Post-classical history

NOTES

The following abbreviations are used in the Notes:

Bouquet

M. Bouquet et al., Receuil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, 24 vols (Paris, 1738–)

BPH

R. I. Moore, The Birth of Popular Heresy (London, 1975)

H&A

Edward Peters, Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe (Philadelphia, PA, 1980)

Mansi

J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio (Florence and Venice, 1758–98)

MGH

Monumenta Germaniae Historica:

 

L de L

Libelli de lite

 

SRG

Scriptores rerum Germanicum in usum scholarum

 

SS

Scriptores in folio

PL

J. P. Migne, Patrologia Latina, 221 vols (Paris, 1844–5)

RS

Rolls series (London, 1858–1911)

W&E

Walter L. Wakefield and A. P. Evans, Heresies of the High Middle Ages (New York, 1969)

Wakefield

Walter L. Wakefield, Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France, 1100–1250 (London, 1974)

Prologue: death and a maiden

1 Chronica regia Coloniensis, MGH SRG, XVIII, 114; BPH, 88–9.

2 MGH SS, VIII, 65–6; BPH, 21.

3 MGH SS, XIII, 286–7.

4 Chronicon Anglicanum, ed. J. Stevenson, RS (London, 1875), 121–5; BPH, 86–8.

5 Walter Simon, Cities of Ladies: Beguine Communities in the Medieval Low Countries, 1200–1565 (Philadelphia, PA, 2001), 23.

6 Graham Robb, The Discovery of France (London, 2007), 35.

7 William of Newburgh, Historia rerum Anglicarum, II, xiii, ed. R. Howlett, Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen etc., RS (London 1884–5); BPH, 131–4.

1: The avenging flames

1 Rodulfus Glaber Opera, ed. John France, Nithard Bulst and Paul Reynolds (Oxford, 1989), 138–51.

2 John of Ripoll, in André: vie de Gauzlin, abbé de Fleury, ed. R. H. Bautier and Gillette Labory (Paris, 1969), 181.

3 André: vie de Gauzlin, 99.

4 For a clear exposition of this inheritance, David Luscombe, Medieval Thought (Oxford, 1997), 9–38.

5 Chronicon, ed. J. Chavanon (Paris, 1897), 184–5; cf. Richard Landes, Relics, Apocalypse and the Deceits of History: Ademar of Chabannes, 989–1034 (Cambridge, MA, 1995), 130–53.

6 Norman Cohn, Europe’s Inner Demons (London, 1975), 1–15; Stephen Benko, Pagan Rome and the Early Christians (London, 1985), 54–79.

7 Paul of St Père of Chartres, Gesta synodi Aurelianensis, Bouquet, X, 536–9; BPH, 10–15.

8 Landes, Relics, 178–93.

9 For what follows, R. I. Moore, ‘Heresy as Politics and the Politics of Heresy’, in Law and the Illicit in Medieval Europe, ed. Ruth Mazo Karras, Joel Kaye and E. Ann Matter (Philadelphia, PA, 2008), 33–46.

10 The Letters of Abelard and Heloise, trans. Betty Radice, 2nd edn (London, 2003), 20.

11 M. T. Clanchy, Abelard: A Medieval Life (Oxford, 1997), 289–90.

2: The gift of the Holy Spirit

1 BPH, 14.

2 Andre: vie de Gauzlin, 97–8.

3 Rodulfus Glaber, 92–3.

4 Landolf Senior, Historia mediolanensis, II, MGH SS, VIII, 65–6; BPH, 19–21. Rodulfus Glaber, 177–8I, has a story apparently related but even by his standards too bizarre to be worth discussing.

5 Huguette Taviani, ‘Naissance d’une héresie en Italie du Nord en Xle. Siecle’, Annates ESC 29:5 (1974), 1224–52.

6 ‘What was essential to a textual community was not a written version of a text, although that was sometimes present, but an individual who, having mastered it, then utilized it for reforming a group’s thought and action.’ Brian Stock (the originator of this extremely important idea), The Impact of Literacy (Princeton, NJ, 1983), 90.

7 Acta synodi Atrebatensis, PL, 142, col. 1271–1312; BPH, 15–19.

3: The apostolic life

1 Acta synodi Atrebatensis, PL, 142, col. 1271-1312; BPH, 15-19.

2 Rodulfus Glaber, 88–91.

3 Gesta episcoporum Leodiensis, MGH SS, VII, 226–8; BPH, 21–4.

4 Baldri of Dol, Vita B. Roberti, PL, 162, col. 1043–58, Chapters 11, 23; trans. Bruce L. Venarde, Robert of Arbrissel: A Medieval Religious Life (Washington, DC, 2003).

4: Monks, miracles and Manichees

1 Chronicon, ed. Chavanon, 173; BPH, 9. On Ademar see Landes, Relics.

2 BPH, 79, where it is wrongly dated c. 1160: see Guy Lobrichon, ‘The Chiaroscuro of Heresy’, in The Peace of God: Social Violence and Religious Response around the Year 1000, ed. Thomas Head and Richard Landes (Ithaca, NY, 1992), 80–103.

3 ‘Chronicle of St Pierre du Puy’, in C. Devic and J. Vaissette, Histoire générale du Languedoc, V, col. 15.

4 Chronicon, ed. Chavanon, 184.

5 P. Bonnassie and R. Landes, in Les socitéttés mtéridionales autour de l’an Mil, ed. M. Zimmermann (Paris, 1992), 435–59.

6 PL 137, col. 823–6; trans. Thomas Head, ‘The Translation of the Body of St Junianus’, in Miri Rubin (ed.), Medieval Christianity in Practice- (Princeton, 2009), 218.

7 E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande (Oxford, 1937); abridged edn (Oxford, 1976), 18.

8 Patrick Geary, Living with the Dead in the Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY, 1994), 95–124.

9 Oxford, Corpus MS 157; Edmund King, Medieval England (London, 1988), 34–5.

5: The simoniac heresy

1 Orderic Vitalis, Ecclesiastical History, viii, 26, ed. Marjorie Chibnall, 6 vols (Oxford, 1968–80), IV, 312–5.

2 Vita Romualdi, PL, 144, cols 965, 1005.

3 See p. 63.

4 John of Lodi, Vita B. Petri Damiani, PL, 144, col. 115.

5 Odo of Cluny, Life of Gerald, trans. Gerard Sitwell, St Odo of Cluny (London, 1958), 102–3.

6 Vita B. Arialdi, MGH SS, XXX, ii, 1050; Vita S. I. Gualberti, MGH SS, XXX, ii, 1091.

7 Arnulf, Gesta episcoporum … mediolanensium, III, xi, MGH SS, VIII, 18.

8 Bonizo of Sutri, ‘To a Friend’, trans. I. S. Robinson, The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century (Manchester, 2004), 196.

9 MGH SS, XXX, 1057.

10 Odo of Cluny, III, 9, trans. Sitwell, 80–81.

11 Trans. Robinson, Papal Reform, 83.

12 Robinson, Papal Reform, 137.

13 Enarrationes in Psalmos, X.v.

14 Bonizo of Sutri, trans. Robinson, Papal Reform, 212–14.

6: Routing out these detestable plagues

1 Life of Anselm of Lucca, MGH SS, XII, 24.

2 The Register of Pope Gregory VII, 1075–1083, 2.55; trans. H. E. J. Cowdrey (Oxford, 2002), 148–9; The ‘Epistolae Vagantes’ of Pope Gregory VII, trans. H. E. J. Cowdrey (Oxford, 1972), 26–7.

3 MGH L de L, II, 438.

4 BPH, 24–5; Register, 231-4.

5 PL, 172, 1398–9.

6 A Monk’s Confession III, 17, trans. Paul J. Archambault (University Park, PA, 1996), 195–8. Guibert’s memoir is also translated, less accurately but with an excellent introduction and notes, by John F. Benton, in Self and Society in Medieval France (New York, 1970).

7 See below, p. 102–3 (Lambert), p. 94 (Waldensians), p. 177–8, 221–2 (Bernard Raymond).

8 Cf. pp. 177–9, 221–2 (Vézalay) below.

9 A Monk’s Confession, III, 16, trans. Archambault, 193–5.

10 A Monk’s Confession, I, 26, trans. Archambault, 89–91.

11 Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1941), 55.

12 Jay Rubinstein, Guibert of Nogent: Portrait of a Medieval Mind (New York, 2002), 111–24, 132–75.

13 Bernard of St Blasien (Bernard of Constance), Chronicle, trans. I. S. Robinson, Eleventh-Century Germany (Manchester, 2008), 305–6.

14 BPH, 32–3.

15 PL, 182, col. 52.

16 Paul Frédéricq, Corpus documentorum inquisitionis haereticaparvitatis neerlandicae (Ghent, 1889–1906), I, 15–18; BPH, 29–31.

17 BPH, 31–2; Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, trans. Lewis Thorpe (Harmondsworth, 1974), X, 25.

18 See p. 50.

7: Sowers of the word

1 Bruce L. Venarde, Robert of Arbrissel: A Medieval Religious Life (Washington, DC, 2003), 75.

2 Venarde, 92–100.

3 Wendy Davies, Small Worlds: The Village Community in Early Medieval Brittany (London, 1988), esp. 100–102.

4 Baldri of Dol, First Life of Robert of Arbrissel, in Venarde, 1–21.

5 Geoffrey Grossus, The Life of Blessed Bernard of Tiron, trans. Ruth Harwood Cline (Washington, DC, 2009).

6 Baldri of Dol, Chapter 15.

7 Andreas, Second Life, in Venarde, 22–67; the recently discovered portion is at 50–67.

8 Gesta pontificum Cenomannensium, Bouquet, XII, 547–51; BPH, 34–8.

9 PL, 182, col. 184–6; BPH, 39–46.

10 Tractatus contra Petrobrusianos, ed. James V. Fearns, Corpus christianorum continuatio medievalis, X (Turnhout, 1968); BPH, 60–62.

11 Against Henry has been identified, edited and translated into French by Monique Zerner: Guillaume monachi contre Henri schismatique et hérétique (Sources Chrétiennes 241, Paris, 2011 – too late to be taken fully into account here). Zerner has identified William of Arles as the author. Her work supersedes my translation in BPH, 46–60, of a later, elaborated version of the debate, also edited and translated by Zerner in this volume, on which my account of Henry’s views in The Origins of European Dissent, 91–101, was based. I am more than grateful to Monique Zerner for her great generosity in sharing this extremely important discovery, and her principal conclusions about it, in advance of its publication.

8: Sheep in the midst of wolves

1 MGH SS, XII, 673.

2 For what follows, Uwe Brunn, Des contestaires aux ‘Cathares’ (Études augustiniennes, Paris, 2006), 80 ff. My treatment in this chapter and the remainder of the book of everything that happened in the Rhineland region, and hence of a crucial part of my argument, is heavily indebted to this work.

3 PL, 182, col. 76–80; BPH, 76–8.

4 Walter Map, De nugis curialium: Courtiers’ Trifles, i. 20; ed. M. R. James, C.N. L. Brooke and R. A. B. Mynors (Oxford, 1983), 118–21; see below, 173–5.

5 MGH SS, XVI, 711. This burning is also noted, with no other information, in the slightly earlier Annals of Aachen.

6 Annales Brunwilarensis, MGH SS, XVI, 727.

9: Making enemies

1 The Chronicle of Morigny, quoted by Colin Morris, The Papal Monarchy (Oxford, 1989), 187.

2 Quoted in Morris, 339.

3 J. Rubinstein, Guibert of Nogent: Portrait of a Medieval Mind (New York and London, 2002), 30.

4 Introductio ad theologiam, PL, 178, col. 1056.

5 Dominique Iogna Prat, Order and Exclusion: Cluny and Christendom Face Heresy, Judaism and Islam (1000–1150) (Ithaca, NY, 1998).

6 John of Salisbury, Historia Pontificalis, iii, ed. and trans. Marjorie Chibnall (London, 1956), 8–9.

7 Gary Macy, The Hidden History of Women’s Ordination: Female Clergy in the Medieval West (Oxford, 2008), Chapter 1.

8 MGH SS, VI, 389–90; William of Newburgh, ed. Howlett, 60–64; BPH, 62–5.

9 John of Salisbury, ed. Chibnall, 59–66; see also Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, trans. Bruno Scott James (London, 1953), 329–32, and BPH, 66–71.

10 Bonizo of Sutri, trans. Robinson, Papal Reform 205.

11 Arsenio Frugoni, Arnaud de Brescia (Paris, 1993), 10–11.

12 Otto of Morena, Historia (1153–61); MGH SRG, VII, 73.

13 Walter Map, i. 24, ed. James, Brooke and Mynors, 80–83; the Lombard anonymous, trans. T. Carson as Barbarossa in Italy (New York, 1994), p. 30.

14 Otto of Freising, The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, trans. C. C. Mierow (New York, 1966), 143–4; Peter Abelard’s ‘Ethics’, ed. D. E. Luscombe (Oxford, 1971), 127.

10: Exposed to contumely and persecution

1 E. Martène and U. Durand, Amplissima collectio (Paris, 1724–33), 1252–70.

2 MGH SS, XIII, 286–7.

3 PL 195, col. 11–102; BPH, 88–94.

4 Hilbert Chiu, ‘The Intellectual Origins of Medieval Dualism’, M.Phil. diss., University of Sydney, 2009.

5 Mansi, XXI, col. 843.

6 Ralph of Coggeshall, Chronicon Anglicanum, 121–5; BPH, 86–8.

7 Ann. Coloniensis maximi, MGH SS, XVII, 778, 784–5; Mansi, XXI, col. 689–90.

8 Bouquet, XV, 790, 792, 799; BPH, 80–82.

9 Bouquet, XII, 343–4; BPH, 85–6. Hugh of Poitiers, The Vézelay Chronicle, trans. John Scott and John O. Ward (Binghamton, NY, 1992).

10 Frédéricq, Corpus II; BPH, 101–11. Cf. Simons, Cities of Ladies, 24–34.

11 The Letters and Charters of Gilbert Foliot, ed. A. Morey and C. N. L. Brooke (Cambridge, 1967), 207–10.

12 The Life of Ailred of Rievaulx by Walter Daniel, ed. F. M. Powicke (London, 1950), ci–cii.

13 William of Newburgh, ed. Howlett, 131–4; William Stubbs, Select Charters, 9th edn (Oxford, 1913), 173; BPH, 88–94.

14 Walter Map, ed. James, Brooke and Mynors, 118–21.

11: Sounding the alarm

1 William of Newburgh, II, 15, ed. Howlett, 136.

2 Mansi, XXII, 157–68; BPH, 94–8.

3 Gervase of Canterbury, Opera historica, ed. W. Stubbs, RS (London, 1879), 270–71.

4 Frederick L. Cheyette, Ermengard of Narbonne and the World of the Troubadours (Ithaca, NY, 2001), 288.

5 PL, 199, col. 1119–24; PL, 204, col. 235–40; BPH, 113–22.

6 Assize of Clarendon 21, David C. Douglas and G. W. Greenaway, English Historical Documents II, 1042–1189 (London, 1953), 410.

7 J. H. Mundy, The Repression of Catharism at Toulouse: The Royal Diploma of 1279 (Toronto, 1985), 239.

12: Drawing the lines

1 H&A, 168–70.

2 H&A, 170–73.

3 Lester K. Little, Liberty, Charity, Fraternity: Lay Religious Fraternities in the Age of the Commune (Bergamo, 1988) 20, 33–4; Frugoni, Arnaud de Brescia, 10–11.

4 Hugh Eteriano, Contra Patarenos, ed. Bernard, Janet and Sarah Hamilton (Leiden, 2004).

5 Chron. Universali anonymi Laudunensis, MGH SS, XXVI, 449.

6 Frances Andrews, The Early Humiliati (Cambridge, 1999).

7 Maureen C. Miller, The Formation of a Medieval Church: Ecclesiastical Change in Verona, 950–1150 (Ithaca, NY, 1993), especially 117–41; Maureen C. Miller, The Bishop’s Palace: Architecture and Authority in Medieval Italy (Ithaca, NY, 2000), 157–69.

13: Speaking of principles

1 H&A, 168–70.

2 Letters 73, 75, PL, 211, 371–2, 375, quoted by Cheyette, Ermengaud, 279.

3 Bouquet, XII, 447f.; Jean Leclerq, ‘La témoinage de Geoffroy d’Auxerre sur la vie cistercienne’, Studia Anselmiana (1953), 196–7.

4 De fide catholica contra haereticos, PL, 210, 366A.

5 Walter Map, ed. James, Brooke and Mynors, 124–7.

6 For the thirteenth-century version, Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend, trans. William Granger Ryan (Princeton, NJ, 1993), I, 371–4.

7 Stephen of Bourbon, W&E, 209.

8 Cheyette, Ermengaud, 319–20.

9 W&E, 278–89.

10 Euan Cameron, Waldenses: Rejections of Holy Church in Medieval Europe (Oxford, 2000), 36–48.

14: The enemy at the gate

1 PL, 215, col. 654–7.

2 Quoted in R. H. C. Davis, Medieval Europe from Constantine to St. Louis, 3rd edn (London, 2006), 379; and Morris, Papal Monarchy, 427.

3 Acta Sanctorum May V, 86–9; BPH, 127–32.

4 Quoted by David Foote, Lordship, Reform and the Development of Civil Society in Medieval Italy: The Bishopric of Orvieto, 1100–1250 (Notre Dame, IN, 2004), 116–7.

5 Registrum Inn. III, I. 298, PL, 214, col. 256.

6 PL, 215, col. 1147; 214, col. 904.

7 George W. Dameron, Episcopal Power and Florentine Society, 1000–1320 (Cambridge, MA, 1991) 118–20.

15: To war and arms

1 Registrum Inn. III, X.149 (27 November 1207), PL, 215, cols. 1246–1248.

2 The Song of the Cathar Wars, trans. Janet Shirley (Aldershot 1996), 18.

3 Mark Pegg, A Most Holy War (New York, 2008), 65.

4 A literal translation of the words attributed to him by Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogue on Miracles, V. xxi, often rendered as ‘Kill them all’: cf. Malcolm Barber, The Cathars: Dualist Heretics in the Languedoc in the High Middle Ages (London, 2000), 211–12, n.20.

5 Song of the Cathar Wars, 21–2; Peter of Les Vaux de Cernay, The History of the Albigensian Crusade, trans. W. A. and M. D. Sibley (Woodbridge, 1998), 117.

6 Song of the Cathar Wars, 41, 48; Peter of Les Vaux de Cernay, 119–20.

7 Peter of Les Vaux de Cernay, 83–5.

8 Song of the Cathar Wars, 33.

9 Peter of Les Vaux de Cernay, 106.

10 Peter of Les Vaux de Cernay, 10–14.

11 Mark Pegg, The Corruption of Angels: The Great Inquisition of 1245–46 (Princeton, NJ, 2001), 83–91.

12 Pegg, Holy War, 34–40.

16: Politics by other means

1 H&A, 173–4. For a complete translation of the canons, Decrees of The Ecumenical Councils, ed. Norman P. Tanner, 1 (Washington, DC, 1990).

2 Jacques de Vitry, quoted in John C. Moore, Innocent III (Notre Dame, IN, 2009), 288.

3 The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens, trans. W. A. and M. D. Sibley (Woodbridge, 2003), 74.

4 The ‘Liber Augustalis’, trans. James F. Powell (Syracuse, NY, 1971), 7–10.

5 Miller, The Bishop’s Palace, 166–9, from which this discussion is almost wholly derived.

17: The sleep of reason

1 John of Salisbury, Polycraticus, ii. 17, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Turnholt, 1993), 105–6.

2 The Register of Pope Gregory VII, 1075–1083, trans. H. E. J. Cowdrey (Oxford, 2002), vii.21, pp. 351–2.

3 Edward L. Peters, The Magician, the Witch and the Law (Philadelphia, PA, 1978), 156–7.

4 Cf. Hugh Trevor-Roper, The European Witch-Craze of the 16th and 17th Centuries (Harmondsworth, 1967), 81.

5 Deborah Lipton, Images of Intolerance (Berkeley, CA, 1999), 5–13. For what follows, Alessia Trivellone, L’hérétique imaginé (Turnhout, 2009).

6 Golden Legend, II, 309.

7 Annals of Worms, MGH SS, XVII, 839.

8 Annals of Worms, 843; Trier Chronicle, MHG SS, 24, 402.

9 W&E, 268.

10 Ann E. Lester, ‘From the Margins to the Center: Religious Women, the Cistercian Order, and the Power of Reform in Thirteenth-Century Northern France’, International Congress of Historical Studies, Amsterdam 2010.http://www.ichs2010.0rg/programme.asp?find=Lester.

11 Augustine Thompson, Revival Preachers and Politics in Thirteenth Century Italy (Oxford, 1992).

12 L’histoire du Catharisme en discussion: Le ‘concile’ de St. Félix (1167), ed. Monique Zerner (Nice, 2001).

13 H&A, 194–5.

14 ‘The Chronicle of William Pelhisson’, trans. Wakefield, 209.

18: The vineyard of the lord

1 Jörg Feuchter, Konsuln und Büβer: Die städtischen Eliten von Montauban vor dem Inquisitor Petrus Cellani (1236/1241) (Tübingen, 2007).

2 Wakefield, 250–58; for the provisions of Raymond of Peñafort, H&A, 198–200.

3 Pegg, The Corruption of Angels.

4 Partial trans., Wakefield, 242–9.

5 Partial trans., W&E, 269–74.

6 For Armanno Punzilupo, Lansing, Passion and Purity, 92–5; Augustine Thompson, Cities of God (University Park, PA, 2005), 211–12, 430–33; for Bompietro di Bologna, Lansing, 152–56.

7 Pelhisson, trans. Wakefield, 220.

8 Golden Legend, I, 255; Gerald of Frachet, quoted in Karen Sullivan, The Inner Lives of the Medieval Inquisitors (Chicago, IL, 2011), 104–5.

9 W&E, 274–8.

10 Le liber de dubus principiis, ed. A. Dondaine (Rome, 1938), 64–78; BPH, 132–45.

11 ‘L’hiérarchie cathare en Italie, I, Le “De heresi catharorum”, ed. A. Dondaine, Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, XIX (1949); BPH, 122–7.

12 ‘L’hiérarchie cathare en Italie, II’, ed. A. Dondaine, Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, XX (1950); BPH, 145–54.

13 Hugh Eteriano, Contra Paterenos, passim. Bernard Hamilton’s introduction to this treatise (1–102) makes the most learned and persuasive modern case for close links between Byzantine and Western heresy – if one accepts, as I cannot, the equation of Lateran III between ‘Patarene’ and ‘Cathar’ and the assumption that both mean ‘dualist’ there and thereafter (cf. his pp. 8–9 and p. 209 above).

14 Meyer Schapiro, The Sculpture of Moissac (London, 1985, 4–5); Constance H. Berman, ‘Medieval Agriculture, the Southern French Countryside and the Early Cistercians’, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 76/5 (1986).

Afterword: The war among the scholars

1 Trevor-Roper, 81.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!