Nov.)—Information Additional to, 20 November 1944, pp. 4–6.

30. Commander Task Group 78.2 (Seventh Amphibious Force Group 8) Serial 098, Anti-Aircraft Action Report—Leyte Operation, Forwarding Of, 4 December 1944, pp. 22–24.

31. USS LCI(G) 558, Serial None, Action Report, Anti-Aircraft, 18 January 1945, pp. 1–2.

32. USS LCI(G) 558, Serial None, Action Report, 10 December 1944.

33. Ibid.

34. Robin L. Rielly, Kamikaze Attacks of World War II (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010), p. 109.

35. Commander LCI Group 20, Serial 178, Action Report—Mindoro Operations, 15 December 1944, 19 December 1944, Enclosure (B), p. 2.

36. Robert Ross Smith, United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific: Triumph in the Philippines (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History United States Army, 1991), p. 95.

37. Commander Task Force 78 (Commander Task Group 7.1) (Commander Seventh Amphibious Force), Serial 0071, Report of the Lingayen Operation—San Fabian Attack Force, 12 February 1945, p. 3.

38. Commander Task Unit 79.7.1 (Commander LCI(G) Group 16), Serial 017, Action Report for Luzon Operation on 24 December 1944 to 23 January 1945, 4 February 1945, pp. 4–5.

39. USS LCI(G) 559, No Serial, Action Report, Support of Hydrographic Survey Group, and Lingayen Beach Assault, no date, p. 4.

40. USS LCI(G) 558, No Serial, Action Report, 22 January 1945, p. 2.

41. Ibid.

42. Arden Lee Hunt, The Journal of Arden Lee Hunt, LCI 226, USS Landing Craft Infantry National Association, pp. 14–15, http://www.usslci.com/html/lci226.htm.

43. Smith, p. 76.

44. USS LCI(G) 365, Serial None, Action Report, Submission of, 12 January 1945, p. 3.

45. USS LCI(G) 559, No Serial, Action Report, Support of Hydrographic Survey Group, and Lingayen Beach Assault, no date, p. 3.

46. War Diary of Task Force Thirty-One Third Fleet and Task Force Seventy-Nine, Seventh Fleet. 1 January to 31 January 1945, Enclosure (H), p. 3.

47. USS LCI(G) 560, No Serial, Action Report, 25 January 1945, p. 5.

48. Commander Task Unit 79.8.1 (Commander LCI(M) Group 17), Serial 010, Action Report, 18 January 1945, pp. 1–9.

Chapter 6

1. Commander Task Unit 78.2.6, No Serial, Action Report—Mike Six Operation—Nasugbu—Southern Luzon—January 31–February 2, 1945, 9 February 1945, Part I, p. 5.

2. Claude Haddock, S 1/c, LCS(L) 49, interview of 24 July 2008.

3. Harry G. Meister, Lieutenant Commander USNR. USS LCS(L) 3-27, A WWII Amphibious Landing Craft Support Vessel (Vancouver, WA: Typescript, 2002), pp. 16–17.

4. L. Richard Rhame, Lieutenant (jg), LCS(L) Flotilla One, Mariveles Bay—15 February 1945, Typescript, January 1988, p. 2.

5. Arden Lee Hunt, The Journal of Arden Lee Hunt, LCI 226, USS Landing Craft Infantry National Association, pp. 19–20, http://www.usslci.com/html/lci226.htm

6. Commander Task Force SEVENTY-EIGHT (Commander SEVENTH Amphibious Forces), Serial: 0907, Action Reports, MARIVELES—CORREGIDOR Operation, 12–15 February 1945, 12 April 1945, p. 1.

7. Gordon L. Rottman, World War II Pacific Island Guide: A Geo-Military Study (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), p. 308.

8. USS LCI(R) 341, Serial—None, Action Report—Cebu City Area, Cebu Island, 28 March 1945, p. 3.

9. Commander Task Unit 78.2.6, Serial None, Action Report—Victor-Two Operation—Cebu City Philippine Islands, 26–28 March 1945, 31 March 1945, p. 3.

10. Commander Task Group 78.2, Serial 0145, Action Report—Malabang-Parang-Cotabato Mindanao Operation, 22 May 1945, p. 1.

11. Ibid., p. 12.

12. Commander Task Unit 78.2.12 (Commander LCS Flotilla 1), Serial 051, Action Reports of PGMs 4 and 6 and LCI(G) 61—Pulangi River, Mindanao Operation, 9 May 1945.

13. Kenneth R. Krayer ETCS, On a Ship with No Name: The U.S.S. LCSL(L)(3) 28 in World War Two (Erie, PA: self-published, circa 1990s), p. 39.

14. Commander Task Unit 78.1.31, Serial 05, Action Report—Zamboanga Peninsula Operation. 15 March 1945, pp. 1–3.

15. Commander Task Unit 78.1.3, Serial 014, Action Report—Zamboanga Operation, 16 March 1945, p. 3.

16. USS LCS(L) 43, No Serial, Action Report, 19 March 1945, p. 1.

17. Commander Task Group 70.4, Serial None, no date, Summary of Missions to Supply Guerrilla Forces, p. 1.

18. Albert C. Eldridge, Lieutenant, CO LCS(L) 10The Mighty Ten (History of the LCS(L) 10), Typescript, undated, p. 3.

19. Ibid., pp. 3–4.

20. Commander Task Group 70.4, Serial None, no date, Summary of Missions to Supply Guerrilla Forces, pp. 2–3.

21. Ibid., pp. 3–4.

22. Frank P. Muth, History of the LCS(L) 9, Typescript, undated, p. 8.

23. Commander Task Group 70.4, Serial None, no date, Summary of Missions to Supply Guerrilla Forces, pp. 4–5.

24. Krayer, p. 42.

25. Commander Task Group 70.4, Serial None, no date, Summary of Missions to Supply Guerrilla Forces, p. 8.

26. Eldridge, p. 9.

27. Larry Alexander, Shadows in the Jungle: The Alamo Scouts Behind Japanese Lines in World War II (New York: NAL Caliber, 2010), pp. 293–294

Chapter 7

1. Commander LCI(G) Group 8 (Commander Task Unit 52.5.2) Serial 0035-45, Action of LCI(G) Group Eight in the Iwo Jima Campaign From 17 February to 20 February 1945—Report of, 30 March 1945, pp. 2–3.

2. Deck Log LCI(G) 449, 17 February 1945, p. 20.

3. Dennis Blocker, “The Firey Ordeal of LCI(G) 449 at Iwo Jima,” The Elsie Item, USS Landing Craft Infantry, National Association, Blythewood, SC, Issue #60 (July 2007): 19–23.

4. U.S. Navy, Medal of Honor 1861–1949—The Navy, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949.

5. USS LCI(G) 438, Serial 220, Action Report—Assault on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 17–21 February 1945, 1 March 1945, pp. 3–4.

6. USS LCI(G) 474 No Serial, Action Report—Assault on Iwo Jima, 17 February 1945, 17 February 1945, pp. 1–3.

7. Lieutenant (jg) Donald Murray quoted in Chet Cunningham, The Frogmen of World War II (New York: Pocket Star Books, 2005), p. 263.

8. Bruce F. Meyers, Swift, Silent, and Deadly—Marine Amphibious Reconnaissance in the Pacific, 1942–1945 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2004), p. 106.

9. Frank Jirka, Lieutenant (jg),UDT 12, speech at Great Lakes Naval Hospital, Chicago, IL, circa 1946.

10. USS LCI(G) 457 Serial—None, Action Report, 27 February 1945, pp. 3–5.

11. USS LCI(G) 441. Serial—None, Action Report, Assault on Iwo Jima, Volcanoes, February 17 to 19, 1945, 6 March 1945, pp. 3–5.

12. USS LCI(G) 473 Serial 14-45, Action Report on Invasion of Iwo Jima, 1 March 1945, pp. 1–2.

13. USS Terror CM5 Serial 0107, Action Report, 2 March 1945, pp. 1–2.

14. Commander Underwater Demolition Team 15, No Serial, Action Report—Beach Reconnaissance, Iwo Jima Island, 10 March 1945, pp. 5–6.

15. Commander LCI(G) Flotilla 3 (Commander Task Unit 52.5.1), Serial 005-44, Action Report—Assault of Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 17–19 February 1945, 24 February 1945, 1st Endorsement, 24 February 1945.

16. USS LCI(G) 348, Serial-None, Action Report, Underwater Demolition Support on Iwo Jima, Feb. 17, 1945, 9 March 1945, pp. 2–3.

17. Commander LCI(G) Flotilla 3 (Commander Task Unit 52.5.1) Serial 005-44, Action Report—Assault of Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 17–19 February 1945, 24 February 1945, Enclosures A and B.

18. Commander LCI(G) Flotilla Three, Serial 003. Detachment Operation, 22 February 1945, p. 6.

19. USS LCI(G) 450Serial None. Action Report, Forwarding of, 24 February 1945, First Endorsement, 22 March 1945, p. 1.

20. Commander LCI(G) Group 8 (Commander Task Unit 52.5.2) Serial 0035-45, Action of LCI(G) Group Eight in the Iwo Jima Campaign, From 17 February to 20 February 1945—Report of, 30 March 1945, p. 9.

21. Commander Task Force 52 (Amphibious Support Force), (Rear Admiral W. H. P. Blandy, USN, Commander Amphibious Group One, U.S.S. Estes, Flagship), Serial 009, Operations of Task Force 52 in the Iwo Jima Campaign from 10 February to 0600(K) 19 February, at which time CTF 51 assumed title CTF 52 according to Plan; Report of, 22 February 1945, p. C-9.

22. Commander LCI(G) Group 8 (Commander Task Unit 52.5.2). Serial 0035-45, Action of LCI(G) Group “Eight in the Iwo Jima Campaign, From 17 February to 20 February 1945—Report of, 30 March 1945, p. 9.

23. Captain Walter Karig, Battle Report: Victory in the Pacific (New York: Rinehart and Company, 1949), p. 261.

24. Commander Task Unit 52.6.5 (Commander LCI(L) Group 67), No Serial, Action Report—Invasion of Iwo Jima 18–26 February 1945, no date, p. 2.

25. USS LCI(M) 1057 Serial None, Action Report of Okinawa Operation, 1–10 April 1945, 11 April 1945, p. 3.

26. USS LCI(M) 975 Serial 003, Action Report of Okinawa Operation, 2 April 1945, pp. 2–3.

27. USS LCI(M) 633, No Serial, Action and Operation Report—Iwo Jima—Volcano Islands, 1 March 1945, p. 2.

28. Commander Task Unit 52.6.5, (Commander LCI(L) Group 67), No Serial, Action Report—Invasion of Iwo Jima 18–26 February 1945, no date, Enclosure (E), p. 2.

29. Commander Task Unit 52.6.1, (Commander LCI(L) Group 61), Serial AR 1-45, Action Report—Amphibious Assault on Iwo Jima—15 February 1945 to 2 March 1945, 5 March 1945, p. 11.

30. Charles Thomas, Dolly Five: A Memoir of the Pacific War (Chester, VA: Harrowgate Press, 1996), pp. 135, 145.

31. USS LCI(R) 644, No Serial, Action Report—Invasion of Iwo Jima—15 February–2 March 1945, 5 March 1945, p. 3.

32. LCS(L) 31, No Serial. Action Report; Capture and Occupation of Iwo Jima, 19 February–8 March 1945, 10 March 1945, p. 1.

33. LCS(L)(3) 51, No Serial, Report of Action of USS LCS(L)(3) 51 Against IWO JIMA, 19 February through 26 February 1945, Undated, p. 2.

34. Commander Task Group 52.5 (Commander LCS(L) Flotilla 3), Serial 027, Action Report—Invasion of Iwo Jima—19–26 February 1945, 10 March 1945, Enclosure (G), p. 2.

35. USS LCS(L) 31, No Serial, Action Report; Capture and Occupation of Iwo Jima, 19 February–8 March 1945, 10 March 1945, pp. 4–5.

36. Frank C. Osterland, LCDR USNR, Dolly Three, Typescript, 28 August 28 1993, p. 6.

37. USS LCS(L) 33, No Serial, Action Report U.S.S. LCS(L) (3) 33, 10 March 1945, p. 11.

38. Commander Task Group 52.5 (Commander LCS(L) Flotilla 3), Serial 027, Action Report—Invasion of Iwo Jima—19–26 February 1945, 10 March 1945, Enclosure (C), p. 11.

39. Commander Task Group 52.5 (Commander LCS(L) Flotilla 3), Serial 027, Action Report—Invasion of Iwo Jima—19–26 February 1945, 10 March 1945, Enclosure (E), pp. 4–5.

40. USS LCI(M) 1056, Serial None, Action Report, 5 March 1945, p. 2.

41. USS LCI(M) 1012, Serial 008, Action and Operation Report, Iwo Jima, 28 February 1945, p. 5.

42. USS LCI(G) 756, Serial 1, Action Report—Iwo Jima, 3 March 1945, p. 4.

43. USS LCI(M) 356, Serial 1252, Action and Operation Report, Iwo Jima, 27 February 1945, D Plus 8, 7 March 1945, Enclosure (C).

44. USS LCS(L) 54, No Serial. Action Report: Assault and Capture of Iwo Jima, 19 February–8 March 1945, 14 March 1945, p. 2.

Chapter 8

1. Grace Person Hayes, Lieutenant, The History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in World War II, The War Against Japan (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1982), p. 695.

2. Ibid., p. 697.

3. Ibid., p. 696.

4. George Odgers, Air War Against Japan, 1943–1945 (Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1968), p. 434.

5. Samuel Eliot Morison, The Liberation of the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, the Visayas 1944–1945 (Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2001), p. 259.

6. USS LCI(M) 359 Serial 7, Action Report of Encounter with an Enemy Raft Containing Eight Japanese, 26 April 1945, 27 April 1945, p. 2.

7. Raymond J. Ross, EM 3/c, LCS(L) 60, Typescript, March 1945, p. 5.

8. Robert C. Heim, BM 2/c, LCS(L) 48, Typescript, July 1989, p. 2.

9. Joseph E. Rhoads, Lieutenant (jg), LCS(L) 50The Birth and Life of our Ship the USS LCS(L)(3) 50, Typescript, circa 1945, p. 4.

10. USS LCI(R) 71 No Serial, Action Report, U.S. S. LCI (R) 71—Tarakan Island, Borneo Operation, 1 May 1945, p. 2.

11. U.S.S. LCI(M) 362, No Serial, Action Report, Tarakan Island, 2 May 1945, p. 2.

12. Gilbert D. Nadeau, LCS(L) 45 letter to Richard Rhame, National Association of USS LCS(L) 1–130, 9 March 1990.

13. USS LCS(L) 60, Serial 0055, Action Report, U.S.S. LCS(L)(3) 60—BRUNEI BAY Operation, 10 June 1945, p. 4.

14. Raymond J. Ross, EM 3c, LCS(L) 60History of LCS(L) 60, Typescript, 1991, p. 8.

15. Ross, p. 8.

16. Commander Underwater Demolition Team No. 11, Serial 0008, Action Report, 10 June 1945, pp. 1–4.

17. USS LCI(R) 34 Serial 0023, Action Report, U.S.S. LCI (R) 34—Labuan Island, Brunei Area Borneo Period—7 June 1945 to 12 June 1945, 13 June 1945, pp. 1–2.

18. Gavin Long, Australia in the War of 1939–1945: The Final Campaigns (Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1963), pp. 502–503.

19. Commander Task Group 78.2 (Commander Amphibious Group EIGHT, SEVENTH Fleet), Serial No. 0235, Action Report—BALIKPAPAN-MANGGAR-BORNEO June 15–July 6, 1945, 14 August 1945, p. V-1.

20. G. Hermon Gill, Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945 (Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1968), p. 648.

21. Commander Underwater Demolition Team 11, Action Report C.T.U. 78.2.11—25 June to 1 July 1945 Operation OBOE TWO, 2 July 1945, p. 2.

22. Marvin Cooper, The Men from Fort Pierce, quoted in U.S. Naval Special Warfare Archives, http://www.navyfrogmen.com/team13.html, p. 6.

23. U.S.S. LCS (L (3) 44, Action Report, U.S.S. LCS(L) (3) 44—Balikpapan Operation (June 24-July 2), 2 July 1945, p. 1.

24. U.S.S. LCS(L)(3) 28, Serial 46-45, Action Report U.S.S. LCS(L)(3) 28—Balikpapan Operation, 1 July 1945, 2 July 1945, p. 1.

25. Commanding Officer, Underwater Demolition Team No, 18. Serial 0001, Action Report, 2 July 1945, pp. 1–5.

26. LCS(L) 8 Serial 020, Action Report, Balikpapan Operation (Including Demolition Operations Prior to “F” day), 2 July 1945, pp. 1–2.

27. Samuel Eliot Morison, The Liberation of the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, The Visayas 1944–1945 (Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 2001), p. 274.

28. Commander Task Group 78.2 (Commander Amphibious Group EIGHT, SEVENTH Fleet), Serial No. 0235, Action Report—BALIKPAPAN-MANGGAR-BORNEO June 15-July 6, 1945, 14 August 1945, p. V-14.

29. LCS(L) 8Ship’s History, circa 1945, p. 8.

30. USS LCI(G) 66, No Serial, Action Report, U.S.S. LCI(G) 66—Balikpapan Screening Operation, 10 July 1945, 14 July 1945, pp. 1–2.

Chapter 9

1. Amphibious Forces Pacific Fleet, (Task Force 52), Serial 000166, Operation Order A6-45, 16 March 1945, pp. 1–2.

2. United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific) Naval Analysis Division, The Campaigns of the Pacific War (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1946), p. 324.

3. Commander Amphibious Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet (Commander Task Force FIFTY-ONE and Joint Expeditionary Force) Serial 01400, General Action Report, Capture of OKINAWA GUNTO, Phases I and II, 17 February 1945 to 17 May 1945—Submission of, 25 July 1945, (V) (C)-7.

4. Commander Underwater Demolition Teams, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Serial 0028-45, Action Report, RYUKYU ISLANDS Operations, 25 March–5 April, 1945, 4 April 1945, p. 1-1.

5. Commander A. R. Montgomery, Commander Task Group 52.18, First Endorsement to CTU 52.24.4 conf., letters dated 9 April 1945, 26 April 1945.

6. USS LCI(G) 567 Serial—None. Action Report for Okinawa Gunto, Phases One and Two, March 26–June 25, 1945, 15 July 1945, p. 4.

7. Commander Task Group 52.11 (Commander Underwater Demolition Teams, Amphibious Force Pacific) Serial 0028-45, Action Report, Ryukyu Islands Operations, 25 March–5 April 1945, 4 April 1945, p. 5.

8. Lieutenant (jg) Donald Murray UDT 13 quoted in Chet Cunningham, The Frogmen of World War II: An Oral History of the U.S. Navy’s Underwater Demolition Units (New York: Pocket Books, 2005), pp. 267–268.

9. USS LCI(R) 1026, Serial 165, Action Report for Period 21 March to 1 May 1945, 1 May 1945, p. 1.

10. Commander LCI Group 14, Serial 04, Action Report—Okinawa Operation, 1 April to 15 April 1945, 20 April 1945, p. 1.

11. Commander LCI Flotilla 14 (Commander Task Group 52.24), Serial 0566, Action Report—Okinawa Shima—1 April 1945, 7 May 1945, p. 5.

12. USS LCI(M) 807, Serial 143, Action Report at Okinawa Shima 1 April 1945, 29 May 1945. Second Endorsement, 15 July 1945.

13. U.S.S. LCI(G) 1089, Serial 1-45, Action Report, Western Haguchi Beach, Okinawa Jima, 5 April 1945, p. 5.

14. Charles J. Lamson, S 2/c, U.S.S. LCI(R) 648, letter to Mrs. Charles W. Lamson, 3 April 1945.

15. Joseph A. Dumenigo, LCI(G) 568, interview of 17 January 2011.

16. USS LCI(G) 568, Serial 5-45, Anti-aircraft Action Report by USS LCI(G) 568, 7 April 1945, p. 2.

17. LCI(R) Group 47, War Diary, 1–30 April 1945, p. 3.

18. Commander Task Group 52.23, (Commander LCI Flotilla 21), Serial 0001, Action Report, Invasion of Okinawa Jima, Nansei Shoto Group, 25 March through 10 April 1945, 10 April 1945, p. 7.

19. Benis M. Frank and Henry I. Shaw, Jr., Victory and Occupation, Vol. V, History of the U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II (Washington, D.C.: Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1968), pp. 162–164.

20. USS LCI(G) 452 Serial 141, LCI(G) 452 Action Report, no date, p. 3.

21. USS LCI(G) 567 Serial—None, Action Report for Okinawa Gunto, Phases One and Two, March 26–June 25 1945, 15 July 1945, p. 4.

22. Commander LCI(L) Group Fourteen—Third Amphibious Force, War Diary 1–30 April 1945, Enclosure (B), p. 1.

23. USS LCI(R) 770, Serial None, Action Report—Okinawa Operation 1 April–22 June 1945, no date, p. 25.

24. USS LCI(M) 1089, Serial 4045, Action Report, Naha, Okinawa Jima, Attack on, 18 May 1945, pp. 3–4.

25. Commander Task Unit 52.23.2 (Commander LCI Group 55) Serial 040, Action Report—Nansei Shoto, Okinawa, Operation—1 May to 31 May 1945, 6 June 1945, pp. 4–5.

26. USS LCI(G) 567 Serial—None, Action Report for Okinawa Gunto, Phases One and Two, March 26–June 25 1945, 15 July 1945, pp. 8–9.

27. USS LCI(R) 1028, Serial—None, General Action Report, Okinawa, 1 April 1945–27 June 1945, 28 June 1945, pp. 4–5.

28. USS LCI(R) 647, Serial 205, General Action Report for the Capture of Okinawa Gunto, from 21 May to 22 June 1945, 29 June 1945, p. 4.

29. U.S.S. LCI(R) 769, Serial None, General Action Report, 28 March–30 June 1945, no date, p. 3.

30. Commander LCI Flotilla 16, Serial 35, Action Report—Invasion of the Okinawa Group Liu Chius, 26 March to 21 June 1945, 15 July 1945, pp. 21–22.

31. USS LCI(R) 1077, No Serial, Report of Capture of Okinawa Gunto—Phase 2—18 May 1945 to 21 June 1945, 29 June 1945, p. 6.

32. Commander LCI Flotilla 16, Serial 35, Action Report—Invasion of the Okinawa Group Liu Chius, 26 March to 21 June 1945, 15 July 1945, p. 23.

33. Ibid., p. 35.

34. Prior to the invasion of Okinawa, most LCI(R)s carried the 4.5 inch fin-stabilized barrage rocket. It had a tested range of 1,000–1,100 yards. The newly developed 5 inch spin-stabilized rocket began to replace it. The new spin-stabilized barrage rocket had a range of approximately 5,000 yards. Commander Clarence Coffin’s LCI(R) ships were the first fitted with the new rockets and were used at Iwo Jima. Coffin continually lobbied for the conversion of all LCI(R)s to the new spin-stabilized rocket. For more detailed information see Chapter XXIII of John E. Burchard, ed., Rockets, Guns and Targets (Boston: Little, Brown, 1948).

35. USS LCI(G) 1010, Serial 10, Action Report, Invasion of Okinawa, 10 April 1945, p. 7.

36. Commander LCI Flotilla 3 (Commander Task Unit 52.9.2) Serial 069-45, Action Report, Anti-Small Craft Gunboats, Okinawa, 1 April to 14 June 1945, 28 August 1945, p. 19.

37. Commander LCI Flotilla 16/ Serial 35, Action Report—Invasion of the Okinawa Group Liu Chius, 26 March to 21 June 1945, 15 July 1945, p. 33.

Chapter 10

1. Robin L. Rielly, Kamikaze Attacks of World War II (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010), p. 80.

2. Commander Amphibious Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet (Commander Task Force FIFTY-ONE and Joint Expeditionary Force) Serial 01400, General Action Report, Capture of OKINAWA GUNTO, Phases I and II, 17 February 1945 to 17 May 1945—Submission of, 25 July 1945, (V) (C)-16.

3. USS LCI(G) 558, No Serial, Report of Capture of Okinawa Gunto, Phases 1 and 2, 21 July 1945, pp. 2–3.

4. USS LCI(R) 646, Serial 60, Action Report—Invasion of Okinawa, 26 March to 30 April 1945, 11 May 1945, p. 14.

5. USS LCI(G) 82, Serial—None, Action Report of USS LCI(G) 82 for 3–4 April 1945, 14 April 1945, pp. 2–3.

6. USS LCI(G) 82, Serial—None, Action Report of USS LCI(G) 82 for 3–4 April 1945, 14 April 1945, p. 3.

7. Commander LCI Flotilla 3 (Commander Task Unit 52.9.2), Serial 069-45, Action Report, Anti-Small Craft Gunboats, Okinawa, 1 April to 14 June 1945, 28 August 1945, p. 6.

8. USS LCI(G) 659, Serial—None, Action Report, Report of Action Night of 15 and 16 April 1945, 19 April 1945, p. 4.

9. USS LCI(R) 763, Serial No. 24, Action Report—27 April 1945, 27 April 1945, p. 2.

10. Commander LCI Group 47, War Diary, 1–30 April 1945, p. 6.

11. B. Raymond Perkins, Mission Ashore, Typescript, no date, p. 4.

12. Ibid., pp. 4–10.

13. USS LCS(L)(3) #19, Serial #0-4, Action Report, 18 May 1945, First Endorsement to, 21 May 1945, p. 1.

14. U.S.S. LCS(L) (3) 82, Serial None, Action Report, USS LCS(L)(3) 82, of 12–13 May 1945. Enclosure (A), p. 3.

15. LCI Flotilla 3, War Diary, 1–31 May 1945, p. 6.

16. Commander LCI Flotilla 3 (Commander Task Unit 52.9.2). Serial 069-45, Action Report, Anti-Small Craft Gunboats, Okinawa, 1 April to 14 June 1945, 28 August 1945, p. 14.

17. Commander Task Unit 51.17.1 (Commander LCI Group 16) Serial 031, Action Report, Anti Small Craft Screen, Okinawa, 1 April Thru 8 April 1945, 29 April 1945, p. 11.

18. Commander LCI(G) Group 7, Serial 081-45, Action Report of Task Unit 51.2.9 From 25 March 1945 to 15 May 1945, 3 June 1945, p. 7.

19. Commander LCI Group 16, Serial 046, Report of Capture of Okinawa Gunto, Phases 1 and 2, 30 June 1945, p. 12.

20. USS LCI(R) 1078, No Serial, USS LCI(R) 1078—Anti-Aircraft Action Report, 8 April 1945, p. 2.

21. USS LCI(G) 465, Serial—None, Action Report on Screening Station 117, 7 April 1945, pp. 1–3.

22. USS LCI(G) 567 Serial—None, Action Report for Okinawa Gunto, Phases One and Two, March 26–June 25 1945, 15 July 1945, p. 7.

23. Commander Fifth Amphibious Force, Translation of a Japanese Letter, 11 June 1945.

24. USS LCI(G) 567 Serial—None, Action Report for Okinawa Gunto, Phases One and Two, March 26–June 25 1945, p. 7.

25. USS LCI(G) 407, No Serial, Anti-Aircraft Action Report, 16 April 1945, pp. 2–3.

26. Commander LCI(L) Group Fourteen Third Amphibious Force. War Diary 1 May 1945 to 1 June 1945, Enclosure (A), p. 1.

27. Commander RCM and Rocket Division Two, Serial 024, Report of Capture of Okinawa Gunto, Phases 1 and 2, 1 April to 21 June 1945, no date, Enclosure (K), pp. 1–2.

28. USS LCI(M) 1058, Serial—None, Action Report—Special Anti-Aircraft, 30 April 1945, p. 2.

29. Commander LCI(L) Flotilla Fourteen, War Diary 1 May 1945 to 1 June 1945, Enclosure (A), p. 2.

Chapter 11

1. The events surrounding the battles at the radar picket stations at Okinawa are extremely detailed and lengthy. For practical purposes I have only mentioned some of the highlights which concern the gunboats in this chapter. For the complete story of the events at the radar picket stations and the involvement of the LCS(L) gunboats, see my work Kamikazes, Corsairs, and Picket Ships: Okinawa, 1945 (Philadelphia: Casemate, 2008).

2. Robin L. Rielly, Kamikazes, Corsairs, and Picket Ships: Okinawa, 1945 (Philadelphia: Casemate, 2008), p. 7.

3. The term “destroyer types” is meant to include the DM and DMS, as well as the DD, as they were converted from destroyers and had similar hulls and armament.

4. Commander Task Force Fifty-One, Commander Amphibious Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet, Report on Okinawa Gunto Operation from 17 February to 17 May 1945, Page (II)—p. 17.

5. John D. (Evans) Meader. MoMM 3/c, LCS(L) 33, USS LCS 33 Recollections of Ship’s Sinking April 12, 1945, pp. 4–5.

6. Frank C. Osterland, Lieutenant Commander, Dolly Three, Typescript, 28 August 1993, pp. 10–11.

7. USS Purdy DD 734 Serial 024, Action Report, 20 April 1945, p. 10.

8. John R. Henry, “Out Stares Jap Pilot After Ammo Runs Out,” Honolulu Advertiser, 27 April 1945.

9. H. D. Chickering, Lieutenant, CO, LCS(L) 51World War II, Typescript, undated, p. 32.

10. Powell Pierpont, Lieutenant (jg), XO, LCS(L) 61The War History of the LCS(L) 61, p. 4.

11. DD475 Dispatch, 5 June, 1945.

12. U.S.S. LCS(L) 83, Serial 02-45, Anti-Aircraft Action Report of 3 May 1945.

13. Thomas Lee, GM 1/c, LCS(L) 31, interview, 26 September 2011.

14. USS LCS(L) 31, Serial 31/A 12-1, Action Report (4 May 1945), 9 May 1945, pp. 1–3.

15. William J. Ross, SMC 3/c, LCS(L) 82, Ammo from a Civilian Manned Ship, Typescript, undated, p. 1.

16. John Rooney, Mighty Midget U.S.S. LCS 82 (PA: self-published 1990), p. 140.

17. Robert F. Rielly, QM 2/c, LCS(L) 61, interview of 20 May 2001.

18. U.S.S. William D. Porter (DD 579), Serial 00236, Action Report of 18 June 1945, pp. 2–3.

19. Richard M. McCool, Captain (Ret), CO USS LCS(L) 122, letter to the author with narrative, 23 May 1997.

20. Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, U.S. Senate, Medal of Honor Recipients: 1863–1973 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office), 1973.

21. U.S.S. LCS(L) (3) 125, Serial 37, Action Report, Submission of, 1 August 1945, p. 3.

22. Commander Amphibious Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet (Commander Task Force FIFTY-ONE and Joint Expeditionary Force) Serial 01400, General Action Report, Capture of OKINAWA GUNTO, Phases I and II, 17 February 1945 to 17 May 1945—Submission of, 25 July 1945, (V) (D)-6.

23. Howell D. Chickering, Lieutenant, CO LCS(L) 51, World War II, Typescript, circa 1990s, p. 36.

Chapter 12

1. Commander, Administrative Command, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Directory of Amphibious Type Vessels and Commanding Officers, (Amphibious Forces U.S. Pacific Fleet), 15 May 1945, pp. V-VIII.

2. Robin L. Rielly, Mighty Midgets at War: The Saga of the LCS(L) Ships From Iwo Jima to Vietnam (Central Point, OR: Hellgate Press, 2000), pp. 258–261.

3. C. G. Blood, Report 90-16, Shipboard and Ground Troop Casualty Rates Among Navy and Marine Corps Personnel During World War II Operations (San Diego: Naval Health Research Center—Medical Decisions Support Department, 1990), pp. 3, 29.

4. USS LCI(R)—230, Serial 210, Typoon Damage, 17 September 1945, pp. 1–3.

5. USS LCI(R) 337, Serial None, Typhoon Damage, 16 September 1945, 1 October 1945, pp. 1–3.

6. Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas, Report on the Surrender and Occupation of Japan, Annex A.

7. Ibid.

8. Commander Task Unit 78.1.7 (Commander LCS Flotilla 1) Serial 0110, Taku Tientsin Operation Report, Task Unit 78.1.7, Beleager Operation—27 September to 3 October 1945, 3 October 1945.

9. “List of Allied Warships Closing in on Jap Isles,” NY Daily News, 27 August 1945: 42.

10. Peter Elliot, Allied Minesweeping in World War 2,(Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1979), p. 177.

11. Charles Thomas, Dolly Five: A Memoir of the Pacific War (Chester, VA: Harrowgate Press, 1996), pp. 346–347.

12. Harry G. Meister, Engineering Officer, LCS(L) 27, USS LCS(L)(3) 27 A WWII Amphibious Landing Craft Support Vessel, Typescript, 2002, pp. 23–24.

13. D. Reid Ross., The World War II Saga of LCS 58, Typescript, 2011, p. 18.

14. Frank N. Farmer, LCS(L) 34, History of the U.S.S. LCS(L) (3) 34, Typescript, September 1989, pp. 16–17.

15. Ibid., p. 17.

16. Merl L. Riggs, LCS(L) 78, “Diary of My Experiences Aboard The LCS(L)(3) 78,” Typescript, circa 1940s, p. 1.

17. Kemp Tolley, Rear Admiral, Yangtze Patrol: The U.S. Navy in China (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1971), p. 294.

18. William B. Bell, LCS(L) 75, “A Report of a Yangtze Cruise in November, 1945,” Typescript, circa 1990s, p. 2.

19. Ibid., pp. 3–5

20. Ross, pp. 20–21.

21. Charles Thomas, Dolly Five: A Memoir of the Pacific War (Chester, VA: Harrowgate Press, 1996), p. 313.

22. Harry G. Meister, Engineering Officer, LCS(L) 27, USS LCS(L)(3) 27 A WWII Amphibious Landing Craft Support Vessel, Typescript, 2002, p. 24.

23. Charles Thomas, Dolly Five: A Memoir of the Pacific War (Chester, VA: Harrowgate Press, 1996), p. 315.

24. Ross, p. 221.

25. Robin L. Rielly, Mighty Midgets at War: The Saga of the LCS(L) Ships from Iwo Jima to Vietnam (Central Point, OR: Hellgate Press, 2000), p. 208.

26. Ibid., p. 232.

27. Officer in Charge LSSL 67 to Commander, Florida Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet, 16 July 1953.

28. Paul W. Boblette, BMC, LCS(L) 83, “Six Months on a Spit Kit,” Typescript, 1989, p. 1.

29. Ibid., pp. 3–6.

30. Commander, Naval Sea Systems Command, Security Assistance Program Ships and Craft Summary, 1 October 1992.

31. United States Public Law 104-201 Section 1025.

32. The National Association of USS LCS(L) (3) 1–130, “Feasibility Study for Acquiring and Restoring the Seabird to the Original USS LCS(L) (3) 50,” 2002.

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