1. A rather youthful and almost affable-looking Edward I. Reproduced by permission of the British Library (Royal MS 2A XXII f219v)
2. King John swearing homage and fealty to a rather more implacable Edward I, leaving no-one in any doubt as to who was boss. Reproduced by permission of the British Library (Royal MS 20c vii f28)
3. The inglorious face of war: mass death and destruction at Berwick in 1296. However, such scenes of carnage were probably all too familiar to the average foot-soldier. Reproduced by permission of the British Library (MS Add. 47682, f40).
4. An evolving constitutional position. Warrant of Edward I as overlord of Scotland, using the seal of the guardians. After the conquest of 1296, Edward had his own seal made. Reproduced by permission of the Keeper of the Records of Scotland.
5. The paltry remains of the nerve-centre of English-occupied Scotland - Berwick castle. The great hall, where judgement on the Great Cause was given, is now the railway station. Photograph: author’s own.
6. The siege of Bothwell castle, showing just how busy the engineers were. Reconstruction drawing by David Simon, courtesy of Historic Scotland.
7. The siege of Caerlaverock castle. While the engineers were on overtime, this siege provided very little opportunity for Edward’s knights to indulge in deeds of derring do. Reconstruction drawing by David Simon, courtesy of Historic Scotland.
8. Dumbarton castle, controlling the fords across the Clyde. Many an English officer forced to submit to Sir William Wallace spent some time here in less than comfortable conditions. Courtesy of Historic Scotland.
9. Dirleton castle, captured by Bishop Antony Bek before the battle of Falkirk in 1298 and garrisoned with English soldiers thereafter.
10. Stirling, Scotland’s most strategic castle, which, unsurprisingly, changed hands more often than any other. It is also not surprising that all the main battles of this period took place within sight of its walls. Courtesy of Historic Scotland.
11. Kildrummy castle, seat of the earls of Mar, and a temporary Bruce stronghold in 1306 because Robert Bruce had care of his young nephew, Donald of Mar. Reconstruction drawing courtesy of Historic Scotland.
12. Urquhart castle, one of the most northerly English garrisons after 1296, but which was forced to submit to the attentions of Andrew Murray and the burgesses of Inverness in 1297. Reconstruction drawing courtesy of Historic Scotland.
13. Inverlochy castle, a Comyn stronghold near Fort William, commanding access to the Great Glen, the only way through these impenetrable hills (including Ben Nevis on the right). Crown Copyright: Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland.
SCOTLAND IN THE TIME OF EDWARD I