Post-classical history

Notes and Bibliographic Guides

Abbreviations

020

Chapter 1

Authors of basic current approaches in English to the whole period are cited in the body of the text of this chapter. For initial introductions to documentary source material, and also basic syntheses, century by century, five large Cambridge collective histories are an essential point of reference, CAH, vols. 13 and 14, and NCMH, vols. 1 - 3. All were published after 1995. There is no equivalent for archaeology. These volumes also leave out the Arab world, although a revised Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1, is nearing publication. The major journal in English for the period is EME, which began in 1992. The largest set of source material in translation is the invaluable and steadily expanding web collection, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html; the translations there are generally old, but it is an excellent starting point.

p. 4. National identities: an excellent comparative analysis of Britain and Ireland is by T. M. Charles-Edwards, in R. Evans (ed.), Lordship and Learning (Woodbridge, 2004), pp. 11-37.

p. 7. The Transformation of the Roman World series was published in 12 volumes by Brill of Leiden. They are, as a group, notably more innovative in their methodology than the Cambridge histories. They focus on the West up to 800.

p. 9. Riposte to continuity: B. Ward-Perkins, The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Oxford, 2005); see further A. Giardina, ‘Esplosione di tardoantico’, Studi storici, 40 (1999), pp. 157-80, and cf. for an overview C. Wickham in South African Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 14 (2004), pp. 1 - 22.

p. 10. Overviews: R. Collins, Early Medieval Europe, 300-1000 (Basingstoke, 1991; revised edition 1999); J. M. H. Smith, Europe after Rome (Oxford, 2005), with a remarkable annotated bibliography; for archaeological approaches, R. Hodges and D. Whitehouse,Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe (London, 1983), even though it was written so early, remains the only significant overview. Social history is dominated by surveys in French: P. Depreux, Les Sociétés occidentales du milieu du VIeà la fin du IXesiècle (Rennes, 2002); R. Le Jan, La Société du haut Moyen Âge (Paris, 2003); J.-P. Devroey, Économie rurale et société dans l’Europe franque (VI-IX siècles) (Paris, 2003); idem, Puissants et misérables (Brussels, 2006).

p. 13. Critical recent approaches to Gregory include W. Goffart, The Narrators of Barbarian History (A.D. 550-800) (Princeton, 1988); M. Heinzelmann, Gregory of Tours (Cambridge, 2001); I. Wood, Gregory of Tours (Oxford, 1994), and in Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 71 (1993), pp. 253-70; K. Mitchell and I. Wood (eds.), The World of Gregory of Tours (Leiden, 2002).

Chapter 2

The best brief introductions to the later Roman empire are by Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London, 1971), and by Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire (London, 1993) and The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity AD 395-600 (London, 1993). The essential detailed surveys in English are A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284 - 602 (Oxford, 1964) and CAH, vols. 13 and 14. S. Mitchell, A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284-641 (Oxford, 2007) is another useful introductory account. The sixth century in the East is filled out further by M. Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005). For further bibliographies on all the topics in this chapter, see these works. Some issues in this chapter are discussed in greater detail in my Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005). Other important recent late Roman surveys include G. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity (Cambridge, Mass., 1999); A. Giardina (ed.), Società romana e impero tardoantico, 4 vols. (Bari, 1986); A. Carandini et al. (eds.), Storia di Roma, vol. 3 (2 vols.) (Turin, 1992); and A. Demandt, Die Spätantike (Munich, 1989).

p. 21. Primer: A. C. Dionisotti, ‘From Ausonius’ Schooldays?’, Journal of Roman Studies, 72 (1982), pp. 83-125; for torture, see J. Harries, Law and Empire in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 122-34. For wider issues of violence, see H. A. Drake (ed.),Violence in Late Antiquity (Aldershot, 2006).

p. 21. Games: Augustine, Confessions, trans. H. Chadwick (Oxford, 1991), 6.8. Banning by Constantine: Jones, Later Roman Empire, p. 977; A. Cameron, Circus Factions (Oxford, 1976), pp. 216 ff.

p. 22. Show trials for magic: see the account in J. F. Matthews, The Roman Empire of Ammianus Marcellinus (London, 1989), pp. 209-17.

p. 22. Andronikos: Synesios of Cyrene, Correspondance, ed. and trans. A. Garzya and D. Roques (Paris, 2000), nn. 41-2, 72, 79, 90; cf. D. Roques, Synésios de Cyrène et la Cyrénaïque du Bas-Empire (Paris, 1987), pp. 195 - 206, 366 - 70.

p. 23. Capital cities and their feeding: J. Durliat, De la ville antique a‘ la ville byzantine (Rome, 1990); E. Lo Cascio, in W. V. Harris (ed.), The Transformations of Urbs Roma in Late Antiquity (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), pp. 163-82; A. E. Müller, ‘Getreide für Kon stantinopel’, Jahrbuch der osterreichischen Byzantinistik, 43 (1993), pp. 1 - 20.

p. 23. Cost of games: R. Lim, in Harris, Transformations, pp. 265-81, at pp. 271 - 5.

p. 24. Order of Noble Cities: Ausonius, Works, vol. 1, ed. and trans. H. G. E. White (Cambridge, Mass., 1919), pp. 269 - 85.

p. 24. End of curiae and informal élites: J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, The Decline of the Ancient City (Oxford, 2001); A. Laniado, Recherches sur les notables municipaux dans l’empire protobyzantin (Paris, 2002); C. Rapp, Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity(Berkeley, 2005), pp. 274-89.

p. 25. Sidonius: J. Harries, Sidonius Apollinaris and the Fall of Rome (Oxford, 1994).

p. 26. 30,000 officials: Jones, Later Roman Empire, p. 1057; see further for Roman bureaucracy, C. Kelly, Ruling the Roman Empire (Cambridge, Mass., 2004), the best analysis of late Roman bureaucratic culture, and C. Kelly and P. Heather, in CAH, vol. 13, pp. 138 - 210.

p. 26. Travel: figures from M. McCormick, Origins of the European Economy (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 474-81; his evidence is Carolingian and onwards, but it is unlikely to have been very different for fast horse-borne messengers under late Rome; further timings and bibliography in Kelly, Ruling, pp. 115 - 17.

p. 27. John Lydos, On Powers, ed. and trans. A. C. Bandy (Philadelphia, 1983) (1.14 for Romulus, 2.20-21, 3.57-72 for John the Cappadocian; see M. Maas, John Lydus and the Roman Past (London, 1992); Kelly, Ruling, pp. 11-104.

p. 27. Petronius Maximus: see refs. in PLRE, vol. 2, pp. 749-51; Sidonius Apollinaris, Letters, ed. and trans. W. B. Anderson, Poems and Letters (Cambridge, Mass., 1962-5), 2.13.

p. 28. Otium: see J. R. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court AD 364-425 (Oxford, 1975), pp. 1-12.

p. 29. Symmachus: Epistulae, 1.52, ed. O. Seeck, MGH, Auctores Antiquissimi, 6.1 (Berlin, 1883).

p. 29. Paeonius: Sidonius, Letters, 1.11.5.

p. 29. Petronius Probus: Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, ed. and trans. J. C. Rolfe, 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 1935 - 9), 27.11.1.

p. 29. Melania: The Life of Melania the Younger, trans. E. A. Clark (Lewiston, NY, 1982), c. 15.

p. 30. Juvenal: Ammianus, Res Gestae, 28.4.14. For élite culture, see A. Cameron in CAH, vol. 13, pp. 665 - 707.

p. 30. Libanios and magic: P. Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine (London, 1972), pp. 127 - 34. p. 30. Julian: see for example the critical comments in the otherwise sympathetic Ammianus,

Res Gestae, 22.10.7, 25.4.20; cf. D. Hunt in CAH, vol. 13, p. 67.

p. 30. Reading Augustine’s work: Sidonius, Letters, 2.9.4.

p. 30. Estate management: Palladius, Opus Agriculturae, ed. R. H. Rodgers (Leipzig, 1975).

p. 31. Law: good recent surveys are Harries, Law and Empire; P. Garnsey and C. Humfress, The Evolution of the Late Antique World (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 52-82; D. Liebs in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 238-59; C. Humfress, Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity(Oxford, 2007).

p. 31. Alypius in Rome: Augustine, Confessions, 6.8 - 10. p. 32. Egypt: T. Gagos and P. van Minnen, Settling a Dispute (Ann Arbor, 1994), pp. 30 - 46.

p. 32. Eustochius: Augustine, Letters, trans. W. Parsons and R. B. Eno, 6 vols. (Washington, 1951-89), letter 24*.

p. 32. Salvius: C. Lepelley, in Antiquités africaines, 25 (1989), pp. 235-62, at pp. 240 - 51.

p. 33. Amphorae: O. Karagiorgou, in S. Kingsley and M. Decker (eds.), Economy and Exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2001), pp. 129 - 66.

p. 33. Factories: Jones, Later Roman Empire, pp. 834-6. p. 33. Weight and regional incidence of tax: this follows Wickham, Framing, pp. 62 - 80.

p. 33. Tied occupations: A. H. M. Jones, The Roman Economy (Oxford, 1974), pp. 396 - 418.

p. 35. Apions: The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, ed. and trans. B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt et al., 65 vols. to date (Oxford, 1898-), vol. 16, nn. 1906-8, vol. 62, 4350 - 51.

p. 36. Slavery: D. Vera, ‘Le forme del lavoro rurale’, Settimane di studio, 45 (1998), pp. 293-342.

p. 36. Egyptian towns: R. S. Bagnall and B. W. Freer, The Demography of Roman Egypt (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 53 - 7.

p. 36. Coloni laws: see the articles collected in E. Lo Cascio (ed.), Terre, proprietari e contadini dell’impero romano (Rome, 1997), for recent debate.

p. 37. Estate profit: Palladius, Opus Agriculturae; P. Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006). p. 37. Syrian villages: G. Tate, Les Campagnes de la Syrie du Nord du IIeau VIIesiècle,

vol. 1 (Paris, 1992).

p. 37. Thagaste: Vita Melaniae Latina, ed. M. Rampolla del Tindaro, Santa Melania Giuniore (Rome, 1905), pp. 3 - 40, c. 21.

p. 37. Justinian: CJ, 11.48.21.

p. 37. Egyptian tenure: R. Bagnall, Egypt in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993), pp. 110-23, 148-53; J. Gascou and L. MacCoull, in Travaux et mémoires, 10 (1987), pp. 103-51; compare for Italy, Vita Melaniae Latina, c. 18.

p. 38. Dioskoros: L. S. B. MacCoull, Dioscorus of Aphrodito (Berkeley, 1988); J.-L. Fournet, Hellenisme dans l’Égypte du VIesiècle (Cairo, 1999); for Aphrodito in an Egyptian context, see J. G. Keenan, in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 612-37; for the murder, P. J. Sijpesteijn (ed.), The Aphrodite Papyri in the University of Michigan Papyrus Collection (P. Mich. XIII) (Zutphen, 1977), nn. 660-61.

p. 39. Fussala: Augustine, Letters, 209 and 20*; see further S. Lancel, in C. Lepelley (ed.), Les Lettres de saint Augustin découvertes par Johannes Divjak (Paris, 1983), pp. 267-85.

p. 40. Pottery: the best overview is still C. Panella, ‘Merci e scambi nel Mediterraneo in età tardo antica’, in Carandini et al., Storia di Roma, vol. 3.2, pp. 613-97; for cloth see Jones, Later Roman Empire, pp. 848-50, and S. Lauffer (ed.), Diokletians Preisedikt(Berlin, 1971), cc. 19-28.

p. 41. Egyptian wine: D. M. Bailey, Excavations at el-Ashmunein, vol. 5 (London, 1998), pp. 118-38; Life of St John the Almsgiver, trans. E. Dawes and N. H. Baynes, Three Byzantine Saints (London, 1948), pp. 199 - 262, c. 10.

p. 42. Egypt: see esp. Bagnall, Egypt, pp. 32, 45-67.

p. 42. Theodora: J. Maspero (ed.), Papyrus grecs d’époque byzantine, vol. 3 (Cairo, 1916), n. 67283.

p. 42. Patronage: A. Wallace-Hadrill (ed.), Patronage in Ancient Society (London, 1989); P. Brown, Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity (Madison, 1992); Kelly, Ruling, esp. pp. 138-85; J.-U. Krause, Spatantike Patronatsformen im Westen des romischen Reiches (Munich, 1987).

p. 42. Zotikos: John Lydos, On Powers, 3.26 - 7.

p. 42. Abinnaios: H. I. Bell et al. (eds.), The Abinnaios Archive (Oxford, 1962), esp. papyri nn. 7, 10, 12, 15, 19, 21, 26-8, 32 - 4, 44-57.

p. 43. Libanios: Libanius, Selected Works, vol. 2, ed. and trans. A. F. Norman (Cambridge, Mass., 1977), Oration 47.

p. 43. Persia: there is no good recent detailed account. See in general E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 3 (Cambridge, 1983), and for article-length overviews the differing positions of Z. Rubin, in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 638-61, and (more convincing to me) J. Howard-Johnston, in A. Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, vol. 3 (Princeton, 1995), pp. 157-226.

p. 44. Berbers: Synesios, Correspondance, nn. 122, 130, 132; D. J. Mattingly, Tripolitania (London, 1995), pp. 173 - 80; Y. Modéran, Les Maures et l’Afrique romaine (IVe-VII siècle) (Rome, 2003).

p. 45. Quadi: Ammianus, Res Gestae, 29.6.2ff., 30.6.

p. 45. Alemans: Ammianus, Res Gestae, 16.12.1, 23, 26; cf. J. F. Drinkwater, The Alamanni and Rome 213-496 (Oxford, 2007), pp. 117 - 26, 236-44.

p. 45. Gothic sources: P. Heather and J. Matthews, The Goths in the Fourth Century (Liverpool, 1991), pp. 102-10, 124-85.

p. 46. Archaeology and ethnicity: this is highly contested. My views fit with, among others, G. Halsall, in J. F. Drinkwater and H. Elton (eds.), Fifth-century Gaul (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 196 - 207; B. Effros, Merovingian Mortuary Archaeology and the Making of the Middle Ages (Berkeley, 2003), pp. 100 - 110.

p. 46. Denmark: L. Hedeager, Iron-Age Societies (Oxford, 1992), pp. 45-51.

p. 46. Frontier societies: here I follow C. R. Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire (Baltimore, 1994). Against the old idea that the late imperial army was more ‘barbarized’ than before: H. Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe, AD 350-425 (Oxford, 1996), pp. 134 - 54.

p. 47. Silvanus: Ammianus, Res Gestae, 15.5; for Firmus, 29.5.39.

p. 48. Huns: Ammianus, Res Gestae, 31.2; for Gothic entry, 31 passim - cf. P. J. Heather, Goths and Romans 332-489 (Oxford, 1991), pp. 122ff., and H. Wolfram, History of the Goths (Berkeley, 1988), pp. 117ff.

Chapter 3

For introductions, most of the books cited in Chapter 2 are equally important. P. Garnsey and C. Humfress, The Evolution of the Late Antique World (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 132 - 215, and P. Brown, Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity (Madison, 1992), are original rereadings of the evidence. On Christianity, A. Cameron, Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire (Berkeley, 1991); P. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (2nd edn., Oxford, 1997); and R. Markus, The End of Ancient Christianity (Cambridge, 1990), are key points of reference.

p. 50. Sidonius: Letters, ed. and trans. W. B. Anderson, Poems and Letters (Cambridge, Mass., 1962-5), 4.25 (Chalon), 7.5, 8, 9 (Bourges); cf. J. Harries, Sidonius Apollinaris and the Fall of Rome (Oxford, 1994), pp. 179 - 86. For a context, R. Van Dam,Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul (Berkeley, 1985) is basic. For the complexity of the roles and authority of bishops, see above all C. Rapp, Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 2005).

p. 51. Synesios: Correspondance, ed. and trans. A. Garzya and D. Roques (Paris, 2000) nn. 105 (open letter), 10, 15, 16, 46, 81, 124, 154 (to Hypatia); for Theophilos and Cyril, C. Haas, Alexandria in Late Antiquity (Baltimore, 1997), pp. 159-69, 295-316; see in general D. Roques, Synésios de Cyrène et la Cyrénaïque du Bas-Empire (Paris, 2000), pp. 301 - 16.

p. 51. ‘Pagan’: this is an unsatisfactory word. Traditional Graeco-Roman religion had no word for its practitioners; paganus, originally meaning ‘rustic’, is used already to mean ‘not Christian (or Jewish)’ in the early third century, however, and became common by the late fourth (e.g. CTh, 16.2.18, for the year 370). ‘Hellene’ is another late Roman word which came to be used for ‘pagan’. Some modern authors prefer ‘polytheist’, but not all ‘pagans’ were polytheistic.

p. 52. Late paganism: see G. W. Bowersock, Hellenism in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 1990); F. R. Trombley, Hellenic Religion and Christianization c.370-529, 2 vols. (Leiden, 1993-4); G. Fowden, in CAH, vol. 13, pp. 538-60; Garnsey and Humfress,Evolution of the Late Antique World, pp. 152-60; John of Ephesos, Ecclesiastical History, ed. and trans. E. W. Brooks (Louvain, 1935-6), 2.44, 3.36.

p. 52. Jews: see S. T. Katz (ed.), The Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 4 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 67 - 82, 404-56, 492 - 518.

p. 52. Laws: CTh, 16.10.10 - 12 (391-2), CJ, 1.11.10 (Justinian). Edessa: John of Ephesos, Ecclesiastical History, 3.27 - 8.

p. 53. First of January: Markus, End of Ancient Christianity, pp. 103 - 6, and in general for festivals, pp. 97 - 135.

p. 54. Sunday: Gregory of Tours, The Miracles of the Bishop St Martin, trans. in R. Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles in Late Antique Gaul (Princeton, 1993), pp. 199-303, e.g. 2.24, 3.29, 4.45.

p. 54. Augustine: Letters, trans. W. Parsons and R. B. Eno, 6 vols. (Washington, 1951 - 89), letter 29.

p. 54. Brioude: Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles, pp. 41 - 8. Drinking at martyrs’ tombs: Augustine, Letters, 22; Augustine, Confessions, trans. H. Chadwick (Oxford, 1991), 6.2.2. Gregory the Great: Bede, HE, 1.30. For a general discussion of religious space and its contexts in the Mediterranean, see P. Horden and N. Purcell, The Corrupting Sea (Oxford, 2000), pp. 403-60.

p. 55. Christian topography: see e.g. N. Gauthier, ‘La Topographie chrétienne entre idéologie et pragmatisme’, in G. P. Brogiolo and B. Ward-Perkins (eds.), The Idea and Ideal of the Town between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Leiden, 1999), pp. 195 - 209.

p. 55. Rome: R. Krautheimer, Rome: Profile of a City, 312-1308 (Princeton, 1980), pp. 71, 75.

p. 55. Intramural burials: see, for an analysis of developments in Italy, N. Christie, From Constantine to Charlemagne (Aldershot, 2006), pp. 252-9. For dead saints, see P. Brown, The Cult of the Saints (Chicago, 1981).

p. 56. Demons: see B. Caseau, in G. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity (Cambridge, Mass., 1999), pp. 406-7.

p. 56. Theodore of Sykeon: Vie de Théodore de Sykéôn, ed. and trans. A. J. Festugière (Brussels, 1970), cc. 37, 43, 91 - 4, 103, 114 - 16, 162, etc.

p. 57. Foucault: e.g. M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish (London, 1977). For the patterns of everyday Christianity, see esp. P. Brown, in CAH, vol. 13, pp. 632-64.

p. 57. Gregory of Nyssa: Garnsey and Humfress, Evolution of the Late Antique World, pp. 207-10.

p. 57. Jerome: Select Letters of St Jerome, ed. and trans. F. A. Wright (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), letter 22, is a good example.

p. 57. Divorce: see A. Arjava, Women and Law in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 1996), pp. 177-92; G. Clark, Women in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 1993), pp. 21-7; A. Giardina, in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 392-8.

p. 58. Jewish patriarch: D. Goodblatt, in Katz, Cambridge History of Judaism, vol. 4, pp. 416-23.

p. 59. Church as a career structure: see e.g. Rapp, Holy Bishops, pp. 172-207.

p. 60. Donatists: see W. H. C. Frend, The Donatist Church (Oxford, 1952), p. 167 for the bishops; P. Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine (London, 1972), pp. 237-331.

p. 60. Pelagians: Brown, Religion and Society, pp. 183-226; B. R. Rees, Pelagius, 2nd edn. (London, 1998).

p. 61. Clerical celibacy: R. Gryson, Les Origines du celibat ecclésiastique du premier au septième sie‘cle (Gembloux, 1970).

p. 61. Eastern Christological debates: H. Chadwick, in CAH, vol. 13, pp. 561-600, and P. Allen, in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 811-34, give useful narratives. The historiography is huge; I have found particularly useful the crisp and incisive theological introductions in F. M. Young, From Nicaea to Chalcedon (London, 1983). For ‘Arianism’, see most recently D. M. Gwynn, The Eusebians (Oxford, 2007).

p. 62. ‘Arianism’ in Constantinople: see J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, Barbarians and Bishops (Oxford, 1990), pp. 157-89.

p. 63. Monophysite episcopal hierarchy: D. D. Bundy, ‘Jacob Baradaeus’, Le Muséon, 91 (1978), pp. 45-86; L. Van Rompay, in M. Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 239-66.

p. 64. Mobs: Haas, Alexandria, pp. 258 - 330; Frend, Donatist Church, pp. 172-7 (but who exactly Circumcellions were is much debated: see B. D. Shaw, in A. H. Merrills (ed.), Vandals, Romans and Berbers (Aldershot, 2004), pp. 227-58); T. E. Gregory, Vox Populi (Columbus, Ohio, 1979).

p. 64. Patriarch Juvenal: Evagrios, The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus, trans. M. Whitby (Liverpool, 2000), 2.5; Cyril of Scythopolis, Life of Euthymios, in Lives of the Monks of Palestine, trans. R. M. Price (Kalamazoo, Mich., 1991), pp. 1-83, cc. 27-30.

p. 65. Ascetics: the seminal article is P. Brown, Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity, (London, 1982), pp. 103-52, updated in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 780-810; the very substantial recent bibliography on ascetics and saints is summed up in two conferences, published as J. Howard-Johnston and P. Hayward (eds.), The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 1999), and Journal of Early Christian Studies, 6 (1998), pp. 343-671.

p. 65. Stylites: Life of Daniel the Stylite, trans. E. Dawes and N. H. Baynes, Three Byzantine Saints (London, 1948), pp. 7-71, c. 62; Theodoret of Cyrrhus, A History of the Monks of Syria, trans. R. M. Price (Kalamazoo, Mich., 1985), 26.22. See for Theodoret, T. Urbainczyk, Theodoret of Cyrrhus (Ann Arbor, 2002), esp. pp. 115-47.

p. 65. Gaza advice: Barsanouphios and John, Correspondance, ed. and trans. F. Neyt et al., 3 vols. (Paris, 1997-2002), nn. 636, 671, 777, 775, 776, 669, 841.

p. 66. Brown quote: CAH, vol. 14, p. 806.

p. 66. Paula: Jerome, Letters, 45.

p. 66. Monasticism: see in general D. J. Chitty, The Desert a City (Oxford, 1966); P. Rousseau, Ascetics, Authority and the Church in the Age of Jerome and Cassian (Oxford, 1978); C. Leyser, Authority and Asceticism from Augustine to Gregory the Great(Oxford, 2000).

p. 66. Benedict: The Rule of St Benedict, ed. and trans. J. McCann (London, 1952). So there!

p. 67. Infill in cities: H. Kennedy, ‘From polis to madina’, Past and Present, 106 (1985), pp. 3-27.

p. 67. Adventus and victory: Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, ed. and trans. J. C. Rolfe, 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 1935-9), 16.10.4-13; S. G. MacCormack, Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, 1981), pp. 33-61; M. McCormick, Eternal Victory(Cambridge, 1986), pp. 189-230 for Constantine VII and other later accounts.

p. 68. Clermont: Gregory of Tours, Life of the Fathers, trans. E. James (Liverpool, 1985), 4.2; siege of Constantinople: see below, Chapter 11.

p. 68. Pilgrimages: see e.g. Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles, pp. 116-49.

p. 68. Games, factions: A. Cameron, Circus Factions (Oxford, 1976), pp. 225-96.

p. 69. Edessa: The Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite, trans. F. R. Trombley and J. W. Watt (Liverpool, 2000), c. 31.

p. 69. Sidonius: Letters, 2.13.4 (quote), 1.11 (Majorian).

p. 69. Persians: Ammianus, Res Gestae, 23.6.80.

p. 69. Petitions: J. Harries, Law and Empire in Late Antiquity (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 82-4, 184-7.

p. 69. Basiliscus: Life of Daniel the Stylite, cc. 70-84.

p. 69. Attila: Priskos, fragment 11.2, ed. and trans. in R. C. Blockley, The Fragmentary Classicizing Historians of the Later Roman Empire, vol. 2 (Liverpool, 1983), pp. 247-9, 257.

p. 70. Housing: S. Ellis, Roman Housing (London, 2000), esp. pp. 166-83; B. Polci, in L. Lavan and W. Bowden (eds.), Theory and Practice in Late Antique Archaeology (Leiden, 2003), pp. 79-89; K. Cooper, ‘Closely Watched Households’, Past and Present, 197 (2007), pp. 3-33.

p. 70. Augustine: Confessions, 9.9; Letters, 262 (to Ecdicia); see esp. B. Shaw, ‘The Family in Late Antiquity’, Past and Present, 115 (1987), pp. 3-51. See also G. Nathan, The Family in Late Antiquity (London, 2000). For eastern attitudes to family violence, see L. Dossey, ‘Wife-beating in Late Antiquity’, Past and Present, 199 (2008), pp.3-40.

p. 70. Egyptian divorce and marriage papyri: J. Beaucamp, Le Statut de la femme a‘ Byzance (4e-7esiècle), 2 vols. (Paris, 1990-92), vol. 2, pp. 139-58, 127-9.

p. 71. Domestic slaves: Augustine, Confessions, 9.9; Querolus, ed. and trans. C. Jacquemard-le Saos (Paris, 1994), c. 67.

p. 71. Augustine’s dislike for his father: Confessions, 2.3, 5.8.

p. 71. Paulina: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, 6.1 (Berlin, 1876), n. 1779, with partial trans. and comment in K. Cooper, The Virgin and the Bride (Cambridge, Mass., 1996), pp. 97-103.

p. 71. Women and law: Arjava, Women and Law; Beaucamp, Le Statut, vol. 1.

p. 71. Monica: Augustine, Confessions, 3.4.

p. 71. Patrikia: Greek Papyri in the British Museum, ed. F. G. Kenyon and H. I. Bell, 5 vols. (London, 1893-1917), vol. 5, n. 1660.

p. 71. Hypatia: M. Dzielska, Hypatia of Alexandria (Cambridge, Mass., 1995).

p. 72. Economic activities in Egypt: Beaucamp, Le Statut, vol. 2, pp. 227-47; R. Bagnall, Egypt in Late Antiquity (Princeton, 1993), pp. 92-9, 130-33.

p. 72. Actresses: Beaucamp, Le Statut, vol. 1, pp. 206-8; V. Neri, I marginali nell’Occidente tardoantico (Bari, 1998), pp. 233-50. Theodora: our problem here is that our sole source for her career as an actress is Prokopios, Secret History, ed. and trans. H. B. Dewing (Cambridge, Mass., 1935), c. 9, which is a free-standing rhetorical denunciation: see L. Brubaker, ‘Sex, Lies and Textuality’, in eadem and J. M. H. Smith (eds.), Gender in the Early Medieval World (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 83-101. It would be unsafe to assume that it even had a grain of truth.

p. 72. Female ascesis: see E. A. Clark, Ascetic Piety and Women’s Faith (Lewiston, NY, 1986), esp. pp. 175-208.

p. 73. Contrast with early medieval West: see J. M. H. Smith, ‘Did Women have a Transformation of the Roman World?’, Gender and History, 12.3 (2000), pp. 22-41.

p. 73. Female weakness: see e.g. Clark, Women, pp. 56-62, 119-26.

p. 73. Decorum and anger: Brown, Power and Persuasion, pp. 35-61.

p. 73. Faustus: see R. Mathisen, Roman Aristocrats in Barbarian Gaul (Austin, Tex., 1993), pp. 50-51.

p. 73. Valentinian: Ammianus, Res Gestae, 30.8; Sidonius: Letters, 1.11, esp. 11.12.

Chapter 4

The fullest overall narrative of this period is still E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1949-59); up-to-date (and very different) analytical narratives for the West are now P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 2005), and G. Halsall,Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (Cambridge, 2007), which pays attention to material culture. CAH, vol. 14, M. Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge 2005), and A. Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity AD 365-600 (London, 1993), are state-of-the-art introductions, as is H. Wolfram, The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples (Berkeley, 1997). For the integration of the ‘barbarians’ into the Roman world, the Transformation of the Roman World series, published by Brill, is now an essential starting point, including W. Pohl (ed.), Kingdoms of the Empire (Leiden, 1997), and H.-W. Goetz et al. (eds.), Regna and Gentes (Leiden, 2003). B. Ward-Perkins, The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Oxford, 2005) is a powerful counterblast against excessive continuitism. Scholars disagree, often fiercely, about the issues discussed in this chapter, and are likely to go on doing so for some time.

p. 76. Huneric: Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution, trans. J. Moorhead (Liverpool, 1992), 2.38-40, 3.2-14 (quotes from 3.3.3, 7); for 411, Actes de la Conférence de Carthage en 411, ed. S. Lancel, 3 vols. (Paris, 1972-5), and CTh, 16.5.52, for 412, Huneric’s model.

p. 77. Vandals: see in general C. Courtois, Les Vandales et l’Afrique (Paris, 1955), and the wide-ranging conference published as L’Antiquité tardive, vols. 10 and 11 (2002-3); Possidius, Life of Augustine, trans. R. J. Deferrari, in Early Christian Biographies(Washington, 1952), pp. 73-131, cc. 28-30; Prokopios, Wars, ed. and trans. H. B. Dewing (Cambridge, Mass., 1914-28), 4.6.5-9. For Africa in the period, see A. H. Merrills (ed.), Vandals, Romans and Berbers (Aldershot, 2004).

p. 78. Population of Rome: J. Durliat, De la ville antique a‘ la ville byzantine (Rome, 1990), pp. 92-123.

p. 79. Marcellinus: B. Croke, ‘A.D. 476: The Manufacture of a Turning Point’, Chiron, 13 (1983), pp. 81-119.

p. 79. 400-425 in the West: see J. R. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court AD 364-425 (Oxford, 1975); H. Wolfram, History of the Goths (Berkeley, 1988), pp. 139-75; P. J. Heather, Goths and Romans 332-489 (Oxford, 1991), pp. 193-224.

p. 81. Gainas, Eudoxia: see J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, Barbarians and Bishops (Oxford, 1990). Eudoxia, Pulcheria: K. G. Holum, Theodosian Empresses (Berkeley, 1982); L. James, Empresses and Power in Early Byzantium (Leicester, 2001), pp. 59-82. For Theodosius II’s reign as a whole, see F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006).

p. 82. Suevi, etc.: for fifth-century Spain, J. Arce, Bárbaros y romanos en Hispania, 400-507 A.D. (Madrid, 2005), is basic.

p. 82. Bagaudae: the best overview of a contested subject is J. C. Sánchez León, Los Bagaudae (Jaén, 1996).

p. 82. Orosius: Seven Books of History against the Pagans, trans. R. J. Deferrari (Washington, 1964), 7.41; Augustine: see R. A. Markus, Saeculum (Cambridge, 1970), pp. 45-71, 147-53.

p. 83. Theodosian Code: see J. Matthews, in J. Harries and I. Wood (eds.), The Theodosian Code (London, 1993), pp. 19-44.

p. 83. Aetius: J. M. O’Flynn, Generalissimos of the Western Roman Empire (Edmonton, 1983), pp. 74-103; more critical is J. R. Moss, in Historia, 22 (1973), pp. 711-31.

p. 83. Western legislation in the 440s: see esp. Novels of Valentinian, n. 15, in CTh, pp. 529-30.

p. 84. Salvian: On the Governance of God, trans. J. F. O’Sullivan, in The Writings of Salvian, the Presbyter (Washington, 1947), pp. 25-232; cf. Priskos, fragment 11.2, in Blockley, pp. 267-73; compare also Orosius, History, 7.41.7.

p. 84. Huns: basic on them (and on fifth-century politics in general) is P. Heather, ‘The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe’, English Historical Review, 110 (1995), pp. 4-41.

p. 85. Avitus and Theoderic: Sidonius Apollinaris, Poems and Letters, ed. and trans. W. B. Anderson (Cambridge, Mass., 1962-5), poem 7, lines 392-602.

p. 85. For 456-75, see e.g. P. MacGeorge, Late Roman Warlords (Oxford, 2002).

p. 86. Odovacer as king: J.-O. Tjäder, Die nichtliterarischen lateinischen Papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700 (Lund, 1955-82), nn. 10-11 (for 489).

p. 86. 476: talked down by many historians, of which the classic is A. Momigliano, ‘La caduta senza rumore di un impero nel 476 D.C.’, Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 3rd ser., 3.2 (1973), pp. 397-418.

p. 86. Euric: Wolfram, History of the Goths, pp. 181-222.

p. 86. Auvergne: J. Harries, Sidonius Apollinaris and the Fall of Rome (Oxford, 1994), pp. 222-38; quote: Sidonius, Letters, 8.2.2.

p. 87. Changes in Gaul: see J. F. Drinkwater and H. Elton (eds.), Fifth-century Gaul (Cambridge, 1992); MacGeorge, Warlords, pp. 71-164; E. James, The Franks (Oxford, 1988), pp. 58-91.

p. 87. Northern Gaul: P. Van Ossel and P. Ouzoulias, in Journal of Roman Archaeology, 13 (2000), pp. 133-60; Sidonius, Letters, 4.17; Vita Genovefae, ed. B. Krusch, MGH, SRM, vol. 3 (Hanover, 1896), pp. 215-38, cc. 35-8.

p. 87. Noricum: Eugippius, Life of Severinus, trans. L. Bieler (Washington, 1965).

p. 89. Zeno and Anastasius: A. D. Lee, in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 49-62; for the Theoderics, Heather, Goths and Romans, pp. 240-308.

p. 90. Theoderic after 489: J. Moorhead, Theoderic in Italy (Oxford, 1992); P. Heather, in EME, 4 (1995), pp. 145-73; for the 500 visit, see the Anonymus Valesianus, ed. and trans. in Ammianus, Res Gestae, vol. 3, pp. 548-57; Cassiodorus, Variae, are partially trans. S. J. B. Barnish (Liverpool, 1992), and summarized as a whole in T. Hodgkin, The Letters of Cassiodorus (London, 1886).

p. 90. Orosius: History, 7.43.2-8.

p. 91. Sidonius and his contemporaries: J. Harries, in Drinkwater and Elton, Fifth-century Gaul, pp. 298-308; PLRE, vol. 2, pp. 157-8, 995-6, 1162-3, 1168; R. Mathisen, Roman Aristocrats in Barbarian Gaul (Austin, Tex., 1993).

p. 91. Hydatius: The Chronicle of Hydatius and the Consularia Constantinopolitana, ed. and trans. R. W. Burgess (Oxford, 1993), pp. 70-122; in Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution, 1.37 and 3.62 are the only references to Romans.

p. 91. Jerome: J. N. D. Kelly, Jerome (London, 1975).

p. 92. Justinian: perhaps the best, and certainly the crispest, of the many overviews is A. Cameron, in CAH, vol. 14, pp. 65-85; for the change in atmosphere of the period, eadem, Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire (Berkeley, 1991), pp. 190-221. For the world of Justinian (though not too much on the emperor himself), see Maas, Age of Justinian. p. 93. Prokopios: On Buildings, ed. and trans. H. B. Dewing (Cambridge, Mass., 1940). For redatings, see e.g. G. Brands, Resafa VI (Mainz, 2002), pp. 224-35.

p. 94. Secret History: see A. Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (Berkeley, 1985), pp. 49-83; L. Brubaker, ‘Sex, Lies and Textuality’, in eadem and J. M. H. Smith (eds.), Gender in the Early Medieval World (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 83-101.

p. 94. Maurice: M. Whitby, The Emperor Maurice and his Historian (Oxford, 1988), esp. pp. 3-27; M. Whittow, The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600-1025 (Basingstoke, 1996), pp. 38-68, is effectively upbeat.

p. 95. ‘Roman civilization . . .’: A. Piganiol, L’Empire chrétien (325-395) (Paris, 1947), p. 422.

p. 96. Basiliscus: S. Krautschick, ‘Zwei Aspekte des Jahres 476’, Historia, 35 (1986), pp. 344-71, at pp. 344-55; the link with Odovacer, which is a major reinterpretation of the period, hangs however on the placing of a single comma and an ‘and’ in a text, and it is not clear that this is better than the traditional reading (in R. C. Blockley, The Fragmentary Classicizing Historians of the Later Roman Empire, vol. 2 (Liverpool, 1983), pp. 372-3).

p. 96. Balkan melting pot: P. Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554 (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 277-91.

p. 96. Intermarriage: A. Demandt, in E. K. Chrysos and A. Schwarcz (eds.), Das Reich und die Barbaren (Vienna, 1985), pp. 75-86.

p. 97. Empresses: see James, Empresses and Power.

p. 97. Anicia Juliana: L. Brubaker, ‘Memories of Helena’, in L. James (ed.), Women, Men and Eunuchs (London, 1997), pp. 52-75; PLRE, vol. 2, pp. 635-6; R. Harrison, A Temple for Byzantium (Austin, Tex., 1989).

p. 98. Ethnicity in Italy: see in general the critique in Amory, People, which I have not entirely followed. See PLRE, vol. 2, pp. 791-3 for Odovacer’s career.

p. 99. Ethnogenesis: for guides, see e.g. H. Wolfram and W. Pohl (eds.), Typen der Ethnogenese , 2 vols. (Vienna, 1990); P. J. Geary, ‘Ethnic Identity as a Situational Construct in the Early Middle Ages’, Mitteilungen des anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 113 (1983), pp. 15-26; W. Pohl, in A. Gillett (ed.), On Barbarian Identity (Turnhout, 2002), pp. 221-39, for bibliography, rethinking, and a taste of the sharpness of polemic on the issue; and, most recently, Halsall, Barbarian Migrations. T. F. X. Noble (ed.), From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms (London, 2006), republishes many of the other key articles.

p. 99. Frankish origin-stories: Fredegar, Chronica, ed. B. Krusch, MGH, SRM, vol. 2 (Hanover, 1888), pp. 18-168, 2.4-6, 3.9: see A. C. Murray, in idem (ed.), After Rome’s Fall (Toronto, 1998), pp. 121-52.

p. 100. Communication: Amory, People, pp. 102-8, 247-56, for Gothic; M. Banniard, Viva voce (Paris, 1992), pp. 253-86 for Francia (though he is mostly concerned with Latin versus proto-Romance).

p. 100. Anthimus: see B. Effros, Creating Community with Food and Drink in Merovingian Gaul (Basingstoke, 2002), pp. 61-7.

p. 100. Assemblies: see in general P. S. Barnwell and M. Mostert (eds.), Political Assemblies in the Earlier Middle Ages (Turnhout, 2003); for placita, see W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds.), The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1986).

p. 101. Theoderic II: Sidonius, Letters, 1.2.

p. 102. Shift to land, and tax changes: C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 80-93 for an overview of the debate; see more recently W. Goffart, Barbarian Tides (Philadelphia, 2006), pp. 119-56, and M. Innes, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 16 (2006), pp. 39-74.

p. 103. Mercenaries: G. Halsall, Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900 (London, 2003), pp. 111-15.

p. 103. Economic simplification: Wickham, Framing, pp. 720-59, 794-805; Halsall, Barbarian Migrations, pp. 320-70. p. 105. Avitus: Sidonius, Poems, 7, lines 251-94; Apollinaris and Arcadius: Gregory of Tours, Histories, trans. L. Thorpe as The History of the Franks (Harmondsworth, 1974), 2.37, 3.9, 12, 18; Cyprian: Cassiodorus, Variae, 8.21-2.

p. 106. Episcopal career structure: Mathisen, Roman Aristocrats, pp. 89-104; R. Van Dam, Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul (Berkeley, 1985), pp. 157-229; M. Heinzelmann, Gregory of Tours (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 7-28 for Gregory’s family.

p. 106. Clothing: W. Pohl, ‘Telling the Difference’, in idem and H. Reimitz (eds.), Strategies of Distinction (Leiden, 1998), pp. 17-69, at pp. 40-51; M. Harlow, ‘Clothes Maketh the Man’, in Brubaker and Smith, Gender, pp. 44-69.

p. 107. Memory of Rome: see e.g. J. M. H. Smith, Europe after Rome (Oxford, 2005), pp. 253-92.

p. 108. Shifts for local elites: see e.g. Heather, ‘Huns’, pp. 37-9.

Chapter 5

The best survey of the Merovingian period in any language is Ian Wood’s The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751 (Harlow, 1994). Good shorter introductions are S. Lebecq, Les Origines franques Ve-IXesiècle (Paris, 1990), and P. Geary, Before France and Germany(Oxford, 1988); E. James, The Franks (Oxford, 1988), which includes more archaeology, stops around 600, although his The Origins of France (London, 1982) continues to 1000. I. Wood (ed.), Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian Period(Woodbridge, 1998) contains stimulating articles. J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Long-haired Kings (London, 1962) is the basic earlier point of reference. Important for social history are G. Halsall, Settlement and Social Organization (Cambridge, 1995) and R. Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir dans le monde franc (VIIe-Xesiècle) (Paris, 1995). R. Van Dam and P. Fouracre, in NCMH, vol. 1, pp. 193-231, 371-96 are brisk syntheses.

p. 111. Rauching: Gregory of Tours, Histories, trans. L. Thorpe as The History of the Franks (Harmondsworth, 1974), 6.4, 9.9, 12, cf. 5.3.

p. 111. Appointment of Gregory: Venantius Fortunatus, Poems, 5.3, ed. F. Leo, MGH, Auctores Antiquissimi, vol. 4.1 (Berlin, 1881), partial trans. (not including this poem), J. George, Venantius Fortunatus: Personal and Political Poems (Liverpool, 1995). For Gregory’s literary structure, see the notes to p. 13.

p. 112. Private fortifications: R. Samson, ‘The Merovingian Nobleman’s Home: Castle or Villa?’, Journal of Medieval History, 13 (1987), pp. 287-315.

p. 112. Clovis’s Arianism: Avitus of Vienne, Letters and Selected Prose, trans. D. Shanzer and I. Wood (Liverpool, 2002), Letters, 46, with commentary, pp. 362-9.

p. 113. Royal palaces: J. Barbier, ‘Le Système palatial franc’, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, 148 (1990), pp. 245-99.

p. 113. Merovingian name: see A. C. Murray, in idem (ed.), After Rome’s Fall (Toronto, 1998), pp. 136-7.

p. 114. Theudebert: see R. Collins, ‘Theodebert I, “rex magnus Francorum” ’, in P. Wormald (ed.), Ideal and Reality in Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 1983), pp. 7-33; Agathias: The Histories, trans. J. D. Frendo (Berlin, 1975), 1.4; Gregory of Tours,Histories, 3.25, 34, 36.

p. 114. Admonitory letters: for some episcopal letters translated, A. C. Murray, From Roman to Merovingian Gaul (Peterborough, Ont., 2000), pp. 260-68; for Venantius Fortunatus, Poems, passim.

p. 115. Gregory’s meetings with Guntram and Chilperic: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 5.18, 44, 8.2-6, 9.20; cf. 6.46 for Chilperic’s obituary.

p. 116. Queens: see above all J. L. Nelson, Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London, 1986), pp. 1-48; for resentment, see e.g. Gregory of Tours, Histories, 10.27.

p. 117. Flaochad: Fredegar, Chronica, 4.89; Fredegar’s fourth book and continuations are ed. and trans. in J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar (London, 1960).

p. 117. Saints’ lives as sources: see the important analysis of the genre by P. Fouracre, ‘Merovingian History and Merovingian Hagiography’, Past and Present, 127 (1990), pp. 3-38.

p. 117. Pippinids: I. Wood, in L. Brubaker and J. M. H. Smith (eds), Gender in the Early Medieval World (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 234-56, shows that their (female-line) Pippinid ancestry was more important to this family after 687 than their male ancestors.

p. 117. Childeric and Childebert: see Wood, Merovingian Kingdoms, pp. 227-38, 262-6; P. Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel (Harlow, 2000), pp. 48-54; countered by T. Kölzer, in M. Becher and J. Jarnut (eds.), Der Dynastiewechsel von 751 (Münster, 2004), pp. 33-60.

p. 118. Godin: Fredegar, Chronica, 4.54; Grimoald and Bodilo: Liber Historiae Francorum, partially trans. in P. Fouracre and R. Gerberding, Late Merovingian France (Manchester, 1996), pp. 87-96, cc. 43, 45.

p. 118. Childebert as Sigebert’s adopted son: of the competing modern analyses, I largely follow R. Gerberding, The Rise of the Carolingians and the Liber Historiae Francorum (Oxford, 1987), pp. 47-66; but see also M. Becher, in J. Jarnut et al. (eds.), Karl Martell in seiner Zeit (Sigmaringen, 1994), pp. 119-47.

p. 118. Ebroin’s king: Passio Prima Leudegarii, trans. in Fouracre and Gerberding, Late Merovingian France, pp. 215-53, c. 19.

p. 119. Samo: Fredegar, Chronica, 4.48, 68-77; Radulf: 4.87; Aquitaine: see M. Rouche, L’Aquitaine des Wisigoths aux Arabes, 418-781 (Paris, 1979), pp. 90-129.

p. 119. Charles Martel: see Fouracre, Charles Martel.

p. 120. Taxation: see W. Goffart, Rome’s Fall and After (London, 1989), pp. 213-31; C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 102-15.

p. 120. Gold content: see M. F. Hendy, ‘From Public to Private’, Viator, 19 (1988), pp. 29-78, at pp. 62-8.

p. 121. Thesaurus: e.g. Fredegar, Chronica, 4.38, 42, 60, 67, 75, 85; Liber Historiae Francorum, cc. 45, 48, 52-3.

p. 121. Writing: see I. Wood, in R. McKitterick (ed.), The Uses of Literacy in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 63-81; tax accounts: ChLA, vol. 18, n. 659, vol. 47, nn. 1404-5.

p. 121. Royal acts: Marculfi Formulae, ed. K. Zeumer, MGH, Formulae Merovingici et Karolini Aevi (Hanover, 1886), pp. 36-106, 1.6-8, 11, 12, 20, 26-9, 40; ChLA, vol. 13, nn. 550, 565; J. Havet, ‘Questions mérovingiennes, V’, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, 51 (1890), pp. 5-62, at pp. 47-50; Desiderius of Cahors, Letters, ed. W. Arndt, MGH, Epistolae, vol. 3 (Berlin, 1892), pp. 193-214, letter 2.17.

p. 122. Referendaril and other officials: see P. S. Barnwell, Kings, Courtiers and Imperium (London, 1997), pp. 23-40.

p. 122. Bishop Praejectus: Passio Praeiecti, trans. in Fouracre and Gerberding, Late Merovingian France, pp. 271-300, cc. 23-7.

p. 122. Assemblies: see P. S. Barnwell, in idem and M. Mostert (eds.), Political Assemblies in the Earlier Middle Ages (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 11-28; Saxons: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 4.14; sixth-century participation: ibid., 3.14, cf. H. Grahn-Hoek, Die fränkische Oberschicht im 6. Jahrhundert (Sigmaringen, 1976); Ebroin: Passio Prima Leudegarii, c. 5.

p. 123. Legal assemblies: see P. Fouracre, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds.), The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 23-43.

p. 123. Salic law: see The Laws of the Salian Franks, trans. K. F. Drew (Philadelphia, 1991), prologue, 57; H. Nehlsen, in P. Classen (ed.), Recht und Schrift im Mittelalter (Sigmaringen, 1977), pp. 449-502, at pp. 461-83; later law: Cap., vol. 1, pp. 1-23.

p. 124. Royal justice: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 6.73; Fredegar, Chronica, 4.58. For Chlotar and councils, see M. de Jong, in S. Airlie et al. (eds.), Staat im frühen Mittelalter (Vienna, 2006), pp. 125-7.

p. 124. Aristocratic wealth: see Wickham, Framing, pp. 168-203.

p. 124. Abbo: see P. Geary, Aristocracy in Provence (Stuttgart, 1985); for aristocratic identity, see F. Irsigler, in T. Reuter (ed.), The Medieval Nobility (Amsterdam, 1978), pp. 105-36.

p. 124. Agilolfings: see Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir, pp. 387-92.

p. 124. Administrators as having obligations to fight: see e.g. Venantius Fortunatus, Poems, 7.16; Vita Eligii, trans. J. A. McNamara, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/eligius.html, 1.10-11.

p. 125. Counts and bishops of low-born origin: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 5.48; Vita Eligii, 1.1; Passio Praeiecti, c. 1. See, in general, P. Fouracre, in Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 57 (1984), pp. 1-14, and, for bishops in the army, F. Prinz,Klerus und Krieg im früheren Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1971), pp. 46-72.

p. 125. Founding monasteries: see e.g. Wood, Merovingian Kingdoms, pp. 181-202; Balthild: Vita Balthildis, trans. in Fouracre and Gerberding, Late Merovingian France, pp. 118-32, c. 9.

p. 126. ‘Episcopal republics’: E. Ewig, Spätantikes und fränkisches Gallien (Munich, 1976-9), vol. 2, pp. 211-19.

p. 127. Clermont: I. Wood, in Wormald (ed.), Ideal and Reality, pp. 34-57; Gregory: Histories, 5.49.

p. 127. Arnulf of Metz: Vita Arnulfi, ed. B. Krusch, MGH, SRM, vol. 2 (Hanover, 1888), pp. 432-46, c. 16; Leudegar: Passio Prima Leudegarii, cc. 21-4.

p. 127. Desiderius: Letters, 1.5, 9-11 (nostalgia), 1.2, 6, 8, 2.9 (patronage), 2.12, 15 (royal movements), 1.13, 15, 2.5, 21 (local politics); see further B. Rosenwein, Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY, 2006), pp. 130-55; Vita Desiderii, ed. B. Krusch, MGH, SRM, vol. 4 (Hanover, 1902), pp. 563-602, cc. 1-8, 12-13 (career), 16, 17, 31 (building), 29, 30, 34 (huge wealth). Eligius: J. Lafaurie, ‘Eligius Monetarius’, Revue numismatique, 6th ser., 19 (1977), pp. 111-51; M. F. Hendy, ‘From Public to Private’, pp. 65-8.

Chapter 6

The most detailed account of Visigothic Spain in English, E. A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (Oxford, 1969), is outdated in methodology and approach; L. A. García Moreno, Historia de España visigoda (Madrid, 1989) is also flawed. Much better are D. Claude,Adel, Kirche und Königtum im Westgotenreich (Sigmaringen, 1971), and R. Collins, Early Medieval Spain (London, 1983); the latter, which goes up to 1000, is now comprehensively updated and filled out in idem, Visigothic Spain 409-711 (Oxford, 2004), which is now the best place to start. A short and up-to-date synthesis is G. Ripoll and I. Velázquez, La Hispania visigoda (Madrid, 1995).

For Italy, see C. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy (London, 1981), P. Cammarosano, Nobili e re (Bari, 1998), C. La Rocca (ed.), Italy in the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002), all of which go up to 1000, and G. Tabacco, The Struggle for Power in Medieval Italy(Cambridge, 1989), which goes up to 1350. N. Christie, The Lombards (Oxford, 1995), and P. Delogu, ‘Il regno longobardo’, in G. Galasso (ed.), Storia d’Italia, vol. 1 (Turin, 1980), pp. 3-216, cover Lombard areas; important rethinkings are found in P. Cammarosano and S. Gasparri (eds.), Langobardia (Udine, 1990), W. Pohl and P. Erhart (eds.), Die Langobarden (Vienna, 2005), and P. Delogu (ed.), The Langobards (Woodbridge, 2009). T. S. Brown, Gentlemen and Officers (Rome, 1984) is a brilliant survey of Byzantine Italy, now to be supplemented by E. Zanini, Le Italie bizantine (Bari, 1998), for the archaeology. The basic archaeology-based survey of Italy is N. Christie, From Constantine to Charlemagne (Aldershot, 2006). For Rome, see among many J. Richards,The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages (London, 1979) and T. F. X. Noble, The Republic of St Peter (Philadelphia, 1984).

p. 130. Councils of Toledo: see J. Vives (ed.), Concilios visigóticos e hispano-romanos (Barcelona, 1963), XII Toledo cc. 1, 2, cf. VI Toledo c. 17, IV Toledo c. 75; for unction, Julian of Toledo, Historia Wambae, ed. W. Levison, MGH, SRM, vol. 5 (Hanover, 1910), pp. 500-535, cc. 2-4, trans. J. M. Pizarro, The Story of Wamba (Washington, 2005), pp. 179-84.

p. 132. Ceramic production: L. C. Juan Tovar and J. F. Blanco García, ‘Cerámica comun tardorromana’, Archivo español de arqueología, 70 (1997), pp. 171-219; for a survey in English, see P. Reynolds, in K. Bowes and M. Kulikowski (eds.), Hispania in Late Antiquity (Leiden, 2005), pp. 403-10; the whole book is now the essential account of late Roman Spain.

p. 132. Semi-autonomous communities: John of Biclar, Chronicle, trans. K. B. Wolf, Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain (Liverpool, 1990), pp. 61-80, cc. 36, 27, 61, 32, 20, with Braulio, Life of Aemilian, trans. A. T. Fear, Lives of the Visigothic Fathers (Liverpool, 1997), pp. 15-43, cc. 18, 22, 24, 33. For Spain up to 600, see M. Kulikowski, Late Roman Spain and its Cities (Baltimore, 2004), pp. 151-309.

p. 132. Mérida: Lives of the Fathers of Mérida, trans. Fear, Lives, pp. 45-105, 4.2.15-18, 5.3; for churches, P. Mateos Cruz, ‘Augusta Emerita’, in G. Ripoll and J. M. Gurt (eds.), Sedes regiae (ann. 400-800) (Barcelona, 2000), pp. 491-520, at pp. 506-16.

p. 133. Northern collectivities: for a survey, see S. Castellanos and I. Martín Viso, in EME, 13 (2005), pp. 1-42.

p. 133. Taxation: Cassidorus, Variae, ed. T. Mommsen, MGH, Auctores Antiquissimi, 12 (Berlin, 1894), 5. 39; Vives, Concilios, p. 54.

p. 133. Leovigild and Mérida: R. Collins, ‘Merida and Toledo: 550-585’, in E. James (ed.), Visigothic Spain (Oxford, 1980), pp. 189-219.

p. 133. Toledo: I. Velázquez and G. Ripoll, in Ripoll and Gurt, Sedes regiae, pp. 521-78.

p. 134. Fredegar, Chronica, ed. and trans. J.-M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar (London 1960), 4.82.

p. 135. Councils of bishops: see R. Stocking, Bishops, Councils and Consensus in the Visigothic Kingdom, 589-633 (Ann Arbor, 2000).

p. 135. Chindasuinth: Fredegar, Chronica, 4.82; Leges Visigothorum, ed. K. Zeumer, MGH, Leges, vol. 1 (Hanover, 1902), 2.1.8; XIII Toledo c. 1; and Claude, Adel, pp. 115-33. For Eugenius, MGH, Auctores Antiquissimi, vol. 14, ed. F. Vollmer (Berlin, 1905), pp. 250-51.

p. 135. Ervig and Egica: Leges Visigothorum, 6.5.12-14, 9.2.8-9; XV Toledo. Laws: see P. D. King, Law and Society in the Visigothic Kingdom (Cambridge, 1972); on territoriality I follow I. Velazquez, in P. Heather (ed.), The Visigoths (Woodbridge, 1999), pp. 225-59, and Collins, Early Medieval Spain, pp. 27-30, 123-5.

p. 136. Byzantine models and victory ceremonies: see M. McCormick, Eternal Victory (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 297-327; J. Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (Princeton, 1987), pp. 227-49, brings out the ambiguities in Visigothic attitudes to the East.

p. 136. Jews: see King, Law and Society, pp. 130-45.

p. 137. Officium palatinum: see P. C. Díaz, in Heather, The Visigoths, pp. 321-56, at pp. 335-48; A. Isla Frez, ‘El “officium palatinum” visigodo’, Hispania, 62 (2002), pp. 823-47; Claude, Adel, pp. 198-210.

p. 137. Ervig and Egica: XII Toledo, Tomus, in Vives, Concilios; Leges Visigothorum, 9.1.21.

p. 137. Archaeology: C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 656-65, 741-58.

p. 138. Slates: I. Velázquez Soriano (ed.), Documentos de época visigoda escritos en pizarra (siglos VI-VIII) (Turnhout, 2000); n. 75 for Toledo.

p. 138. Army: D. Pérez Sánchez, El ejército en la sociedad visigoda (Salamanca, 1989), pp. 146-74.

p. 138. Church and oaths: A. Barbero and M. Vigil, La formación del feudalismo en la Península Ibérica (Barcelona, 1978), pp. 53-104, 126 ff.; a very important book.

p. 138. Isidore: see above all J. Fontaine, Isidore de Séville et la culture classique dans l’Espagne wisigothique, 2nd edn. (Paris, 1983); a neat cultural survey is in Collins, Early Medieval Spain, pp. 59-87. Braulio’s letters are trans. C. W. Barlow, Iberian Fathers, vol. 2 (Washington, 1969), pp. 15-112.

p. 139. Strong Visigothic state: I follow R. Collins, The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710-97 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 7-22; Claude, Adel, pp. 204-10.

p. 139. Break-up of Spain: E. Manzano Moreno, Conquistadores, emires y califas (Barcelona, 2006), pp. 34-53.

p. 140. Structural separation: F. Marazzi, in R. Hodges and W. Bowden (eds.), The Sixth Century (Leiden, 1998), pp. 119-59, at pp. 152-9.

p. 141. Byzantine militarization: Brown, Gentlemen, pp. 39-108.

p. 141. Queens: P. Skinner, Women in Medieval Italian Society 500-1200 (London, 2001), pp. 56-8.

p. 142. Agilulf: see Paul the Deacon, History of the Langobards, trans. W. D. Foulke (Philadelphia, 1907), 4.1-40; cf. McCormick, Eternal Victory, pp. 287-96. For the seventh century as a whole, see P. Delogu, in idem, The Langobards.

p. 142. Arianism: S. Fanning, ‘Lombard Arianism Reconsidered’, Speculum, 56 (1981), pp. 241-58.

p. 142. Edict of Rothari: trans. K. F. Drew, The Lombard Laws (Philadelphia, 1973), pp. 39-130; for Lombard views of the past, see W. Pohl, in Y. Hen and M. Innes (eds.), The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 9-28.

p. 143. Liutprand’s laws: trans. Drew, The Lombard Laws, pp. 144-214; cited are cc. 136, 135, 6. For eighth-century politics and the state, see P. Delogu, in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 290-303.

p. 144. Military culture: S. Gasparri, in Rivista storica italiana, 98 (1986), pp. 664-726; pp. 681-3 for wills.

p. 144. Judgements: CDL, vol. 2, n. 255, vol. 3, nn. 6, 12, 13, vol. 1, nn. 19, 20; see S. Gasparri, in Cammarosano and Gasparri, Langobardia, pp. 237-305, at pp. 241-54.

p. 145. Legislation and governmental writing: N. Everett, Literacy in Lombard Italy, c. 568-774 (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 163-96, with CDL, vol. 4.2, nn. 39, 45 for Benevento.

p. 145. Cities: Paul, History, 5.36-41; see in general, D. Harrison, The Early State and the Towns (Lund, 1993).

p. 146. Aristocratic wealth and identity: C. Wickham, in A. C. Murray (ed.), After Rome’s Fall (Toronto, 1998), pp. 153-70; Cammarosano, Nobili, pp. 74-83; G. Tabacco, ‘La connessione fra potere e possesso nel regno franco e nel regno longobardo’,Settimane di studio, 20 (1972), pp. 133-68.

p. 146. Taxation: W. Pohl, in idem (ed.), Kingdoms of the Empire (Leiden, 1997), pp. 75-133, at pp. 112-31.

p. 146. Cities in Italy: Wickham, Framing, pp. 644-56; Christie, From Constantine to Charlemagne, pp. 183-280, currently the fullest account in English; R. Meneghini and R. Santangeli Valenzani, Roma nell’alto medioevo (Rome, 2004), the basic archaeological survey of the largest Italian city.

p. 146. Naples: P. Arthur, Naples (London, 2002), pp. 16-20; Venice: M. Pavan and G. Arnaldi, in L. C. Ruggini et al. (eds.), Storia di Venezia, vol. 1 (Rome, 1992), pp. 432-51; Istria: C. Manaresi (ed.), I placiti del regnum Italiae, vol. 1 (Rome, 1955), n. 17.

p. 147. Sergius I: The Book of Pontiffs, trans. R. Davis (Liverpool, 1989), p. 85.

p. 147. Roman hierarchies: Noble, Republic, pp. 212-55; P. Toubert, ‘Scrinium et palatium’, Settimane di studio, 48 (2001), pp. 57-117.

Chapter 7

The historiography in English on the topics covered in this chapter is, for obvious reasons, very extensive. On Wales, the least fully studied area, W. Davies, Wales in the Early Middle Ages (Leicester, 1982) is basic. On England, F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd edn. (Oxford, 1971) and J. Campbell (ed.), The Anglo-Saxons (Oxford, 1982) are respectively the classic and the best (relatively) recent overview. On early Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, equally basic are S. Bassett (ed.), The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms (Leicester, 1989) and B. Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England (London, 1990). For early Anglo-Saxon archaeology, see C. J. Arnold, An Archaeology of the Early Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, 2nd edn. (London, 1997).

On Ireland, F. J. Byrne, Irish Kings and High-kings (London, 1973), N. Edwards, The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland (London, 1999), and T. M. Charles-Edwards, Early Christian Ireland (Cambridge, 2000) are the key points of reference; shorter overviews are G. Mac Niocaill, Ireland before the Vikings (Dublin, 1972) and D. Ó Cróinin, Early Medieval Ireland, 400-1200 (London, 1995). D. Ó Cróinin (ed.), A New History of Ireland, vol. I (Dublin, 2005), awaited for decades, contains valuable essays and has extensive bibliographies, but is sketchier on political structure. For the church, apart from Charles-Edwards, see K. Hughes, The Church in Early Irish Society (London, 1966) and L. Bitel, Isle of the Saints (Ithaca, NY, 1990).

On Scotland, M. O. Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland, 2nd edn. (Edinburgh, 1980) is the basic account; A. A. M. Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom (Edinburgh, 1975) goes up to 1286; A. P. Smyth, Warlords and Holy Men (London, 1984) is a well-argued alternative view. The historiographies of Ireland and Scotland in this period remain in flux, with sharply divergent basic interpretations. T. M. Charles-Edwards (ed.), After Rome (Oxford, 2003) is the only attempt to link four historiographies together; W. Davies, ‘Celtic Kingships in the Early Middle Ages’, in A. J. Duggan (ed.), Kings and Kingship in Medieval Europe (London, 1993), pp. 101-24, and in NCMH, vol. 1, pp. 232-62, links three of them.

p. 150. Samson: R. Fawtier (ed.), La Vie de Saint Samson (Paris, 1912), pp. 92-155.

p. 151. Economic meltdown: A. S. Esmonde-Cleary, The Ending of Roman Britain (London, 1989); for Hadrian’s Wall and the countryside, P. Dark, The Environment of Britain in the First Millennium AD (London, 2000), pp. 140-56.

p. 151. Post-Roman polities: D. Dumville, in G. Ausenda (ed.), After Empire (Woodbridge, 1995), pp. 177-216, and C. A. Snyder, An Age of Tyrants (Stroud, 1998) are the best of many competing accounts. Gildas is trans. in M. Winterbottom, Gildas: The Ruin of Britain and Other Documents (Chichester, 1978).

p. 151. Arthur: see T. M. Charles-Edwards and P. Sims-Williams, in R. Bromwich et al. (eds.), Arthur of the Welsh (Cardiff, 1991), pp. 15-71.

p. 152. Ergyng, etc.: see W. Davies, An Early Welsh Microcosm (London, 1978), pp. 65-107; eadem, ‘Land and Power in Early Medieval Wales’, Past and Present, 81 (1978), pp. 3-23.

p. 153. Hill-fort sites: E. Campbell, in K. R. Dark (ed.), External Contacts and the Economy of Late Roman and Post-Roman Britain (Woodbridge, 1996), pp. 83-96; J. Wooding, Communication and Commerce along the Western Sealanes, AD 400-800 (Oxford, 1996), pp. 41-54.

p. 153. Cadwallon: Bede, HE, 2.20, 3.1.

p. 154. Poems: Marwnad Cynddylan, trans. and commentary in J. Rowland, Early Welsh Saga Poetry (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 120-41, 174-8 (see also Davies, Wales, pp. 99-102); Y Gododdin, trans. K. Jackson, The Gododdin (Edinburgh, 1969), pp. 141-2 and 118 for quotes.

p. 155. Picts: see I. Henderson, The Picts (London, 1967), and Anderson, Kings, pp. 119-31, 165-204, for the standard view, contested in various ways by Smyth, Warlords, pp. 57-83; D. Broun, ‘Pictish Kings 761-839’, in S. M. Foster (ed.), The St Andrews Sarcophagus (Dublin, 1998), pp. 71-83; B. T. Hudson, The Kings of Celtic Scotland (Westport, Conn., 1994), pp. 8-33, not all of whom I follow. Even Pictish matriliny is contested; see the overview in A. Woolf, ‘Pictish Matriliny Reconsidered’, Innes Review, 49 (1998), pp. 147-67; see also idem, in Scottish Historical Review, 85 (2006), pp. 182-201, for the location of Fortriu.

p. 156. Regiones, etc.: see S. Bassett, in idem, The Origins, pp. 3-27; C. Scull, in Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History, 6 (1993), pp. 65-82; J. Blair, Anglo-Saxon Oxfordshire (Stroud, 1994), pp. 29-32; H. Hamerow, in NCMH, vol. 1, pp. 263-88. For the Fens, W. Davies and H. Vierck, ‘The Contexts of Tribal Hidage’, Frühmittelalterliche Studien, 8 (1974), pp. 223-93. The date of the Tribal Hidage is disputed.

p. 157. Archaeology: Arnold, An Archaeology, esp. pp. 33-100; H. Hamerow, Early Medieval Settlements (Oxford, 2002), pp. 46-51, 93-9; C. Hills, Origins of the English (London, 2003).

p. 158. Yeavering: B. Hope-Taylor, Yeavering (London, 1977).

p. 159. Mercia: N. P. Brooks, in Bassett, The Origins, pp. 159-70; S. Bassett, in Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History, 11 (2000), pp. 107-18.

p. 159. Texts: Beowulf has many translations; S. Heaney, Beowulf (London, 1999) is a poetic classic; but I have used that in S. A. J. Bradley, Anglo-Saxon Poetry (London, 1982), pp. 408-94. Felix, Life of St Guthlac, ed. and trans. B. Colgrave, Felix’s Life of Saint Guthlac (Cambridge, 1956), here cc. 16-18. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has a convenient trans. in EHD, vol. 1, 2nd edn. (London, 1979), pp. 146-261, here at pp. 175-6, 180; see S. D. White, in Viator, 20 (1989), pp. 1-18, by far the best analysis of 786 in Wessex.

p. 160. Bede on land: Letter to Ecgbert, trans. EHD, vol. 1, pp. 799-810.

p. 160. Ports: the best recent surveys are C. Scull, in J. Hines (ed.), The Anglo-Saxons (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 269-310; D. Hill and R. Cowie (eds.), Wics (Sheffield, 2001). The classic is R. Hodges, Dark Age Economics (London, 1982).

p. 161. Exiles: e.g. The Wanderer, trans. EHD, vol. 1, pp. 870-71; Felix, Life of St Guthlac, cc. 40, 42.

p. 161. Land units becoming estates: R. Faith, The English Peasantry and the Growth of Lordship (Leicester, 1997).

p. 161. Conversion: see B. Yorke, The Conversion of Britain, 600-800 (Harlow, 2006); J. Blair, The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 2005), pp. 8-181; H. Mayr-Harting, The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd edn. (London, 1991); J. Campbell, Essays in Anglo-Saxon History (London, 1986), pp. 1-84; P. Wormald, ‘Bede, “Beowulf” and the Conversion of the Anglo-Saxon Aristocracy’, in R. T. Farrell (ed.), Bede and Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1978), pp. 32-95.

p. 162. Church organization: C. Cubitt, Anglo-Saxon Church Councils, c.650-c.850 (Leicester, 1995). Bede’s imagery: P. Wormald, in idem (ed.), Ideal and Reality in Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 1983), pp. 99-129; N. Brooks, Bede and the English(Jarrow, 1999).

p. 163. Law: P. Wormald, Legal Culture in the Early Medieval West (London, 1999), pp. 179-99.

p. 163. The end of autonomous kingdoms: Yorke, Kings, pp. 31-2, 51; H. P. R. Finberg, The Early Charters of the West Midlands, 2nd edn. (Leicester, 1972), pp. 177-80.

p. 163. Common burdens: N. Brooks, Communities and Warfare, 700-1400 (London, 2000), pp. 32-47.

p. 163. Offa’s Dyke: P. Squatriti, in Past and Present, 176 (2002), pp. 11-65.

p. 163. Coins: P. Grierson and M. Blackburn, Medieval European Coinage, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 158, 277-82; J. Story, Carolingian Connections (Aldershot, 2003), pp. 190-5. Councils: Cubitt, Church Councils.

p. 164. Canterbury: N. P. Brooks, The Early History of the Church of Canterbury (Leicester, 1984), pp. 111-27.

p. 164. Civil wars in Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria: P. Wormald, in Campbell, The Anglo-Saxons, pp. 114-16.

p. 164. Offa and Charlemagne: J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, Early Germanic Kingship in England and on the Continent (Oxford, 1971), pp. 98-123; Story, Carolingian Connections, pp. 169-211.

p. 165. Clientship in Ireland: see F. Kelly, A Guide to Early Irish Law (Dublin, 1988), pp. 29-33 (the whole book is the best survey of the law tracts); T. M. Charles-Edwards, Early Irish and Welsh Kinship (Oxford, 1993), pp. 337-63; idem, ‘Críth Gablach and the Law of Status’, Peritia, 5 (1986), pp. 53-73; N. Patterson, Cattle-lords and Clansmen, 2nd edn. (Notre Dame, Ind., 1994), pp. 150-78.

p. 166. Expansion of kingdoms: D. Ó Corráin, ‘Nationality and Kingship in Pre-Norman Ireland’, in T. W. Moody (ed.), Nationality and the Pursuit of National Independence (Belfast, 1978), pp. 1-35, esp. pp. 9-10.

p. 166. Críth Gablach: trans. E. O. MacNeill, in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 36 C (1921-4), pp. 281-306; here p. 304, translation modified.

p. 166. Gessa: Byrne, Irish Kings, p. 23 (and in general pp. 15-35 for rituals).

p. 166. Fifth century: see esp. Charles-Edwards, Early Christian Ireland, pp. 441-68.

p. 167. Diarmait and Báetán: Byrne, Irish Kings, pp. 87-114.

p. 167. Cathal, Donnchad, Feidlimid: Byrne, Irish Kings, pp. 202-29; Charles-Edwards, Early Christian Ireland, pp. 594-8.

p. 168. Bishops and monasteries: see Charles-Edwards, Early Christian Ireland, pp. 241-81, 416-29; M. Herbert, Iona, Kells and Derry (Oxford, 1988), esp. pp. 53-6. Columba is the subject of the Irish world’s emblematic saint’s life, trans. most recently in R. Sharpe, Adomnán of Iona: Life of St Columba (Harmondsworth, 1995). The classic here is Hughes, Church in Early Irish Society.

p. 169. Picts: for debates, see notes to p. 155; for Dál Riata see J. Bannerman, Studies in the History of Dalriada (Edinburgh, 1974); Anderson, Kings, pp. 145-65, 179 ff.; R. Sharpe, ‘The Thriving of Dalriada’, in S. Taylor (ed.), Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500-1297 (Dublin, 2000), pp. 47-61.

p. 169. Kenneth, etc.: see Anderson, Kings, pp. 196-200; Hudson, Kings, pp. 36-47; P. Wormald, in B. Crawford (ed.), Scotland in Dark Age Britain (St Andrews, 1996), pp. 131-60.

Chapter 8

The key overviews which cover this chapter as a whole are P. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (2nd edn., Oxford 1997), and J. M. H. Smith, Europe after Rome (Oxford, 2005), which is the best current synthesis of cultural history. See further B. Rosenwein, Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY, 2006). For the interface between Christianity and traditional cultures, V. I. J. Flint, The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe (Oxford, 1993) is essential; for East and West, so is J. Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (Princeton, 1987). J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Frankish Church (Oxford, 1983) is a valuable overview. R. McKitterick (ed.), The Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2001), covers social and cultural history. For social history as a whole, the best surveys are in French, P. Depreux, Les Sociétés occidentales du milieu du VIeà la fin du IXesiècle (Rennes, 2002) and R. Le Jan, La Société du haut Moyen Âge (Paris, 2003). All these books cover the Carolingian period as well. For gender, see the notes to p. 195.

p. 170. Valerius: ed. and trans. C. M. Aherne, Valerio of Bierzo (Washington, 1949).

p. 170. Martin of Braga: De Correctione Rusticorum is trans. C. W. Barlow, Iberian fathers, vol. 1 (Washington, 1969), pp. 71-85. Slate text: I. Velázquez Soriano (ed.), Documentos de época visigoda escritos en pizarra (siglos VI-VIII) (Turnhout, 2000), n. 104.

p. 171. Weather magic: Flint, Rise of Magic, pp. 110-15, 187-90. Gregory: The Miracles of the Bishop St Martin, trans. R. Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles in Late Antique Gaul (Princeton, 1993), pp. 200-303, 1.34 (cf. 1.11 and Gregory of Tours, Histories, trans. L. Thorpe as The History of the Franks (Harmondsworth 1974), 5.37 for Martin of Braga). Note that manuscripts of De Correctione were available in Gaul by the start of the seventh century, and thus perhaps in Gregory’s lifetime: see Y. Hen, in E. Cohen and M. B. de Jong (eds.), Medieval Transformations (Leiden, 2001), pp. 35-49.

p. 171. Gregory’s letters: see R. A. Markus, Gregory the Great and his World (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 206-9, and more generally pp. 163-87.

p. 172. Gregories: Gregory the Great, Letters, 1.41, trans. J. R. C. Martyn, The Letters of Gregory the Great (Toronto, 2004); Gregory of Tours, Histories, 9.15 for Toledo, 5.43, 6.40 for dinner-time polemics.

p. 172. Priscillianists: I Braga, c. 8, in J. Vives (ed.), Concilios visigóticos e hispano-romanos (Barcelona, 1963).

p. 173. Literacy: see in general R. McKitterick (ed.), The Uses of Literacy in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1990).

p. 173. Gregory of Tours: see M. Bonnet, Le Latin de Grégoire de Tours (Paris, 1890), pp. 48-76.

p. 173. Bede’s library: Bede, Lives of the Abbots of Wearmouth and Jarrow, trans. J. F. Webb, The Age of Bede (Harmondsworth, 1983), pp. 185-208, cc. 4, 6, 9; for polemics, Bede, Letter to Plegwin, in idem, The Reckoning of Time, trans. F. Wallis (Liverpool, 1999), pp. 405-15.

p. 174. Gregory’s unpopularity: see P. Llewellyn, in Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 25 (1974), pp. 363-80.

p. 174. Columbanus: Sancti Columbani Opera, ed. and trans. G. S. M. Walker (Dublin, 1957), letter 5.

p. 174. ‘Micro-Christendoms’: Brown, Rise of Western Christendom, ch. 13.

p. 175. Prostitutes: Boniface, The Letters of Saint Boniface, trans. E. Emerton (New York, 1940), letter 72; passports: Ratchis, law 13, trans. K. F. Drew, The Lombard Laws (Philadelphia, 1973), p. 224, cf. W. Pohl, in idem et al. (eds.), The Transformation of Frontiers (Leiden, 2001), pp. 117-41.

p. 176. Irminsul: Royal Frankish Annals, trans. B. W. Scholz, Carolingian Chronicles (Ann Arbor, 1970), pp. 48-9. See in general for the issue of paganism J. Palmer, in EME, 15 (2007), pp. 402-25.

p. 176. Eostre: Bede, The Reckoning of Time, pp. 53-4.

p. 176. Eligius: Vita Eligii, trans. J. A. McNamara, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/eligius.html, 2.16, 20. Boniface on Rome: Letters, 40-41.

p. 177. Gregory: Histories, 6.6, 8.15-16 (ascetics), 9.6, cf. 10.25 for further south (unauthorized miracle-workers), 5.21, 8.34 (Winnoch), with Life of the Fathers, trans. E. James (Liverpool, 1985), 2.2 (dead saints). For bishops and cults, see R. Van Dam,Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul (Berkeley, 1985), pp. 179-201, 230-76; idem, Saints and their Miracles, pp. 50-81.

p. 178. Gregory the Great: Markus, Gregory the Great, pp. 17-31. Gregory on ascetics: see his Dialogues, trans. O. J. Zimmerman (Washington, 1959).

p. 178. Muirchu: Life of St Patrick, trans. A. B. E. Hood, St Patrick (Chichester, 1978), pp. 81-98, cc. 17, 18, 24, 26, 29.

p. 178. Cuthbert: see Two Lives of Saint Cuthbert, ed. and trans. B. Colgrave (Cambridge, 1940).

p. 178. Aldebert: Boniface, Letters, 47.

p. 179. ‘Rustic’: Bede, Life of Cuthbert (in Two Lives, pp. 143-307), c. 3; cf. P. Brown, The Cult of the Saints (Chicago, 1981), pp. 119-27.

p. 179. Martin: Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles.

p. 179. Six cult sites: Vita Balthildis, trans. in P. Fouracre and R. Gerberding, Late Merovingian France (Manchester, 1996), pp. 118-32, c. 9; cf. Fredegar, Chronica, ed. and trans. J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar (London, 1960), 4.54, and Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles, pp. 22-7.

p. 180. Martin’s body: Gregory, Histories, 1.48.

p. 180. Wonder-workers: see Flint, Rise of Magic, a remarkable analysis. Laws: Rothari 376, Liutprand 84-5, trans. Drew, The Lombard Laws: Laws of the Salian Franks, trans. K. F. Drew (Philadelphia, 1991), c. 19.

p. 180. Gregory: Van Dam, Saints and their Miracles, pp. 191-2 (plague); Gregory of Tours, Histories, 7.44, 5.14; for the sortes, Flint, Rise of Magic, pp. 220-6, 273-86.

p. 181. Anglo-Saxon medicine: texts are ed. and trans. O. Cockayne, Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England, 3 vols. (London 1864-6); see K. L. Jolly, Popular Religion in Late Saxon England (Chapel Hill, NC, 1996).

p. 182. Doctors: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 5.6 (but cf. 5.35); Miracles of the Bishop St Martin, 2.1; Flint, Rise of Magic, p. 150 for Caesarius; Lives of the Fathers of Mérida, trans. A. T. Fear, Lives of the Visigothic Fathers (Liverpool, 1997), 4.1-2.

p. 182. Parishes: for Lucca, M. Giusti and P. Guidi (eds.), Rationes decimarum Italiae nei secoli XIII e XIV. Tuscia, vol. 2 (Rome, 1942), pp. 255-85; for Francia, Le Jan, La Société, pp. 61-3; for England, J. Blair, The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 2005), pp. 79-134, 368-504; for a comparative discussion of rural churches in the West, S. Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2006), pp. 33-108.

p. 183. Daniel: Boniface, Letters, 51, 92.

p. 183. Ravenna: Agnellus, The Book of Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna, trans. D. Mauskopf Deliyannis (Washington, 2004), pp. 248-53.

p. 183. Prisoner miracles: e.g. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Germani, MGH, SRM, vol. 7 (Hanover, 1920), pp. 372-418, cc. 10, 30-1, 61, 66-7; Vita Eligii, MGH, SRM, vol. 4 (Hanover, 1902), pp. 663-741, 1.31, 2.15, 66, 80 (also available from the website cited in n. to p. 176); Vita Amandi, MGH, SRM, vol. 5 (Hanover, 1920) pp. 428-49, c. 14; Arbeo, Vita Corbiniani, MGH, SRM, vol. 6 (Hanover, 1913), pp. 560-93, cc. 10-13, all ed. by B. Krusch and W. Levison.

p. 183. Ransoming: in general, see W. Klingshirn, in Journal of Roman Studies, 77 (1985), pp. 183-203.

p. 183. Fidelis, Masona: Lives of the Fathers of Mérida, 4.7-9, 5.8.19, cf. Sisebut, Life of Desiderius, trans. Fear, Lives, pp. 1-14, c. 11. (The Mérida text partially copies Sisebut’s Life, hence similarities in phrasing.)

p. 184. Praejectus of Clermont: Passio Praeiecti, trans. in Fouracre and Gerberding, Late Merovingian France, cc. 24, 29-31; Vita Boniti, ed. Krusch, MGH, SRM, vol. 6, pp. 119-39.

p. 184. War: F. Prinz, Klerus und Krieg im früheren Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1971), pp. 46-72. Savaric and Hainmar: P. Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel (Harlow, 2000), pp. 90, 92. Trier: E. Ewig, Trier im Merowingerreich (Trier, 1954), pp. 133-43. Walprand:CDL, vol. 1, n. 114.

p. 185. Columba, etc.: M. Herbert, Iona, Kells and Derry (Oxford, 1988), pp. 36-67; Bede, HE, 4.23; Vita Geretrudis, trans. in Fouracre and Gerberding, Late Merovingian France, pp. 319-29, c. 1. For monastic expansion in general, see M. Dunn, The Emergence of Monasticism (Oxford, 2000), pp. 107-208; for the associated hagiography, see A.-M. Helvétius, Le Saint et le moine (Paris, in press). For an important comparative analysis of the complexity of control over monasteries across Europe, see Wood,Proprietary Church, pp. 109-244. Note that ‘monasteries’, here and later, include nunneries, and also the double monasteries, with monks and nuns, headed by an abbess, which were common in this period.

p. 186. False monasteries: Bede, Letter to Ecgbert, trans. EHD, vol. 1, pp. 799-810, cc. 11-14 (cf. P. Sims-Williams, Religion and Literature in Western England, 600-800 (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 126-9, and Blair, Church, pp. 100-108); Regula Monastica Communis, trans. C .W. Barlow, Iberian Fathers, vol. 2 (Washington, 1969), pp. 176-206, cc. 1, 2.

p. 186. Land: D. Herlihy, ‘Church Property on the European Continent, 701-1200’, Speculum , 36 (1961), pp. 81-105; for gift exchange, e.g. M. de Jong, In Samuel’s Image (Leiden, 1996), pp. 267-77. The basic international starting point for gifts to churches is F. Bougard et al. (eds.), Sauver son âme et se perpétuer (Rome, 2005).

p. 187. Burial, etc.: see C. La Rocca, in L. Paroli (ed.), L’Italia centro-settentrionale in eta‘ longobarda (Florence, 1997), pp. 31-54; for paganism and competition, G. Halsall, Early Medieval Cemeteries (Glasgow, 1995), pp. 61-8, gives a succinct survey.

p. 187. Balthild: Vita Balthildis, c. 12.

p. 188. Sigeberht, Heremod: Bede, HE, 3.18; Beowulf, trans. S. A. J. Bradley, Anglo-Saxon Poetry (London, 1982), pp. 408-94, lines 1707-23.

p. 189. Hunting: see J. Jarnut, Herrschaft und Ethnogenese im Frühmittelalter (Münster, 2002), pp. 375-408; Cap., vol. 1, nn. 23 c.17, 49 c.1, 140 c.7, 141 c.22.

p. 189. Eligius: Vita Eligii, 1. 11-12.

p. 189. Halls: Depreux, Les Sociétés occidentales, pp. 124-5. Drink: Y. Hen, Culture and Religion in Merovingian Gaul, AD 481-751 (Leiden, 1995), pp. 234-49; for Salic law, G. A. Beckmann, ‘Aus den letzten Jahrzehnten des Vulgärlateins in Frankreich’,Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, 79 (1963), pp. 305-34; The Tale of Macc Da Thó’s Pig is trans. J. Gantz, Early Irish Myths and Sagas (Harmondsworth, 1981), pp. 179-87.

p. 190. Dining or not: Sulpicius Severus, Vita Martini, trans. in T. F. X. Noble and T. Head (eds.), Soldiers of Christ (State College, Pa., 1995), pp. 3-29, c. 20; Vita Eucherii, ed. Levison, MGH, SRM, vol. 7, pp. 46-53, c. 8.

p. 190. Wilfrid, etc.: Stephanus, Vita Wilfridi, ed. and trans. B. Colgrave, The Life of Bishop Wilfrid by Eddius Stephanus (Cambridge, 1927), c. 2; Beowulf, line 358; Bede, HE, 3.5.

p. 190. Wealhtheow: Beowulf, lines 607-41; see M. J. Enright, Lady with the Mead Cup (Dublin, 1996), pp. 2-37 and passim; cf. Theodelinda in Paul the Deacon, History of the Langobards, trans. W. D. Foulke (Philadelphia, 1907), 3.30.

p. 191. Argait: Paul the Deacon, History, 6.24; for military tactics, G. Halsall, Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900 (London, 2003), pp. 194-204.

p. 192. Precariae: for the politics see e.g. I. Wood, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds.), Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 31-52.

p. 192. Kin: see esp. R. Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir dans le monde franc VIIe- Xesiècle (Paris, 1995), pp. 159-262, 381-427; Smith, Europe after Rome, pp. 83 - 114.

p. 192. Ireland: see T. M. Charles-Edwards, Early Irish and Welsh Kinship (Oxford, 1993), pp. 49-61, 422 ff.; Italy: Liutprand 13, trans. Drew, The Lombard Laws.

p. 193. Feud: Liutprand 199; Gregory of Tours, Histories, 10.27, 7.47, 9.19. For an important critique of the idea of feud in this period see G. Halsall, in idem (ed.), Violence and Society in the Early Medieval West (Woodbridge, 1998), pp. 1-45; though I use a different definition of ‘feud’ from him, I have followed his analyses. For Frankish feud, see J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Long-haired Kings (London, 1962), pp. 121-47; P. Fouracre, in Halsall (ed.), Violence, pp. 60-75; P. Depreux, in D. Barthelemy et al. (eds.),La Vengeance, 400-1200 (Rome, 2006), pp. 65-85.

p. 194. Landibert: Vita Landiberti, ed. Krusch, MGH, SRM, vol. 6, pp. 353-84, cc. 11-17.

p. 194. Aristocratic status markers: Depreux, Les Sociétés occidentales, pp. 149-84; Le Jan, La Société, pp. 133-55; Bede, HE, 4.22.

p. 195. Women’s roles: for gender in general, largely but not only seen through the optic of women’s history, see S. F. Wemple, Women in Frankish Society (Philadelphia, 1981); P. Skinner, Women in Medieval Italian Society 500-1200 (London, 2001); L. M. Bitel,Women in Early Medieval Europe 400-1100 (Cambridge, 2002); L. Brubaker and J. M. H. Smith (eds.), Gender in the Early Medieval World (Cambridge, 2004); Smith, Europe after Rome, pp. 115-47; J. L. Nelson, The Frankish World, 750-900 (London, 1996), pp. 183-221 (brief and crucial insights); Le Jan, La Société, pp. 211-32; H.-W. Goetz, Frauen im frühen Mittelalter (Cologne, 1995); S. Lebecq et al. (eds.), Femmes et pouvoirs des femmes à Byzance et en Occident (Lille, 1999). For queens, P. Stafford,Queens, Concubines and Dowagers (London, 1983); J. L. Nelson, Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London, 1986), pp. 1-48 for Merovingians; Gregory, Histories, 5.18, 39, 6.4.

p. 196. Erminethrudis and Burgundofara: ChLA, vol. 14, n. 592; J. Guérout, ‘Le Testament de Sainte Fare’, Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique, 60 (1965), pp. 761-821.

p. 196. Female monastic founders: see R. Le Jan, in M. de Jong and F. Theuws (eds.), Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages (Leiden, 2001), pp. 243-69. On women and double monasteries, see S. Foot, Veiled Women, vol. 1 (Aldershot, 2000), pp. 49-56.

p. 196. Plectrude: see Fouracre, Charles Martel, pp. 43-65; I. Wood, in Brubaker and Smith, Gender, pp. 234-56.

p. 197. Anglo-Saxons: see e.g. H. Leyser, Medieval Women (London, 1995), pp. 19-39.

p. 197. Visigoths and Lombards: John of Biclar, Chronicle, trans. K. B. Wolf, Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain (Liverpool, 1990), cc. 55, 90; Paul the Deacon, History, 2.28-9, 3.30-4.41; CDL, vol. 4.2, nn. 39-42 (Scauniperga); Gregory the Great, Letters, 1.11, 3.1-2, 9.85, 10.6-7 (Clementina); Skinner, Women, pp. 54-9.

p. 199. Rottruda, Taneldis: CDL, vol. 2, n. 163, vol. 5, n. 50. On Taneldis, see C. La Rocca, in Mélanges de l’École française de Rome: Moyen âge, 111 (1999), pp. 933-50; on widows in general, J. L. Nelson, in Davies and Fouracre, Property and Power, pp. 82-113.

p. 199. Morning-gifts: L. Feller, Les Abruzzes médiévales (Rome, 1998), pp. 468-82. In general on dowries see F. Bougard et al. (eds.), Dots et douaires dans le haut Moyen Âge (Rome, 2002).

p. 199. Protection: Liutprand 120, 141, trans. Drew, The Lombard Laws; see Skinner, Women, pp. 35 ff; R. Balzaretti in Halsall, Violence, pp. 175-92, and, more generally, in W. Pohl and P. Erhart (eds.), Die Langobarden (Vienna, 2005), pp. 361-82.

p. 200. Britons: see e.g. T. M. Charles-Edwards, in R. Evans (ed.), Lordship and Learning (Woodbridge, 2004), pp. 11-37, at pp. 24-9. On ethnicity in general, see e.g. Smith, Europe after Rome, pp. 257-67 and passim.

p. 200. Memory: see Y. Hen and M. Innes, The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000).

p. 201. Isidore: trans. Wolf, Conquerors, pp. 82-3.

p. 201. Guidebooks: see esp. the Einsiedeln Itinerary, ed. in R. Valentini and G. Zucchetti, Codice topografico della citta‘ di Roma, vol. 2 (Rome, 1942), pp. 176-207.

p. 201. Ireland: Smith, Europe after Rome, p. 285.

p. 201. Carolingians: M. Innes, in Hen and Innes, Uses of the Past, pp. 227-49; R. McKitterick, History and Memory in the Carolingian World (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 196-210; and eadem, Perceptions of the Past in the Early Middle Ages (Notre Dame, Ind., 2006), pp. 35-61, for a nuanced account of Carolingian attitudes to Rome and its buildings.

Chapter 9

For peasant society in this period, see P. Depreux, Les Sociétés occidentales du milieu du VIeà la fin du IXesiècle (Rennes, 2002); R. Le Jan, La Société du haut Moyen Âge (Paris, 2003); J.-P. Devroey, Puissants et misérables (Brussels, 2006); and the old classic, A. Dopsch, Economic and Social Foundations of European Civilization (London, 1937). For the econ omy, see J.-P. Devroey, Économie rurale et société dans l’Europe franque (VIe-IXesiècles) (Paris, 2003); M. McCormick, Origins of the European Economy(Cambridge, 2001); S. Loseby and S. Lebecq, in NCMH, vol. 1, pp. 605-59; R. Hodges and D. Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe (London, 1983); R. Hodges and W. Bowden (eds.), The Sixth Century (Leiden, 1998); I. L. Hansen and C. Wickham (eds.), The Long Eighth Century (Leiden, 2000). The classic here is G. Duby, The Early Growth of the European Economy (London, 1974). This chapter, more than others, reflects the arguments of my Framing the Early Middle Ages(Oxford, 2005) very closely; wider bibliographies will be found there. I have, however, as far as possible chosen different examples to illustrate the argument here.

p. 203. Anstruda and Campione: the documents are now all assembled, and both the text and Campione society are commented on from a variety of standpoints, in S. Gasparri and C. La Rocca (eds.), Carte di famiglia (Rome, 2005). Anstruda’s text is document n. 1; the others cited are, respectively, nn. 3, 4, 2. (It does not seem to me likely that Anstruda was half-free to start with, as hypothesized by L. Feller, ibid., p. 203.) Anstruda on one level did not get such a good deal, for formula-books and other evidence from Francia show that free women who married unfree men could have all their children recognized as free: see A. Rio, in Past and Present, 193 (2006), pp. 16-23; Italy may have been more restrictive here.

p. 204. Aristocratic wealth: see Wickham, Framing, pp. 168-232, 314-64; for Bavaria, K. L. R. Pearson, Conflicting Loyalties in Early Medieval Bavaria (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 84-100.

p. 205. Rhineland: M. Innes, State and Society in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 51-68.

. 206. Palaiseau: Das Polyptichon von St.-Germain-des-Pres, ed. D. Hägermann (Cologne, 1993), Section 2. For the society of the polyptychs, see E. Power, Medieval People, 10th edn. (London, 1963), pp. 18-38.

p. 207. Gœrsdorf: Traditiones Wizenburgenses, ed. K. Glöckner and A. Doll (Darmstadt, 1979), nn. 6, 7, 12, 15, 38, 43, 46, 78, 81, 92, 104, 114, 124, 128, 132, 142, 145, 150, 186; for Sigibald and the dukes, see H. J. Hummer, Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 46-63, 111-13; for Rhineland village societies in general, see F. Schwind, in H. Jankuhn et al. (eds.), Das Dorf der Eisenzeit und des frühen Mittelalters (Göttingen, 1977), pp. 444-93; for general issues of peasant society, see Wickham, Framing, pp. 383-588.

p. 208. Redon: see W. Davies, Small Worlds (London, 1988); pp. 153-4, 196 for Anau.

p. 211. Villages: see E. Zadora-Rio, in E. Mornet (ed.), Campagnes médiévales (Paris, 1993), pp. 145-53. An alternative view is in J. Chapelot and R. Fossier, The Village and House in the Middle Ages (London, 1985), pp. 71, 129; C. Lewis et al., Village, Hamlet and Field (Macclesfield, 1997), pp. 191, 198-201.

p. 212. Policing of free-unfree line: P. Bonnassie, From Slavery to Feudalism in South-western Europe (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 19-25; mixed marriages in Palaiseau, etc.: H.-W. Goetz, Frauen im frühen Mittelalter (Cologne, 1995), pp. 263-7. On unfreedom, see in general W. Davies, in M. L. Bush (ed.), Serfdom and Slavery (Harlow, 1996), pp. 225 - 46.

p. 213. Weaving as ‘womenly work’: D. Herlihy, Opera Muliebria (New York, 1990).

p. 213. Peasant women: see in general Goetz, Frauen; P. Skinner, Women in Medieval Italian Society 500-1200 (London, 2001), pp. 44-9.

p. 214. Army size: see in general G. Halsall, Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900 (London, 2003), esp. pp. 119-33, and p. 93 for Charlemagne; for England, R. P. Abels, Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England (Berkeley, 1988), pp. 35-6.

p. 215. Leudast: Gregory of Tours, Histories, trans. L. Thorpe as The History of the Franks (Harmondsworth, 1974), 5.48.

p. 216. Woods and forests: C. Wickham, Land and Power (London, 1994), pp. 155-99.

p. 216. Villages: H. Hamerow, Early Medieval Settlements (Oxford, 2002), for northern Europe; for southern Europe, the best current overview is G. P. Brogiolo and A. Chavarría Arnau, Aristocrazie e campagne nell’Occidente da Costantino a Carlo Magno(Florence, 2005).

p. 16. Collective groups of villagers: L. Feller, Les Abruzzes médiévales (Rome, 1998), pp. 540-46; J. Jarrett, in EME, 12 (2003), pp. 241-8.

p. 217. Fall in settlement density: see e.g. T. Williamson, The Origins of Norfolk (Manchester, 1993), pp. 57-8.

p. 217. Plague: see above all the articles collected in L. K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), authoritative but in my view too sure of the plague’s serious effect, and the divergent view of J. Durliat in Hommes et richesses dans l’empire byzantin, vol. 1 (Paris, 1989), pp. 107-19.

p. 218. Exchange: see for all this section Wickham, Framing, pp. 693-759, 794-824.

p. 218. Cloth and metal-working in England: C. J. Arnold, An Archaeology of the Early Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, 2nd edn. (London, 1997), pp. 92-3, 135-46.

p. 219. Imports into Wales and Ireland: J. Wooding, Communication and Commerce across the Western Sealanes, AD 400-800 (Oxford, 1996).

p. 19. Andalucía and Rome: G. Ripoll López, Toréutica de la Bética (siglos VI y VII d.c.) (Barcelona, 1998); M. Ricci, in L. Paroli (ed.), L’Italia centro-settentrionale in eta‘ longobarda (Florence, 1997), pp. 239-73.

p. 220. Rome’s size: see e.g. L. Saguì, in Archeologia medievale, 29 (2002), pp. 7-42.

p. 220. Marseille: S. T. Loseby, in Hansen and Wickham, The Long Eighth Century, pp. 167-93.

p. 220. Reims, Gregory, etc.: MGH, Epistolae, vol. 3, pp. 129 (Reims), 214 (Cahors); Gregory of Tours, Histories, 3.34 (Verdun); ChLA, vol. 14, n. 586 (Saint-Denis). For all this, see D. Claude, in K. Düwel et al. (eds.), Untersuchungen zu Handel und Verkehr der vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Zeit in Mittel- und Nordeuropa (Göttingen, 1985), vol. 3, pp. 9-99.

p. 221. Paris and Cologne: Gregory, Histories, 6.32; H. Hellenkemper et al., in Kölner Jahrbuch, 34 (2001), pp. 621-944; cf. Wickham, Framing, pp. 677-81.

p. 223. Pirenne: (London, 1939). See the critique by A. Riising, in Classica et Medievalia, 13 (1952), pp. 87-130; the archaeological updating in Hodges and Whitehouse, Mohammed; and the rewriting of the history of western Mediterranean trade (based on documents) by D. Claude, in Düwel, Untersuchungen, vol. 2.

p. 224. Spice accessibility: McCormick, Origins, pp. 708 - 16.

p. 224. Merchants: Gregory the Great, Letters, 4.43; Gregory of Tours, Histories, 6.5, 17, 10.26; Fredegar, Chronica, ed. and trans. J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar (London, 1960), 4.48, 68, 74-5 (Samo); Lives of the Fathers of Merida, trans. A. T. Fear, Lives of the Visigothic Fathers (Liverpool, 1997), 4.3; G. Dagron and V. Deroche, in Travaux et mémoires, 11 (1991), pp. 17-273; MGH, Diplomata Karolinorum, vol. 1, ed. E. Mühlbacher (Berlin, 1906), n. 46. See in general Claude, in Düwel, Untersuchungen, vol. 3, pp. 62-83; S. Lebecq, in Hansen and Wickham, The Long Eighth Century, pp. 121-48.

p. 225. Wandalbert: Miracula S. Goaris, ed. O. Holder-Egger, in MGH, Scriptores, vol. 15.1 (Hanover, 1887), pp. 363-72, cc. 20, 26, cf. 28; see e.g. McCormick, Origins, pp. 657 - 60.

p. 225. Routes and Willibald: McCormick, Origins, pp. 129 - 34, 502 - 8.

p. 226. Comacchio: R. Balzaretti, in N. Christie and S. Loseby (eds.), Towns in Transition (Aldershot, 1996), pp. 213-34; but see below, note to p. 230.

p. 226. Money: see the basic survey, P. Grierson and M. Blackburn, The Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1986), updated by M. Blackburn in NCMH, vol. 1, pp. 660-74 and vol. 2, pp. 538-59; for a structural context see M. F. Hendy, ‘From Public to Private’,Viator, 19 (1988), pp. 29-78; for Italy, A. Rovelli, in Hansen and Wickham, The Long Eighth Century, pp. 193 - 223.

p. 227. Synod of Frankfurt: Cap., vol. 1, p. 74, trans. P. D. King, Charlemagne (Kendal, 1987), p. 225.

p. 227. Distribution maps: D. M. Metcalf, Thrymsas and Sceattas in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford, vol. 3 (London, 1994).

p. 228. Embassies: Cassiodorus, Variae, trans. S. J. B. Barnish (Liverpool, 1992), 1.45, pp. 20-23; Royal Frankish Annals, trans. B. W. Scholz, Carolingian Chronicles (Ann Arbor, 1970), s.a. 757, among others.

p. 228. Gift exchange: P. Grierson, Dark Age Numismatics (London, 1979), study II; Duby, Early Growth, pp. 48 - 57. See further Le Jan, La Societe, pp. 258-67; Devroey, Économie rurale, pp. 175-93. For a critical updating, see F. Curta, in Speculum, 81 (2006), pp. 671 - 99. For Byzantine objects in the West, see A. Harris, Byzantium, Britain and the West (Stroud, 2003).

p. 228. Praetextatus: Gregory of Tours, Histories, 5.18. p. 229. Suspicion of merchants: Ine, law 25, trans. EHD, vol. 1, p. 401; Liutprand 79,

trans. Drew, The Lombard Laws.

p. 229. Agricultural production: Wickham, Framing, pp. 280 - 301.

p. 230. Emporia: R. Hodges, Dark Age Economics (London, 1982); U. Näsman, in Hansen and Wickham, The Long Eighth Century, pp. 35-68; and above, note to p. 160.

p. 230. Charlemagne letter: trans. EHD, vol. 1, pp. 848 - 9.

p. 230. Comacchio and the Adriatic: see S. Gelichi et al., in Archeologia medievale, 33 (2006), pp. 19-48.

Chapter 10

This chapter owes much to the advice and ideas of Leslie Brubaker, as expressed in particular in her forthcoming Looking at Byzantium, which I have seen in early draft. Valuable guides to the political effect of architectural display can be found in M. de Jong and F. Theuws (eds.), Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages (Leiden, 2001). The architecture of the period is surveyed competently in three classic manuals published by Penguin, R. Krautheimer and S. uri, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, 4th edn. (Harmondsworth, 1986); R. Ettinghausen and O. Grabar, The Art and Architecture of Islam, 650-1250 (Harmondsworth, 1987); K. J. Conant, Carolingian and Romanesque Architecture, 2nd edn. (Harmondsworth, 1966). More up-to-date surveys are needed. There are of course a host of more localized accounts, including of single buildings, some of which are cited below.

p. 232. Hagia Sophia: see esp. R. J. Mainstone, Hagia Sophia (New York, 1988). For contemporary descriptions, Prokopios, On Buildings, ed. and trans. H. B. Dewing (Cambridge, Mass., 1940), 1.1; Paul the Silentiary, Description of the Holy Wisdom, partially trans. in C. Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 312-1453 (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972), pp. 80-96. There is a full trans. of the latter into Italian in M. L. Fobelli, Un tempio per Giustiniano (Rome, 2005).

p. 235. Great Mosque: see above all F. B. Flood, The Great Mosque of Damascus (Leiden, 2001); for context, O. Grabar, The Formation of Islamic Art (New Haven, 1973), esp. pp. 104-38; Ettinghausen and Grabar, Art and Architecture, pp. 37 - 45.

p. 237. City plans: see H. Kennedy, Past and Present, 106 (1985), pp. 3-27.

p. 238. Yeavering: B. Hope-Taylor, Yeavering (London, 1977); C. Scull, in Medieval Archaeology , 35 (1991), pp. 51 - 63; J. Blair, The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 2005), pp. 54 - 7.

p. 239. The Ruin: trans. S. A. J. Bradley, Anglo-Saxon Poetry (London, 1982), p. 402.

p. 240. S. Prassede: see C. J. Goodson, ‘Revival and Reality’, Acta ad Archaeologiam et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, 15 (2005), pp. 61-92, reacting against a 1942 article by R. Krautheimer, published in Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art(New York, 1969), pp. 203-56 (a still important article); J. J. Emerick, in Mededelingen van het Nederlands Instituut te Rome, 59 (2000), pp. 129-59; C. J. Goodson, Pope Paschal I and the Churches of Rome (Cambridge, in press). A full analysis of the mosaics is R. Wisskirchen, Das Mosaikprogramm von S. Prassede in Rom (Münster, 1990). For ninth-century Rome, see further T. F. X. Noble, The Republic of St Peter (Philadelphia, 1984), pp. 299 - 324, and the classic, R. Krautheimer, Rome: Profile of a City, 312 - 1308(Princeton, 1980), with the topographical critiques of R. Coates-Stephens, in Papers of the British School at Rome, 54 (1996), pp. 239 -59, and 55 (1997), pp. 177-232. Noble convincingly argues in ‘Topography, Celebration and Power’, in de Jong and Theuws (eds.), Topographies of Power, pp. 45-91, that the papal building of the century after 750 made Rome a visibly ‘papal city’ for the first time.

p. 240. Liber Pontificalis: trans. R. Davis, The Lives of the Ninth-century Popes (Liverpool, 1995), pp. 1 - 30 (Paschal), 9-13 (S. Prassede).

p. 241. Germigny-des-Prés: see A. Freeman, in Speculum, 32 (1957), pp. 699-701, and 40 (1965), pp. 280-82; eadem and P. Meyvaert, in Gesta, 40 (2001), pp. 125-39; L. Brubaker, in Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 58 (2004), pp. 177-82.

p. 243. Frankish palace excavations: see the materials for France in A. Renoux (ed.), Palais royaux et princiers du Moyen Âge (Le Mans, 1996). A quick survey in English of those in modern Germany is G. P. Fehring, The Archaeology of Medieval Germany(London, 1991), pp. 126-35. There are useful sets of plans in C. Stiegemann and M. Wemhoff (eds.), 799: Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit (Mainz, 1999), pp. 130-96. See also, for critical comment, R. Samson, in M. Locock (ed.), Meaningful Architecture(Aldershot, 1994), pp. 99 - 131.

p. 243. Heroic literature: Beowulf, trans. Bradley, Anglo-Saxon Poetry, lines 69, 331-98; Marwnad Cynddylan, trans. J. Rowland, Early Welsh Poetry (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 484-5; Culhwch and Olwen, trans. G. and T. Jones, The Mabinogion (London, 1949), pp. 95 - 136.

p. 243. Priskos: R. C. Blockley, The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire (Liverpool, 1983), vol. 2, pp. 265 - 93 (quotes from pp. 265 and 285); cf. W. Pohl, in de Jong and Theuws (eds.), Topographies of Power, pp. 439-66.

p. 243. Ingelheim: C. Rauch, Die Ausgrabungen in der Königspfalz Ingelheim 1909 - 1914, ed. H. J. Jacobi (Mainz, 1976); W. Sage, in Francia, 4 (1976), pp. 141-60. For the paintings etc., see Ermold, In Honorem Hludovici Pii, partially trans. P. Godman,Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (London, 1985), pp. 251 - 5.

p. 244. Notker: trans. L. Thorpe, Two Lives of Charlemagne (London, 1969), 2.6 (Byzantines), 1.30 (windows); cf. S. Airlie, ‘The Palace of Memory’, in S. Rees Jones et al. (eds.), Courts and Regions in Medieval Europe (York, 2000), pp. 1-19, at p. 5.

p. 244. Liutprand: Antapodosis, 6.5, in The Complete Works of Liudprand of Cremona, trans. P. Squatriti (Washington, 2007), pp. 197 - 8.

p. 245. Villages: before 800, see in general C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 442 - 518. Limestone Massif and Serjilla: H. C. Butler, Syria, vol. 2B (Leiden, 1920), pp. 113 - 33; G. Tchalenko, Villages antiques de la Syrie du Nord, 3 vols. (Paris, 1953 - 8); G. Tate, Les Campagnes de la Syrie du Nord du IIeau VIIesiècle, vol. 1 (Paris, 1992); G. Charpentier, ‘Les Bains de Sergilla’, Syria, 71 (1994), pp. 113-42.

p. 246. Western villages: see esp. H. Hamerow, Early Medieval Settlements (Oxford, 2002); É. Peytremann, Archéologie de l’habitat rural dans le nord de la France du IVeau XIIesiècle (Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 2003).

p. 247. Vorbasse: for a brief overview in English, see S. Hvass, in K. Randsborg (ed.), The Birth of Europe (Rome, 1989), pp. 91 - 9.

p. 247. Lauchheim: in English, see F. Damminger, in I. Wood (ed.), Franks and Alamanni in the Merovingian Period (Woodbridge, 1998), pp. 60 - 64.

p. 248. Churches: for England, see Blair, Church, esp. pp. 383-425.

p. 249. Montarrenti: see F. Cantini, Il castello di Montarrenti (Florence, 2003), with the generalizations to the rest of Tuscany in M. Valenti, L’insediamento altomedievale nelle campagne toscane (Florence, 2004), and to the rest of Italy in R. Francovich and R. Hodges, Villa to Village (London, 2003). For a general context for internal village spatial hierarchi- zation, see L. Feller, Paysans et seigneurs au Moyen Âge, VIIIe-XVesiècles (Paris, 2007), pp. 76-81.

Chapter 11

There are many histories of Byzantium in English. The best one-volume starting point is M. Whittow, The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600-1025 (Basingstoke, 1996); the best monographic surveys of this period are J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1997) and L. Brubaker and J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (ca.680-ca.850) (Cambridge, 2009); I am grateful to the authors for letting me see the typescript. C. Mango, Byzantium: The Empire of New Rome (London, 1980), A. Cameron, The Byzantines (Oxford, 2006) and J. Herrin, Byzantium (Princeton, 2008), are insightful. J. Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (Princeton, 1987) is important for the church. ODB is an invaluable reference book.

p. 255. Parastaseis: A. Cameron and J. Herrin (eds.), Constantinople in the Early Eighth Century (Leiden, 1984). Cited in order are cc. 61, 28, 61, 65, 75.

p. 257. Maurice: see esp. M. Whitby, The Emperor Maurice and his Historian (Oxford, 1988).

p. 257. Avars: W. Pohl, Die Awaren (Munich, 1988).

p. 257. Coups: W. E. Kaegi, Byzantine Military Unrest 471-843 (Amsterdam, 1981); for army ideology, J. F. Haldon, in Klio, 68 (1986), pp. 139-90. For hereditary succession and legitimacy, G. Dagron, Emperor and Priest (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 13-45, 54-83.

p. 258. Phocas: see D. M. Olster, The Politics of Usurpation in the Seventh Century (Amsterdam, 1993), a very up-beat account.

p. 258. Heraclius: see W. E. Kaegi, Heraclius (Cambridge, 2003), another up-beat account.

p. 259. George of Pisidia: Giorgio di Pisidia, Poemi, vol. 1, ed. and trans. A. Pertusi (Ettal, 1959), p. 109.

p. 259. Michael Hendy: M. F. Hendy, Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy, c.300 - 1450 (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 619-67 (quote from p. 620).

p. 260. Byzantine navy: H. Ahrweiler, Byzance et la mer (Paris, 1966), pp. 17 - 92.

p. 260. Apocalyptic writing: see e.g. G. Dagron and V. Déroche, ‘Juifs et Chrétiens dans l’Orient du VIIe siècle’, Travaux et memoires, 11 (1991), pp. 17-273, esp. pp. 38-43; R. G. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It (Princeton, 1997), pp. 257-316; an important example, pseudo-Methodios, is partially trans. by S. P. Brock, in A. Palmer, The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles (Liverpool, 1993), pp. 230-42. For the highly religious nature of the writings of this period, see A. Cameron, J. Haldon, G. J. Reinink, in A. Cameron and L. I. Conrad (eds.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, vol. 1 (Princeton, 1992), pp. 81 - 187.

p. 261. Army: see Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century, pp. 208 - 32; idem, in Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 47 (1993), pp. 1 - 67, idem, Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine world 565-1204 (London, 1999), pp. 71 - 123.

p. 262. Aristocracies: C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 233 - 9 gives a brief survey with bibliography.

p. 263. St Artemios: The Miracles of St Artemios, ed. and trans. V. S. Crisafulli and J. W. Nesbitt (Leiden, 1997), esp. cc. 7, 10, 17, 18, 26, 27, 29, 32, 44, and pp. 19-21.

p. 263. Platon: ODB, vol. 3, p. 1684.

p. 263. Bureaucracy: Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century, pp. 180 - 207; W. Brandes, Finanzverwaltung in Krisenzeiten (Frankfurt, 2002), pp. 116 - 238.

p. 264. Public space: M. McCormick, Eternal Victory (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 131-230; L. Brubaker, in M. de Jong and F. Theuws (eds.), Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages (Leiden, 2001), pp. 31-43; Dagron, Emperor and Priest, pp. 103-14. For 765,The Chronicle of Theophanes, trans. C. Mango and R. Scott (Oxford, 1997), p. 605.

p. 264. Roman form to the city: P. Magdalino, Constantinople médiévale (Paris, 1996), pp. 48-50.

p. 265. Leo III: Dagron, Emperor and Priest, pp. 158-91.

p. 266. Army and councils: Brubaker and Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era, ch. 1; for the 681 events, Chronicle of Theophanes, pp. 491 - 2 (misdated to 669).

p. 267. Ekloga: A Manual of Roman Law, trans. E. H. Freshfield (Cambridge, 1926); quote from p. 67.

p. 268. Constantine V reforms: Chronicle of Theophanes, pp. 608, 611; J. F. Haldon, Byzantine Praetorians (Bonn, 1984), pp. 228-56.

p. 268. Iconoclasm: see in general Brubaker and Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (see ch. 1 for before 720); and also iidem, Byzantium in the Iconoclast era (ca.680-850): The Sources (Aldershot, 2001). For early icons, I follow L. Brubaker, ‘Icons before Iconoclasm? ’, Settimane di studio, 45 (1998), pp. 1215-54, against the classic E. Kitzinger, ‘The Cult of Images in the Age before Iconoclasm’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 8 (1954), pp. 85-150. For 626, see B. V. Pentcheva, in Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 26 (2002), pp. 2-41. For other contributions, see the bibliographies in these works; but A. Bryer and J. Herrin (eds.), Iconoclasm (Birmingham, 1977) is a valuable survey of the then state of knowledge, and P. Brown, ‘A Dark-age Crisis’, English Historical Review, 88 (1973), pp. 1-34 is a brilliant reinterpretation. The Gregory the Great quote is cited and contextualized by H. L. Kessler, in Studies in the History of Art, 16 (1985), pp. 75-91.

p. 269. Constantine V and Nikephoros: Nikephoros, Antirrhesis, trans. M.-J. Mondzain- Baudinet, Nicéphore, Discours contre les Iconoclastes (Paris, 1989); p. 325 has a list of the Constantine citations.

p. 269. ‘Unlawful art’: D. J. Sahas, Icon and Logos (Toronto, 1986), a translation of the acts of Second Nicaea, p. 75.

p. 269. Stephen the Younger: La Vie d’Étienne le Jeune par Étienne le diacre, ed. and trans. M.-F. Auzépy (Aldershot, 1997), cc. 69 (death), 28 (flight).

p. 270. Eirene: see, in addition to the general surveys, L. James, Empresses and Power in Early Byzantium (Leicester, 2001), esp. pp. 54-6, 68-72, 89-92, 112-14, 125-7; a detailed account of her reign, as of her successors, not fully critical of the primary sources, is W. Treadgold, The Byzantine Revival 780-842 (Stanford, Calif., 1988).

p. 271. Nikephoros I: Treadgold, Byzantine Revival, pp. 127 - 95; Chronicle of Theophanes, pp. 655 (802), 667-9 (vexations).

p. 272. The Balkans: J. V. A. Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans (Ann Arbor, 1983), pp. 66-105, and F. Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 70 - 110, 147-65, give recent narrative accounts; the classic, D. Obolensky,The Byzantine Commonwealth (London, 1971) is less detailed on this period. For casual references to Slavic languages in the tenth century, Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, ed. and trans. G. Moravcsik and R. J. H. Jenkins (Washington, 1967), cc. 31, 32, 34, 36.

p. 273. Constantine V’s memory: Chronicle of Theophanes, pp. 679-80, 684 - 5.

p. 274. Alexander and Caesar: Nikephoros, Antirrhesis, 3.73 (Nicéphore, Discours, pp. 281-3).

p. 274. Bishops as mainly Iconoclast: see M. Kaplan, in idem (ed.), Monaste‘res, images, pouvoirs et societe à Byzance (Paris, 2006), pp. 183-205.

p. 274. Graptoi: Treadgold, Byzantine Revival, pp. 311, 447; several sources recount the event.

p. 274. Great Fence: see P. Squatriti, in Past and Present, 176 (2002), pp. 11-65.

p. 275. Eirene’s body: J. Herrin, Women in Purple (London, 2001), p. 213.

p. 275. Nikephoros: Nikephoros, Antirrhesis, 1.20, 30, 43, 2.18 (Nicéphore, Discours, pp. 87, 110, 135, 178). Ignatios: The Correspondence of Ignatios the Deacon, ed. and trans. C. Mango (Washington, 1997), letter 21 for Pythagoras; pp. 239 - 41 for non-biblical citations. For all these figures, see above all P. Lemerle, Byzantine Humanism (Canberra, 1986), pp. 137-204. For Ignatios’ career, see Correspondence of Ignatios, pp. 3-24; letters cited are 30 (Nikephoros), 46 (location of exile), 39 (poverty), 38 (straying).

p. 277. Theophilos and building: Brubaker and Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era, ch. 5.

p. 277. Peter Brown: ‘A Dark-age Crisis’; p. 8 for quote.

p. 278. Palestinian Christians: Brubaker and Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era: The Sources, pp. 30-36; R. Schick, The Christian Communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Islamic Rule (Princeton, 1995), pp. 180-219.

Chapter 12

A general framing for some of the problems of Arab history is R. S. Humphreys, Islamic History, revised edn. (Princeton, 1991). For narratives to 750, see H. Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates (London, 1986); G. R. Hawting, The First Dynasty of Islam (Carbondale, Ill., 1987); P. Crone, Slaves on Horses (Cambridge, 1980), very crisp and succinct, but requiring prior knowledge; M. A. Shaban, Islamic History: A New Interpretation , vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1971), older and more problematic; and the old classic, J. Wellhausen, The Arab Kingdom and its Fall (Calcutta, 1927). An essential research tool is the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edn. (Leiden, 1954 - 2001).

p. 279. Murder of ‘Uthman: texts include The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos, trans. R. W. Thomson et al. (Liverpool, 1999), vol. 1, p. 154; The History of al-Tabari, trans. E. Yar-Shater et al., 39 vols. (Albany, NY, 1985-2000), vol. 15, pp. 145-252. For reconstructions of the events and their problems, see R. S. Humphreys, in F. M. Clover and R. S. Humphreys (eds.), Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity (Madison, 1989), pp. 271-90 (the more critical); M. Hinds, Studies in Early Islamic History(Princeton, 1996), pp. 29-55. For some context, Humphreys, Islamic History, pp. 98-103; E. L. Petersen, ‘Alí and Mu‘awiya in Early Arabic Tradition (Copenhagen, 1964); P. Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh, 2004), pp. 17-32. For Sayf, E. Landau-Tasseron, in Der Islam, 67 (1990), pp. 6-26; P. Crone, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 3 ser., 6 (1996), pp. 237 - 40.

p. 281. Narrative sources: see C. F. Robinson, Islamic Historiography (Cambridge, 2003); A. Noth, The Early Arabic Historical Tradition, ed. L. I. Conrad (Princeton, 1994); F. M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins (Princeton, 1998). All these engage with the most critical recent historiography from different positions, and show what Arab sources look like. Important examples of that historiography include Crone, Slaves on Horses, pp. 3 - 17; L. I. Conrad, ‘The Conquest of Arwad’, in A. Cameron and L. I. Conrad (eds.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, vol. 1 (Princeton, 1992), pp. 317-401. Non-Muslim sources are discussed in R. G. Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It (Princeton, 1997).

p. 282. Muhammad: a good short introduction is M. A. Cook, Muhammad (Oxford, 1983).

p. 282. Constitution of Medina: Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad, trans. A. Guillaume (London, 1955), pp. 231 - 3; see Humphreys, Islamic History, pp. 92 - 8.

p. 282. Qur’an: trans. A. J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted (London, 1955), among many. For dates, J. Wansbrough, Quranic Studies (Oxford, 1977), pp. 43-52; P. Crone, in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 18 (1994), pp. 1-37; Donner, Narratives, pp. 35-63. For the Dome of the Rock texts, Hoyland, Seeing Islam, pp. 696-9 (cf. 545 - 59, 591 - 8).

p. 283. 643 text: A. Grohmann, From the World of Arabic Papyri (Cairo, 1952), pp. 113-15.

p. 283. Khalfa: see P. Crone and M. Hinds, God’s Caliph (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 4-23 (the first contemporary references are for ‘Abd al-Malik).

p. 283. Conquests: see F. M. Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests (Princeton, 1981), more trusting of the sources than his later Narratives; the basic Arabic text is al-Baladhuri, The Origins of the Islamic State, trans. P. K. Hitti and F. C. Murgotten (New York, 1916 - 24).

p. 285. Dwn: see esp. H. Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphs (London, 2001), pp. 59-78.

p. 285. Arab landowning: see among others Donner, Conquests, pp. 239-50; Kennedy, Armies, pp. 81-5; K. Morimoto, ‘Land Tenure in Egypt during the Early Islamic Period’, Orient, 11 (1975), pp. 109-53. The numerous individual examples of land cessions do not undermine the main point.

p. 285. Tax: see in general, among many, J. B. Simonsen, Studies in the Genesis and Early Development of the Caliphal Taxation System (Copenhagen, 1988).

p. 285. Mansur family: see M. F. Auzépy, in Travaux et memoires, 12 (1994), pp. 194 - 203. The 700 date comes from al-Baladhuri, Origins, vol. 1, p. 301.

p. 286. Mawl: there is a huge debate over their role. I follow P. Crone in talking down their political importance, as, for example, in Slaves on Horses, pp. 49-57.

p. 286. Conversion: see esp. R. W. Bulliet, Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period (Cambridge, Mass., 1979).

p. 286. Egypt: see e.g. C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 133 - 44, 251 - 5, 419 - 28; for early Arabization, see esp. now P. M. Sijpesteijn, Shaping a Muslim State (Oxford, in press); eadem in Proceedings of the British Academy, 136 (2007), pp. 183 - 200 for administrative continuities.

p. 287. Syria: see several articles in P. Canivet and J. P. Rey-Cocquais (eds.), La Syrie de Byzance à l’Islam, VIIe-VIIIesiècles (Damascus, 1992); J. B. Segal, Edessa (Oxford, 1970), pp. 202-3. For papyri, C. J. Kraemer (ed.), Excavations at Nessana, vol. 3 (Princeton, 1958), nn. 55-88, 92-3 (the dwn text); A. Grohmann (ed.), Arabic Papyri from Hirbet el-Mird (Louvain, 1963). For archaeological continuities and the occasional change, A. Walmsley, Early Islamic Syria (London, 2007); J. Magness, The Archaeology of the Early Islamic Settlement in Palestine (Winona Lake, Ind., 2003). For the Arabs in the Jazira and Iraq, not discussed here, the key books are C. F. Robinson, Empire and Élites after the Muslim Conquest (Cambridge, 2000), and M. G. Morony,Iraq after the Muslim Conquest (Princeton, 1984); there is no good book on Iran.

p. 288. Samuel: Kraemer (ed.), Excavations at Nessana, vol. 3, n. 75.

p. 288. Egyptian tax revolts: K. Morimoto, The Fiscal Administration of Egypt in the Early Islamic Period (Dohosha, 1981), pp. 145 - 72.

p. 288. Incomplete cultural separation: T. Sizgorich, in Past and Present, 85 (2004), pp. 9 - 42; for Rusafa, E. K. Fowden, The Barbarian Plain (Berkeley, 1999), esp. pp. 60 - 100, 130-91. Bahira discussed by Christians: Hoyland, Seeing Islam, esp. pp. 270-76. Sinai: Kraemer (ed.), Excavations at Nessana, vol. 3, nn. 72 - 3; R. Schick, The Christian Communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Islamic Rule (Princeton, 1995), pp. 410 - 12.

p. 289. Mu‘awiya: see R. S. Humphreys, Mu‘awiya ibn Abi Sufyan (Oxford, 2006).

p. 289. Second Civil War: see the narrative surveys cited in the introduction, and also C. F. Robinson, ‘Abd al-Malik (Oxford, 2005), a basic account of that ruler.

p. 290. Africa: see M. Brett, in The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 2 (Cambridge, 1978), pp. 490 - 555.

p. 291. Kalb/Yaman vs. Qays: see above all P. Crone, ‘Were the Qays and Yemen of the Umayyad Period Political Parties?’, Der Islam, 71 (1994), pp. 1-57.

p. 291. ‘Abd al-Hamid: see W. al-Qdin Cameron and Conrad, Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, vol. 1, pp. 215-75. For ‘Abd al-Malik and Islamization, see F. M. Donner, ‘The Formation of the Islamic State’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 106 (1986), pp. 283-96; Robinson, ‘Abd al Malik; Crone and Hinds, God’s Caliph, pp. 24 - 57.

p. 292. Buildings: R. Ettinghausen and O. Grabar, The Art and Architecture of Islam: 650-1250 (Harmondsworth, 1987), pp. 28 - 71.

p. 292. Representation of humans: Qur’an, esp. 5.92, 6.74; cf. O. Grabar, The Formation of Islamic Art (New Haven, 1973), pp. 75-103.

p. 293. Al-Walid II and Yazid III on their religious roles: see texts trans. in Crone and Hinds, God’s Caliph, pp. 115 - 28 (pp. 124, 123 for quotes).

p. 293. Qusayr ‘Amra: G. Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth (Princeton, 1993), pp. 143 - 9, developed in idem, Qusayr ‘Amra (Berkeley, 2004).

p. 294. Sa‘id: S. Bashear, Arabs and Others in Early Islam (Princeton, 1997), p. 36; the whole book explores Arab ethnic attitudes. For the non-tribal nature of factions, see Crone, ‘Were the Qays’; earlier, Donner, Conquests, pp. 251-63.

p. 294. Al-Farazdaq: Divan de Férazdak, trans. R. Boucher (Paris, 1870), quotes from n. 21, p. 94 and n. 8, p. 32; see in general Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. 2, pp. 788-9; S. K. Jayyusi, in A. F. L. Beeston et al. (eds.), Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 401-12; Crone and Hinds, God’s Caliph, pp. 30-40.

p. 295. Hisham: see the political narrative in K. Y. Blankinship, The End of the Jihad State (Albany, NY, 1994), a far too apocalyptic account. For Hisham as short of money, cf. Kennedy, Armies, pp. 74-6.

p. 295. Yazid III and tax: Crone, ‘Were the Qays’, p. 41.

p. 295. ‘Abbasid ‘revolution’: the enormous historiography includes Wellhausen, Arab Kingdom , pp. 456-566; M. A. Shaban, The ‘Abbsid Revolution (Cambridge, 1970); M. Sharon, Black Banners from the East (Jerusalem, 1983); J. Lassner, in Clover and Humphreys, Tradition and Innovation, pp. 247-70. See the sensible literature survey in Humphreys, Islamic History, pp. 104 - 27.

Chapter 13

The late ninth and tenth centuries do not have a monographic account. M. Whittow, The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600 - 1025 (Basingstoke, 1996), remains a good survey; so do the articles by J. Shepard in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 553 - 604; some more general Byzantine overviews also give useful attention to the period, including J. F. Haldon, Byzantium: A History (Stroud, 2000); P. Magdalino, ‘The Medieval Empire (780 - 1204)’, in C. A. Mango (ed.), The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002), pp. 169-208; and the old (and sometimes outdated) classic, G. Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (Oxford, 1956). Some emperors (Leo VI, Nikephoros II, Basil II) have good recent analyses in English: see below. But we do not have anything in any language that confronts the period as a whole on its own terms. For Bulgaria, see the note to p. 305.

p. 298. Book of Ceremonies: Constantin VII Porphyrogénète, Le Livre des ceremonies, ed. and trans. A. Vogt, 2 vols. (Paris, 1967; only half the book was edited in this modern edition), esp. 1.1. 9, 46; quotes from the preface, pp. 1-2. I accept the restricted list of works that can be plausibly ascribed to Constantine in I. evenko’s arch but convincing article, in J. Shepard and S. Franklin (eds.), Byzantine Diplomacy (Aldershot, 1992), pp. 167 - 95.

p. 299. Ceremonial: see A. Cameron, in D. Cannadine and S. Price (eds.), Rituals of Royalty (London, 1987), pp. 106 - 36; M. McCormick, in Jahrbuch der österreichischen Byzantinistik , 35 (1985), pp. 1-20; idem, Eternal Victory (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 150-230; G. Dagron, Emperor and Priest (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 204 - 19; R. Morris, in C. Cubitt (ed.), Court Culture in the Early Middle Ages (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 235-54. Liutprand: The Complete Works of Liudprand of Cremona, trans. P. Squatriti (Washington, 2007), pp. 244-7, Embassy, cc. 9 - 13.

p. 300. Photios and Arethas: P. Lemerle, Byzantine Humanism (Canberra, 1986), pp. 205-308 (pp. 234-5 for rigorist critiques of Photios); N. G. Wilson, Scholars of Byzantium (London, 1983), pp. 89 - 135. For the Bibliotheke, N. G. Wilson, Photius: The Bibliotheca (London, 1994), is a partial translation.

p. 300. Some imperial books: Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, ed. and trans. G. Moravcsik and R. J. H. Jenkins (Washington, 1967); Le Traité sur la guérilla de l’empereur Nicéphore Phocas (963-969), ed. and trans. G. Dagron and H. Mihescu (Paris, 1986); E. McGeer, Sowing the Dragon’s Teeth (Washington, 1995), pp. 12-59.

p. 301. Leo Choirosphaktes: P. Magdalino, ‘In Search of the Byzantine Courtier’, in H. Maguire (ed.), Byzantine Court Culture from 829 to 1204 (Washington, 1997), pp. 141-65; idem, L’Orthodoxie des astrologues (Paris, 2006), pp. 70-82; G. Kolias, Léon Choerosphaktès (Athens, 1939), pp. 76 - 90, cf. 35 - 40.

p. 301. Nicholas I: Letters, ed. and trans. R. J. H. Jenkins and L. G. Westerink (Washington, 1973), letters 5-11, 14-31; Théodore Daphnopatès: Correspondance, ed. and trans. J. Darrouzès and L. G. Westerink (Paris, 1978), letters 5 - 7 (to Symeon), 14 (to Romanos);

Leo of Synnada: The Correspondence of Leo, Metropolitan of Synada and Syncellus, ed. and trans. M. P. Vinson (Washington, 1985), letter 31 (will).

p. 302. Constantine VII on Romanos I: De Administrando, c. 13.

p. 302. Law: see e.g. M. T. Fögen, in L. Brubaker (ed.), Byzantium in the Ninth Century: Dead or Alive? (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 11-22. For the revival of Roman-ness, see P. Magdalino, ‘The Distance of the Past in Early Medieval Byzantium (VII-X centuries)’,Settimane di studio, 46 (1999), pp. 115-46.

p. 303. Banning from Hagia Sophia: see e.g. Dagron, Emperor and Priest, pp. 106 - 9.

p. 304. Bali: C. Geertz, Negara (Princeton, 1980).

p. 304. Liutprand: Liutprand, Antapodosis, 6.5, 10, in Complete Works, pp. 197 - 202.

p. 304. Orthodoxy procession: Constantin, Livre des ceremonies, 1.37.

p. 305. Bulgaria: see in general J. Shepard, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 567-85; D. Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth (London, 1971), pp. 114-204; J. V. A. Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans (Ann Arbor, 1983), pp. 94-201; P. Stephenson, Byzantium’s Balkan Frontier (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 18-79; F. Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500 - 1250 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 119-24, 147 - 79, 213 - 47.

p. 306. Rome and Constantinople: F. Dvornik, The Photian Schism (Cambridge, 1948), with caution.

p. 307. Symeon in 924: Theodore Daphnopatès, Correspondance, letter 5.

p. 307. Bogomils: Le Traité contre les Bogomiles de Cosmas le Prètre, trans. H.-C. Puech and A. Vaillant (Paris, 1945); p. 86 for social attitudes.

p. 307. Military handbooks: see the list in A. Dain, ‘Les Stratégistes byzantins’, Travaux et mémoires, 2 (1967), pp. 317-92. See, on Leo in general, S. Tougher, The Reign of Leo VI (886 - 912) (Leiden, 1997).

p. 308. Romanos and Constantine: Théodore Daphnopatès, Correspondance, letter 6; Con stantine, De Administrando, c. 50.

p. 308. John Kourkouas, Bardas, Nikephoros: see e.g. Whittow, The Making, pp. 317 - 53.

p. 308. Nikephoros Phokas: see R. Morris, in Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 12 (1988), pp. 83-115; and in P. Magdalino (ed.), New Constantines (Aldershot, 1994), pp. 199 - 214, for the repercussions of his death.

p. 310. Nikephoros’ sense of being constrained by ceremonial: Liutprand, Embassy, c. 55, in Complete Works, p. 273.

p. 310. Nikephoros Ouranos: ODB, vol. 3, pp. 1544-5; C. Holmes, Basil II and the Governance of Empire (976-1025) (Oxford, 2005), pp. 349-52, 384, 409-11, 523-4. Argyroi: J. F. Vannier, Familles byzantines: les Argyroi (Paris, 1975), pp. 36-42; for Romanos’ culture, Michael Psellos, Chronographia, trans. E. R. A. Sewter as Fourteen Byzantine Rulers (London, 1966), pp. 63 - 4.

p. 310. Basil Lekapenos: see esp. W. G. Brokkaar, ‘Basil Lacapenos’, in W. F. Bakker et al. (eds.), Studia Byzantina et Neohellenica Neerlandica (Leiden, 1972), pp. 199 - 234.

p. 311. Basil II: see esp. Holmes, Basil II. See also some of the articles in P. Magdalino (ed.), Byzantium in the Year 1000 (Leiden, 2003). The quote, and also the tunnels rumour, are from Psellos, Chronographia, trans. Sewter, pp. 45 - 6.

p. 312. Army structure: see esp. J. F. Haldon, Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World 565-1204 (London 1999), pp. 84 - 5, 123 - 32, 217-23.

p. 313. Family origins: see ODB, vol. 1, pp. 165, 655, vol. 2, pp. 1156, 1203, vol. 3, pp. 1666, 1911, for quick guides and bibliography. For the crystallization of the aristocracy, see E. Patlagean and A. P. Kazhdan, in M. Angold (ed.), The Byzantine Aristocracy, IX to XIII Centuries (Oxford, 1984), pp. 23-57; M. Kaplan, Les Hommes et la terre a‘ Byzance du VIeau XIesiècle (Paris, 1992), pp. 328 ff; J.-C. Cheynet, The Byzantine Aristocracy and its Military Function (Aldershot, 2006), studies I-V.

p. 313. Leo VI and Basil I: Taktika, 2.22-5, in Patrologia Graeca, vol. 107, ed. J.-P. Migne (Paris, 1863), col. 688; E. McGeer, The Land Legislation of the Macedonian Emperors (Toronto, 2000), Novel O, Prologue 3, 4.

p. 313. Locations of lands: M. F. Hendy, Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy, c. 300-1450 (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 100 - 108; J.-C. Cheynet, Pouvoir et contestations a‘ Byzance (963-1210) (Paris, 1990), pp. 207 - 48; Digenis Akritis, ed. and trans. E. Jeffreys (Cambridge, 1998).

p. 313. Phokades: J.-C. Cheynet, ‘Les Phocas’, in Dagron and Mihescu, Le Traité sur la guérilla, pp. 289 - 315.

p. 314. Need for office-holding: Holmes, Basil II, pp. 463 - 8 (p. 466 n. for the lions quote); for 1022, ibid., pp. 515-22, and Cheynet, Pouvoir et contestations, pp. 36 - 7.

p. 315. Danelis: Kaplan, Les Hommes, pp. 333 - 4.

p. 315. Laws: McGeer, Land Legislation, translates them all; cited laws are Novels C, 1.2 (2.1 for the famine); E, 3.3; O, Prologue 4, 7.1-2. For definitions of dynatoi, Novels B, 2.2; C, 1.2; D, 3.1. Out of the huge bibliography on these texts, R. Morris, ‘The Powerful and the Poor in Tenth-century Byzantium’, Past and Present, 73 (1976), pp. 3-27 and Kaplan, Les Hommes, pp. 406-44, stand out.

p. 316. Nikephoros in 966/7: McGeer, Land Legislation, Novel K, 1.1.

p. 316. Aristocratic and peasant landowning: see in general A. Harvey, Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire, 900-1200 (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 67-79. For the Thebes Cadaster, see N. Svoronos, in Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, 83 (1959), pp. 1-145 (pp. 11-19 for the text). Athos: Archives de l’Athos, vol. 5, Actes de Lavra, I, ed. P. Lemerle et al. (Paris, 1970), n. 6; vol. 6, Actes du Prôtaton, ed. D. Papachryssanthou (Paris, 1975), nn. 1, 4-6; vol. 14, Actes d’Iviron, I, ed. J. Lefort et al. (Paris, 1985), nn. 1, 4-5, 9 (cf. the laws of Nikephoros and Basil in McGeer, Land Legislation, Novels J and O, 3). Hierissos had a bishop but also a stratum of peasant proprietors (Kaplan, Les Hommes, pp. 226-9); it could be called an ‘agro-town’. For monastic expansion in this period, patronized not least by Nikephoros II despite his own legislation, see R. Morris, Monks and Laymen in Byzantium, 843-1118 (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 166-99. For southern Italy, see J.-M. Martin, La Pouille du VIeau XIIesie‘cle (Rome, 1993), pp. 293-301. I am grateful here to discussions with Mark Whittow.

p. 316. Peasant society: Kaplan, Les Hommes, is the best guide. (I ascribe less dominance to ‘the powerful’ than he does.)

p. 317. Justice: R. Morris, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds.), The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge 1986), pp. 125-47; documentary examples, beside those cited in the note to p. 316, are Actes du Protaton, nn. 2, 7; Archives de l’Athos, vol. 2: Actes de Vatopédi, I, ed. J. Bompaire et al. (Paris, 2001), nn. 1, 2, mostly for trouble between monasteries.

Chapter 14

For ‘Abbasid and post-‘Abbasid history, the best overall guide in English is H. Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates (London, 1986), which devotes its strongest sections to this period. For the tenth century, his is indeed the only overview, apart from the more problematic M. A. Shaban, Islamic History: A New Interpretation, vol. 2 (Cambridge, 1976). (See notes to pp. 335-8 for more localized studies.) For the period before 908, three other books by Kennedy also need citation, The Early Abbasid Caliphate(London, 1981), The Armies of the Caliphs (London, 2001), and The Court of the Caliphs (London, 2004), an attractive popular history based heavily on ‘Abbasid narratives, which is arguably the best place to start. The most wide-ranging synthesis of the ‘Abbasids as a whole is D. Sourdel, L’État impérial des califes abbassides (Paris, 1999). For the culture of the period, the classic survey is G. E. von Grunebaum, Medieval Islam, 2nd edn. (Chicago, 1953); M. J. L. Young et al. (eds.), Religion, Learning and Science in the ‘Abbasid Period (Cambridge, 1990) and J. Ashtiany et al. (eds.), ‘Abbasid belles-lettres (Cambridge, 1990), together cover every literary genre in detail. P. Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh, 2004) and C. F. Robinson, Islamic Historiography(Cambridge, 2003) both have a wide remit. The basic primary source, The History of al-Tabari, is translated in 39 vols., ed. E. Yar-Shater (Albany, NY, 1985-2000); vols. 27 onward cover the period 750-915. The tendency to accept almost everything al-Tabari and other authors say, which is present in most writers on the period, including some cited above, is effectively critiqued in T. El-Hibri’s important Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography (Cambridge, 1999).

p. 318. Palermo in Ibn Hawqal: Ibn Hauqal, Configuration de la terre, vol.1, trans. J. H. Kramers and G. Wiet (Beirut and Paris, 1964), pp. 117-30, quotes from pp. 123, 127.

p. 319. Ibn Hawqal’s comparisons: Configuration, vol. 1, pp. 144, 111, 178, 97-8.

p. 320. Baghdad’s size: for a range of estimates, all based on bad data, see F. Micheau, in J.-C. Garcin (ed.), Grandes villes méditerranéennes du monde musulman médiéval (Rome, 2000), pp. 92-3; see also P. Guichard, ibid., p. 269; I go for a higher estimate than many, bearing in mind the half-million inhabitants of late imperial Rome and Constantinople and the 250,000 fairly plausibly argued for eleventh-century Fustat/Cairo (A. Raymond, Cairo (Cambridge, Mass., 2000), p. 62; cf. the cautious remarks of Garcin,Grandes villes, p. 207).

p. 321. Vizirs: see above all D. Sourdel, Le Vizirat ‘abbside de 749 à 936, vol. 1 (Damascus, 1959); pp. 78-90 for Abu Ayyub.

p. 322. Barmakid government: Sourdel, Le Vizirat, pp. 127-81; H. Kennedy, in C. Melville (ed.), Persian and Islamic Studies in Honour of P. W. Avery, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 89-98.

p. 322. Arab historians on 803: El-Hibri, Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography, pp. 31-53.

p. 322. Khurasani tension: Kennedy, Early Abbasid Caliphate, pp. 125-7.

p. 323. Al-Rida: al-Tabari, History, vol. 32, pp. 60-62; cf. Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought, pp. 89-94.

p. 323. Egypt: K. Morimoto, The Fiscal Administration of Egypt in the Early Islamic Period (Dohosha, 1981), pp. 156-72.

p. 324. Al-Ma’mun’s armies: Kennedy, Armies, pp. 108-11.

p. 324. Books: The Fihrist of al-Nadm, rans. B. Dodge, 2 vols. (New York, 1970); vol. 1, p. 214 for al-Waqidi. See Robinson, Islamic Historiography, pp. 3-8.

p. 325. ‘Ulam’ and biographical dictionaries: see M. J. L. Young, in idem, Religion, Learning and Science, pp. 169-77; R. S. Humphreys, Islamic History, revised edn. (Princeton, 1991), pp. 187-99; R. P. Mottahadeh, Loyalty and Leadership in an Early Islamic Society (Princeton, 1980), pp. 135-50.

p. 325. Law schools: J. Schacht, An Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford, 1964), pp. 28-75.

p. 326. Adab: see the introductions in von Grunebaum, Medieval Islam, pp. 250-57; R. Allen, An Introduction to Arabic Literature (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 139-57; Ashtiany, ‘Abbasid belles-lettres, pp. 16-30, 89-95.

p. 326. ‘Curiosities’: The Latif al-ma‘rif of Tha‘ib, trans. C. E. Bosworth (Edinburgh, 1968), pp. 45, 48, 73, 82, 86, 113.

p. 327. Al-Tanukhi: The Table-talk of a Mesopotamian Judge, trans. D. S. Margoliouth, vol. 1 (London, 1921); vols. 8 and 2 (Hyderabad, 1929-32).

p. 327. Al-Fadl: al-Tanukhi, Table-talk, 8.12-15, with al-Tabari, History, vol. 33, pp. 28-35 (cf. Sourdel, Le Vizirat, pp. 246-53); peculation: al-Tanukhi, 8.6,11, etc.; the retired clerk: ibid., 8.12.

p. 328. Ibn al-Zayyat: al-Tanukhi, Table-talk, 8.4; al-Tabari, History, vol. 34, pp. 65-72 (cf. Sourdel, Le Vizirat, pp. 254-69).

p. 328. Khayzuran and Zubayda: N. Abbott, Two Queens of Baghdad (Chicago, 1946); Kennedy, The Court, pp. 163-89; for source-critical analyses, El-Hibri, Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography, pp. 42-4, and in general J. Bray, in L. Brubaker and J. M. H. Smith (eds.), Gender in the Early Medieval World (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 121-46.

p. 329. Shaghab: Bray, in Brubaker and Smith, Gender, pp. 143-6; N. M. El Cheikh, ibid., pp. 147-61.

p. 329. Image of al-Ma’mun: al-Tabari, History, vol. 32, pp. 232-57; El-Hibri, Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography, pp. 108-11; M. Cooperson, Classical Arabic Biography (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 24-69. Science, caliphal authority and the mina: D. Gutas,Greek Thought, Arabic Culture (London, 1998), esp. pp. 75-104 (who makes it clear that al-Mam’un was not the originator of the translation movement); more generally, Sourdel, L’État impérial, pp. 100-12; Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought, pp. 130-33; P. Crone and M. Hinds, God’s Caliph (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 80-99; cf. Ibn al-Muqaffa‘, ‘conseilleur’ du caliphe, trans. C. Pellat (Paris, 1976), esp. cc. 8, 10, 13-17, 36, 55.

p. 330. Samarra: see C. F. Robinson (ed.), A Medieval Islamic City Reconsidered (Oxford, 2001); M. S. Gordon, The Breaking of a Thousand Swords (Albany, NY, 2001) and Kennedy, Armies, pp. 118-47, for the Turkish army.

p. 331. Al-Afshin’s fall: al-Tabari, History, vol. 33, pp. 180-200.

p. 331. Ishaq and al-Mu‘tasim: al-Tabari, History, vol. 33, pp. 214-15. For Turkish dangers, Kennedy, Armies, pp. 196-8, less catastrophist than P. Crone, Slaves on Horses (Cambridge, 1980), pp. 74-85.

p. 332. Crisis of 860s: Gordon, The Breaking, pp. 89-140; D. Waines, ‘The Third Century Internal Crisis of the ‘Abbasids’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 25 (1977), pp. 282-306, seems to me too apocalyptic.

p. 332. 870-908 and after: Kennedy, The Prophet, pp. 175-99, gives a good account. For the Zanj, see A. Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the 3rd/9th Century (Princeton, 1999).

p. 334. Tenth-century politics: Kennedy, The Prophet, pp. 200-308 (250-66 and 285-308 for Kurds and bedouins); Crone, Slaves on Horses, pp. 82-9; Mottahadeh, Loyalty and Leadership, pp. 40-116, 175-90.

p. 335. Local societies in Iran: Mottahadeh, Loyalty and Leadership, pp. 120-32, 150-57; R. P. Mottahadeh and R. W. Bulliet, in D. S. Richards (ed.), Islamic Civilization 950-1150 (Oxford, 1973), pp. 33-45, 71-91; W. Madelung, in R. N. Frye (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 4 (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 198-239; cf. for a brief structural overview, C. Wickham, Land and Power (London, 1994), pp. 56-62. For the general issue of governors and local élites, see for an earlier period H. Kennedy, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 44 (1981), pp. 26-38. For ‘Alid chic, Crone, Slaves on Horses, p. 86; and see further now T. Bernheimer, ‘A Social History of the ‘Alid Family from the Eighth to the Eleventh Century’, University of Oxford, D.Phil. thesis, 2006, esp. pp. 136-66.

p. 336. Mosul in 989: Mottahadeh, Loyalty and Leadership, p. 124; Kennedy, The Prophet, pp. 274-5.

p. 336. Fatimids: Kennedy, The Prophet, pp. 313-45; C. F. Petry (ed.), The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 111-74; P. E. Walker, Exploring an Islamic Empire (London, 2002), especially for sources; Y. Lev, State and Society in Fatimid Egypt (Leiden, 1991); Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought, pp. 197-218, for Isma‘ilism; but the fundamental guide for the early period is now M. Brett, The Rise of the Fatimids (Leiden, 2001).

p. 338. Fatimid governmental procedures: see the documents in G. Khan (ed.), Arabic Legal and Administrative Documents in the Cambridge Genizah Collections (Cambridge, 1993), esp. nn. 104-5, 115, 132, 137, 140-59.

p. 338. Umayyad al-Andalus: the new basic structural analysis is E. Manzano Moreno, Conquistadores, emires y califas (Barcelona, 2006), with full historical and archaeological bibliography. In English, brief up-to-date surveys are H. Kennedy, Muslim Spain and Portugal (London, 1996), focusing on political history, T. F. Glick, Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages (Princeton, 1979), for social history, and idem, From Muslim Fortress to Christian Castle (Manchester, 1995), for archaeology. The eighth century is further covered in P. Chalmeta, Invasión e islamización (Madrid, 1994); the wide frontier regions in E. Manzano Moreno, La frontera de al-Andalus en época de los Omeyas (Madrid, 1991). The old classic is E. Lévi-Provençal, Histoire de l’Espagne musulmane, 3 vols. (Leiden and Paris, 1950-53), which contains by far the most detailed political narrative. A selection of significant recent articles in Spanish is translated in M. Marín (ed.), The Formation of al-Andalus, vol. 1 (Aldershot, 1998); vol. 2, ed. M. I. Fierro and J. Samsó (Aldershot, 1998), focuses on intellectual history.

p. 339. The eighth-century economy of Spain: C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 656-65, 741-59; for cities, see further S. Gutiérrez Lloret, in Marín, Formation, vol. 1, pp. 217-47.

p. 340. Syrian settlement in Spain: Manzano, Conquistadores, pp. 93-113; an English translation of an earlier version is in Marín, Formation, vol. 1, pp. 85-114.

p. 340. Chronicle of 754 on tax: published in Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain, trans. K. B. Wolf (Liverpool, 1990), pp. 111-58, cc. 59, 62, 82, 91.

p. 340. Thugr: Manzano, La frontera.

p. 340. Tribal groups: P. Guichard, Structures sociales ‘orientales’ et ‘occidentales’ dans l’Espagne musulmane (Paris, 1977) is the classic analysis.

p. 341. ‘Abd al-Rahman II: see Lévi-Provencal, Histoire, vol. 1, pp. 193 - 278.

p. 341. Murcia: see A. Carmona González, in Marín, Formation, vol. 1, pp. 205-16.

p. 341. Ziryab: Manzano, Conquistadores, pp. 307-8.

p. 342. Christians: R. W. Bulliet, Conversion to Islam in the Medieval Period (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), pp. 114-27; his figures have been revised both up and down, but are still a significant point of reference. The most nuanced survey is A. Christys, Christians in al-Andalus (711-1000) (Richmond, 2002); pp. 52-79 for the relative unimportance of the ‘martyrs of Córdoba’; see further K. B. Wolf, Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain (Cambridge, 1988) and J. A. Coope, The Martyrs of Cordoba (Lincoln, Nebr., 1995).

p. 342. The fitna: see the debate between M. Acién Almansa, in Entre el feudalismo y el Islam, 2nd edn. (Jaén, 1997) and M. I. Fierro, in Marín, Formation, vol. 1, pp. 291-328; Manzano, Conquistadores, pp. 341-59; and V. Salvatierra Cuenca, La crisis del emirato omeya en el alto Guadalquivir (Jaén, 2001).

p. 343. ‘Abd al-Rahman III and the caliphate: see M. Fierro, ‘Abd al-Rahman III (Oxford, 2005); Lévi-Provençal, Histoire, vols. 2 and 3, remains basic.

p. 344. Madinat al-Zahra’: A. Vallejo Triano, Madinat al-Zahra (Seville, 2004); for ceremonial, Vita Iohannis Gorzensis, in MGH, Scriptores, vol. 4 (Hanover, 1841), pp. 337-77, cc. 118-36; M. Barceló, in Marín, Formation, vol. 1, pp. 425-55. For a detailed description of Córdoba, see Ibn Hauqal, Configuration, vol. 1, pp. 110-12.

p. 344. Ceramics: see Manzano, Conquistadores, pp. 448-51; for al-mulk, M. Barceló, in A. Malpica Cuello (ed.), La cerámica altomedieval en el sur de al-Andalus (Granada, 1993), pp. 293-9.

p. 345. Ibn al-Qutiya: for a Spanish translation, see J. Ribera, Colección de obras arábigas de historia y geografía, que pública la Real Academia de Historia, vol. 2 (Madrid, 1926), pp. 1-101; for commentary and sizeable quotes in English, Christys, Christians, pp. 158-83; see further M. I. Fierro, in Al-Qantara, 10 (1989), pp. 485-512.

p. 346. Second fitna and Taifas: Kennedy, Muslim Spain, pp. 122-44, gives a brisk and nuanced analysis; see further P. C. Scales, The Fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba (Leiden, 1994) and D. Wasserstein, The Rise and Fall of the Party-kings (Princeton, 1985).

p. 347. Governorships: Lévi-Provençal, Histoire, vol. 3, pp. 47-53; Manzano, Conquistad- ores, pp. 425-44.

Chapter 15

The Byzantine economy as a whole is covered in the collective three-volume EHB; the best overviews of the period as a whole are the editor, A. E. Laiou’s own synthetic article, ‘Exchange and Trade, Seventh-Twelfth Centuries’, EHB, vol. 2, pp. 697-770, and the first half of Laiou and C. Morrisson, The Byzantine Economy (Cambridge, 2007). For the early period, see J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 92-172, and L. Brubaker and J. F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era ca.680- ca.850 (Cambridge, 2008), ch. 7; for the later period, see A. Harvey, Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire, 900-1200 (Cambridge, 1989). For the economic dimension of the fiscal system, M. F. Hendy, Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy, c.300-1450 (Cambridge 1985) is essential; so, for rural society, is M. Kaplan, Les Hommes et la terre a‘ Byzance du VIeau XIesiècle (Paris, 1992).

The economy of the Islamic world does not have anything approaching the quality of these overviews. E. Ashtor, A Social and Economic History of the Near East in the Middle Ages (London, 1976), the only competitor, and an essential text, is outdated, moralistic and contains some unconvincing structural assumptions. For the period to 800, I refer to my own Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), which contains a bibliography of monographic work; from then onward, local studies (some of them very important) will be referred to as we proceed.

p. 348. City regulations: an English translation of the Book of the Eparch by E. H. Freshfield (1938), is in To eparchikon biblion, the Book of the Eparch, le livre du préfet (London, 1970), pp. 223-70; cf. Laiou, ‘Exchange’, pp. 718-36, G. Dagron, in EHB, vol. 2, pp. 405-61, and Hendy, Studies, pp. 561-9.

p. 349. Constantinople size: the figure is a guess, but fits with the detailed analyses in P. Magdalino, Constantinople médiévale (Paris, 1996).

p. 349. Liutprand: The Complete Works of Liutprand of Cremona, trans. P. Squatriti (Washington, 2007), pp. 271-3, Embassy, cc. 53-5.

p. 349. State control in al-Andalus: O. R. Constable, Trade and Traders in Muslim Spain (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 112-37.

p. 350. State and economy in Egypt: S. D. Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, 6 vols. (Berkeley, 1967-93), vol. 1, pp. 217-21, 267-72; for grain, Y. Lev, State and Society in Fatimid Egypt (Leiden, 1991), pp. 162-78.

p. 351. Jeme: T. Wilfong, Women of Jeme (Ann Arbor, 2002); Wickham, Framing, pp. 419-28.

p. 351. Genza: for an introduction, Goitein, Mediterranean Society (the classic genza study), vol. 1, pp. 1-23.

p. 352. Byzantium: see for what follows the overviews mentioned earlier, with Wickham, Framing, pp. 124-9, 460-64, 626-35, 780-94.

p. 352. Theodore and Farmer’s Law: Vie de Théodore de Sykéôn, ed. and trans. A.-J. Festugière (Brussels, 1970); W. Ashburner (ed. and trans.), ‘The Farmer’s Law’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 30 (1910), pp. 85-108; 32 (1912), pp. 68-95.

p. 353. Post-550 urban dip: see most recently, for a critique, M. Whittow, in L. Lavan (ed.), Recent Research in Late-antique Urbanism (Portsmouth, RI, 2001), pp. 137-53.

p. 353. Sardis, Ankara, Gortyn: J. S. Crawford, The Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Cambridge, Mass., 1990); C. Foss, ‘Late Antique and Byzantine Ankara’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 31 (1977), pp. 29-87; E. Zanini and E. Giorgi, in Annuario della Scuola archeologica italiana di Atene, 80 (2002), pp. 212-32.

p. 353. Corinth: G. D. R. Sanders, in EHB, vol. 2, pp. 647-54.

p. 354. Post-850/900 urban expansion: Harvey, Economic Expansion, pp. 207-24, C. Foss, Byzantine and Turkish Sardis (Cambridge, Mass., 1980), pp. 66-76; P. Arthur, ‘Hierapolis tra BisanzioeiTurchi’, in D. De Bernardi Ferrero, Saggi in onore di Paolo Verzone(Rome, 2002), pp. 219-20.

p. 355. Naval law: Nomos rodi nautikos: The Rhodian Sea-law, ed. and trans. W. Ash- burner (Oxford, 1909).

p. 356. Corinth coins: Sanders, in EHB, vol. 2, p. 649.

p. 356. Ceramics after 800: J. imbuleva, in Nessèbre, vol. 2 (Sofia, 1980), pp. 202-15; P. Armstrong, in W. Cavanagh et al., The Laconia Survey, vol. 1 (London, 2002), pp. 353-5; eadem, ‘Byzantine Thebes’, Annual of the British School at Athens, 88 (1993), pp. 304-6; T. Totev, ‘L’Atelier de céramique peinte du monastère royal de Preslav’, Cahiers archéologiques, 35 (1987), pp. 65-80; C. H. Morgan, Excavations at Corinth XI (Cambridge, Mass., 1942), pp. 14, 36-53, 72-5; N. Günsenin, in Eupsychia, vol. 1 (Paris, 1998), pp. 281-7; F. M. Hocker, in S. Kingsley (ed.), Barbarian Seas: Late Rome to Islam (London, 2004), pp. 61-3, for the wreck.

p. 356. Linen and glass: Book of the Eparch, c. 9; Laiou, ‘Exchange’, p. 726; Laiou and Morrisson, The Byzantine Economy, p. 77, and see pp. 70-89 for an overview of this economic revival.

p. 356. Danelis: Kaplan, Les Hommes, pp. 333-4; Basil: E. McGeer, The Land Legislation of the Macedonian Emperors (Toronto, 2000), Novel O, 7.

p. 357. Byzantines in Egypt: Goitein, Mediterranean Society, vol. 1, pp. 44-6; D. Jacoby, in Thesaurismata, 30 (2000), pp. 25-77.

p. 357. Eleventh-century agricultural specializations: Harvey, Economic Expansion, passim; Laiou and Morrisson, The Byzantine Economy, pp. 90-115.

p. 357. Syria: see, before 800, A. Walmsley, Early Islamic Syria (London, 2007).

p. 358. Madaba: M. Piccirillo, The Mosaics of Jordan (‘Amman, 1992), pp. 49-256; see in general for rural settlement, J. Magness, The Archaeology of the Early Islamic Settlement in Palestine (Winona Lake, Ind., 2003).

p. 358. Bet She’an: Y. Tsafrir and G. Foerster, in Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 51 (1997), pp. 85-146.

p. 358. Athanasios: The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles, trans. A. Palmer (Liverpool, 1993), pp. 202-4.

p. 359. Changing forms of cities: the classic is H. Kennedy, ‘From polis to madina’, Past and Present, 106 (1985), pp. 3-27. For Iran, see R. W. Bulliet, The Patricians of Nishapur (Cambridge, Mass., 1972).

p. 360. Syro-Palestinian exchange under the early ‘Abbasids: A. Walmsley in I. L. Hansen and C. Wickham (eds.), The Long Eighth Century (Leiden, 2000), pp. 265-343; A. Northedge and A. Walmsley, in E. Villeneuve and P. Watson (eds.), La Céramique byzan- tine et proto-islamique en Syrie-Jordanie (Beirut, 2001), pp. 207-14, 305-13.

p. 361. Nahrawan canal: R. McC. Adams, Land behind Baghdad (Chicago, 1965), esp. pp. 69-106, 115 (and 97-8 for dating); for a critique, M. Morony, in G. R. D. King and A. Cameron (eds.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, vol. 2 (Princeton, 1994), pp. 221-9.

p. 361. Raqqa: K. Bartl, Frühislamische Besiedlung im Balh-tal/Nordsyrien (Berlin, 1994).

p. 361. Sharecropping, etc.: M. ‘Abdul Jabbar, in M. G. Morony (ed.), Manufacturing and Labour (Aldershot, 2003), pp. 235-51; cf. Ashtor, Social and Economic History, pp. 87-90, 97-9, 109-14, 143-58 for the economic networks focused on Baghdad; and for Arab-period agricultural diversification in general, A. M. Watson, Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World (Cambridge, 1983).

p. 362. Siraf and the Indian Ocean: R. Hodges and D. Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe (London, 1983), pp. 133-49; M. Tampoe, Maritime Trade between China and the West (Oxford, 1989); K. M. Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean (Cambridge, 1985); Buzurg, The Book of the Wonders of India, Mainland, Sea and Islands, trans. G. S. P. Freeman-Grenville (London, 1981).

p. 362. Egypt to 800: Wickham, Framing, pp. 133-44, 609-12, 759-69. For the urban-dwelling percentage in Roman Egypt, see R. S. Bagnall and B. W. Freer, The Demography of Roman Egypt (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 53-6.

p. 363. Rise of large landowning: K. Morimoto, in Orient, 11 (1975), pp. 109-53; G. Frantz-Murphy, Arabic Agricultural Leases and Tax Receipts from Egypt 148-427 A. H./ 765-1035 AD. (Vienna, 2001) - crucial on tax-farming; cf. Goitein, Mediterranean Society, vol. 1, pp. 117-18 for day’a in the eleventh century.

p. 364. Fayyum papyri: Y. Rgib, Marchands d’étoffes du Fayyoum au IIIe/IXe siècle, 4 vols. so far (Cairo, 1982-96); for Qus, 1.3, 8, 10, 2.14; for Alexandria and Tinnis, 3.33.

p. 365. Linen: Y. Lev, ‘Tinns’, in M. Barrucand (ed.), L’Égypte fatimide, son art et son histoire (Paris, 1999), pp. 83 - 96; G. Frantz-Murphy, in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 24 (1981), pp. 274-97; Ibn Hauqal, Configuration de la terre, vol. 1, trans. J. H. Kramers and G. Wiet (Beirut and Paris, 1964) p. 150, for sale to Iraq.

p. 365. Exports: Goitein, Mediterranean Society, vol. 1, pp. 153-6, 209-17, and passim.

p. 365. Ibn ‘Awkal: N. A. Stillman, in Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 16 (1973), pp. 15-88 (his sons were adults in 1008 - cf. p. 17 - so he was probably around forty by then); M. Gil, ibid., 46 (2003), pp. 273-319; Goitein,Mediterranean Society, vol. 6, p. 56, indexes the numerous references to him there; S. D. Goitein, Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders (Princeton, 1973), nn. 1 (Samhun), 13, 14, 70.

p. 368. Exports from al-Andalus: Constable, Trade and Traders, pp. 169-208; cf. 79-92 for merchants.

p. 368. Rome-Constantinople route: M. McCormick, Origins of the European Economy (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 502-8. Small-scale network of boats: P. Horden and N. Purcell, The Corrupting Sea (Oxford, 2000), pp. 123-72.

p. 369. Venice: McCormick, Origins, pp. 238-40 (St Mark), 523-31, 733-77.

p. 369. Amalfi: McCormick, Origins, pp. 511-15, 627-30; B. M. Kreutz, Before the Normans (Philadelphia, 1991), pp. 75-93.

p. 369. Olive oil in 880, Arab wrecks off France: McCormick, Origins, pp. 955-6, 599 (cf. 674-8).

p. 369. Byzantine exports: Laiou, ‘Exchange’, pp. 725-8; D. Jacoby, in Thesaurismata, 30 (2000), pp. 25-77; Goitein, Mediterranean Society, vol. 1, p. 46.

p. 370. Almería: Constable, Trade and Traders, pp. 18-19; Goitein, Mediterranean Society, vol. 1, pp. 61, 64, 210, etc.

p. 370. Tunisian ceramics: G. Berti and L. Tongiorgi, I bacini ceramici medievali delle chiese di Pisa (Rome, 1981), pp. 162-75; for Tunisian prosperity, see in general G. Vanacker, in Annales ESC, 28 (1973), pp. 659-80.

p. 371. Egypt as hub: see J. L. Abu-Lughod, Before European Hegemony (New York, 1989), pp. 213-47, and passim for the medieval trade cycle as a whole.

Chapter 16

There are many books on the Carolingians, more than on any topic in our period after the end of the western empire. The best single-author survey remains R. McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (Harlow, 1983); crucial article collections, also aiming for completeness, are NCMH, vol. 2, and R. Le Jan (ed.), La Royauté et les elites dans l’Europe carolingienne (Lille, 1998), much of which is in English. As one would expect, French and particularly German historiography are also very strong; these books and others cite it at length. Charlemagne has many personalized accounts, of which the most recent (and best) are J. Story (ed.), Charlemagne (Manchester, 2005), and R. McKitterick, Charlemagne (Cambridge 2008); Louis the Pious has fewer, but see P. Godman and R. Collins (eds.), Charlemagne’s Heir (Oxford, 1990), a rather severe set of articles; for his son Charles, see above all J. L. Nelson, Charles the Bald (Harlow, 1992). For Carolingian culture, see the next chapter. Other key points of reference are J. L. Nelson’s article collections, Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London, 1986), The Frankish World, 750-900 (London, 1996), and Courts, Elites and the Workings of Power in the Early Medieval World (Aldershot, 2007); M. Innes, State and Society in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000); and an innovative rereading of Carolingian political rhetoric, P. E. Dutton, The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire (Lincoln, Nebr., 1994). Many primary sources are in translation, in particular in P. D. King, Charlemagne (Kendal, 1987) and P. E. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization (Peterborough, Ont., 1993). This outpouring of recent work largely replaces its English-language predecessors, but see, still, H. Fichtenau, The Carolingian Empire (Oxford, 1963), F. L. Ganshof, Frankish Institutions under Charlemagne (Providence, RI, 1968), and D. Bullough, The Age of Charlemagne (London, 1965).

p. 375. Fastrada letter: trans. King, Charlemagne, pp. 309-10.

p. 375. Charlemagne’s age: M. Becher, ‘Neue Uberlieferungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Grossen’, Francia, 19 (1992), pp. 37-60.

p. 376. Charlemagne’s tastes: Einhard, Life of Charlemagne, trans. P. E. Dutton, Charlemagne’s Courtier (Peterborough, Ont., 1998), cc. 18, 22-4, 29.

p. 376. Charles Martel: P. Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel (Harlow, 2000).

p. 376. Coup: Royal Frankish Annals, trans. B. W. Scholz, Carolingian Chronicles (Ann Arbor, 1970), s.a. 751 (with modifications); R. McKitterick, History and Memory in the Carolingian World (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 133-55; P. E. Dutton, Charlemagne’s Mustache (New York, 2004), pp. 3-42 for hairstyles.

p. 377. Church councils: M. A. Claussen, The Reform of the Frankish Church (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 24-57; J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Frankish Church (Oxford, 1983), pp. 162-80; for tithes, Cap., vol. 1, n. 17.

p. 379. Duke Tassilo: see S. Airlie, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6 ser, 9 (1999), pp. 93-119; for death/imprisonment, J. Busch, in Historische Zeitschrift, 263 (1996), pp. 561-88; for blinding, G. Buhrer-Thierry, in B. H. Rosenwein (ed.),Anger’s Past (Ithaca, NY, 1998), pp. 75-91.

p. 380. Bavarian aristocracies: see K. L. R. Pearson, Conflicting Loyalties in Early Medieval Bavaria (Aldershot, 1999); W. Brown, Unjust Seizure (Ithaca, NY, 2001).

p. 380. Einhard on the Avars: Life of Charlemagne, c. 13.

p. 380. End of expansion: T. Reuter, Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. J. L. Nelson (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 251-67.

p. 381. Carolingian control of monasteries: S. Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2006), pp. 247-69.

p. 381. Chosen people: M. Garrison, ‘The Franks as the New Israel?’, in Y. Hen and M. Innes (eds.), The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 114-61, nuancing earlier views. Jews: see B. S. Bachrach, Early Medieval Jewish Policy in Western Europe (Minneapolis, 1977), pp. 66-131.

p. 381. Einhard in Greek: Life of Charlemagne, c. 16.

p. 382. Aachen: J. L. Nelson, in M. de Jong and F. Theuws (eds.), Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages (Leiden, 2001), pp. 217-41.

p. 382. Correctio, etc.: this, and wider ‘reform’ terminology, is preferable to the common phrase ‘Carolingian Renaissance’, for nothing was ‘reborn’ in this period, least of all classical Antiquity, with which the Carolingians saw hardly broken links. TheGeneral Admonition and the letter of education (Cap., vol. 1, nn. 22, 29) are trans. King, Charlemagne , pp. 209-20, 232-3. p. 383. Alcuin: see D. A. Bullough, Alcuin (Leiden, 2004).

p. 383. Dhuoda: Handbook for William, trans. C. Neel (Lincoln, Nebr., 1999).

p. 384. Louis’s smile: Thegan, Life of Louis, c. 19, trans. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp. 141-55; cf. M. Innes, in G. Halsall (ed.), Humour, History and Politics in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 131 - 56.

p. 384. Legislation: P. Fouracre, ‘Carolingian Justice’, Settimane di studio, 42 (1995), pp. 771-803; R. Le Jan, ‘Justice royale et pratiques sociales dans le royaume franc au IXe siecle’, Settimane di studio, 44 (1997), pp. 47-85; for law books, R. McKitterick, The Carolingians and the Written Word (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 23-75; P. Wormald, The Making of English Law, vol. 1 (Oxford, 1999), pp. 30-70.

p. 385. Ansegis, 803 capitulary: Cap., vol. 1, nn. 183, 39; Ansegis is re-edited in G. Schmitz, Collectio Capitularium Ansegisi, MGH, Cap., NS vol. 1; for manuscripts of 803, see also H. Mordek, Bibliotheca Capitularium Regum Francorum Manuscripta(Munich, 1995), pp. 1083-4.

p. 386. Assemblies: Hincmar, On the Organization of the Palace, trans. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp. 485-99; Nithard, Histories, 2.9, trans. Scholz, Carolingian Chronicles. For Nithard, see Nelson, Politics and Ritual, pp. 195-237. For how assembly etiquette and the ritual of public communication worked, see C. Pössel, ‘Symbolic Communication and the Negotiation of Power at Carolingian Regnal Assemblies, 814-840’, University of Cambridge, Ph.D. thesis, 2003.

p. 386. Scabini: Ganshof, Frankish Institutions, pp. 77-83; F. Bougard, La Justice dans le royaume d’Italie (Rome, 1995), pp. 140-58.

p. 386. Oaths: Cap., vol. 1, n. 23, c. 18; n. 25; n. 33, c. 2; banned oaths: n. 20, c. 16; n. 44, cc. 9, 10 (trans. King, Charlemagne, pp. 221, 223 in part, 234, 204, 249). See M. Becher, Eid und Herrschaft (Sigmaringen, 1993), esp. pp. 78-87, though I tend to prefer a 792-3 dating for Cap. n. 25. For the 785-6 revolts, see R. McKitterick, Perceptions of the Past in the Early Middle Ages (Notre Dame, Ind., 2006), pp. 63-89.

p. 387. Control of the empire: see in general on government K. F. Werner, ‘Missus-marchio comes’, in W. Paravicini and K. F. Werner (eds.), Histoire comparée de l’administration (IVe-XVIIIesiècles) (Munich, 1980), pp. 191-239; J. L. Nelson, in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 383-430; eadem, in R. McKitterick (ed.), Carolingian Culture (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 52-87; eadem, Frankish World, pp. 1-36; M. Innes, in Story, Charlemagne, pp. 71-89. For courts, see e.g. S. Airlie, ‘The Palace of Memory’, in S. Rees Jones et al. (eds.),Courts and Regions in Medieval Europe (York, 2000), pp. 1-19.

p. 387. Gifts: see Reuter, Medieval Polities, pp. 239-43; for provisions, and the link to gifts, see esp. Cap., vol. 1, n. 75 (trans. King, Charlemagne, p. 260).

p. 388. Reichsaristokratie: G. Tellenbach, Königtum und Stamme in der Werdezeit des Deutschen Reiches (Weimar, 1939), pp. 42-55; developed by e.g. K. F. Werner, ‘Important Noble Families in the Kingdom of Charlemagne’, in T. Reuter (ed.), The Medieval Nobility (Amsterdam, 1978), pp. 137-202. See S. Airlie, in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 431-50, and in Story, Charlemagne, pp. 90-102, for the basic accounts in English, and R. Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir dans le monde franc (VIIe-Xesie‘cle) (Paris, 1995), esp. pp. 401-13. For the aristocratic commitment to the state, see further S. Airlie, in idem et al. (eds.), Staat im frühen Mittelalter (Vienna, 2006), pp. 93-111.

p. 388. Widonids: E. Hlawitschka, ‘Waren die Kaiser Wido und Lambert Nachkommen Karls des Grossen?’, Quellen und Forschungen, 49 (1969), pp. 366-86; Innes, State and Society, pp. 125, 211-15, 235-6; Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir, pp. 95-6, 250-51, 422, 441; Nithard, Histories, 1.5.

p. 389. Vassals: Werner, ‘Missus-marchio’, pp. 228-30; S. Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals (Oxford, 1994), pp. 84-105.

p. 389. Missi: Werner, ‘Missus-marchio’; written reports: Nelson, Frankish World, pp. 14-34; Riana: C. Manaresi (ed.), I placiti del ‘Regnum Italiae’, vol. 1 (Rome, 1955), n. 17.

p. 390. Written instructions, etc.: MGH, Epistolae, vol. 5, ed. K. Hampe and E. Dümmler (Berlin, 1899), pp. 277-8; Einhard, Letters (trans. and renumbered, Dutton, Charlemagne’s Courtier, pp. 131-65), nn. 20-21; The Letters of Lupus of Ferrie‘res, trans. G. W. Regenos (The Hague, 1966), letter 41; Cap., vol. 2, n. 261; cf. Hincmar, On the Organization, c. 36.

p. 390. Looking for the king: see e.g. Lupus of Ferrières, Letters, 17, 118, 123 (and compare Ch. 5 for Desiderius of Cahors).

p. 390. Aristocratic literacy: McKitterick, Carolingians and the Written Word, pp. 211-70.

p. 391. Abuses: Theodulf, Contra Iudices, partially trans. P. Godman, Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (London, 1985), pp. 162-5; Manaresi, I placiti, vol. 1, n. 25; Paschasius Radbert, Epitaph of Arsenius, 1.26, trans. in A. Cabaniss, Charlemagne’s Cousins(Syracuse, NY, 1967) - but the Wala story is a moral tale with no pretension to accuracy; for Agobard, MGH, Epistolae, vol. 5, p. 202; see P. Depreux, ‘Le Comte Matfrid d’Orleans’, Bibliothèque de l’École des Chartes, 152 (1994), pp. 331-74.

p. 391. Hincmar: Wallace-Hadrill, Frankish Church, p. 299.

p. 392. Peasants in court: C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 578-83.

p. 392. State and local societies: see above all Innes, State and Society, pp. 180-225, for a heartland region, however.

p. 392. Charlemagne’s daughters: Nelson, Frankish World, pp. 237-42.

p. 393. Louis’s administration: K. F. Werner, in Godman and Collins, Charlemagne’s Heir, pp. 3-123; and above all P. Depreux, Prosopographie de l’entourage de Louis le Pieux (781-840) (Sigmaringen, 1997).

p. 393. Attigny: M. de Jong, ‘Power and Humility in Carolingian Society’, EME, 1 (1992), pp. 29-52; for Theodosius, Astronomer, Life of Louis, c. 35, trans. A. Cabaniss, Son of Charlemagne (Syracuse, NY, 1961).

p. 394. Einhard: see his Letters, nn. 34, 40-45, 52-4, 26-8; cf. Dutton, Charlemagne’s Courtier, p. 8, for Walahfrid.

p. 395. Nithard: Histories, 1.3 for 829, 4.6 for Fontenoy scaring the magnates. For Lothar’s perspective, see E. Screen, in EME, 12 (2003), pp. 25-51.

p. 396. Post-Carolingian Francia: C. R. Brühl, Deutschland-Frankreich (Cologne, 1990), esp. pp. 287-302.

p. 396. Louis the German: see above all E. J. Goldberg, Struggle for Empire (Cambridge, 2006), with T. Reuter, Germany in the Early Middle Ages c. 800-1056 (Harlow, 1991), pp. 70-111; for Saxony, Annals of Fulda, trans. T. Reuter (Manchester, 1992), s.a. 852.

p. 397. Louis II: P. Delogu, in Bullettino dell’Istituto storico italiano per il medio evo, 80 (1968), pp. 137-89; F. Bougard, in Le Jan, La Royauté et les élites, pp. 249-67.

p. 398. Frisia: S. Coupland, ‘From Poachers to Gamekeepers’, EME, 7 (1998), pp. 85-114.

p. 399. General tax: E. Joranson, The Danegeld in France (Rock Island, Ill., 1924).

p. 399. 858 and 875-7: Nelson, Charles the Bald, pp. 170-96, 239-52.

p. 400. Charles and magnates: Nelson, Charles the Bald, pp. 166-7, 183, 209-10, 221-2, 231-4, 240-43; for Odo and Charles, Annals of Saint-Bertin, trans. J. L. Nelson (Manchester, 1991), s.aa. 866, 868; for Bernard of Gothia, ibid., s.a. 878. For Boso, see C. B. Bouchard, ‘Those of my Blood’ (Philadelphia, 2001), pp. 74-97.

p. 400. Compiegne: Airlie, ‘Palace of Memory’, pp. 13-16. Ponthion: Annals of Saint-Bertin, s.a. 876 (see Ch. 17 below). Pítres: Cap., vol. 2, 11, n. 273, cf. Nelson, Politics and Ritual, pp. 91-116; eadem, Frankish World, pp. 93-8.

p. 401. Reguli: Annals of Fulda, s.a. 888. Boso: apart from Bouchard, as at note to p. 400 above; see S. MacLean, in EME, 10 (2001), pp. 21-48; Airlie and Staab, in Le Jan, La Royauté et les élites, pp. 138-43, 365-82.

p. 401. Pippin of Beauvais (or perhaps Senlis): see K. F. Werner, in Die Welt als Geschichte, 20 (1960), pp. 87-119, at p. 93.

p. 402. Charles the Fat: S. MacLean, Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century (Cambridge, 2003).

p. 402. Royal power and regionalization: e.g. Reuter, Germany, pp. 75-7. Nithard: Histories , 2.2-4, 7, 9, 3.2, 4.4. Matfrid: Thegan, Life of Louis, c. 55. 861: Annals of Fulda, s.a. 861. Note also that both Charlemagne and Louis the Pious already envisioned that, after their empire was divided between their sons, benefices (though not properties) would already be regionalized: Cap., vol. 1, n. 45, c. 9; n. 136, c. 9 (trans. King, Charlemagne, p. 253, and Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, p. 178).

p. 403. Everard and Gisela: see C. La Rocca and L. Provero, ‘The Dead and their Gifts’, in F. Theuws and J. L. Nelson (eds.), Rituals of Power (Leiden, 2000), pp. 225-80.

p. 403. Welfs: Annals of Fulda, s.a. 858; E. Krüger, Der Ursprung des Welfenhauses und seine Verzweigung in Süddeutschland (Wolfenbüttel, 1899), pp. 68-129, with a bit of care.

p. 404. Paris: see Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir, pp. 255-6, 442.

p. 404. Bavaria: Annals of Fulda, s.a. 884; see C. R. Bowlus, Franks, Moravians and Magyars (Philadelphia, 1995), pp. 208-16.

Chapter 17

For general surveys of these themes, see Chapter 16, especially NCMH, vol. 2; see further R. McKitterick (ed.), Carolingian Culture (Cambridge, 1994), and P. Wormald (ed.), Lay Intellectuals in the Carolingian World (Cambridge, 2007). McKitterick’s monographs, especially The Carolingians and the Written Word (Cambridge, 1989) and History and Memory in the Carolingian World (Cambridge, 2004), and J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Frankish Church (Oxford, 1983), are also important starting points, with, of an older literature, W. Ullmann, The Carolingian Renaissance and the Idea of Kingship (London, 1969).

p. 405. For all this see Einhard, Translation and Miracles of Saints Marcellinus and Peter, trans. P. E. Dutton, Charlemagne’s Courtier (Peterborough, Ont., 1998), pp. 69-130, esp. books 1 and 2 (2.1 for Einhard and Hilduin, 4.7 for Gerward). For the role of the arch-chaplain, see Hincmar, On the Organization of the Palace, trans. P. E. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization (Peterborough, Ont., 1993), cc. 19-20. Window: Notker, Deeds of Charlemagne, trans. L. Thorpe, Two Lives of Charlemagne (London, 1969), pp. 93-172, 1.30. For relic thefts, see P. J. Geary, Furta Sacra (Princeton, 1978), pp. 40-59. The best recent discussion in English of this whole sequence is J. M. H. Smith, in K. Mills and A. Grafton (eds.), Conversion in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages(Rochester, NY, 2003), pp. 189-223.

p. 406. Palace: Hincmar, On the Organization, cc. 12-28; for noise, see Paschasius Radbert, Life of Adalard, trans. A. Cabaniss, Charlemagne’s Cousins (Syracuse, NY, 1967), c. 27.

p. 407. Notker: Deeds of Charlemagne, 1.11 (etiquette), 1.34 (never at court). Cf. for etiquette, J. L. Nelson and M. Innes, in C. Cubitt (ed.), Court Culture in the Early Middle Ages (Turnhout, 2003), pp. 39-76.

p. 407. Patronage: Hincmar, On the Organization, c. 18; Notker, Deeds of Charlemagne, 1.4; Einhard, Letters, trans. Dutton, Charlemagne’s Courtier, e.g. nn. 9, 32, 49, appendix B, and see also above, Chapter 16.

p. 407. Moral centre: see e.g. M. de Jong, ‘Sacrum palatium et ecclesia’, Annales HSS, 58 (2003), pp. 1243-69. Priest and king: Astronomer, Life of Louis, trans. A. Cabaniss, Son of Charlemagne (Syracuse, NY, 1961), c. 19 (with c. 37 for 823 portents). Famine of 805: Cap., vol 1, n. 124 (trans. P. D. King, Charlemagne (Kendal, 1987), pp. 245-7).

p. 407. Just and unjust kings: see J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, Early Medieval History (Oxford, 1975), pp. 181-200 for treatises, and R. Meens, EME, 7 (1998), pp. 345-57.

p. 408. Einhard and Imma: The Letters of Lupus of Ferrie‘res, trans. G. W. Regenos (The Hague, 1966), letter 3.

p. 408. Accusations against queens: see esp. G. Bührer-Thierry, ‘La Reine adultere’, Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, 35 (1992), pp. 299-312; for Judith, see E. Ward, in W. J. Sheils and D. Woods (eds.), Women in the Church (Oxford, 1990), pp. 15-25, and Paschasius Radbert, Epitaph of Arsenius, trans. Cabaniss, Charlemagne’s Cousins, 2.7-9; for Uota, T. Reuter, Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. J. L. Nelson (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 217-30.

p. 409. Einhard: Translation, 1.13, 14, 2.3, 4, 6 (hunting), 11.

p. 409. Hunting: Annals of Saint-Bertin, trans. J. L. Nelson (Manchester, 1991), s.a. 835; Astronomer, Life of Louis, cc. 46, 52; see J. Jarnut, ‘Die frühmittelalterliche Jagd’, Settimane di studio, 31 (1985), pp. 765-98, and J. L. Nelson, The Frankish World 750-90(London, 1996), pp. 120-24.

p. 409. Penaces in 822 and 833: Paschasius, Life of Adalard, c. 51; Cap., vol. 2, n. 197, c. 1; M. de Jong, ‘What was Public about Public Penance?’, Settimane di studio, 44 (1997), pp. 863-902 (esp. pp. 887-93).

p. 410. Ritual and political claims: see above all P. Buc, The Dangers of Ritual (Princeton, 2001), pp. 51-87 and passim.

p. 410. Ponthion synod: Annals of Saint-Bertin, s.a. 876; compare Annals of Fulda, trans. T. Reuter (Manchester, 1992), s.a. 876.

p. 411. Aristocrats sneering at the low-born: Thegan, Life of Louis, trans. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp. 141-55, cc. 20, 44, 50, 56; Annals of Fulda, s.a. 887 (I).

p. 411. Education: see e.g. J. J. Contreni, in NCMH, vol 2, pp. 709-47; P. Riché, Écoles et enseignement dans le haut Moyen Âge (Paris, 1989), esp. pp. 49-118.

p. 412. Books: Lupus of Ferrières, Letters, 124; for Everard, McKitterick, Carolingians and the Written Word, pp. 245-8.

p. 412. Texts of 828-9: see esp. Cap., vol. 2, n. 185; MGH, Concilia, vol. 2, ed. A. Werminghoff (Hanover, 1906), n. 50; Paschasius, Epitaph of Arsenius, 2.1.2-3; Einhard, Translation, 3.13 (capitula of Gabriel), 14 (Wiggo). See, for the whole sequence, P. E. Dutton, The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire (Lincoln, Nebr., 1994), pp. 92-101, M. de Jong, in S. Airlie et al. (eds.), Staat im frühen Mittelalter (Vienna, 2006), pp. 129-31, and D. Ganz, in P. Godman and R. Collins (eds.), Charlemagne’s Heir(Oxford, 1990), pp. 545-6.

p. 413. Events of 833-4: Paschasius, Epitaph of Arsenius, 2.18; Cap., vol. 2, nn. 197-8; Annals of Saint-Bertin, s.a. 835; Dutton, The Politics of Dreaming, p. 103; and see C. Pössel, ‘Symbolic Communication and the Negotiation of Power at Carolingian Regnal Assemblies, 814-840’, University of Cambridge, Ph.D. thesis, 2003, pp. 129-232, for rival narratives of 830-34.

p. 413. Bilingualism: Einhard, Life of Charlemagne, c. 25; Thegan, Life of Louis, c. 19 (both also supposedly had a - rare - passive knowledge of spoken Greek); Paschasius, Epitaph of Arsenius, 1.1.2.

p. 413. Latin as separated from Romance by Alcuin: R. Wright, Late Latin and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France (Liverpool, 1992), pp. 103-35; for an aristocracy unaffected by Latin, see M. Richter, The Formation of the Medieval West (Dublin, 1994), esp. pp. 69-77.

p. 414. Lupus, Dhuoda: Lupus of Ferrières, Letters, 7; Dhuoda, Handbook for William, trans. C. Neel (Lincoln, Nebr., 1999) (on Dhuoda see most recently J. L. Nelson, ‘Dhuoda’, in Wormald, Lay Intellectuals); and see in general McKitterick, Carolingians and the Written Word, pp. 211-70.

p. 414. Preaching: see R. McKitterick, The Frankish Church and the Carolingian Reforms, 789-895 (London, 1977), pp. 80-114. For the Bible, see C. Edwards, ‘German Vernacular Literature’, in McKitterick, Carolingian Culture, pp. 141-70; and H. J. Hummer,Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 130-54, who makes clear the complexity of the project.

p. 414. Weather, dust: Agobard of Lyon, On Hail and Thunder, partially trans. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp. 189-91 (c. 16 for dust), cf. Paschasius, Epitaph of Arsenius, 2.1.4, and perhaps also Cap., vol. 1, n. 54, c. 4.

p. 415. Italian documents: see A. Petrucci and C. Romeo, ‘Scriptores in urbibus’ (Bologna, 1992), esp. pp. 57-76, 109-26; note that in Italy the lay professional strata (notaries, merchants, etc.) were already literate as well.

p. 415. Priests: McKitterick, Frankish Church, pp. 45-79; C. van Rhijn, Shepherds of the Lord (Turnhout, 2007), pp. 82-112, 171-212; cf. S. Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2006), pp. 519-34, 659-62.

p. 415. Hraban Maur: M. de Jong, in Y. Hen and M. Innes (eds.), The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 191-226.

p. 415. Book-copying: D. Ganz, in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 786-808; Lupus of Ferrieres, Letters, 1, 5, 8, 21, 53, 69, 87, 95, 100 (quote), 101, 108; B. Bischoff, Latin Palaeography (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 106-18.

p. 416. Adoptionism and Iconoclasm: D. Ganz, in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 762-6, 773-7; A. Freeman, ‘Carolingian Orthodoxy and the Fate of the Libri Carolini’, Viator, 16 (1985), pp. 65-108; see Dutton, Carolingian Civilization, pp. 247-51 for extracts from Claudius of Turin.

p. 417. Bodo: Annals of Saint-Bertin, s.a. 839; see F. Riess, ‘From Aachen to Al-Andalus’, EME, 13 (2005), pp. 131-57.

p. 417. Amalarius: see A. Cabaniss, Amalarius of Metz (Amsterdam, 1954); Wallace-Hadrill, Frankish Church, pp. 326-9.

p. 417. Gottschalk, etc.: see Wallace-Hadrill, Frankish Church, pp. 362-9, and D. Ganz, ‘The Debate on predestination’, in M. Gibson and J. Nelson (eds.), Charles the Bald (Oxford, 1981), pp. 353-73.

p. 419. Paschal I: Royal Frankish Annals, trans. B. W. Scholz, Carolingian Chronicles (Ann Arbor, 1970), s.a. 823. For Roman politics, see in general T. F. X. Noble, The Republic of St Peter (Philadelphia, 1984), for the period up to 825; R. Davis, The Lives of the Ninth-century Popes (Liverpool, 1995); T. F. X. Noble, in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 563-86.

p. 420. Nicholas I: see Davis, The Lives, pp. 189-203, for the best recent account in English.

p. 420. Lothar and Theutberga: the best account is now S. Airlie, ‘Private Bodies and the Body Politic in the Divorce Case of Lothar II’, Past and Present, 161 (1998), pp. 3-38.

p. 422. Gunther and Hincmar: Annals of Saint-Bertin, s.aa. 864 (quote), 865.

p. 422. Hadrian II: Annals of Saint-Bertin, s.a. 869; J. L. Nelson, Charles the Bald (Harlow, 1992), pp. 229, 235-8.

Chapter 18

The huge historiography on the Carolingians largely dries up in the tenth century, except in German. The only up-to-date survey of the post-Carolingian world as a whole (without a political narrative) is J. Fried, Die Formierung Europas 840-1046 (Munich, 1991).NCMH, vol. 3 provides the best collective overview in English of political and religious-intellectual history; Settimane di studio, 38 (1991) also focuses on tenth-century surveys. Basic accounts of the history of individual successor-states in English are the relevant chapters in T. Reuter, Germany in the Early Middle Ages c. 800-1056 (Harlow, 1991), with his Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities, ed. J. L. Nelson (Cambridge, 2006), for some crucial articles; C. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy (London, 1981); G. Tabacco,The Struggle for Power in Medieval Italy (Cambridge, 1989); J. Dunbabin, France in the Making, 843-1180 (Oxford, 1985). Similar accounts in other languages will be cited later. H. Fichtenau, Living in the Tenth Century (Chicago, 1991) is the best introduction to the political culture of the period as a whole; G. Althoff, Family, Friends and Followers (Cambridge, 2004) is an important guide to socio-political structures.

p. 427. Gerbert: see in general P. Riché, Gerbert d’Aurillac (Paris, 1987), a somewhat heightened account. For his career to 983, Richer of Reims, Historiae, 3.43-65, ed. and trans. R. Latouche, Richer: histoire de France (888-995) (Paris, 1930-37); his Lettersare trans. H. P. Lattin, The Letters of Gerbert with his Papal Privileges as Sylvester II (New York, 1961), but for dating see the standard MGH edition, Die Briefsammlung Gerberts von Reims, ed. F. Weigle (Berlin, 1966) - the two use different numbering, but each cites the other numeration.

p. 428. Gerbert and books: Letters, 14-16, 32-3, 47, 50, 92, 98, 132, 138, 142, 156, 175, trans. Lattin.

p. 428. Gerbert and Otto: Letters, 230-31, trans. Lattin. Thietmar’s Chronicon is trans. D. A. Warner, Ottonian Germany (Manchester, 2001); 6.100 for Gerbert. p. 429. Otto and Charlemagne: Thietmar, Chronicon, 2.45.

p. 429. Historians: apart from those cited already, for Flodoard, see The Annals of Flodoard of Reims 919-966, trans. S. Fanning and B. S. Bachrach (Peterborough, Ont., 2004); for Liutprand, see The Complete Works of Liudprand of Cremona, trans. P. Squatriti (Washington, 2007); Widukind, Res Gestae, untranslated into English, is in Widukindi Monachi Corbeiensis: Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum Libri Tres, ed. P. Hirsch and H.-E. Lohmann, MGH (Hanover, 1935).

p. 429. ‘France’ and ‘Germany’: for a frontal attack on the idea that they yet existed, see C. R. Brühl, Deutschland-Frankreich (Cologne, 1990), esp. pp. 83-153, 205-33 for tenth-century terminology; for citations, see Flodoard, Annals, s.aa. 920, 921, etc.; Widukind, Res Gestae, 1.27, etc., 3.17; Thietmar, Chronicon, 1.19.

p. 430. East Francia: essential works include NCMH, vol. 3; Reuter, Germany; and three books by K. Leyser: Rule and Conflict in an Early Medieval Society (London, 1979), Medieval Germany and its Neighbours 900-1250 (London, 1982), andCommunications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Carolingian and Ottonian Centuries (London, 1994), the last two being article collections. Of the large German historiography, important recent surveys include H. Keller and G. Althoff, Die Zeit der späten Karolinger und die Ottonen, 888-1024 (Stuttgart, 2008); and J. Fried, Die Ursprünge Deutschlands bis 1024 (Berlin, 1994).

p. 431. The slow crystallization of Saxony: see M. Becher, Rex, Dux und Gens (Husum, 1996), pp. 25-194. Most of the duchies have good individual articles in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 267-327.

p. 431. Election of 919: see J. Fried, in M. Borgolte (ed.), Mittelalterforschung nach der Wende 1989 (Munich, 1995), pp. 267-318; P. Buc, ‘Noch einmal 918-919’ (in English), in G. Althoff (ed.), Zeichen-Rituale-Werke (Münster, 2004), pp. 151-78.

p. 431. ‘Friendship’: G. Althoff, Amicitiae und Pacta (Hanover, 1992), pp. 21-36.

p. 432. Election of 936 : Widukind, Res Gestae, 2.1-2.

p. 432. Synod of Ingelheim: Flodoard, Annals, s.a. 948.

p. 433. Election of 1002: Thietmar, Chronicon, 4.50-54, 5.3.

p. 433. Ida: Widukind, Res Gestae, 3.6.

p. 433. Ottonian government: see in general K. Leyser, ‘Ottonian Government’, in his Medieval Germany, pp. 69-101. For kings and aristocrats on the ground, see Leyser, Rule and Conflict, pp. 9-47; M. Innes, State and Society in the Early Middle Ages(Cambridge, 2000), pp. 225-41.

p. 434. Silver: see I. Blanchard, Mining, Metallurgy and Minting in the Middle Ages, vol. 1 (Stuttgart, 2001), pp. 529-38.

p. 434. Slav wars: see G. Althoff in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 278-88; Leyser, Medieval Germany, pp. 14-42.

p. 434. Indiculus Loricatorum: MGH, Constitutiones, vol. 1, ed. L. Weiland (Hanover, 1893), n. 436.

p. 435. Kingdom of Italy: essential works include G. Sergi, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 346-71; Wickham, Early Medieval Italy (which dates the break-up of the Italian kingdom too early); Tabacco, Struggle; F. Bougard, La Justice dans le royaume d’Italie (Rome, 1995); L. Provero, L’Italia dei poteri locali (Rome, 1998); G. Sergi, I confini del potere (Turin, 1995); P. Cammarosano, Nobili e re (Bari, 1998), pp. 218-321. Sergi and Provero cite the more local studies which are at the centre of Italian historiography.

p. 435. Aldobrandeschi: S. Collavini, ‘Honorabilis domus et spetiosissimus comitatus’ (Pisa, 1998), pp. 21-108.

p. 436. Berengar I: basic are P. Delogu, ‘Vescovi, conti e sovrani nella crisi del regno italico’, Annali della Scuola speciale per archivisti e bibliotecari, 8 (1968), pp. 3-72; B. Rosenwein, ‘The Family Politics of Berengar I, King of Italy (888-924)’, Speculum, 71 (1996), pp. 247-89. The panegyric is Gesta Berengarii Imperatoris, ed. P. von Winterfeld, MGH, Poetae, vol. 4.1 (Berlin, 1899), pp. 354-401; it does stress Berengar’s imperial coronation of 915.

p. 437. Liutprand: see P. Buc, The Dangers of Ritual (Princeton, 2001), pp. 15-50.

p. 438. Otto III: see G. Althoff, Otto III (State College, Pa, 2003).

p. 438. Southern Italy: see G. A. Loud, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 624-45; P. Skinner, Family Power in Southern Italy (Cambridge, 1995); B. M. Kreutz, Before the Normans (Philadelphia, 1991); J.-M. Martin, in Structures féodales et féodalisme dans l’Occident méditerranéen (Xe-XIIIesiècles) (Rome, 1980), pp. 553-86; H. Taviani-Carozzi, La Principauté lombarde de Salerne (IXe-XIesiècle) (Rome, 1991).

p. 439. Rome: see above all P. Toubert, Les Structures du Latium médiéval (Rome, 1973), pp. 960-1024.

p. 439. Burgundy: see C. B. Bouchard in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 328-45. Note that the duchy of Burgundy was different from the kingdom, and was further north, in West Francia.

p. 440. West Francia: essential works include NCMH, vol. 3; Dunbabin, France; J.-P. Poly and É. Bournazel, The Feudal Transformation, 900-1200 (New York, 1991); K. F. Werner, Les Origines avant l’an Mil (Paris, 1984), pp. 487-561; the elegant defence of the period in G. Koziol, ‘Is Robert I in Hell?’, EME, 14 (2006), pp. 233-67; and the old classic, J. Dhondt, Études sur la naissance des principautés territoriales en France (IXe-Xesiècle) (Bruges, 1948).

p. 440. Flodoard: Annals, s.a. 920.

p. 441. Rudolf ‘summoned’: Flodoard, Annals, s.aa. 923, 925.

p. 441. Louis vs Hugh: Flodoard, Annals, s.aa. 945, 946, 948, 950. Otto I and Brun: ibid., s.aa. 954, 958-60, 962; cf. Brühl, Deutschland-Frankreich, pp. 479-92. Lothar: see G. Koziol, Begging Pardon and Favor (Ithaca, NY, 1992), pp. 113-21.

p. 442. Election of 987 and Hugh: among many, Y. Sassier, Hugues Capet (Paris, 1987); C. Carozzi, in Le Moyen Âge, 82 (1976), pp. 453-76. Gerbert quote: Letters, 55, trans. Lattin.

p. 443. ‘Principalities’: see Dhondt, Naissance; D. Bates and M. Zimmermann, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 398-455, with extensive bibliographies of regional monographs. For Normandy, an important one in English is D. Bates, Normandy before 1066 (London, 1982); see also E. Searle, Predatory Kinship and the Creation of Norman Power, 840-1066 (Berkeley, 1988); particularly thoughtful is, for Maine, R. E. Barton, Lordship in the County of Maine, c. 890-1160 (Woodbridge, 2004).

p. 443. William V: see T. Head and R. Landes (eds.), The Peace of God (Ithaca, NY, 1992), esp. the articles by A. Debord and R. Landes, pp. 135-64, 184-218; J. Martindale, Status, Authority and Regional Power (Aldershot, 1997), studies VI (peace councils), VII-VIII (Hugh of Lusignan); B. S. Bachrach, in Journal of Medieval History, 5 (1979), pp. 11-21.

p. 444. Abbo: M. Mostert, The Political Theology of Abbo of Fleury (Hilversum, 1987), e.g. p. 137.

p. 445. Literary activity: see C. Leonardi, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 186-211 for a survey. For Hrotsvitha, see P. Dronke, Women Writers of the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1984), pp. 55-83.

p. 445. Translators: Liutprand, Concerning King Otto, c. 11, in Complete Works, pp. 228-9. Cf. Flodoard, Annals, s.a. 948 and Richer, Historiae, 3.85, both also dealing with translations of ceremonial or diplomatic Latin.

p. 445. Gesta Ottonis: trans. in B. H. Hill, Medieval Monarchy in Action (London, 1972), pp. 118-37.

p. 445. Hugh to Theophanu: Gerbert, Letters, 146, trans. Lattin.

p. 446. Organization: Liutprand, Antapodosis, 5.33, in Complete Works, p. 194; Thietmar, Chronicon, 4.38 for the Arneburg, discussed with Meissen in Leyser, ‘Ottonian Government’, p. 84.

p. 446. Assemblies: see the overview by T. Reuter, in P. Linehan and J. L. Nelson (eds.), The Medieval World (London, 2001), pp. 432-50; Richer, Historiae, 4.11; Widukind, Res Gestae, 2.10, 3.16, 32, 41, 70. For French judicial assemblies, see G. Duby,Hommes et structures du moyen âge (Paris, 1973), pp. 7-60 for the classic model; the recent debate on French justice (see esp. W. C. Brown and P. Górecki, eds., Conflict in Medieval Europe, Aldershot, 2003) does not affect these points.

p. 446. Spielregeln: see G. Althoff, Spielregeln der Politik im Mittelalter (Darmstadt, 1997), esp. pp. 21-56, 157-84, 229-57. Althoff, Family, Friends and Followers, pp. 136-59, sets out the model briefly in English. See further Leyser, Communications, pp. 189-213; Fichtenau, Living, esp. pp. 30-77, 403-16.

p. 447. Meetings: Flodoard, Annals, s.a. 948; MGH, Constitutiones, vol. 1, n. 1; Flodoard, Annals, s.a. 924; Rodulf Glaber, Historiae, ed. and trans. J. France (Oxford, 1989), 1.5. For all this and what follows see Koziol, Begging Pardon and Favor, the basic analysis.

p. 447. Adventus: Liutprand, Antapodosis, 3.41, in Complete Works, p. 131; Richer, Historiae, 2.4.

p. 447. Dogs: Widukind, Res Gestae, 2.6. Cf., for Louis II, Cap., vol. 2, n. 218, c. 9.

p. 447. Subversion: Dudo, History of the Normans, trans. E. Christiansen (Woodbridge, 1998), 2.29; Thietmar, Chronicon, 2.28, 5.3-7. For the general issue of literary presentation, see Buc, Dangers of Ritual.

p. 448. Peace of God: see in general Head and Landes, Peace of God.

p. 448. Silvester and Agapitus: Gerbert, Letters, 244, trans. Lattin; Flodoard, Annals, s.aa. 947-9. See the sensible brief survey in G. Tellenbach, The Church in Western Europe from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1993), pp. 65-74.

p. 449. Queen-mothers, etc.: P. Stafford, Queens, Concubines and Dowagers (London, 1983), pp. 149-52 and passim; R. Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir dans le monde franc (VIIe-Xesie‘cle) (Paris, 1995), pp. 372-9, who also stresses the increased importance of the nuclear family group as a reason for the power of widows. For Matilda, see Thietmar, Chronicon, 4.41. For Liutprand, see P. Buc, ‘Italian Hussies and German Matrons’, Frühmittelalter- liche Studien, 29 (1995), pp. 207-25.

p. 452. Forgetting the tenth century: P. J. Geary, Phantoms of Remembrance (Princeton, 1994), esp. pp. 134-57; C. Wickham, Land and Power (London, 1994), pp. 275-93; Rodulf Glaber, Historiae, 1.5, 7, 9.

p. 452. Remembering Charlemagne, etc.: A. G. Remensnyder, Remembering Kings Past (Ithaca, NY, 1995), pp. 116-211; see in general also T. N. Bisson, in Speculum, 65 (1990), pp. 281-308.

Chapter 19

The best overviews of England in the ninth and tenth centuries are P. Wormald and E. John in J. Campbell (ed.), The Anglo-Saxons (Oxford, 1982), pp. 132-206; S. Keynes in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 37-42, and vol. 3, pp. 456-84; and (the key text for the period after 900) P. Stafford, Unification and Conquest (London, 1989). P. Stafford, ‘King and Kin, Lord and Community’, in eadem, Gender, Family and the Legitimation of Power (Aldershot, 2006), study VIII, is an important analysis of English society in the period, close to the arguments in this chapter. The old classic remains F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, 3rd edn. (Oxford, 1971). The fundamental bibliographical guide is S. Keynes, Anglo-Saxon History: A Select Bibliography (Cambridge, regularly updated and reissued); a slightly earlier version than the current one can be found at <http//www.trin.cam.uk/sdk13/asindex>. For government, the most recent survey is A. Williams, Kingship and Government in Pre-Conquest England, c.500-1066 (Basingstoke, 1999); for the church, the new classic is J. Blair, The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society (Oxford, 2005).

p. 453. Wynflæd-Leofwine: the text is ed. and trans. A. J. Robertson, Anglo-Saxon Charters (Cambridge, 1939), n. 66; the fullest commentary is in P. Wormald, ‘Giving God and King their Due’, Settimane di studio, 44 (1997), pp. 549-90. The laws are 3 Edgar, cc. 2, 5.2, trans. EHD, vol. 1, pp. 432-3. Basic for court cases is P. Wormald, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds.), The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 149-68.

p. 455. Kent: S. Keynes, in EME, 2 (1993), pp. 111-31. Mercia: idem in M. A. S. Blackburn and D. N. Dumville (eds.), Kings, Currency and Alliances (Woodbridge, 1998), pp. 1-45. The other ninth-century kingdoms are treated best in the overviews above.

p. 455. Vikings: basic on their impact and scale is N. P. Brooks, ‘England in the Ninth Century: The Crucible of Defeat’, now in his Communities and Warfare, 700-1400 (London, 2000), pp. 48-68; for the Scandinavian context, see P. Wormald, in R. T. Farrell (ed.), The Vikings (Chichester, 1982), pp. 128-53; see also the notes to p. 465.

p. 456. Alfred: see S. Keynes and M. Lapidge, Alfred the Great (Harmondsworth, 1983), which includes translations of most Alfredian texts; R. Abels, Alfred the Great (London, 1998), the best biography; T. Reuter (ed.), Alfred the Great (Aldershot, 2003); P. Wormald, ‘Alfred (848/9-899)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004), accessible online at <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/183>.

p. 457. Titles used for Alfred: see Asser, c. 87, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 900, trans. in Keynes and Lapidge, Alfred, pp. 99, 120.

p. 457. Edward the Elder: see above all S. Keynes, in N. J. Higham and D. H. Hill (eds.), Edward the Elder 899-924 (London, 2001), pp. 40-66.

p. 458. Æthelstan: M. Wood, In Search of the Dark Ages (London, 1981), pp. 126-50; D. N. Dumville, Wessex and England from Alfred to Edgar (Woodbridge, 1992), pp. 141-71. For his titles, see W. de G. Birch (ed.), Cartularium Saxonicum (London, 1885-93), e.g. nn. 677, 730, 746.

p. 458. Queens: see P. Stafford, Queens, Concubines and Dowagers (London, 1983), pp. 124-34, 148-51. Aristocrats: important analyses include C. R. Hart, The Danelaw (London, 1992), pp. 569-604; A. Williams, ‘Princeps Merciorum Gentis’, Anglo-Saxon England, 10 (1982), pp. 143-72; B. Yorke, in eadem (ed.), Bishop Æthelwold (Woodbridge, 1988), pp. 65-88; Stafford, Unification, pp. 150-79; R. Fleming, Kings and Lords in Conquest England (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 22-39; Stafford, ‘King and Kin’, pp. 1-12, who stresses regional tensions and the difficulties of aristocratic decision-making.

p. 459. Dunstan, Æthelwold, Oswald: each of these figures has a recent conference, N. Ramsey (ed.), St Dunstan (Woodbridge, 1992); Yorke, Bishop Æthelwold; N. P. Brooks and C. R. E. Cubitt (eds.), St Oswald of Worcester (London, 1996); these volumes are synthesized by C. R. E. Cubitt in ‘The Tenth-century Benedictine Reform in England’, EME, 6 (1997), pp. 77-94, the best overview of its subject.

p. 459. Æthelred II: S. Keynes, The Diplomas of King Æthelred ‘the Unready’, 978-1016 (Cambridge, 1980), pp. 154-231; A. Williams, Æthelred the Unready (London, 2003).

p. 460. Political spin: see R. H. C. Davis, ‘Alfred the Great: Propaganda and Truth’, History, 66 (1971), pp. 169-82. Fulk, and Asser on illness: trans. in Keynes and Lapidge, Alfred, pp. 182-6, 88-90, 101 (Asser, cc. 74, 91); see further P. Kershaw, in EME, 10 (2001), pp. 201-24; J. Campbell, The Anglo-Saxon State (London, 2000), pp. 129-55. For political ideas, see for example J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, Early Germanic Kingship in England and on the Continent (Oxford, 1971), pp. 140-51; Abels, Alfred, pp. 246-57; J. L. Nelson, in A. J. Duggan (ed.), Kings and Kingship in Medieval Europe (London, 1993), pp. 125-58; Wormald, ‘Alfred’.

p. 461. Boethius, cc. 17, 27.3, trans. in Keynes and Lapidge, Alfred, pp. 132-4. Moses: see P. Wormald, The Making of English Law, vol. 1 (Oxford, 1999), pp. 417-27.

p. 461. Oaths: Alfred, Laws, 1, cf. Intro. 49.9, trans. in Keynes and Lapidge, Alfred, pp. 164-5; J. Campbell, Essays in Anglo-Saxon History (London, 1986), p. 162; P. Wormald, in Campbell, The Anglo-Saxons, p. 155.

p. 461. Alfred’s government: see esp. N. P. Brooks, in Reuter, Alfred, pp. 153-73.

p. 462. Shires, hundreds, assemblies: Campbell, Essays, pp. 155-70, developed also in idem, Anglo-Saxon State, pp. 1-30. These two books argue forcefully for the strength of the tenth-century English state. For pre-tenth-century Mercian fortifications, see S. Bassett, in EME, 15 (2007), pp. 53-85.

p. 462. Law: see Wormald, Making, vol. 1, pp. 277-330; for 7 Æthelred, the 1009 code, see EHD, vol. 1, pp. 447-8.

p. 462. Æthelstan and Francia: The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 919-966, trans. S. Fanning and B. S. Bachrach (Peterborough, Ont., 2004), s.aa. 936, 939. 887-8: Keynes and Lapidge, Alfred, p. 98 (Asser, c. 85); EHD, vol. 1, p. 199.

p. 463. Æthelwold and the Continent: see P. Wormald, in Yorke, Bishop Æthelwold, pp. 13-42. Wulfstan: see M. Townend (ed.), Wulfstan, Archbishop of York (Turnhout, 2004); Wormald, Making, vol. 1, pp. 330-66.

p. 463. Ansegis: Wormald, Making, vol. 1, p. 344, cf. 425-6. Self-confidence: ibid., pp. 444-5.

p. 464. Writing: S. Keynes, ‘Royal Government and the Written Word in Late Anglo-Saxon England’, in R. McKitterick (ed.), The Uses of Literacy in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 226-57.

p. 464. Ravaging: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.aa. 969, 986, 1041 (EHD, vol. 1, pp. 227-33, 260, cf. 284).

p. 464. Taxation: see M. K. Lawson, in English Historical Review, 99 (1984), pp. 721-38, and the subsequent debate with J. Gillingham, in 104 (1989), pp. 373-406, and 105 (1990), pp. 939-61.

p. 465. Viking impact: this issue has aroused a long debate since P. Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings (London, 1962) first sought to minimize it. His talking down of the size of Viking armies is no longer accepted (Brooks, ‘England in the Ninth Century’; G. Halsall,Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-900 (London, 2003), pp. 120, 123); but more nuanced recent work by both historians and archaeologists tends to support a relatively minimalist approach: D. M. Hadley, The Northern Danelaw (Leicester, 2000), pp. 298-341; eadem, The Vikings in England (Manchester, 2006); J. D. Richards, Viking Age England (Stroud, 2000), pp. 49-77. These last two books are a new starting point for Anglo-Scandinavian studies.

p. 466. Maldon: see D. G. Scragg (ed.), The Battle of Maldon, A.D. 991 (Oxford, 1991), with a text of the poem, and J. Cooper (ed.), The Battle of Maldon (London, 1993). Compare Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 1010 (EHD, vol. 1, p. 243). For Byrhtnoth, see also Hart, Danelaw, pp. 131-5.

p. 466. Domesday Book spread: D. Hill, An Atlas of Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford, 1981), pp. 101-4 (the whole book has very valuable maps); P. A. Clarke, The English Nobility under Edward the Confessor (Oxford, 1994), pp. 13-60, 147-50.

p. 467. Hurstborne: Robertson, Anglo-Saxon Charters, n. 110. For this and the pages following see especially R. Faith, The English Peasantry and the Growth of Lordship (Leicester, 1997), pp. 1-177; and in addition J. Blair, Anglo-Saxon Oxfordshire (Stroud, 1994), pp. 77-9; Hadley, Northern Danelaw; C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 314-26, 347-51. The classic is F. W. Maitland, Domesday Book and Beyond (Cambridge, 1897). For the Rectitudines, trans. in EHD, vol. 2, pp. 875-9, see P. D. A. Harvey, in English Historical Review, 108 (1993), pp. 1-22.

p. 468. Worcester thegns: see A. Wareham and V. King, in Brooks and Cubitt, Oswald, pp. 46-63, 100-116.

p. 468. Villages: C. Lewis et al., Village, Hamlet and Field (Macclesfield, 1997).

p. 468. Urban and productive network: Richards, Viking Age England, pp. 78-108, 139-77, gives a good overview. See in addition the document-based discussion of wool, etc. in P. H. Sawyer, ‘The Wealth of England in the Eleventh Century’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5 ser., 15 (1965), pp. 145-64, at pp. 161-3.

p. 469. Raunds: G. E. Cadman, ‘Raunds 1977-1983’, Medieval Archaeology, 27 (1983), pp. 107-22. Goltho: G. Beresford, Goltho (London, 1987). Churches: Blair, Church, pp. 368-425.

p. 469. Danelaw sokemen and fragmentation: Hadley, Northern Danelaw, pp. 165-211; Faith, English Peasantry, pp. 121-5.

p. 470. Displacement of families: Fleming, Kings and Lords. For royal strategic control of land into the eleventh century, when many land-grants were attached to office and revocable, see S. Baxter and J. Blair, in Anglo-Norman Studies, 28 (2006), pp. 19-46.

p. 471. Military participation: R. P. Abels, Lordship and Military Obligation in Anglo-Saxon England (Berkeley, 1988). Hundred assembly: see ‘1 Edgar’, from the 940s or 950s, trans. in EHD, vol. 1, p. 430.

Chapter 20

No overviews cover all the societies in this chapter, and each broad culture-area will have its more general and more detailed bibliography presented separately.

Basic introductions to the history of Scandinavia up to 1000 in English are in K. Helle (ed.), The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 2003), and B. and P. Sawyer, Medieval Scandinavia (Minneapolis, 1993); both go to 1500. See also P. Sawyer, Kings and Vikings (London, 1982). There are some valuable articles in J. Jesch (ed.), The Scandinavians from the Vendel Period to the Tenth Century (Woodbridge, 2002).

On the Vikings, English-language bibliography explodes uncontrollably, and only key surveys can be cited. G. Jones, A History of the Vikings (Oxford, 1968) is a traditional literature-based survey; P. Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings (London, 1962) is the classic problem-focused analysis, to which all later work reacts; recent collective works include J. Graham-Campbell (ed.), Cultural Atlas of the Viking World (Abingdon, 1994) and P. Sawyer (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings (Oxford, 1997).

p. 472. Rimbert: the Life of Anskar, trans. C. H. Robinson, is available on <http://www.ford-ham.edu/halsall/basis/anscar.html>; cc. 26 - 8 for the Swedes (quote, my trans., from c. 26); see I. Wood, The Missionary Life (London, 2001), pp. 123-41.

p. 472. Håkon: Snorri Sturlason, Heimskringla, trans. S. Laing and P. Foote (London, 1961), 4.32.

p. 474. Gudme: see above all P. O. Nielsen et al. (eds.), The Archaeology of Gudme and Lundeborg (Copenhagen, 1994). For Denmark before 700, see also L. Hedeager, Iron-age Societies (Oxford, 1992); several articles in Anglo-Saxon Studies in Archaeology and History, 10 (1999); and U. Näsman, in R. Hodges and W. Bowden (eds.), The Sixth Century (Leiden, 1998), pp. 255-78.

p. 474. Godofrid and Horic’s Denmark: see K. Randsborg, The Viking Age in Denmark (London, 1980); E. Roesdahl, Viking Age Denmark (London, 1982); U. Näsman, in I. L. Hansen and C. Wickham (eds.), The Long Eighth Century (Leiden, 2000), pp. 35-68; P. Sawyer, ‘Kings and Royal Power’, in P. Mortensen and B. Rasmussen (eds.), Fra stamme til stat i Danmark, vol. 2 (Højbjerg, 1991), pp. 282-8. After 900, see the general works cited above.

p. 476. Norway before Harald: see e.g. B. Myhre, ‘Chieftains’ Graves and Chiefdom Territories in South Norway in the Migration Period’, Studien zur Sachsenforschung, 6 (1987), pp. 169-87; for after Harald, see the general works cited above.

p. 476. Iceland: J. Byock, Viking Age Iceland (London, 2001), esp. pp. 63-141. For assembly politics, see Sawyer and Sawyer, Medieval Scandinavia, pp. 80-99. For Norwegian law, see L. M. Larson, The Earliest Norwegian Laws (New York, 1935).

p. 477. Slaves: R. M. Karras, Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia (New Haven, 1988).

p. 477. Hávamál: trans. C. Larrington, The Poetic Edda (Oxford, 1996), pp. 14-38; quotes from stanzas 1, 25, 38, 58, 90.

p. 479. Political losers: see P. Wormald, in R. T. Farrell (ed.), The Vikings (Chichester, 1982), pp. 141-8; S. Coupland, EME, 7 (1998), pp. 85-114.

p. 479. Sawyer quote: Age of the Vikings, p. 194.

p. 480. Ívar: see esp. A. B. Smyth, Scandinavian Kings in the British Isles, 850-880 (Oxford, 1977).

p. 480. Harald: Snorri, Heimskringla, 10.2-6, 79-92.

The early Sclavenians or Slavs are increasingly well covered by English-language surveys based on the extensive archaeology of eastern Europe. The best are now F. Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250 (Cambridge, 2006), developing hisThe Making of the Slavs (Cambridge, 2001), focused on south-eastern Europe; and, more generally, P. M. Barford, The Early Slavs (London, 2001). Early Rus is analysed brilliantly by S. Franklin and J. Shepard, The Emergence of Rus 750-1200 (London, 1996). I have relied extensively on these four. Shorter accounts by Czech and Polish scholars are M. Gojda, The Ancient Slavs (Edinburgh, 1991) and P. Urbaczyk (ed.), Origins of Central Europe (Warsaw, 1997); there are also important insights in F. Curta (ed.), East Central and Eastern Europe in the Early Middle Ages (Ann Arbor, 2005), which contains a huge bibliography of English-language works. Every wing of the ethnogenesis debate about the Germanic peoples (see above, Chapter 4) is represented in these works too. The tenth century is well analysed by T. S. Noonan, J. Strzelczyk, K. Bakay (for Hungary) and J. Shepard, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 487-552, 567-85; for this period see also the older, more traditional but still interesting, non-archaeological survey by F. Dvornik, The Making of Central and Eastern Europe (London, 1949). L. Leciejewicz, Gli Slavi occidentali (Spoleto, 1991) is an important synthetic overview of the western lands.

p. 481. Making distinctions: here I am closest to Curta, The Making.

p. 481. Settlements and eighth-century strongholds: see esp. Barford, The Early Slavs, pp. 47-88, 113-23, 131-3; Curta, The Making, pp. 247-310; Gojda, The Ancient Slavs, pp. 16-43, 78-94; Z. Kobyliski, in Urbaczyk, Origins, pp. 97-114; Barford, in Curta,East Central and Eastern Europe, pp. 66-70.

p. 482. Einhard: Life of Charlemagne, trans. P. E. Dutton, Charlemagne’s Courtier (Peterborough, Ont., 1998), pp. 15-39, c. 15.

p. 483. Zoupaniai: Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, ed. and trans. G. Moravcsik and R. J. H. Jenkins (Washington, 1967), c. 30 (cf. cc. 29, 32, 34 for zoupanoi).

p. 483. Thessaloniki: Les Plus Anciens Recueils des miracles de Saint Démétrius, vol. 1, ed. and trans. P. Lemerle (Paris, 1979), pp. 169-74.

p. 483. Slave trade: M. McCormick, Origins of the European Economy (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 733-77 (pp. 737-8 for sclavus and slave).

p. 484. Avars: see above all W. Pohl, Die Awaren (Munich, 1988).

p. 484. Hungarians: see K. Bakay, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 536-52; A. Bartha, Hungarian Society in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (Budapest, 1975).

p. 485. Rus: Franklin and Shepard, The Emergence, pp. 3-180; T. S. Noonan, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 487-513; Barford, The Early Slavs, pp. 232-49. I follow Franklin and Shepard on the dating of the Rus occupation of Kiev.

p. 486. Rogvolod, Ol‘ga: The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text, trans. S. H. Cross and O. P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), pp. 91, 78-87. The text dates essentially to the 1110s, although earlier material may begin in the 1060s: see A. Rukavishnikov, EME, 12 (2003), pp. 53-74.

p. 486. East Slavic: see esp. S. Franklin, Writing, Society and Culture in Early Rus, c. 950-1300 (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 36-40, 83-100, 110-15 (on Old Norse survivals), 123-4.

p. 487. Ramparts and towns: Franklin and Shepard, The Emergence, pp. 170-80; Barford, The Early Slavs, pp. 246-7; compare P. Squatriti, in Past and Present, 176 (2002), pp. 11-65.

p. 488. Moravia: see e.g. Barford, The Early Slavs, pp. 108-11; F. Graus et al., Das grossmährische Reich (Prague, 1966), in German and French; Curta, Southeastern Europe, pp. 124-34; J. Poulík, ‘Mikulce’, in R. Bruce-Mitford (ed.), Recent Archaeological Excavations in Europe (London 1975), pp. 1 - 31.

p. 488. Sirmium theory: see I. Bóba, Moravia’s History Reconsidered (The Hague, 1971); C. R. Bowlus, Franks, Moravians and Magyars (Philadelphia, 1995), esp. pp. 5-18.

p. 489. Croatia: see in English Curta, Southeastern Europe, pp. 134 - 47, 191 - 201; N. Budak, in Hortus Artium Medievalium, 3 (1997), pp. 15-22; and the articles by M. Ani and N. akši, in G. P. Brogiolo and P. Delogu (eds.), L’Adriatico dalla tarda Antichità all’età carolingia (Florence, 2005), pp. 213 - 43, with citations of other work in Italian and Croat.

p. 489. Bohemia and Poland: see J. Strzelczyk, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 516-35; Barford, The Early Slavs, pp. 251 - 67; P. Manteuffel, The Formation of the Polish State (Detroit, 1982); and P. Barford, P. Urbaczyk and A. Buko, in Curta, East Central and Eastern Europe, pp. 77-84, 139-51, 162-78.

p. 491. Brittany: J. M. H. Smith, Province and Empire (Cambridge, 1992).

p. 491. Liutizi: Thietmar, Chronicon, trans. D. A. Warner, Ottonian Germany, (Manchester, 2001), 3.17-19, 4.13, 6.22 - 5 (25 for assemblies), 7.64. Wales is discussed most fully by Wendy Davies in two books, Wales in the Early Middle Ages (Leicester, 1982) andPatterns of Power in Early Wales (Oxford, 1990); also relevant are Rees Davies’s important synthesis of the period after 1063, Conquest, Coexistence and Change (Oxford, 1987), and K. L. Maund, Ireland, Wales, and England in the Eleventh Century(Woodbridge, 1991). For Scotland, see A. A. M. Duncan, Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom (Edinburgh, 1975) and A. P. Smyth, Warlords and Holy Men (London, 1984); for Scandinavian areas, B. E. Crawford, Scandinavian Scotland (Leicester, 1987); for an alternative view, see B. T. Hudson, The Kings of Celtic Scotland (Westport, Conn., 1994). Here, a new synthesis of the period is implicit in recent detailed work, but is currently most clearly expressed in relatively brief surveys, notably those of T. O. Clancy and B. E. Crawford, in R. A. Houston and W. W. J. Knox (eds.), The New Penguin History of Scotland (London, 2001), pp. 56-81; S. M. Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots (London, 2004), pp. 104-14; K. Forsyth, in J. Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History(Oxford, 2005), pp. 1-34; and D. Broun, Scottish Independence and the Idea of Britain (Edinburgh, 2007), pp. 71-97. See now also A. Woolf, From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070 (Edinburgh, 2007). Ireland is the least satisfactorily synthesized of these three; the books cited in Chapter 7 either end in 800 - 850 or else have weak ninth- and tenth-century sections. The latter is particularly true of D. Ó Cróinín (ed.), A New History of Ireland, vol. 1 (Dublin, 2005), which manages to omit Brian Boru! D. Ó Corráin, Ireland before the Normans (Dublin, 1972), despite its short compass, is easily the best guide. See also N. Patterson, Cattle-lords and Clansmen (Notre Dame, Ind., 1994).

p. 492. Great Prophecy: see Armes Prydein, ed. and trans. I. Williams and R. Bromwich (Dublin, 1972); quote from lines 125-6.

p. 493. Maredudd: see D. E. Thornton, in Welsh History Review, 18 (1996-7), pp. 567 - 91.

p. 493. Increasing coherence of rulership: e.g. W. Davies, ‘Adding Insult to Injury’, in eadem and P. Fouracre (eds.), Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 137-64, at pp. 161-2.

p. 494. Viking hegemony: Davies, Patterns of Power, pp. 56 - 60.

p. 496. Dux and rex: D. Ó Corráin, ‘Nationality and Kingship in Pre-Norman Ireland’, in T. W. Moody (ed.), Nationality and the Pursuit of National Independence (Belfast, 1978), pp. 1-35, at pp. 9-11.

p. 496. Territorial expansion: see e.g. F. J. Byrne, Irish Kings and High-kings (London, 1973), pp. 180-81; Ó Corráin, Ireland, pp. 10, 30 - 31.

p. 497. Dublin excavations: see S. Duffy (ed.), Medieval Dublin, vol. 1 (Dublin, 2000), and P. F. Wallace, in Ó Cróinín, New History, vol. 1, pp. 815 - 41.

p. 497. Feidlimid: see Byrne, Irish Kings, pp. 211-29.

p. 498. Máel Sechnaill I: see Byrne, Irish Kings, pp. 256-66. For the Viking impact, see further B. Jaski, in Peritia, 9 (1995), pp. 310-51. Quotes: The Annals of Ulster, ed. and trans. S. Mac Airt and G. Mac Niocaill, vol. 1 (Dublin, 1983), s. aa. 845, 851 and 862.

p. 498. Brian Boru: see J. V. Kelleher, in E. Rynne (ed.), North Munster Studies (Limerick, 1967), pp. 230-41 for early Dál Cais; Ó Corráin, Ireland, pp. 120-31; and now above all M. Ní Mhaonaigh, Brian Boru (Stroud, 2007).

p. 499. Wealth of Limerick and Dublin: Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh: The War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill, ed. and trans. J. H. Todd (London, 1867), pp. 79-81, 113-15; Brian’s rule: ibid., pp. 137-41.

By far the best overview of Christian Spain, 711-1000, is A. Isla Frez, La alta edad media (Madrid, 2002). An important recent synthesis of social development is J. A. García de Cortázar, ‘La formación de la sociedad feudal en el cuadrante noroccidental de la Península Ibérica en los siglos VIII a XIII’, Initium, 4 (1999), pp. 57-121. In English, the basic short guide is R. Collins, in his Early Medieval Spain (London, 1983), pp. 225-68, updated in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 272-89 and vol. 3, pp. 670-91, and in his The Arab Conquest of Spain (Oxford, 1989); these concentrate on political history. P. Linehan, History and the Historians of Medieval Spain (Oxford, 1993), pp. 73-171, is a stimulating discussion of the changing imagery of legitimization in Asturias-León. W. Davies,Acts of Giving (Oxford, 2007) is basic on the rural society of the tenth-century. For an English version of the active Spanish-language social history of the period, see S. Castellanos and I. Martín Viso, ‘The Local Articulation of Central Power in the North of the Iberian Peninsula (500-1000)’, EME, 13 (2005), pp. 1-42. These works cite wider bibliography, almost all in Spanish or Catalan.

p. 500. Oviedo artistic tradition: J. D. Dodds, Architecture and Ideology in Early Medieval Spain (State College, Pa., 1990), pp. 27-46. For Asturian-Leonese royal ideology in general, and its strong attachment to the Visigothic past, see T. Deswarte, De la destruction a‘ la restauration (Turnhout, 2003).

p. 502. Court cases: R. Collins, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre, The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 85 - 104.

p. 502. Palace entourage: see e.g. Isla, La alta edad media, pp. 143 - 51; for counts of Castile, I. Álvarez Borge, Poder y relaciones sociales en la Castilla de la edad media (Valladolid, 1996), pp. 73-108, with earlier bibliography.

p. 503. Navarre: see J. J. Larrea, La Navarre du IVeau XIIesiècle (Brussels, 1998), pp. 213-26, cf. pp. 111-60.

p. 503. Depopulation theory: C. Sánchez-Albornoz, Despoblación y repoblación del valle del Duero (Buenos Aires, 1966).

p. 503. Castros, etc: Castellanos and Martín, ‘Local Articulation’; I. Martín Viso, Poblami- ento y estructuras sociales en el Norte de la Península Ibérica (siglos VI-XIII) (Salamanca, 2000); J. Escalona Monge, Sociedad y territorio en la alta edad media castellana(Oxford, 2002). The core work at the back of the interpretation of these latter writers is A. Barbero and M. Vigil, La formación del feudalismo en la Península Ibérica (Barcelona, 1978).

p. 503. Castrojeriz (dated to 974, but interpolated) and Cardona: G. Martínez Díez, Fueros locales en el territorio de la provincia de Burgos (Burgos, 1982), n. 1; J. M. Font Rius, Cartas de población (Barcelona, 1969), n. 9 (cf. Luke 22: 26).

p. 504. Ilduara: M. del C. Pallares Méndez, Ilduara, una aristócrata del siglo X (A Coruña, 1998).

p. 504. Peasant resistance: see esp. R. Pastor, Resistencias y luchas campesinas en la época de crecimiento y consolidación de la formación feudal (Madrid, 1980). Compare for Catalonia the sharp move from peasant autonomy to aristocratic and seigneurial power in the eleventh century (esp. c. 1030-60) in a context of civil crisis; this is one of the clearest examples of the ‘feudal revolution’ in the west Frankish lands, but it is significant that it took place south of the Pyrenees. See in English P. Bonnassie, From Slavery to Feudalism in South-western Europe (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 104 - 31, 149 - 69, 243 - 58.

p. 505. English parallel: this is best developed in I. Álvarez Borge, Comunidades locales y transformaciones sociales en la Alta Edad Media (Logroño, 1999).

Chapter 21

The best single-volume analysis of the aristocracy in this period is R Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir dans le monde franc (VIIe-Xesiècle) (Paris, 1995), focused on Francia. In English, the translated collection of articles ed. T. Reuter, The Medieval Nobility(Amsterdam, 1978) remains essential, together with G. Duby, The Chivalrous Society (London, 1977), and C. B. Bouchard, ‘Those of my Blood’ (Philadelphia, 2001), also article collections. Before 900, start with S. Airlie, in NCMH vol. 2, pp. 431-50; after 900, H. Fichtenau,Living in the Tenth Century (Chicago, 1991), pp. 30-156, and G. Althoff, Family, Friends and Followers (Cambridge, 2004). For the society and culture of the period, see J. M. H. Smith, Europe after Rome (Oxford, 2005); and, stopping closer to 900, P. Depreux,Les Sociétés occidentales du milieu du VIeà la fin du IXesiecle (Rennes, 2002), and R. Le Jan, La Société du haut Moyen Âge (Paris, 2003). For the very end of our period, see P. Bonnassie and P. Toubert (eds.), Hommes et sociétés dans l’Europe de l’An Mil(Toulouse, 2004), an important collection of survey articles.

p. 508. Wichmann: Widukind, Res Gestae, in Widukindi Monachi Corbeiensis: Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum Libri Tres, ed. P. Hirsch and H.-E. Lohmann, MGH (Hanover, 1935), 3.69; see the commentary in K. Leyser, Communications and Power in Medieval Europe: The Carolingian and Ottonian Centuries (London, 1994), pp. 191-2.

p. 508. Gerald: Odo of Cluny, Vita Geraldi, trans. in G. Sitwell, St Odo of Cluny (London, 1958), pp. 89-180; citations here from 1.7-9, 11, 13-14, 16-20, 22-3, 30, 33. See S. Airlie, in Journal of Ecclesiastical history, 43 (1992), pp. 372-95.

p. 510. Guilhelmids: J. Dhondt, Études sur la naissance des principautés territoriales en France (IXe-Xesiècle (Bruges, 1948), pp. 177-217; C. Bouchard, ‘Those of my Blood’, pp. 59-73, 181-91; C. Lauranson-Rosaz, in R. Le Jan (ed.), La Royauté et les élites dans l’Europe carolingienne (Lille, 1998), pp. 417-36; J. L. Nelson, Charles the Bald (Harlow, 1992), pp. 139-40, 211-12, 232-3, 255, all give partial accounts.

p. 512. Counts of Walbeck: Thietmar, Chronicon, trans. D. A. Warner, Ottonian Germany (Manchester, 2001), 1.10, 2.21, 4.17, 39-42, 52, 6.15, 43-4, 48-50, 84-6, 90, 7.4-7. Commentary: Warner’s introduction, pp. 49-52, and K. Leyser, Rule and Conflict in an Early Medieval Society (London, 1979), pp. 32-45.

p. 513. Canossa: out of a very extensive bibliography in Italian, see V. Fumagalli, Le origini di una grande dinastia feudale (Tübingen, 1971); G. Sergi, I confini del potere (Turin, 1995), pp. 230-41; R. Rinaldi, Tra le carte di famiglia (Bologna, 2003); Studi matildici, 4 vols. (Modena, 1964-97).

p. 514. Uxelles: G. Duby, La Société aux XIeet XIIesiècles dans la région mâconnaise, 2nd edn. (Paris, 1971), pp. 127, 137-45, 336-9; C. B. Bouchard, Sword, Miter and Cloister (Ithaca, NY, 1987), pp. 160-68, 300-307.

p. 515. Landed base: G. Tabacco, ‘L’allodialità del potere nel medioevo’, Studi medievali, 11 (1970), pp. 565-615.

p. 515. Stellinga: see E. J. Goldberg, in Speculum, 70 (1995), pp. 467-501.

p. 516. Carolingian aristocratic wealth: the best current introduction is J.-P. Devroey, Économie rurale et société dans l’Europe franque (VIe-IXesiècles) (Paris, 2003), pp. 267-96.

p. 516. Family monasteries: S. Wood, The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2006), pp. 339-412, 601-27; for Fontebona, P. Cammarosano, La famiglia dei Berardenghi (Spoleto, 1974), pp. 71-84.

p. 517. Castles: G. Fournier, Le Château dans la France médiévale (Paris, 1978), pp. 35-79, 100-114; G. P. Fehring, The Archaeology of Medieval Germany (London, 1991), pp. 95-118; R. Francovich, ‘Changing Structures of Settlements’, in C. La Rocca (ed.),Italy in the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002), pp. 150-67; A. A. Settia, Castelli e villaggi nell’Italia padana (Naples, 1984), pp. 41-246. For Pîtres, Cap., vol. 2, n. 273, appendix, c. 1; for Gerald, Odo, Vita Geraldi, 1.36, 38-9, 2.5, 3.1, 4.10.

p. 518. ‘Seigneurie banale’: e.g. J. P. Poly and E. Bournazel, The Feudal Transformation, 900-1200 (New York, 1991), pp. 25-39; C. Wickham, The Mountains and the City (Oxford, 1988), pp. xx-xxiii, 105-8, 307-35; C. Violante and G. Dilcher (eds.), Strutture e trasformazioni della signoria rurale nei secoli X-XIII (Bologna, 1996).

p. 519. Oswald and Ælfhelm: A. Wareham, in N. P. Brooks and C. R. E. Cubitt (eds.), St Oswald of Worcester (London, 1996), pp. 46-63; D. Whitelock (ed.), Anglo-Saxon Wills (Cambridge, 1930), n. 13.

p. 519. Vassals: see S. Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals (Oxford, 1994), pp. 17-34, 84-105, 124-33, for a convincing minimalist view.

p. 520. Milites and ‘knighthood’: see, before 1000, J. L. Nelson, The Frankish World 750-900 (London, 1996), pp. 75-87; D. Barthélemy, La Mutation de l’an mil a-t-elle eu lieu? (Paris, 1997), pp. 174-296; Duby, Chivalrous Society, pp. 162-8.

p. 520. Thegns: H. Loyn, in English Historical Review, 70 (1955), pp. 529-49; N. P. Brooks, Communities and Warfare, 700-1400 (London, 2000), pp. 138-61; for five hides, EHD, vol. 1, n. 51a.

p. 520. Conrad II: Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals, pp. 199-207.

p. 520. Capitanei and valvassores: H. E. J. Cowdrey, Popes, Monks and Crusaders (London, 1984), study IV.

p. 520. Nobilis: Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir, pp. 32-4, 59-76, 99-153, etc.; H.-W. Goetz, Vorstellungsgeschichte (Bochum, 2007), pp. 173-205; J. Martindale, in Past and Present, 75 (1977), pp. 5-45.

p. 521. Alfred, etc.: G. Duby, The Three Orders (Chicago, 1980), pp. 13-119; for the military/non-military boundary, see e.g. H. Keller, Adelsherrschaft und städtische Gesellschaft in Oberitalien (9.-12. Jahrhundert) (Tübingen, 1979), pp. 342-79; Wickham,Mountains, pp. 285-92.

p. 522. The ‘feudal revolution’ debate: see, in English (referring to French bibliography), T. N. Bisson, D. Barthélemy, S. D. White, T. Reuter and C. Wickham, in Past and Present, 142 (1994), pp. 6-42; 152 (1996), pp. 196-223; 155 (1997), pp. 177-225. R. E. Barton, Lordship in the County of Maine, c. 890-1160 (Woodbridge, 2004), an excellent local study, also now contains the most sustained critique of ‘feudal revolution’ theory in English (see esp. pp. 112-45); his arguments still leave space for considerable shifts in the parameters of politics and political legitimacy in the early eleventh century.

p. 523. Milan and Lucca: Keller, Adelsherrschaft, pp. 251-302; C. Wickham, in A. Spicciani and C. Violante (eds.), Sant’ Anselmo vescovo di Lucca (1073-1086) (Rome, 1992), pp. 391-422.

p. 523. ‘Fragmentation of powers’: M. Bloch, Feudal Society (London, 1961), p. 446 (translation slightly modified).

p. 524. Anjou, etc.: a good guide is J. Dunbabin, France in the Making, 843-1180 (Oxford, 1985), pp. 184-90, 199-213.

p. 524. Thegan and Ebbo: Thegan, Life of Louis, trans. P. E. Dutton, Carolingian Civilization (Peterborough, Ont., 1993), pp. 141 - 55, c. 44; Thietmar, Chronicon, 3.5; Richer, Historiae, ed. and trans. R. Latouche, Richer: Histoire de France (888-995) (Paris, 1930-37), 1.15.

p. 524. Gerald: Odo, Vita Geraldi, 1.4.

p. 525. Values, generosity: Fichtenau, Living, pp. 50-64; Thietmar, Chronicon, 1.5.

p. 525. Family structures and consciousness: see in general Le Jan, Famille et pouvoir (pp. 44-5 for Constantine), and the other books cited at the start of the notes to this chapter.

p. 526. Babenberger: Regino of Prüm, Chronicon, ed. F. Kurze, MGH (Hanover, 1890), s.aa. 902, 903, 906; Widukind, Res Gestae, 1.22; Liutprand, Antapodosis, 2.6, in The Complete Works of Liudprand of Cremona, trans. P. Squatriti (Washington, 2007), pp. 77-9. Megingaud: Regino, Chronicon, s.aa. 892, 896; cf. M. Innes, State and Society in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 225-8.

p. 526. Walbeck: Thietmar, Chronicon, 6.43-4.

p. 527. Charlemagne: Cap., vol. 1, n. 20, c. 22, n. 33, c. 32, trans. P. D. King, Charlemagne (Kendal, 1987), pp. 205, 240-41.

p. 527. Gorze: J. Nightingale, Monasteries and Patrons in the Gorze Reform (Oxford, 2001), pp. 15-16, 59-105; patronage: Wood, Proprietary Church, pp. 812-50.

p. 528. Cluny: B. Rosenwein, Rhinoceros Bound (Philadelphia, 1982); eadem, To Be the Neighbor of St Peter (Ithaca, NY, 1989); G. Tellenbach, The Church in Western Europe from the Tenth to the Early Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1993), pp. 111-21; J. Wollasch, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 174-80; G. Constable, in Settimane di studio, 38 (1991), pp. 391-448.

Chapter 22

No single book covers the themes of this chapter. G. Duby’s two classic surveys, The Early Growth of the European Economy (London, 1974) and Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West (London, 1968) are the closest to a general overview in English. For the ninth centry, A. Verhulst, The Carolingian Economy (Cambridge, 2002) is basic. There are also some guides in the socio-economic chapters of NCMH, vols. 2 and 3. In French, J.-P. Devroey’s two recent books, Économie rurale et société dans l’Europe franque (VIe-IXesiècles) (Paris, 2003) with Puissants et misérables (Brussels, 2006), and R. Fossier, Enfance de l’Europe, Xe-XIIesiècles (Paris, 1982), together offer an important regionally nuanced account, though they differ very substantially (where they differ, I am with Devroey); Fossier reprised some of his arguments in English in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 27-63. M. McCormick, Origins of the European Economy (Cambridge, 2001) is a rich analysis of exchange and communications, with many wider implications.

p. 529. Quote: Annals of Saint-Bertin, trans. J. L. Nelson (Manchester, 1991), s.a. 859; see J. L. Nelson, Charles the Bald (Harlow, 1992), p. 194, and S. Epperlein, Herrschaft und Volk im Karolingischen Imperium (Berlin, 1969), pp. 42-50.

p. 530. Encellulement: Fossier, Enfance, p. 288 and following. A good overview of the peasantry is R. Le Jan, La Société du haut Moyen Âge (Paris, 2003), pp. 186-206.

p. 531. Denmark: e.g. B. P. McGuire, ‘Property and Politics at Esrum Abbey’, Medieval Scandinavia, 6 (1973), pp. 122-50.

p. 532. Peasant gift-giving and its pacing: see e.g. C. Wickham, The Mountains and the City (Oxford, 1988), pp. 54-5, 190-97, 210-15, 266-8. For motivations, B. Rosenwein, To Be the Neighbor of St Peter (Ithaca, NY, 1989), passim.

p. 533. Cusago: I placiti del ‘Regnum Italiae’, ed. C. Manaresi (Rome, 1955-60), vol. 1, nn. 110, 112; see further some of the cases discussed by J. L. Nelson, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds.), The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe(Cambridge, 1986), pp. 45-64.

p. 533. Legislation: Cap., vol. 1, n. 44, c. 15, n. 73, cc. 2-3 (quote), etc. (trans. P. King, Charlemagne (Kendal, 1987), pp. 250, 264) - see E. Müller-Mertens, Karl der Grosse, Ludwig der Fromme und die Freien (Berlin, 1963), pp. 100-101 for a list.

p. 534. Peasant resistance: see in general C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), pp. 570-88 (p. 583 for Trita).

p. 534. Manors: Duby, Verhulst and Devroey, cited above, all discuss manors and give (a very extensive) bibliography. For intensification, see also Wickham, Framing, pp. 287-301. Le Mans: Cap., vol. 1, n. 31.

p. 535. Manors and exchange: see further P. Toubert, L’Europe dans sa premie‘re croissance (Paris, 2004), pp. 27-115, 145-217; J.-P. Devroey, Études sur le grand domaine carolingien (Aldershot, 1993), esp. study XIV.

p. 535. Saint-Germain: Das Polyptichon von St-Germain-des-Prés, ed. D. Hägermann (Cologne, 1993) is the most recent edition.

p. 536. Adalard: L. Levillain, ‘Les Statuts d’Adalhard’, Le Moyen âge, 4 (1900), pp. 333-86; St. Gallen: W. Horn and E. Born, The Plan of St Gall (Berkeley, 1979).

p. 537. Brevium Exempla and Capitulare de Villis: Cap., vol. 1, nn. 128, 32 (quotes from cc. 1, 54; trans. H. R. Loyn and J. Percival, The Reign of Charlemagne (London, 1975), pp. 98-105, 64-73, slightly modified).

p. 537. Manorial decline in Italy: Toubert, L’Europe, pp. 170-78; B. Andreolli and M. Montanari, L’azienda curtense in Italia (Bologna, 1983), pp. 201-13. Non-decline elsewhere: see e.g. Duby, Rural Economy, pp. 197-212.

p. 538. Free and unfree: see e.g. Duby, Rural Economy, pp. 186-96; W. Davies, in M. L. Bush (ed.), Serfdom and Slavery (Harlow, 1996), pp. 225-46; for Italy, F. Panero, Servi e rustici (Vercelli, 1990), pp. 37-55. For the complexities of serfdom in France after 1000, see P. Fouracre, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 15 (2005), pp. 29-49.

p. 539. Incastellamento: P. Toubert, Les Structures du Latium médiéval (Rome, 1973), pp. 315-68, 450-93; for the north, A. A. Settia, Castelli e villaggi nell’Italia padana (Naples, 1984); one important conference among several on this enormously debated subject is published as Archeologia medievale, 16 (1989).

p. 540. Church and castle: J. Chapelot and R. Fossier, The Village and House in the Middle Ages (London, 1985), pp. 129-50.

p. 541. Rhineland, Italy: C. Wickham, in NCMH, vol. 2, pp. 510-37; M. Innes, State and Society in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000), chh. 4, 5. Rankweil: K. Bullimore, ‘Folcwin of Rankweil’, EME, 13 (2005), pp. 43-77. Karol: L. Feller et al., La Fortune de Karol (Rome, 2005).

p. 542. Arleus: Rosenwein, To Be the Neighbor, pp. 69-74, 226-8; S. E. Halton, ‘The Church and Communities: Cluny and its Local Patrons’, University of Birmingham Ph.D. thesis, 2005, pp. 238-61.

p. 542. Salisano: C. Wickham, Il problema dell’incastellamento nell’Italia centrale (Florence, 1985), pp. 62-4, developed and corrected in A. Sennis, ‘Cenni storici’, Archeologia medievale, 19 (1992), pp. 456-61.

p. 543. Population rise: M. Zerner-Chardavoine, ‘Enfants et jeunes au IXe siècle’, Provence historique, 31 (1981), pp. 355-81, for Marseille; more generally, Devroey, Économie rurale, pp. 65-75; Fossier, Enfance, pp. 88-107.

p. 544. Agricultural expansion: Verhulst, Carolingian Economy, pp. 61-4, Duby, Rural Economy, pp. 88-122, Devroey, Économie rurale, pp. 108-29, Fossier, Enfance, pp. 152-87, 654-6. Duby and Fossier are more downbeat about the Carolingian economy than later writers; more recent historiography substantially revises upwards, among others, Carolingian grain yields, the availability of iron, and the density of mills.

p. 545. Charavines: M. Colardelle and E. Verdel, Les Habitats du lac de Paladru (Ise‘re) et leur environnement (Paris, 1993).

p. 546. Exchange: see above all O. Bruand, Voyageurs et marchandises aux temps carolingi ens (Brussels, 2002). For towns, P. Johanek, in NCMH, vol. 3, pp. 64-94, A. Verhulst, The Rise of Cities in North-west Europe (Cambridge, 1999), pp. 44-100, and H. Sarfatij, ‘Tiel in Succession to Dorestad’, in idem et al. (eds.), In Discussion with the Past (Zwolle, 1999), pp. 267-78.

p. 547. Raffelstetten: Cap., vol. 2, n. 253 (note McCormick, Origins, p. 556 n. for caution about the Rus).

p. 547. Venice: McCormick, Origins, pp. 254-60, 523-31, 761-77; the will of 829 is partially trans. in R. S. Lopez and I. W. Raymond, Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World (New York, 1955), pp. 39-41.

p. 547. Amalfi, etc.: B. Kreutz, Before the Normans (Philadelphia, 1991), esp. pp. 75-93; P. Skinner, Family Power in Southern Italy (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 247-81.

p. 548. North Sea: see e.g. H. Clarke and B. Ambrosiani, Towns in the Viking Age, 2nd edn. (Leicester, 1995).

p. 550. Cremona: see G. Tabacco, The Struggle for Power in Medieval Italy (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 323-31 for a brief survey.

Chapter 23

p. 552. Humour: see G. Halsall (ed.), Humour, History and Politics in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2002).

p. 553. Fifth-century break: I explored the consequences of this in Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), esp. pp. 825-31.

p. 560. Politics of land: see in general M. Bloch, Feudal Society (London, 1961).

p. 561. Chur: R. Kaiser, Churrätien im frühen Mittelalter (Basel, 1998).

p. 562. Muslim sense of the public sphere: see e.g. P. Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh, 2004), pp. 286-314, 393-8. My use of the term ‘public sphere’ is borrowed from Jürgen Habermas, at least as translated into English, but he used it in a very different way.

p. 562. Carolingian res publica, etc.: see e.g. M. de Jong, in Settimane di studio, 44 (1997), pp. 893-902, and M. Innes, State and Society in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 254-63, although Innes, in particular, draws diverging conclusions from me.

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