Post-classical history

DRAMATIS PERSONAE

Abernethy, Sir Alexander

 

Scot; warden from Forth to Grampians (1303–5)

Abingdon, Richard

 

royal officer; receiver of Cumberland (1297–1300); made baron of exchequer (1299)

Alard, Sir Gervase

 

of Winchelsea, Sussex; captain of the Cinque Ports; admiral of English fleet (1300–1)

Alexander II

 

king of Scots (1214–49)

Alexander III

 

king of Scots (1249–86)

Amersham, Walter

 

Edward I’s chancellor of Scotland (1296–1304); also receiver of Northumberland; d. 1304

Angus, Gilbert de Umfraville, earl of

 

lord of Redesdale & Coquetdale in Northumberland; d. 1307

Atholl, John de Strathbogie, earl of

 

Scottish sheriff of Aberdeen (c. 1300); brother-in-law of Robert Bruce, the future king; lieutenant & justiciar of Scotland beyond Forth (1304–5); d. 1306

Audley, Sir Hugh

 

Gloucestershire knight; keeper of Selkirk Forest (1301–c.1303); d. 1325

Balliol, Sir Alexander

 

lord of Cavers; sheriff of Selkirk (1301–c.1303)

Balliol, John

 

lord of Barnard Castle, co. Durham, & Galloway; claimant to Scottish throne; king of Scots (1292–1296/1304); d. 1313

Balmyle, Nicholas

 

‘of St. Andrews’; Scottish chancellor (c. 1301)

Bartholomew, Roger

 

burgess of Berwick; first to appeal from Scottish courts to Edward I (1291–2)

Barton, Robert

 

keeper of Abingdon’s counter-roll (1297)

Beauchamp, Sir Walter

 

steward of Edward’s household

Bek, Anthony

 

bishop of Durham (1283–1311)

Benstede, John

 

comptroller of the wardrobe

Bevercotes, William

 

royal officer; keeper of Edward’s seal in Scotland (1296–7); chancellor of Scotland (1304–6)

Biset, William

 

?lord of Upsettlington, Berwickshire; sheriff of Clackmannan (1303–4) & Stirling (1304–5)

Bisset, Sir Hugh

 

lord of Antrim; captured Arran (1298)

Boniface VIII

 

pope; d. 1303

Botetourt, Sir John

 

lord of Mendlesham, Suffolk; given Dalswinton castle (1301); warden of western march (1302–4)

Brabazon, Roger

 

English royal adviser; involved in Great Cause; later chief justice of the King’s Bench

Brampton, Stephen

 

English constable of Bothwell (1298–1300/1)

Bremesgrave, Richard

 

keeper of the Berwick store (1299–c. 1303)

Brittany, John of

 

Edward’s nephew; governor of Aquitaine (1298–1305); appointed lieutenant of Scotland (1305)

Bruce, Robert, of Annandale ‘the Competitor’

 

claimant to the Scottish throne; 5th lord of Annandale; d. 1295

Bruce, Robert, earl of Carrick

 

6th lord of Annandale; became earl through his wife, Marjorie; d. 1304 in England

Bruce, Robert, earl of Carrick

 

7th lord of Annandale; guardian of Scotland (1298–1300); king of Scots (1306–29)

Bunkle, Thomas

 

clerk of Dunkeld

Burdon, Sir John

 

Nottingham & Derbyshire knight; sheriff of Berwick & keeper of castle (1298–c. 1303)

Burghdon, Sir Walter

 

keeper of Carstairs castle & sheriff of Lanark (1301–3); justiciar of Galloway (1305)

Caen, John of

 

Edward’s notary public; responsible for drawing up Great Roll (c. 1296)

Cantilupe, Sir Robert

 

Essex knight; keeper of Lochmaben and warden of Annandale (1298–9)

Carlisle, bishop of

 

see Halton

Cheyne, Henry

 

bishop of Aberdeen (1282–1328); brother of Sir Reginald

Cheyne, Sir Reginald, Sr.

 

lord of Inverugie & Duffus; sheriff of Inverness (1296–7); justiciar beyond the mountains (1305); brother of Henry, bishop of Aberdeen

Clifford, Sir Robert

 

lord of Appleby castle, Westmorland; given Caerlaverock castle; keeper of Carlisle castle (1297–9); warden of Galloway (1298–9); keeper of the bishopric of Durham (1300–6)

Comyn, Sir Alexander

 

brother of the earl of Buchan but on English side

Comyn, Sir Alexander

 

brother of Sir John Comyn of Badenoch, senior

Comyn, Sir Edmund

 

of Kilbride; head of third branch of Comyn family; member of Sir John Comyn of Badenoch, jr.’s council

Comyn, Sir John, of Badenoch, sr.

 

guardian (1286–92); brother-in-law of John Balliol; claimant to Scottish throne; d. ?1299

Comyn, Sir John, of Badenoch, jr.

 

son of Sir John Comyn of Badenoch; guardian (1298–1301; 1303); killed by Robert Bruce (1306)

Comyn, John, earl of Buchan

 

cousin of Comyn of Badenoch; often leader of Scottish army (1296–1303)

Convers, Alexander

 

royal clerk responsible for provisioning English garrisons in south-east Scotland (1298–c.1303)

Crambeth, Matthew

 

dean of Aberdeen; bishop of Dunkeld (1288–1309)

Cressingham, Hugh

 

treasurer of Scotland (1296–7); killed at battle of Stirling Bridge, 1297

Cunningham, Robert

 

nephew of James the Steward; Scottish constable of Caerlaverock (?1297–99)

Dalilegh, James

 

receiver in west; keeper of Carlisle store (1299–1303); escheator south of Forth (1303–5)

Dolive, Sir John

 

keeper of Dumfries castle (1300)

Douglas, Sir William

 

father of Sir James Douglas ‘the Good’; d.c. 1299

Droxford, John

 

keeper of the wardrobe

Dunbar & March, Patrick, earl of

 

claimant to throne; consistent English supporter; keeper of Berwick town (1298); warden of eastern march (1298–9); keeper of Ayr (c. 1301)

Dunkeld, bishop of

 

see Crambeth

Dunwich, Peter

 

royal officer; escheator south of Forth & keeper of Yester castle (1296–7)

Durham, Sir William

 

knight of Essex & Hertfordshire; sheriff of Peebles (c. 1301); d. 1304

Durham, bishop of

 

see Bek

Edward I

 

king of England (1272–1307)

Edward ‘of Caernarvon’

 

prince of Wales; future Edward II; d. 1327

Elaund, Sir Hugh

 

Yorkshire knight; keeper of Jedburgh castle & warden of Selkirk Forest (1296–7)

Felton, Sir Robert

 

Gloucestershire knight; constable of Lochmaben (1299–c.1300)

Felton, Sir William

 

Northamptonshire knight with Northumbrian connections; keeper of Linlithgow castle (1301–?)

FitzAlan, Sir Brian

 

lord of Bedale in Yorkshire

FitzMarmaduke, Sir John

 

custodian of earl of Lincoln’s lands of Strathgryfe, forfeited from James the Steward

FitzRoger, Sir Robert

 

lord of Clavering, Essex; keeper of eastern Scottish march (1299–1300)

FitzWarin, Sir William

 

lord of Grimthorpe, Yorkshire; keeper of Urquhart castle; husband of Mary, countess of Strathearn and queen of Man; d. 1317

FitzWilliam, Sir Ralph

 

Northumberland knight; captain of Newcastle garrison (1297–9); captain of Yorkshire garrisons (1298); warden of Galloway (1299)

Fraser, Sir Simon

 

lord of Oliver castle; captured at Dunbar; made Edward’s warden of Selkirk Forest (1297–c.1301); defected to Scots in 1301; d. 1306

Fraser, William

 

bishop of St. Andrews (1279–97); guardian of Scotland (1286–92); great-uncle of Sir Simon Fraser

Fraunceys, Sir William

 

constable of Kirkintilloch castle (c. 1301)

Furnivall, Sir Thomas

 

knight of Nottingham, Derby & Yorkshire; captain of Nottingham and Derbyshire garrisons (1298)

Galloway, Thomas of

 

illegitimate son of Alan, lord of Galloway; prevented from succeeding his father by Alexander III

Gaveston, Piers

 

Gascon knight; ‘close friend’ of Edward II

Glasgow, bishop of

 

see Wishart

Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare, earl of

 

his great-aunt, Isabel, was wife of Robert Bruce the Competitor; d. 1307

Gordon, Sir Adam

 

Scottish warden of western march (c. 1300); justiciar of Lothian (1305)

Graham, Sir David

 

son of Sir Patrick Graham of Airth

Halton, John

 

bishop of Carlisle (1292–1324)

Hastangs, Sir Richard

 

Staffordshire knight; keeper of Jedburgh castle (1298–?1305); brother of Sir Robert

Hastangs, Sir Robert

 

Staffordshire knight; sheriff of Roxburgh & keeper of castle (1296–c.1305); brother of Sir Richard

Hastings, Sir Edmund

 

sheriff of Ayr (1301); warden of Berwick town (1302)

Hastings, Sir John

 

claimant to Scottish throne

Henry I

 

king of England (1100–35)

Henry II

 

king of England (1154–89)

Henry III

 

king of England (1216–72)

Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of

 

constable of England; d. 1298

Hereford, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of

 

d. 1322

Heron, Robert

 

keeper of new customs at Berwick (1296–c.1304); keeper of counter-roll (1297–?1304); comptroller of chamberlain of Scotland (1305–6)

Hesilrig, Sir William

 

Northumberland knight; sheriff of Lanark killed by William Wallace in 1297

Hoddleston, Sir John

 

knight of Cumberland, Yorkshire & Lancashire; temporary warden of Galloway (1297); captain of Cumberland and Westmorland (1303); d. 1316

Holland, Florence, Count of

 

claimant to Scottish throne

Hunsingore, Master Thomas

 

King John’s chancellor

Huntercumbe, Sir Walter

 

Oxfordshire knight; sheriff of Edinburgh (1296–7); keeper of Berwick town (1298); captain of Northumberland garrisons (1298–?1303); d. 1313

Huntingdon, Earl David of

 

Grandson of David I; youngest son of Henry, earl of Northumberland; brother of Malcolm IV and William I; progenitor of Bruce, Balliol and Hastings; d. 1219

Jarum, John

 

royal clerk; keeper of Ayr store (1301)

Joneby, Sir Robert

 

Cumberland knight; sheriff of Dumfries (1296–7)

Keith, Edward

 

brother of Sir Robert; claimed to be hereditary sheriff of Selkirk through his wife

Keith, Sir Robert

 

Scottish warden of Selkirk Forest (1299–1300); justiciar north of the Forth (1306); brother of Edward

Kingston, Sir John

 

knight of Berkshire and Wiltshire; sheriff of Edinburgh (1298–1303)

Lamberton, William

 

archdeacon of Glasgow; bishop of St. Andrews (1297–1328)

Langton, John

 

bishop of Chichester; chancellor of England

Langton, Walter

 

bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (also known as Chester); treasurer of England

Lathum, Sir Henry

 

knight of Lancashire; sheriff of Aberdeen (1296–c.1297)

Latimer, Sir William

 

Yorkshire knight; captain of eastern Scottish garrisons (1299) keeper of Berwick town & warden of eastern march (1300–1); in charge of chevauchées from Roxburgh (1302–3); d. 1304

Leeds, Sir Alexander

 

Yorkshire knight; sheriff of Dumbarton (1296–7)

Lennox, Malcolm, earl of

 

?1290–1333

Lincoln, Henry de Lacy, earl of

 

given James the Steward’s lands; d. 1311

Lindsay, Sir Alexander

 

of Barnweill

Lindsay, Sir Simon

 

lord of Arthuret; captain in Esk Valley for Edward I (1298); keeper of Liddel and Hermitage castles

Livingston, Sir Archibald

 

sheriff of Linlithgow (1301–4?); sheriff of Stirling (before 1304)

Logan, Sir Walter

 

Scottish sheriff of Lanark

MacDonald, Alastair

 

lord of Islay; 2nd line of descent from Somerled, king of Argyll; rival for power in north-west with the MacDougalls; d. ?1298

MacDougall, Alastair

 

lord of Argyll & Lorn; senior line of descent from Somerled, king of Argyll; rival for power in the north-west with the MacDonalds; d. 1310

MacDougall, John

 

of Lorn; eldest son and heir of Alastair MacDougall

MacDougall, Duncan

 

son of Alastair MacDougall

MacQuillan, Malcolm

 

Antrim lord interested in western Isles

MacRuarie, Lachlan

 

of Garmoran; 3rd line of descent from Somerled, king of Argyll; brother of Ruarie & Christina, wife of Gartnait of Mar; married to daughter of Alastair of Argyll

MacRuarie, Ruarie

 

brother of Lachlan & Christina

Malcolm III Canmore

 

king of Scots (1058–93)

Malherbe, Sir Gilbert

 

lord of Slamannan and Livilands; Scottish sheriff of Stirling, c. 1299

Manton, Ralph

 

king’s cofferer; unofficial paymaster in Scotland

Mar, Donald, earl of

 

father-in-law of Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick (future king); ?d. 1298

Mar, Gartnait of

 

eldest son and heir of Donald, earl of Mar; husband of Christina MacRuarie

March

 

see Dunbar

Margaret, ‘Maid’ of Norway

 

daughter of King Eric of Norway and Margaret, daughter of Alexander III; died 1290

Marshall, John

 

earl of Lincoln’s baillie in barony of Renfrew forfeited from James the Steward

Maudley, Sir Robert

 

Yorkshire knight; English owner of Dirleton castle

Maule, Sir Thomas

 

Scottish constable of Brechin castle (1303)

Menteith, Alexander, earl of

 

captured at Dunbar; released 1297; d. 1306

Menteith, Sir John de

 

brother of earl Alexander; sheriff of Dumbarton & keeper of castle (1303–?9); d.c.1323

Moigne, Sir John le

 

keeper of Galloway and Nithsdale (1303)

Morham, Sir Herbert

 

son of Sir Thomas; leader of Scottish army besieging Stirling castle in 1299; captured & escaped; recaptured before 1304; d. 1306

Morham, Sir Thomas

 

father of Sir Herbert; served Edward

Mortimer, William

 

royal official; justiciar of Scotia (1296–7)

Moubray, Sir John

 

lord of Methven; member of Sir John Comyn of Badenoch junior’s council

Mountz, Sir Ebulo

 

sheriff & constable of Edinburgh castle (1303–5)

Multon, Sir Thomas

 

lord of Lillesland, Cumberland; captain of Cumberland and Westmorland (1303); d. 1314

Murray, Andrew

 

son of Sir Andrew Murray of Petty; d. 1297

Murray, Sir William

 

lord of Tullibardine in earldom of Strathearn

Norfolk, Roger Bigod, earl of

 

marshal of England; d. 1306

Novelliano, Sir Montasini de

 

Gascon knight; constable of Ayr castle (c. 1301)

Ormesby, William

 

royal official; justiciar of Lothian (1296–7)

Pencaitland, John

 

keeper of Jedburgh castle for Scots (1297–8)

Percy, Sir Henry

 

Yorkshire knight; warden of Galloway & Ayrshire (1296–7); 1273–1314

Philip IV, ‘the fair’

 

king of France (1268–1314)

Pilche, Alexander

 

leader of burgesses of Inverness

Redmayne, Sir Matthew

 

knight of Northumberland & Cumberland; sheriff of Dumfries (1304)

Ros, Sir Robert de

 

lord of Wark; struck first blow of the war for the Scots, supposedly because of his love for a Scottish lady

Ros, Sir William de

 

claimant to throne through illegitimate descent; brother of Robert de Ros, but on English side

Ross, William, earl of

 

remained in prison after Dunbar till 1303; lieutenant beyond the Spey (1303–5); d. 1323

Rue, William

 

royal clerk responsible for supplying Edinburgh, Dirleton & Stirling

Rye [Rithre], Henry

 

royal official, escheator north of the Forth & keeper of Elgin & Forres castles (1296–7)

St. Andrews, bishop of

 

see Fraser; Lamberton

St. George, Master James de

 

famous master carpenter from Savoy; worked on Linlithgow

St. John, Sir John de, sen.

 

lord of Basing, Hampshire; warden of Galloway (1300–1302); effectively lieutenant of Scotland; d. 1302

Sampson, John

 

English constable of Stirling castle (1298–1300)

Sandale, John

 

chamberlain of Scotland (1305)

Segrave, Sir John

 

Oxfordshire knight; in charge of chevauchées from Berwick (1302–3); keeper of Berwick castle (1302–3); lieutenant in eastern Scotland (1303–4); lieutenant south of Forth & justiciar of Lothian (1304–5); d. 1325

Siward, Sir Richard

 

lord of Tibbers; captured at Dunbar; warden of Nithsdale (1299–); sheriff of Fife (1304)

Skoter, Roger

 

royal official; justiciar of Galloway (1296–7)

Spaldington, Osbert

 

Lincolnshire knight; sheriff of Berwick (?1296–8)

Soules, Sir John

 

guardian of Scotland (1301–3); died in exile in France, 1318

Soules, Sir Thomas

 

youngest brother of Sir John and Sir William

Soules, Sir William

 

lord of Liddesdale; butler of Scotland; elder brother of Sir John; d. 1293; succeeded by his brother, Nicholas

Soules, William

 

lord of Liddesdale; butler of Scotland; son of Nicholas; nephew of Sir John & Sir William

Steward, James the

 

guardian of Scotland (1286–92); close associate of Bruces; feudal superior of Wallace; grandfather of future king, Robert II; d. 1309

Stewart, Sir John

 

of Jedburgh; brother of James; leader of the archers of Selkirk Forest; d. 1298

Strathearn, Master Alpin of

 

probably a son of the earl of Strathearn; archdeacon of St. Andrews; King John Balliol’s treasurer; ?bishop of Dunblane in 1296

Strathearn, Malise, earl of

 

captured at Dunbar; subsequently sided with Edward I; deputy of earl of Atholl as lieutenant north of the Forth (1305)

Surrey, John de Warenne, earl of

 

first post-conquest lieutenant in Scotland (1296–8); d. 1304

Sutherland, William, earl of

 

d.c.1307

Teye, Sir Walter

 

knight of Yorkshire and Bedfordshire; officer in Esk valley (1298–?); captain of Berwick town garrison (1300–1); d. 1324

Tilliol, Sir Robert

 

Cumberland knight; constable of Lochmaben (1301); d. 1321

Tweng, Sir Marmaduke

 

Yorkshire knight; d. 1323

Ulster, Richard de Burgh, earl of

 

father-in-law of Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick, the future king

Umfraville, Sir Ingram de

 

Scottish sheriff of Roxburgh (1299–); guardian of Scotland (1300–1)

Umfraville, Thomas de

 

younger son of Earl Gilbert of Angus; constable of Dundee, traditionally controlled by his family (1303–4)

Umfraville

 

see Angus

Valence, Sir Aymer de

 

later earl of Pembroke; given Murray castle of Bothwell; lieutenant in southern Scotland (1303)

Vernay, Sir Philip

 

keeper of Berwick town (1298–9)

Waldegrave, Sir Richard

 

Northamptonshire knight; sheriff of Stirling (1296–7)

Wallace, William

 

younger son of Sir Malcolm Wallace of Elderslie; d. 1305

Warwick, Guy Beauchamp, earl of

 

d. 1315

Warwick, William, earl of

 

d. 1298

Weston, John

 

receiver and paymaster in south-east Scotland (1299–c. 1302)

William I ‘the Conqueror’

 

duke of Normandy; king of England (1066–87)

William I ‘the Lion’

 

king of Scots (1165–1214); captured and forced to concede Treaty of Falaise (1174)

Willoughby, Philip

 

former keeper of wardrobe; English treasurer’s lieutenant

Wishart, Robert

 

bishop of Glasgow (1271–1316); staunch defender of Scotland’s independence

Unless otherwise stated, all military/administrative offices were held by the above as part of Edward’s government of Scotland.

I venture to say no war can be long carried on against the will of the people

Edmund Burke

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