Appendix A

Participation and Losses, Major Wars, 1775–2011


 

SERVED

BATTLE DEATHS

OTHER DEATHS

WOUNDED

Revolutionary

War1,

1775–1783

200,000+ est.

6,900 est.

18,500 est.

8,500 est.

War of 18122,

1812–1815

286,730

2,261

17,500 est.

4,500 est.

Mexican War

1846–1848

115,906

1,733

13,000 est.

4,152

Civil War3,

1861–1865:

       

  Union

2,000,000+ est.

112,000 est.

250,500 est.

277,500 est.

  Confederacy

750,000 est.

94,000 est.

167,000 est.

194,000 est.

War with Spain,

1898

306,760

385

3,000 est.

1,662

Philippine-

American War,

1899–1902

126,468

1,004

3,161

2,911

World War I,

1917–1918

4,734,991

53,402

63,114

204,002

World War II,

1941–1945

16,112,566

291,557

113,842

671,846

Korean War4,

1950–1953

5,720,000

33,741

2,835

103,284

Vietnam War5,

1964–1975

8,744,000

47,434

10,786

153,303

Gulf War,

1990–1991

2,225,000

147

235

467

War in

Afghanistan6,

2001–

320,000 est.

1,488

386

15,282

War in Iraq7,

2003–2011

930,000 est.

3,526

962

32,229


1 For the Revolutionary War we have used the statistics collected and analyzed by the Howard H. Peckham group, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, 1974.

2 The statistics for the War of 1812 are those provided by Donald R. Hickey, The War of 1812 (University of Chicago Press, 1989).

3 Statistics for the Civil War (especially for the Confederacy) are elusive, but we have used those provided by E. B. Long, The Civil War Day by Day (Doubleday, 1971). However, the author of an in-depth study using pre- and postwar census records has argued for raising the war’s final death toll from 620,000 to 750,000. See J. David Hacker, “A Census-Based Count of the Civil War Dead” Civil War History 57 (December 2011): 307–348.

4 At one time the Department of Defense listed 20,617 “other deaths” for the Korean War, an implausible figure when compared to the 33,741 battle deaths for Korea and the nearly 11,000 “other deaths” for the Vietnam War. The Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy are certain that they had 813 “other deaths,” but the Army, which listed 9,429 deaths of this sort at one time, has simply now announced that its “other deaths” are not available. Further research has led us to the number 2,835 for “Other Deaths.” The number for “Served” includes personnel deployed worldwide during the conflict.

5 Defense Manpower Data Center, http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALITY/vietnam.pdf. Of the total wounded, only about half required hospitalization.

6 Statistics for wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as of January 25, 2012, from Defense Manpower Data Center, http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf. The figures for Afghanistan include casualties in fourteen regional countries and Cuba (Guantanamo Bay).

7 Casualties for the Iraq War include deaths in other regional countries, the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, and the Red Sea. “Served” means fulltime, global, not just war zone. Because of multiple tours, short deployments, and assignments to Central Command that did not include physically serving in Iraq or Afghanistan, the number of service personnel who “served” in the two wars may run as high as 1.3 million to 1.9 million.

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