Appendix 2: 1914 Timeline

Pre-1914

1861

Unification of Italy

1870–1

Franco-Prussian War

1871

Unification of Germany

1879

Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary

1882

Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Kingdom of Serbia proclaimed

1894

Franco-Russian Alliance

1899–1902

Second Boer War

1902

Anglo-Japanese Alliance Secret Franco-Italian agreement

1904

British and French sign the Entente Cordiale

1904–5

Russo-Japanese War

1905

Revolution in Russia

1907

Anglo-Russian Entente signed, thereby forming the Triple Entente between France, Russia and Great Britain

1912–13

First Balkan War

1913

Second Balkan War

1914

28 June

Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary’s throne, and his wife, Sophie, are assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip

5 July

Austro-Hungarian government seeks, and receives, German support before pressing its claims on Serbia

23 July

Austria-Hungary submits its ten-point ultimatum to Serbia, giving Serbia forty-eight hours to respond

25 July

Serbian government orders mobilization

28 July

Austro-Hungarian Empire declares war on Serbia

29 July

Austria-Hungary starts shelling Serbian capital of Belgrade

31 July

Russia, in support of Serbia, starts general mobilization Germany gives Russia twelve hours to halt its mobilization

1 August

Germany declares war on Russia Italy announces its neutrality Belgium announces its neutrality

2 August

Germany invades Luxembourg Germany demands passage through Belgium

Germany and the Ottoman Empire sign a secret treaty

3 August

Germany declares war on France and Belgium

4 August

Germany invades Belgium

Great Britain, and thereby its dominions, declares war on Germany

The USA announces its neutrality

5 August

Germans start shelling Belgian city of Liège

6 August

Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia

Serbia declares war on Germany

HMS Amphion is sunk

Allies attack German colonies of Cameroon and Togoland

7 August

France attacks German provinces of Alsace and Lorraine

11 August

France declares war on Austria-Hungary

German warships, the Goeben and Breslau, enter the Dardanelles

12 August

Great Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary

13 August

Austro-Hungarian forces begin first invasion of Serbia

16 August

Liège falls

16–19 August

Serbs defeat Austro-Hungarians at the Battle of Jadar, Balkans

17 August

Russians invade East Prussia

20 August

Brussels surrenders

Russians defeat Germans at the Battle of Gumbinnen, Eastern Front

23 August

Battle of Mons, Western Front

Japan declares war on Germany

Austria-Hungary launches attack against Russia through Galicia

23–30 August

Germans defeat Russians at the Battle of Tannenberg

24 August

Start of the Retreat from Mons

25 August

Japan declares war on Austria-Hungary

Belgian city of Namur falls

26 August

German colony of Togoland falls to the Allies

Battle of Le Cateau, Western Front

26–30 August

Battle of Tannenberg, Eastern Front

28 August

First naval battle of the war, the First Battle of Heligoland Bight

29 August

Battle of St Quentin, Western Front

30 August

German colony of Samoa falls to New Zealand forces

5 September

Lord Kitchener calls for volunteers to join the British army

5–12 September

First Battle of the Marne, Western Front

9–14 September

First Battle of the Masurian Lakes, Eastern Front

12–28 September

First Battle of the Aisne, Western Front. Trench warfare established as soldiers on both sides dig in and start the ‘Race to the Sea’.

13 September

South African troops attack German South West Africa

21 September

German New Guinea falls to the Australians

22 September

First British air attack on Germany

24 September

Start of the Siege of Przemy´sl, Eastern Front

28 September

Start of the Siege of Antwerp, Western Front

10 October

Antwerp surrenders

19 October

First Battle of Ypres begins, Western Front

20 October

SS Glitra becomes first British merchant ship sunk by a German U-boat

29 October

Turkey enters war on the side of the Central Powers and bombards Russia’s Black Sea ports

31 October

Japanese siege of German-held Tsingtao begins

1 November

Battle of Coronel, naval battle

2 November

Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire

3 November

German naval raid on Great Yarmouth

3–5 November

Battle of Tanga, East Africa (also known as the Battle of the Bees)

5 November

Britain and France declare war on the Ottoman Empire

6 November

Execution of Karl Lody, first WWI German spy executed in Britain

7 November

Japanese forces capture Tsingtao in China

9 November

German cruiser Emden destroyed by HMAS Sydney at the Battle of Cocos

11 November

Ottoman Empire declares jihad on the Allies

22 November

Anglo-Indian force occupy Basra, part of the Ottoman Empire

End of the First Battle of Ypres

2 December

Austro-Hungarian troops occupy Belgrade

8 December

Battle of the Falkland Islands, naval battle

15 December

Austro-Hungarian troops ousted from Belgrade

16 December

German cruisers bombard Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby

22 December

Start of the Battle of Sarikamish, Middle East

25 December

Unofficial Christmas truce on the Western Front

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