Post-classical history

Notes

Abbreviations:

CPR: Calendar of Patent Rolls

Harleian 433: British Library Harleian Manuscript 433

Milan: Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan

ODNB: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online edition)

PL: Paston Letters, 2004-05 edition.

PROME: Parliament Rolls of Medieval England

VCH: Victoria County History

Venice: Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice

1    The Duchess and the Knight

  1   PL, no. 88, part I, p. 162; Fabyan, p. 635; Gregory, 1451–1460; Scofield, ‘Capture of Lord Rivers’.

  2   Monstrelet, vol. 5, p. 56.

  3   Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, p. 43; Waurin, vol. 4, p. 37; Bedford Inventories, p. 116.

  4   Bedford Inventories, p. 18.

  5   Bedford Inventories, pp. 18–19; E. Carleton Williams, p. 228.

  6   Pascual, p. 70.

  7   Great Chronicle, p. 171.

  8   Coventry Leet Book, p. 52

  9   Gillespie, p. 272.

10   E. Carleton Williams, p. 237.

11   E. Carleton Williams, p. 247.

12   Bedford Inventories, p. 25.

13   Bedford Inventories, pp. 29–30.

14   Bedford Inventories, pp. 25, 365.

15   Jones, ‘Beaufort Family’, p. 318 n.1.

16   Hicks, ‘Changing Role’ p. 62.

17   For this and the above, see Jones, ‘Beaufort Family’, pp. 317–20.

18   CPR, 1436–41, p. 53.

19   Cokayne, vol. XI, p. 16, ‘Rivers’.

20   PL, no. 88, part I, p. 162.

21   Excerpta Historica, pp. 249–50.

22   Leland, vol. ii, p. 491.

23   Lee, Dictionary of National Biography vol. XXI, p. 88; Doyle, vol 3, p. 141; Rymer’s Fœdera, vol. 10, January–March 1430; Cokayne, vol. XI, p. 19 & n.i.

24   Letters and Pages Illustrative of the Wars of the English in France, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 436.

25   Chronicles of London, p. 138; 48th Report, p. 312.

26   Monstrelet, vol. 5, p. 272.

27   PROME, January 1437, item 16.

28   CPR 1436–1441, p. 53; Pascual, pp. 72–73. A pardon was issued on 24 October 1437. Rymer’s Fœdera, vol. 10, 1437, pp. 661–81.

29   CPR 1436–1441, p. 72.

30   Waurin, vol. 4, p. 257.

31   48th Report, p. 347; Waurin, vol. iv, p. 326; Chronicles of London, pp. 147–48.

32   Chronicles of London, p. 146.

33   Anglo, ‘Financial and Heraldic Records’, p. 193; Chronicles of London, p. 148.

34   Visitations of the North, p. 58.

35   TNA: C 140/42/49.

36   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, quoted in Edward IV: A Source Book, p. 48.

37   Calendar of Papal Registers, vol. XIII, 7 January 1482.

38   TNA: C 142/7/2. Though some secondary sources have ascribed an earlier birth date to Katherine, without citation, a later rather than an earlier birth date is corroborated by Elizabeth Woodville’s coronation records, which show that she and her young husband, Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, were young enough in 1465 to be carried around on the shoulders of squires, and by Elizabeth Woodville’s household records. Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, p. 16; ‘Household of Queen Elizabeth Woodville’, pp. 471, 475.

39   TNA: C 142/1/36; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 178 n. 1.

40   CPR 1436–1441, p. 426.

41   VCH Northampton, vol. 5, ‘Grafton Regis’.

42   Smith, ‘Notes of Brasses’, p. 178 and plate.

43   Register of Henry Chichele, vol. 2, p. 608.

44   Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, p. 46, citing Add. MS 23938, Computs J. Breknoke.

45   Loades, pp. 16–19; R.S. Thomas, pp. 18–21.

46   Pascual, p. 76.

47   Cokayne, vol. XI, p. 20; Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, p. 46.

48   For an excellent account of these events, see Juliet Barker, Conquest: The English Kingdom in France.

49   Harvey, pp. 81, 82.

50   ‘Some Ancient Indictments’, pp. 215–16.

51   Harvey, pp. 91–95; Griffiths, Henry VI, p. 615.

52   Griffiths, ‘Duke Richard of York’s Intentions’, p. 192.

53   Pugh, ‘Richard Plantagenet’, p. 126.

54   Pidgeon, ‘Antony Wydevile’, pt. 1, p. 10.

55   Johnson, p. 91–92 & n. 81.

56   Griffiths, Reign of King Henry VI, p. 707 n. 108.

57   Harriss, ‘Struggle for Calais’, pp. 31–32.

58   Three Catalogues, pp. 277–78.

59   Gardiner, Paston Letters, vol. II, pp. 297.

60   Griffiths, Reign of King Henry VI, pp. 730–32, Harriss, ‘Struggle for Calais’, pp. 34–39. It seems likely that Richard and Jacquetta’s son Lionel was born during this period, judging from his name.

61   For what follows see Hicks, Wars of the Roses (2010), pp. 107–12; Hicks, Warwick, pp. 115–17. An excellent account of the battle itself is Andrew Boardman, The First Battle of St. Albans 1455.

62   PL, no. 1029, part III, p. 162.

63   Maurer, pp. 128–29.

64   Coventry Leet Book, p. 300.

65   Coventry Leet Book, p. 292.

66   Maurer, p. 144; Hicks, Warwick, p. 132; Pollard, Warwick, p. 201.

67   Hicks, Warwick, pp. 132–34; Six Town Chronicles, p. 160.

68   Great Chronicle, p. 190.

69   Hicks, Warwick, pp. 147–48.

70   Hicks, Warwick, p. 151; Okerlund, Slandered Queen, p. 47.

71   Okerlund, Slandered Queen, p. 47.

72   Hicks, Wars of the Roses, pp. 140–43; Pollard, Warwick, pp. 38–42.

73   Goodman, Wars of the Roses, p. 29.

74   Gregory, 196–210; PL, no. 88, part I, p. 162; Fabyan, 635–36; Scofield, ‘Capture’, 253–54.

75   Gregory, 196–210.

76   PL, no. 88, part I, p. 162.

77   PL, no. 888, part 2, p. 540.

78   Pollard, Warwick, pp. 44–45.

79   Hicks, Warwick, p. 180.

80   Johnson, p. 211.

81   Gregory, http://www.british–history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45559#n17.

82   Whethamsted’s Register, in Henry VI: A Source Book, p. 99.

83   PROME, October 1460, Introduction and item 30.

84   Gregory, pp. 146–210.

85   Cron. pp. 597–99.

86   Chronicles of London, p. 173; Milan, no. 65, 22 February 1461. Anthony Woodville had married Elizabeth Scales, the daughter of Thomas, Lord Scales, and his wife Esmania. Scales had been murdered by a London mob in July 1460, after which Anthony had succeeded to his title in right of his wife; he is called Lord Scales in a letter of 4 April 1461 and in a dispatch by the Earl of Salisbury on 7 April 1461. ‘Lady Scales’, then, likely refers to Elizabeth, rather than her mother, who may not have survived her husband. PL, no. 90, part I, p. 165; Milan, 1461, no. 80; Pidgeon, Antony Wydeville, part 2, p. 18.

87   English Heritage, p. 3.

88   PL, no. 90, part I, p. 165.

89   Milan, 1461, nos 80 and 91.

90   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 178 n. 1.

91   Milan, 1461, no. 120.

92   PL, no. 320, part 1, p. 523.

2    The King and the Widow

  1   Shaw, ‘Early English School of Portraiture’, p. 184.

  2   Hepburn, pp. 54–60.

  3   Hall, p. 365; More, p. 61.

  4   Coronation of Elizabethy Wydeville, p. 27.

  5   ‘Household of Queen Margaret of Anjou’, p. 182 n.2.

  6   ‘Household of Queen Margaret of Anjou’, p. 182 n.2; CPR, p. 353; Coronation of Elizabethy Wydeville, pp. 27–28.

  7   Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, p. 28; Baldwin, p. 133; MacGibbon, pp. 15–17.

  8   Cokayne, vol. V, pp. 359–61.

  9   Cokayne, vol. V, p. 362 n. c; TNA: C 142/7/2; Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Record Office DR37/2/73/34.

10   Hall, p. 264. Caspar Weinreich, writing in far-off Danzig, recorded later gossip about the fate of John Grey: ‘People say that [he] was killed in battle; some said he was pushed off the bridge at Rochester; some said that he, too, had been beheaded during the previous parliament’. Visser-Fuchs, ‘English Events’, p. 313.

11   Hicks, Edward V, pp. 44–45.

12   Lander, Crown and Nobility, p. 210.

13   Okerlund, p. 59.

14   Lander, Government and Community, 237–38 n. 4.

15   Waurin, vol. V, pp. 352–53; Visser-Fuchs, ‘English Events’, p. 313

16   More, pp. 61–62.

17   MacGibbon, pp. 32–33.

18   Mancini, p. 61; Chronicles of the White Rose, p. 15–16.

19   Hall, p. 379.

20   Laynesmith, Last Medieval Queens, p. 52 & n. 126.

21   Josephine Tey, The Daughter of Time, Chapter 16.

22   Crowland Chronicle, First Continuation, quoted in Edward IV: A Source Book, p. 10.

23   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 127 n. 2.

24   Fahy, pp. 663–64.

25   Mancini, p. 61.

26   More, p. 62.

27   Gregory, pp. 210–239.

28   Hicks, Edward V, p. 47.

29   Fabyan, p. 654.

30   Baldwin, p. 11.

31   Laynesmith, p. 66.

32   Hicks, Edward V, pp. 45–46.

33   Hicks, Edward V, p. 41.

34   Chronicles of the White Rose, p. 16.

35   Hicks, Edward V, p. 47.

36   Fabyan, p. 654.

37   Milan no. 138; Crowland Chronicle, First Continuation, quoted in Edward IV: A Source Book, p. 44.

38   Mancini, p. 61–63.

39   Crawford, Yorkist Lord, pp. 43–44.

40   Lander, Crown and Nobility, p. 119; Brown and Webster, pp. 80–82.

41   Ross, Edward IV, pp. 91–92.

42   Ross, Edward IV, p. 92; Lander, Wars of the Roses, pp. 105–06.

43   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 364.

44   CPR, 1446–1452, pp. 311–12.

45   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 783; Lander, Wars of the Roses, p. 105; PL, no. 742, part II, p. 375.

46   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 785; CPR 1467–1477, p. 25.

47   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 785; Rosemary Horrox, ‘Grey, Edmund, first earl of Kent (1416–1490)’; ODNB, 2004.

48   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 786; Thomas, ‘Herberts of Raglan’, pp. 279–83.

49   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 785; Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, pp. 11, 16, 21.

50   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 783.

51   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 786.

52   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, translated from the Latin in Lander, Wars of the Roses, pp. 106–07.

53   Ross, Edward IV, p. 94.

54   Archer, ‘Rich Old Ladies’, p. 22; Lander, Crown and Nobility, p. 111.

55   Ross, Edward IV, p. 93.

56   Archer, ‘Testamentary Procedure’, p. 19.

57   Mancini, p. 75.

58   Lander, Crown and Nobility, p. 114 n. 111; Rawcliffe, The Staffords, p. 28. As Lander also points out, the word ‘forced’ is misleading: ‘His marriage had been disposed of like that of any other child of the feudal classes whether in wardship or not.’

59   Rawcliffe, p. 28.

60   Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, p. 15.

61   Laynesmith, p. 211.

62   Hicks, ‘Changing Role’, pp. 67–70.

63   ‘Household of Queen Elizabeth Woodville’, pp. 451, 473.

64   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 791.

65   For the following see Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, pp. 7–25, 61–64, and Laynesmith, pp. 87–110.

66   Herald’s Memoir, p. 140.

67   Coronation of Elizabeth Wydeville, p. 12.

3    The Black Legend of the Woodvilles

  1   Annales Rerum Anglicarum, p. 785.

  2   Jacquetta came to Windsor on 16 July 1467, probably to be with her pregnant daughter. MacGibbon, pp. 67–68, 85; Scofield, Edward IV, pp. 428, 482–83.

  3   Milan, 12 April 1469, no. 169.

  4   For this and what follows see Travels of Leo of Rozmital, pp. 45–47.

  5   Travels of Leo of Rozmital, p. 47 n. 1.

  6   English Historical Literature, p. 386.

  7   Art Cosgrove in ‘The Execution of the Earl of Desmond, 1468’ offers the most through exploration of the reasons for Desmond’s execution and concludes that they ‘should be sought in his own conduct’. Cosgrove, p. 26.

  8   Cosgrove, pp. 22–23.

  9   Calendar of the Carew Manuscripts, vol. 2, pp. cv–cvii.

10   Ashdown-Hill and Carson, p. 85 n. 41.

11   Cosgrove, p. 20; CPR, 1461–1467, p. 340.

12   Ashdown-Hill and Carson, pp. 85–86.

13   Ashdown-Hill and Carson, p. 85.

14   Book of Howth, pp. 186–87.

15   Cosgrove, p. 25.

16   Mitchell, pp. 124–25.

17   Okerlund, pp. 162–63.

18   Mitchell, pp. 132–33.

19   The instructions concerning Desmond and other Irish lords can be found in Harleian 433, vol. III, pp. 108–14, as well as in Letters and Papers Illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III, vol. I, pp. 67–78.

20   Kendall, Richard the Third, p. 522 n. 21 and p. 532 n. 8.

21   Waters, p. 402. The elder Desmond’s father, in fact, was Clarence’s godfather. Ashdown-Hill and Carson, p. 72 n. 7.

22   Ashdown-Hill and Carson, p. 82.

23   As we shall see, after Jacquetta’s husband and son were murdered in 1469, certainly by men acting under the direction of the Earl of Warwick, she brought an action not only against the earl, but against his followers. These are the sort of men whom Richard likely was allowing the younger Desmond to prosecute.

24   Ashdown-Hill and Carson, p. 82.

25   Pollard, ‘Elizabeth Woodville’, pp. 154–56.

26   Sutton, ‘Sir Thomas Cook’, p. 97.

27   Hicks, ‘Case of Sir Thomas Cook’, pp. 82, 94; Sutton, ‘Sir Thomas Cook’, pp. 93–94; Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Provenance’, p. 95; Holland, ‘Cook’s Case’, pp. 23–24. Cook was not ruined by this affair, as some accounts have it; when he died in 1478, he was still very wealthy.

28   Sutton, ‘Sir Thomas Cook’, p. 101–02.

29   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Provenance’, p. 89 n. 87.

30   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Provenance’, p. 89; Hicks, ‘Case of Sir Thomas Cook’, p. 94.

31   Sutton, ‘Sir Thomas Cook’, p. 89–90.

32   E.W. Ives, ‘Markham, Sir John (b. after 1399, d. 1479)’, ODNB, 2004.

33   ‘Household of Queen Margaret of Anjou’, p. 141; Kendall, Richard the Third, p. 79. Kendall also increases the fine from 8,000 marks to a whopping £8,000.

34   Hicks, ‘Case of Sir Thomas Cooke’, p. 95–96; Crawford, The Yorkists, p. 83.

35   Holland, ‘Cook’s Case’, p. 29; Hicks, p. 96.

36   Holland, ‘Cook’s Case’, pp. 34–35.

4    Murder at Coventry

  1   Great Chronicle, p. 208.

  2   Crowland, p. 115.

  3   Weightman, p. 37, 39; Lander, Government and Community, p. 245; Pollard, Warwick, p. 60.

  4   Pollard, Warwick, p. 60; Michael Hicks, ‘Neville, George (1432–1476)’, ODNB, 2008.

  5   For what follows, see Excerpta Historica, pp. 171–222.

  6   Anglo, ‘Anglo-Burgundian Feats of Arms’, p. 275.

  7   Anglo, ‘Anglo-Burgundian Feats of Arms’, p. 282.

  8   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, pp. 424–25, 428–29.

  9   Pollard, Warwick, p. 60.

10   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 430.

11   Hicks, Warwick, p. 265.

12   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 443; Hicks, Warwick, p. 265.

13   For what follows see Phillipps, pp. 327–38; Marche, vol. III, pp. 106–07; Excerpta Historica, 223–39.

14   PL, no. 330, part I, p. 539.

15   PL, no. 330, part I, p. 539.

16   PL, no. 236, part I, p. 396.

17   Marche, vol. III, p. 199.

18   PL, no. 330, part I, p. 539; Michael K. Jones, ‘Beaufort, Edmund, Styled Third Duke of Somerset (c.1438–1471)’, ODNB, online edition, May 2009.

19   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 481.

20   Kleineke, pp. 95–96.

21   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 454; Anales Rerum Anglicarum, pp. 789–90; Great Chronicle, p. 207.

22   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, pp. 481–82.

23   Hicks, Wars of the Roses, p. 190.

24   Dockray, ‘Yorkshire Rebellions’, p. 255; Ashdown-Hill, ‘Walsingham’, p. 4.

25   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 482–83.

26   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 492; Ashdown-Hill, p. 14.

27   Dockray, ‘Yorkshire Rebellions’, pp. 252–54; Pollard, Warwick, p. 65; Hicks, Warwick, pp. 275–76.

28   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 493–95;

29   Warkworth, p. 46–51.

30   Ross, Edward IV, p. 71; R.A. Griffiths, ‘Herbert, William, First Earl of Pembroke (c.1423–1469)’, ODNB, January 2008.

31   Michael Hicks, ‘Stafford, Humphrey, Earl of Devon (c. 1439–1469)’, ODNB, January 2008.

32   Rosemary Horrox, ‘Fogge, Sir John (b. in or before 1417, d. 1490)’, ODNB, January 2008.

33   Ross, Edward IV, p. 80.

34   Pollard, Warwick, p. 65.

35   For what follows see Lewis, pp. 100–04; Ross, Edward IV, pp. 130–32.

36   For what follows see Harrod, pp. 32–36.

37   Lewis, p. 101; Ross, Edward IV, p. 132; Warkworth, pp. 6–7.

38   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 497 n. 4; Waurin, vol. 5, p. 580.

39   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 493; Waurin, vol. 5, p. 580.

40   Coventry Leet Book, p. 346; Waurin, vol. 5, p. 580.

41   Moreton, p. 64.

42   TNA: KB 27/836 m. 61d.

43   History of the County of Derby, vol. 2, pp. 80–81.

44   Eton College Archives: ECR 60/3/2; Waurin, vol. 5, p. 581.

45   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 498 n. 2.

46   Milan, 16 August 1469, no. 173.

47   Hicks, Warwick, p. 277.

48   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, pp. 500–01.

49   Kleineke, p. 99.

50   Kleineke, pp. 99–100; Ross, Edward IV, p. 135.

51   Moreton, p. 63–65.

5    Witchcraft and Sorcery

  1   CPR, 1467–77, pg. 190.

  2   Sutton, ‘Sir Thomas Cook’, p. 103.

  3   For Joan, see ‘Captivity of a Royal Witch’.

  4   For Eleanor see Griffiths, King and Country, pp. 233–52; Freeman, ‘Sorcery at Court’.

  5   Sutton, ‘Sir Thomas Cook’, p. 103; Pascual, ‘Jaquetta of Luxembourg’, p. 85.

  6   Warkworth, p. 7; TNA: KB 27/836 m. 61d.

  7   Leland, ‘Witchcraft and the Woodvilles’, p. 272.

  8   Rotuli Parliamentorum, vol. VI, p. 232. This source gives the date as 20 January; CPR, 1467–77, pg. 190 gives the date as 19 January.

  9   CPR, 1467–77, pg. 190.

10   Rotuli Parliamentorum, vol. VI, p. 232. Thomas Wake does not seem to have suffered for his role in accusing the duchess or in murdering her husband and son; he died in 1476. Hampton, ‘Roger Wake of Blisworth’, p. 156.

11   PROME, January 1485, item 1 [5]. The issue of whether Elizabeth might have used astrology to forecast Richard’s death, as hinted at in a letter by the soon-to-be king, will be dealt with in Chapter 11.

12   Hughes, Arthurian Myths and Alchemy, p. 196.

13   Pascual, ‘Jacquetta of Luxembourg’, p. 87.

14   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Richard III’s Books, pp. 224–25, 236,

15   Hughes, Arthurian Myths and Alchemy, pp. 172–73; Rous, Rous Rolls, no. 18.

16   Coventry Leet Book, p. 393.

17   Fabyan, p. 654.

18   Hampton, ‘Witchcraft and the Sons of York’, pp. 173–75.

19   Carson, p. 118.

20   Freeman, ‘Sorcery at Court and Manor’, p. 346.

21   Freeman, ‘Sorcery at Court and Manor’, p. 346, 349, 350.

6    Exile and Sanctuary

  1   PL, no. 245, part I, p. 410.

  2   Hicks, Warwick, p. 280.

  3   Moreton, ‘Anthony Woodville’, pp. 64–65.

  4   Warkworth, p. 9.

  5   TNA: KB 27/836 m. 61d; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 522.

  6   Hicks, Warwick, pp. 287–89.

  7   Hicks, Warwick, p. 287; Scofield, Edward IV, pp. 521, 526–27.

  8   TNA: KB 27/836 m. 61d.

  9   Ross, Edward IV, p. 146

10   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 530 (citing Lettres de Louis XI, IV, 131).

11   Hicks, Warwick, p. 296.

12   Haward, p. 179; Ross, Edward IV, pp. 152–53; Coventry Leet Book, pp. 358–59. Edward’s younger brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, probably arrived in Holland at a later date. Visser-Fuchs, ‘Richard Was Late’, pp. 616–17.

13   Sharpe, London and the Kingdom, vol. III, pp. 385–86; Chronicles of London, p. 182; Warkworth, p. 13; PL, no. 345, part I, p. 564.

14   Original Letters, second series, vol. I, pp. 141–42.

15   Scofield, ‘Elizabeth Wydevile in the Sanctuary at Westminter, 1470’, p. 91; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 546.

16   Chronicles of London, p. 183; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 546; Hicks, Edward V, p. 54.

17   CPR 1467–1477, p. 228.

18   Hammond, Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, p. 52–54; Calmette and Perinelle, pp. 321–23.

19   Hammond, Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, p. 58; Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, pp. 2–3.

20   Haward, p. 179.

21   Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 17.

22   Kleineke, ‘Gerhard von Wesel’s Newsletter’, p. 80; Anchiennes Chroniques, vol. III, p. 211; Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 34.

23   Hammond, Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, p. 74.

24   Kleineke, p. 81

25   Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 21–23.

26   Hammond, Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, pp. 105–07.

27   The following is taken from Hammond, Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, pp. 107–08; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, pp. 591–92.

28   Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 37.

29   Crowland, p. 129.

30   Political Poems and Songs, vol. II, pp. 278–79.

31   Hammond, Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, pp. 108–13.

32   Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, p. 38.

7    A Woodville Abroad

  1   PL, no. 373, part I, pp. 566–67.

  2   Grummitt, p. 154; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 4.

  3   PL, no. 350, part I, p. 570; no. 262, part I, p. 440; no. 266, part I, p. 446.

  4   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, pp. 31–32, 33–34; CPR, 1467–1477, p. 339; Ross, Edward IV, pp. 206–07; PL, no. 269, part. I, p. 450.

  5   Ames and Herbert, vol. 1, p. 61.

  6   TNA: C 142/1/36 (Cambridge); C 142/1/37 (Hertford); C 142/1/38 (Norfolk); C 142/1/39 (Suffolk).

  7   ‘Household of Queen Margaret of Anjou’, p. 182 n.1.

  8   TNA: C 142/1/36 (Cambridge); C 142/1/37 (Hertford); C 142/1/38 (Norfolk); C 142/1/39 (Suffolk).

  9   PL, no. 90, part I, p. 165.

10   PL, no. 574, part II, p. 175.

11   See Chapter 1.

12   Coronation of Elizabeth of Wydeville, p. 46.

13   Harvey, p. 81.

14   Griffiths, p. 707, n.108.

15   English Chronicle, p. 96.

16   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 92.

17   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. I, p. 92; English Chronicle, p. 98.

18   Pidgeon, part 2, pp. 30, 35.

19   Manuscripts of the Corporations of Southampton and Kings Lynn, pp. 224–25.

20   Crawford, Household Books, pt. I, pp. 281, 480–82; Crawford, Yorkist Lord, pp. 41–42, 156.

21   Myers, ‘Household of Queen Margaret of Anjou’, p. 288.

22   Pidgeon, part 2, p. 35. The heirs in 1485 were John de Vere, Earl of Oxford, returned home after a long exile and imprisonment, and William Tyndale. James Ross, John de Vere, p. 91.

23   Blomefield, vol. 9, p. 26. As Blomefield confuses Anthony’s brother Richard with his brother Edward, and has Anthony attempting to make a Scottish marriage several years after the match in question was suggested, his account is not entirely trustworthy; however, the identity of Anthony’s mistress does not appear to have been questioned. H.T. Evans identifies Gwenllian as William’s daughter and as Anthony’s mistress but does not name Gwenllian’s mother. Evans, p. 142 n.7.

24   Barnwell, p. 32. Barnwell gives no source for the deed.

25   Alasdair Hawkyard, ‘Poyntz, Sir Robert (b. late 1440s, d. 1520)’, ODNB, January 2008; TNA: E 315/486/57.

26   PROB 11/8; Pidgeon, part 2, p. 43.

27   Pidgeon, ‘Antony Wydeville’, part 2, p. 41.

28   See Appendix. Poyntz himself would remain loyal to his wife’s Woodville relations; he joined the rebellion against Richard III a few months after Anthony’s death and fought for Henry Tudor at Bosworth in 1485.

29   Calendar of Papal Registers, 1476. 5 Kal, May (27 April), St. Peter’s, Rome (f. 99v.).

30   TNA: PROB 11/8; Pidgeon, pp. 43, 45.

31   Edward’s younger brother Richard had been born at Shrewsbury on 17 August 1473.

32   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 5; H.T. Evans, p. 116.

33   Lowe, ‘Patronage and Politics’, pp. 556–61.

34   PL, no. 273, part 1, p. 456.

35   For what follows see Orme, ‘The Education of Edward V’.

36   Mancini, pp. 67–69; Lowe, Patronage and Politics, pp. 553–54; Ives, 216–25.

37   Friedrichs, p. 222.

38   Hicks, ‘Changing Role of the Wydevilles’, p. 83.

39   Lowe, ‘Patronage and Politics’, p. 553.

40   For what follows see Ross, Edward IV, pp. 205–38; Scofield, Edward IV,vol. II, pp. 113–51.

41   Edward V’s French Expedition, pp. 1V–2R, 7–10, 15–19.

42   Ross, Edward IV, p. 237.

43   Milan, 1 October 1475, no. 315.

44   Prologues and Epilogues of William Caxten, p. 38.

45   Calendar of Papal Registers, vol. 13, Lateran Regesta 762: 1475–76, 1716; 5 Kal. May (27 April), f. 99v.

46   Milan, 7 March 1476, no. 324.

47   PL, no. 298, part 1, p. 494.

48   Venice, 10 May 1476, no. 454.

49   Venice, 13 May 1476, no. 455.

50   Milan, 9 June 1476, no. 339, 11 June 1476, no. 340.

8    Pomp and Printing

  1   TNA: C 140/42/49.

  2   Calendar of Close Rolls, 1476–1485, p. 194.

  3   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Royal Funerals, p. 4 & n.6.

  4   For the following see English Historical Literature, pp. 382–88.

  5   The Duchess of Exeter’s Lancastrian husband, Henry Holland, seriously wounded at the battle of Barnet, was a prisoner in the Tower. The future Richard III, who would execute three of the guests and force two of the others into sanctuary in 1483, was not named among those at table.

  6   Hicks, Edward V, p. 63.

  7   Vale, ‘Louis de Bruges’, p. 119. Sir Guichard d’Angle was made Earl of Huntingdon in 1377.

  8   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Royal Funerals, p. 4 & n.6.

  9   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 60.

10   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 117.

11   Shaw, Knights of England, pp. 136–37. Poignantly, Thomas Vaughan, chamberlain to Prince Edward, was also made a Knight of the Bath; he and his fellow knight, Richard Grey, would die together at Pontefract eight years later.

12   Excerpta Historica, pp. 371–72, 373

13   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 163.

14   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Reburial, pp. 7–28.

15   Griffiths in Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Royal Funerals, pp. 47–49.

16   For Caxton’s arrival in England and the chronology of his publications, see Hellinga, Caxton in Focus, pp. 80–83.

17   Hellinga, Caxton in Focus, pp. 42–43.

18   Hellinga, Caxton in Focus, p. 84.

19   A. W. Pollard, Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse, p. 204. For translators in the fifteenth century, see Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Choosing a Book’, pp. 68–69.

20   Ames and Herbert, vol. 2, p. 65.

21   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Richard III’s Books: XI Ramon Lull’s Order of Chivalry’, p. 297.

22   Prologues and Epilogues, pp. 20–22.

23   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Richard III’s Books’, pp. 113–14; Hellinga, Caxton in Focus, pp. 84–86.

24   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Richard III’s Books’, p. 114. The Duke of Clarence may have been a patron of Caxton’s before the printer moved to England. Hellinga, p. 31.

25   Hellinga, p. 77; Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘Richard III’s Books’, p. 297.

26   For what follows see Illustrations, pp. 27–40. For Anne Mowbray’s background see Colin Richmond, ‘Mowbray, John (VII), fourth Duke of Norfolk (1444–1476)’, ODNB, 2006.

9    The Downfall of a Duke

  1   The dispute has been covered extensively, especially by Michael Hicks. A good summary can be found in his ‘Descent, Partition and Extinction’, pp. 327–33.

  2   Hicks, Anne Neville, p. 104.

  3   Crowland, p. 133.

  4   Hicks, Anne Neville, p. 143; Clarke, ‘English Royal Marriages’, p. 1023. The dispensation was discovered only recently and thus is spoken of as being nonexistent in a number of sources published before 2005.

  5   PL, part I, p. 447, no. 267.

  6   Hicks, ‘Descent, Partition and Extinction’, p. 328; False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence, p. 116.

  7   PL, part I, p. 464, no. 277; Hicks, False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence, pp. 121–22.

  8   Hicks, False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence, pp. 128, 130, 138.

  9   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, pp. 184–86; Ross, Edward IV, pp. 250–51, Commynes, vol. II, p. 8.

10   Halliwell, Letters of the Kings of England, vol. I, p. 147.

11   Lander, Crown and Nobility, pp. 247–48; Hicks, False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence, pp. 137–39; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, pp. 186–88.

12   Charles Ross, Edward IV, pp. 240–42; Hicks, Clarence, 133–37; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, pp. 188–90.

13   PROME, January 1478, Appendix, item 1.

14   Crowland, pp. 145–47.

15   Ross, Edward IV, pp. 242–43; Hicks, False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence, 200–04; CPR, 1476–85, p. 115.

16   Mancini, pp. 63–65.

17   Pollard, ‘Elizabeth Woodville and Her Historians’, p. 156.

18   Mancini, p. 97.

19   PROME, January 1484, item 1 [5].

20   Commynes, vol. II, pp. 63–64.

21   Kendall, pp. 147, 259–60, 532 n.8, 555–56. Notably, Kendall cites Richard’s letter of instructions regarding the Earl of Desmond, discussed in Chapter 3, to support his claim that the Woodvilles procured Clarence’s death, despite the fact that Richard’s letter regarding Desmond never mentions the Woodvilles, explicitly or implicitly.

22   Levine, Tudor Dynastic Problems, p. 30 & n. 66.

23   Kendall, p. 259; Foedora vol. 12, p. 66; Stonor Letters and Papers, vol. II, p. 41–42; CPR, 1476–85, p. 102.

24   CPR, 1476–85, pp. 553–54.

25   Charles Ross, Edward IV, pp. 253–54; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 245 & n. 4.

26   CPR, 1476–85, pp. 553–54, 565–66, 571.

10    Before the Storm

  1   For what follows see Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, pp. 251–53.

  2   Records of the Parliament of Scotland.

  3   York House Books, vol. I, p. 196.

  4   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 253.

  5   For what follows see Griffiths in Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Royal Funerals, pp. 47–53.

  6   Kendall, pp. 197, 254.

  7   Calendar of Papal Registers, vol. 13, 7 January 1482.

  8   John A.F. Thomson, ‘Woodville, Lionel (c. 1454–1484)’, ODNB September 2011.

  9   PL, vol. I, p. 645, no. 403.

10   Davis, William Waynflete, p. 33.

11   Calendar of Papal Registers, vol. 13, 14 July 1479.

12   English Historical Documents, p. 903.

13   Morant, History and Antiquities of the County of Essex, vol. I, p. 252.

14   Pidgeon, ‘Anthony Wydeville’, part 2, p. 20; Scott, part 2, p. 170

15   Hicks, ‘Changing Role’, p. 221; Pidgeon,, ‘Anthony Wydeville’, part 2, pp. 21–22.

16   Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, had borne the future Henry VII when she was just 13, but such cases were fortunately rare; even among the nobility, where girls often wed at very young ages, consummation was often delayed until the bride was 15 or 16.

17   Privy Purse Expenses, pp. 163–65; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 284.

18   Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 295–96.

19   Hellinga, pp. 29–31, 48

20   Armstrong, ‘Piety of Cicely, Duchess of York’, p. 85; Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Royal Funerals, p. 4 n.7.

21   F.M., Gentleman’s Magazine, 1831, p. 25; Routh, ‘Princess Bridget’, pp. 13–14.

22   Davis, William Waynflete, p. 70–71; Wood, History and Antiquities, vol. 1, pp. 637–38. For Richard Woodville’s position, see Calto and Evans, p. 736.

23   Philomena Jones, ‘Anne Mowbray’, in Petre, p. 88.

24   R.G. Davies, ‘Beauchamp, Richard (d. 1481)’, ODNB, online edition, May 2009.

25   Calendar of Papal Registers, 7 January 1481/82.

26   Muller, Stephen Gardiner, p. 306; C.D.C. Armstrong, ‘Gardiner, Stephen (c.1495x8–1555)’, ODNB, online edition, January 2008.

27   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Royal Funerals, pp. 58–60.

28   For what follows see Ross, Edward IV, pp. 287–90; Ross, Richard III, 45–47; Jones, ‘Richard III as a Soldier’, p. 100; Wilkins, pp. 76–78.

29   Coventry Leet Records, p. 505.

30   Crowland, p. 149.

11    Welcome Fortune!

  1   Ives, ‘Andrew Dymmock’, pp. 228–29. The letter bears no year, but Ives makes a strong argument for the proper year being 1483.

  2   Orme, ‘Education of Edward V’, pp. 124–29.

  3   Ives, pp. 223–25.

  4   Carson, Maligned King, pp. 35–36

  5   PROME, January 1483, Introduction.

  6   In the 1450s, the future Edward IV and his brother requested that the delivery of their new bonnets – clearly not an undertaking fraught with secrecy – be by ‘the next sure messenger’. Scofield, Edward IV, vol. 1, p. 20.

  7   Ross, Richard III, p. 187; Ross, Edward IV, pp. 336–37; Driver, ‘Sir Thomas St Leger’, pp. 213, 216; PROME, January 1483, Introduction and items 20 and 21.

  8   Crowland, p. 151; Mancini, pp. 59, 107 n.5; Scofield, Edward IV, vol. II, p. 365; Commynes, vol. II, pp. 62, 87.

  9   Crowland, p. 149.

10   Mancini, pp. 59–61, 107–08 n. 7; Crowland, p. 153.

11   Palliser, ‘Richard III and York’, p. 56.

12   Kendall, Richard the Third, pp. 193–94.

13   Mancini, p. 71; Crowland, p. 155.

14   Armstrong, ‘Some Examples of the Distribution and Speed of News’, p. 450.

15   Kendall, p. 200; Ross, Richard III, p. 66; Roskell, ‘The Office and Dignity of Protector’, p. 196.

16   The Logge Register of PCC Wills, no. 105, p. 329.

17   Crowland, p. 155; Mancini, pp. 69–72.

18   More, pp. 11, 52.

19   Ives, pp. 221–22; Gairdner, History of the Life and Reign of Richard the Third, p. 394.

20   Crowland, p. 153–55.

21   Mancini, pp. 71–75.

22   Crowland, p. 155.

23   Pollard, Richard III and the Princes in the Tower, p. 97; Charles Ross, Richard III, p. 68 & n.18.

24   Hicks, Wars of the Roses, pp. 216–17.

25   Mancini, p. 75.

26   Edward IV’s French Expedition, p. 14.

27   Jones, ‘Richard III as a Soldier’, p. 98.

28   Rawcliffe, The Staffords, pp. 30–31.

29   Harris, Edward Stafford, p. 21.

30   British Library Additional Manuscripts 6113, folio 74d.

31   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, Royal Funeral, pp. 17–31.

32   Rous, Historia Regum Angliae, p. 212.

33   For what follows see Mancini, 75–79, 116 n.46; Crowland, pp. 155–57; More, 18–21.

34   Rivers’s stay at Sheriff Hutton can be seen from his will; see Appendix. For Grey, see Pollard, Worlds of Richard III.

35   Mancini, p. 81; Horrox, ‘Financial Memoranda’, p. 211; Wilkins, pp. 87–89.

36   Crowland, p. 157; Mancini, p. 79.

37   Thomson, ‘Bishop Lionel Woodville’, p. 131; Stonor Letters, vol. II, p. 159; Grants from the Crown, p. 3; Harleian Ms 433, vol. III, p. 2.

38   Crowland, p. 161.

39   Kendall, p. 69.

40   Hicks, Richard III, pp. 96–97.

41   For further discussion along these lines, see Pollard, Richard III and the Princes in the Tower, pp. 101–06.

42   Mancini, p. 83–85.

43   Coronation of Richard III, p. 17; Crowland, p. 157–59.

44   Grants From the Crown, pp. 1–3; Harleian 433, vol. III, pp. 1–2; Wilkins, p. 75; CPR, 1476–1485, p. 180; Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 102.

45   Wilkins, pp. 88 & 205 n. 14.

46   Horrox, ‘Financial Memoranda’, pp. 211, 216; Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 102–03; Wilkins, p. 94–95, 177.

47   Mancini, pp. 85–87; Horrox, Study in Service, p. 103.

48   Griffiths and Thomas, Making of the Tudor Dynasty, p. 106.

49   Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 99–100.

50   Mancini, p. 81.

51   Horrox, Study in Service, p. 91.

52   Horrox, ‘Financial Memoranda’, p. 210.

53   Cornation of Richard III, p. 17.

54   Crowland, p. 159.

55   Harleian 433, vol. III, p. 190.

56   Harleian 433, vol. III, pp. 34–35.

57   Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘A “Most Benevolent Queen”’, p. 221.

58   Coronation of Richard III, p. 19.

59   Stonor Letters, vol. II, p. 159–60, no. 330.

60   For this and the extract above see Hammond and Sutton, Richard III: The Road to Bosworth Field, pp. 103–04.

61   John Leland, ‘Witchcraft and the Woodvilles’, pp. 281–87.

62   Argentine, said by Mancini to be the last of the attendants employed to wait on Edward V, does not appear to have been regarded with any suspicion by Richard III; later, Argentine was employed by Henry VII as Prince Arthur’s physician. Nandyke, described in a 1483 Act of Attainder as Buckingham’s ‘necromancer’, was caught up in rebellion in 1484, as well as Buckingham’s rebellion of 1483. Caerteon, Margaret Beaufort’s physician, was also involved in Buckingham’s rebellion, as we shall see in Chapter 12. Rhodes, p. 13; Rawcliffe, ‘Inventory’, pp. 384–85.

63   Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 113–16, offers a succinct discussion of the theories.

64   More, 48–49.

65   Vergil, Three Books, pp. 180–81.

66   Pollard, Richard III and the Princes in the Tower, p. 99.

67   More, pp. 48–49; Vergil, Three Books, pp. 180–81.

68   The daughter of John Lambert, a London mercer, Elizabeth Shore – rechristened by the dramatist Thomas Heywood in 1599 as ‘Jane’ – succeeded in having her marriage to William Shore annulled on account of his impotence. Thomas More casts her as Edward IV’s mistress, while he and the Great Chronicle of London assign her to Hastings as well. Richard III allowed his solicitor, Thomas Lynom, to take her as his wife. Rosemary Horrox, ‘Shore, Elizabeth [Jane] (d. 1526/7?)’, ODNB, 2004.

69   CPR, 1476–85, p. 371.

70   Stonor Letters, vol. II, p. 161, no. 331.

71   Mancini, p. 91; Hanham, Richard III, p. 179. Frustratingly, the Great Chronicle informs us that Dorset ‘escaped many wonderful dangers, whereof if I should tell all the circumstance, it would make a long book’. Great Chronicle, pp. 231–32.

72   Crowland, p. 159; Mancini, p. 89. That the men were armed is confirmed by Simon Stallworth, who writes in a private letter that there were ‘great plenty of harnessed men’ at Westminster.

73   Stonor Letters, vol. II, p. 161, no. 331.

74   Mancini, p. 95; More, p. 67; Crowland, pp. 159–61.

75   PROME, January 1484, item 1 [5].

76   Helmholz, ‘The Sons of Edward IV’, pp. 111–13.

77   This and other genealogical information is taken from Ashdown-Hill, Eleanor, pp. 19, 68, 88, 101.

78   Commynes, p. 63.

79   Ashdown-Hill, Eleanor, p. 209; Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, 16 December 1533, item 1528; 3 November 1534, item 1368.

80   Cavill, English Parliaments of Henry VII, p. 30.

81   Crowland, p. 161.

82   Hampton, ‘Robert Stillington’, pp. 163–64.

83   Ashdown-Hill, Eleanor, p. 92.

84   Ashdown-Hill, Eleanor, p. 142.

85   Ashdown-Hill, Eleanor, p. 171.

86   Mancini, p. 69.

87   Carson, pp. 72, 230–31; Ashdown-Hill, Eleanor, pp. 115, 156–57.

88   Crowland, pp. 169–71.

89   For what follows, see Helmholz, Marriage Litigation, pp. 26–31.

90   Coronation of Richard III, pp. 24–25; Crowland, pp. 159–61; Mancini, p. 97.

91   Harleian 433, vol. III, p. 25; Pollard, Worlds of Richard III, p. 5.

92   Crowland, p. 161; Rous, Historia Regum Anglia, pp. 213–14 (translated in Hanham, Richard III and His Early Work, 119–20).

93   Harleian 433, vol. III, p. 25; Pollard, Worlds of Richard III, p. 5.

94   Crotch, Prologues and Epilogues, p. 39; Percy, Reliques, pp. 45–47; Ritson, Ancient Songs and Ballads, vol. II, pp. 3–5; Chronicles of the White Rose of York, p. 209.

12    Under the Hog

  1   For what follows see Coronation of Richard III, pp. 35–38, 169.

  2   For what follows see Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, ‘Beaufort, Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby (1443–1509)’, ODNB, 2004.

  3   For what follows see King’s Mother, pp. 48–62.

  4   Catto and Evans, eds, History of the University of Oxford, vol. II, p. 736; CPR, 1476–85, pp. 569–70.

  5   Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 149–50; Road to Bosworth Field, p. 125; Stow, p. 450.

  6   Crowland, p. 163.

  7   Harleian 433, vol. II, p. 2; Mancini, p. 93.

  8   For what follows see Crowland, pp. 163–69; Vergil, Three Books, pp. 192–204; Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 138–77; Ross, Richard III, 105–24; Gill, passim.

  9   Kibre, ‘Lewis of Caerlon’, pp. 101–02.

10   Gill, Buckingham’s Rebellion, p. 13–14; Thomson, pp. 132–33.

11   Road to Bosworth Field, p. 145.

12   Farrer and Sutton, ‘The Duke of Buckingham’s Sons’, pp. 87–91.

13   D. Sanituste, “‘Putting Downe”’, p. 145.

14   Crowland, p. 165.

15   Farrer and Sutton, ‘The Duke of Buckingham’s Sons’, pp. 87–91.

16   Arthurson and Kingwell, ‘Proclamation of Henry Tudor’, pp. 101–02.

17   Farrer and Sutton, ‘The Duke of Buckingham’s Sons’, pp. 88–90.

18   Harleian 433, vol. I, p. 63. Farrar and Sutton suggest (p. 90) that the children were taken into Richard III’s or his queen’s household, but the authors appear to have been unaware of the order allowing Katherine’s servants and children to be brought to her in London.

19   Seabourne, Imprisoning Medieval Women, pp. 42–43.

20   Vergil, Three Books, p. 204.

21   Charles Ross, Richard III, p. 118.

22   Vergil, Three Books, p. 203.

23   Clarke, ‘English Royal Marriages’, pp. 1024–25.

24   Harleian 433, vol. III, p. 190.

25   Kendall, p. 484.

26   Williamson, p. 122–23.

27   CPR, 1476–85, p. 485; King’s Works, vol. II, p. 680.

28   Harleian 433, vol. I, p. 213; vol. II, p. 130.

29   Crowland, p. 171.

30   Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 275–77; CPR, 1476–85, pp. 519–20; Bellamy, pp. 121–22; Fabyan, pp. 671–72; Great Chronicle, p. 236.

31   Griffiths and Thomas, Making of the Tudor Dynasty, p. 106.

32   Griffiths and Thomas, Making of the Tudor Dynasty, pp. 110–20; Charles Ross, Richard III, pp. 198–200; Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 277–78.

33   For what follows see Grant, ‘Foreign Affairs under Richard III’, pp. 123–26; Chrimes, pp. 31–34; Ross, Richard III, pp. 198–201; Antonovics, ‘Henry VII’, pp. 171–73; Griffiths and Thomas, pp. 118–20

34   Quoted in Dockray, Richard III, p. 77.

35   Spont, La Marine Francaise, p. 9. Admirers of Richard III have, rather disingenuously, transferred this isolated statement by the French into Henry Tudor’s own mouth. Ashdown-Hill, Last Days of Richard III, pp. 48, 58; Carson, pp. 244–45, Born in 1470, and therefore far too young to remember the events of 1470–71 personally, Charles VIII might have simply overlooked a clerical error.

36   For what follows see James Ross, John de Vere, pp. 74–84; Griffiths and Thomas, pp. 122–23.

37   Griffiths and Thomas, p. 120; Hammond, Richard III and the Bosworth Campaign, p. 40.

38   Hammond, Richard III and the Bosworth Campaign, p. 40; Hutton, The Battle of Bosworth Field, 190–91.

39   Harleian 433, vol. III, pp. 124–25.

40   Harleian 433, vol. I, pp. 59, 92, 177; Thomson, ‘Bishop Lionel Woodville and Richard III’, pp. 134–35; John A.F. Thomson, ‘Woodville, Lionel (c. 1454–1484)’, ODNB, September 2011; Britton, History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of Salisbury, p. 94.

41   For the following see Crowland, pp. 175–77.

42   Hammond, Road to Bosworth Field, p. 199.

43   Buck, p. 191. Kincaid’s edition contains an extensive description of the textual history of Buck’s manuscript. For further discussion, see Hanham, ‘Sir George Buck and Princess Elizabeth’s Letter’, and Kincaid, ‘Buck and the Elizabeth of York Letter’.

44   E 404/78/3/47. See the articles by Court, Barrie Williams, and Marques in the bibliography.

45   Vergil, Three Books, p. 215.

46   Vergil, Three Books, pp. 210, 214. Although Vergil is vague about the time for this episode, it appears to have occurred shortly before Anne’s death.

47   Ashdown-Hill, Last Days of Richard III, pp. 27–28.

48   Vergil, Henry VII, online edition; Pierce, Margaret Pole, pp. 8–9.

49   Horrox, Study in Service, p. 293; CPR, 1476–85, p. 532.

50   Harleian 433, vol. II, pp. 228–30; Paston Letters (Gardiner), vol. VI, no. 1001, pp. 81–84.

51   Ross, Richard III, p. 201; Griffiths and Thomas, Making of the Tudor Dynasty, pp. 129–31; Hammond, Richard III and the Bosworth Campaign, p. 75; Crowland, p. 181.

52   Hammond, Richard III and the Bosworth Campaign, pp. 75–78, 91.

53   Vergil, Three Books, p. 226; Great Chronicle, p. 238; Crowland, p. 183.

13    Won and Lost Causes

  1   Hammond, Richard III and the Bosworth Campaign, p. 108.

  2   Roskell, ‘William Catesby’, p.170–72; Williams, ‘Hastily Drawn-Up Will of William Catesby’, p. 49.

  3   Harleian 433, vol. I, pp. 183, 241; vol. II, pp. 135, 138.

  4   For what follows see Roger Stuart Thomas, p. 248–67.

  5   Hicks, False, Fleeting, Perjur’d Clarence, p. 103; Jones and Underwood, King’s Mother, p. 52.

  6   Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry VII, pp. 6–7, 286.

  7   PROME, November 1485, Introduction and items 7, 16 [21], 17 [22], 18 [23].

  8   PROME, November 1485, item 9.

  9   Okerlund, Elizabeth of York, pp. 48–49.

10   James and Underwood, King’s Mother, p. 67; Kingsford, ‘On Some London Houses’, pp. 43–50 passim.

11   Crowland, p. 191.

12   Linda Clark, ‘Bourchier, Thomas (c.1411–1486)’, ODNB, 2004.

13   Plumpton Letters, p. 63.

14   Ross, Richard III, p. 142. For my account of Edward’s adventures in Spain I have relied on Wilkins, pp. 1–15, 134, 179–81; Merriman, 134–37; Prescott, vol. I, pp. 396–97.

15   Prescott, p. 396.

16   Wilkins, p. 7.

17   Prescott, pp. 396–97.

18   Prescott, p. 397.

19   Wilkins, p.11.

20   Wilkins, p. 181.

21   Marques, p. 27.

22   Sanceau, Perfect Prince, pp. 296–97.

23   Herald’s Memoir, p. 99 & n.202.

24   Herald’s Memoir, pp. 100–01.

25   For the following see Herald’s Memoir, pp. 100–06.

26   Okerlund, Slandered Queen, p. 245.

27   Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry VII, pp. 148–49.

28   Vergil, quoted by Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, ‘“Retirement” of Elizabeth Woodville’, pp. 561–62.

29   Hall, p. 431.

30   Bacon, pp. 83–84 (italics mine).

31   See Gordon Smith, ‘Lambert Simnel and the King from Dublin’.

32   Vergil quoted in Bennett, Lambert Simnel, p. 135.

33   Bacon, pp. 91–92.

34   Cavill, English Parliaments, pp. 111–12.

35   Materials for a History of the Reign of Henry VII, pp. 319–20; CPR, 1485–94, p. 302; Sutton and Visser-Fuchs, “‘Retirement” of Elizabeth Woodville’, p. 563. The situation of having a married king on the throne and an adult dowager queen in good standing had not occurred since Edward III’s time. Queen Phillipa was dead when Richard II came to the throne; after the death in prison of Richard II, his queen, a child, was kept in Henry IV’s care before being returned to France; Henry V had imprisoned Henry IV’s queen on allegations of witchcraft before marrying Catherine of Valois; Henry VI’s mother, Catherine of Valois, died before Henry VI married Margaret of Anjou; Margaret of Anjou was in exile when Edward IV took the throne; and Elizabeth Woodvile, of course, was not recognised as queen by Richard III.

36   Foedera, vol. 12, pp. 328–39; Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 279.

37   For what follows see Bennett, Lambert Simnel; Wilkins, Last Knight Errant, pp. 139–46; Chrimes, Henry VII, pp. 75–78; Okerlund, Elizabeth of York, pp. 70–75.

38   Wilkins, pp. 142–43 & 213 n.18.

39   Molinet quoted in Bennett, Lambert Simnel, p. 130.

40   Wilkins, pp. 142–43.

41   Rosemary Horrox, ‘Lovell, Francis, Viscount Lovell (b. c.1457, d. in or after 1488)’, ODNB, online edition, 2004.

42   Michael J. Bennett, ‘Simnel, Lambert (b. 1476/7, d. after 1534)’, ODNB, October 2008.

43   For what follows see Cavell, Heralds’ Memoir, pp. 120–50.

44   Bacon, p. 97.

45   Cavell, Heralds’ Memoir, pp. 156–60.

46   Chrimes, Henry VII, p. 140.

47   What follows is based primarily on Wilkins, pp. 151–64.

48   Vergil, Anglica Historia.

49   PL, no. 411, part I, p. 655.

50   Vergil, Anglica Historia. For a translation of Henry’s letter, see Wilkins, pp. 183–84.

51   Calendar of State Papers, Spanish, 15 July 1488,

52   Wilkins, p. 160.

53   Hall, p. 441.

54   Wilkins, p. 161.

55   Heralds’ Memoir, pp. 161, 172.

56   Beauchesne, p. 39.

14    The Last of the Blood

  1   Heralds’ Memoir, p. 175.

  2   Bacon, p. 88.

  3   Cokayne, vol. XII/1, p. 356. Mary had died before 21 July 1483, when her husband directed in his will that he be buried at Tintern Abbey ‘where my dear and best beloved wife resteth buried’. Thomas, ‘Herberts of Raglan’, p. 296. MacGibbon, p. 224, gives her death date as 1481.

  4   S.J. Gunn, ‘Grey, George, second earl of Kent (d. 1503)’, ODNB, September 2011.

  5   Cokayne vol. 1, pp. 248–50.

  6   Materials for a Reign of Henry VII, pp. 562–63; C 142/7/2.

  7   E 315/486/7.

  8   Heralds’ Memoir, p. 102.

  9   Currin, ‘King’s Army’, esp. pp. 398, 400, 403.

10   Heralds’ Memoir, p. 71, 81.

11   CPR, 1485–94, pp. 106, 278–79, 481, 494–95; PROME, November 1487 [opening].

12   TNA: C 142/7/2, C 142/7/39. For the will, see the Appendix.

13   CPR, 1485–94, p. 382.

14   See Appendix.

15   For what follows see Royal Funerals, pp. 4 n. 7, 66–74.

16   D. H. Thomas, ‘Herberts of Raglan’, pp. 278, 351.

17   TNA: PROB 11/10/401; Thomas, pp. 353–57.

18   Pugh, Marcher Lordships of South Wales, p. 241 n.5; Mary L. Robertson, ‘Wingfield, Sir Richard (b. in or before 1469, d. 1525)’, ONDB, October 2008.

19   Harris, Edward Stafford, p. 42.

20   Wingfield, p. 251.

21   C.S.L. Davies, ‘Stafford, Henry, second duke of Buckingham (1455–1483)’, ONDB, September 2011; Horrox, Study in Service, pp. 172, 264.

22   Pugh, Marcher Lordships of South Wales, p. 241 n.5.

23   Wingfield, ed., Some Records of the Wingfield Family, p. 223.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!