Post-classical history

Further reading

For a non-literate society Vikings are good booksellers. There is a huge number of general books, many lavishly illustrated. I have largely avoided listing these, and have preferred instead to cite edited volumes of papers in English, many of which also provide accessible introductions to Scandinavian material. Most of these also have full bibliographies to other sources and primary evidence. Because of the rapid growth of new archaeological discoveries I have also emphasized recent works and generally avoided works more than 15 years old.

General introductions

J. Graham-Campbell (ed.), Cultural Atlas of the Viking World (Andromeda, 1994)

J. Hines, A. Lane, and M. Redknap (eds), Land, Sea and Home (Maney, 2004)

J. Jesch, Women in the Viking Age (Boydell & Brewer, 1991)

P. Sawyer (ed.), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings (Oxford University Press, 1997)


E. Christiansen, The Norsemen in the Viking Age (Blackwell, 2002)

E. Roesdahl, Viking Age Denmark (British Museum Publications, 1982)

J. Adams and K. Holman (eds), Scandinavia and Europe 800–1350: Contact, Conflict and Coexistence (Brepols 2004)


N. Price, The Viking Way (Dept of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala, 2002)


O. Crumlin-Pedersen and B. Munch Thye (eds), The Ship as Symbol in Prehistoric and Medieval Scandinavia (The National Museum [Copenhagen], 1995)

A. Nørgård Jørgensen et al. (eds), Maritime Warfare in Northern Europe (The National Museum [Copenhagen], 2002)

Vikings in Literature and Runes

R. I. Page, Chronicles of the Vikings (British Museum Press, 1995)

B. Sawyer, The Viking-Age Rune-Stones (Oxford University Press, 2000)

England and Wales

D. M. Hadley and J. D. Richards (eds), Cultures in Contact: Scandinavian Settlement in England in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (Brepols, 2000)

R. A. Hall et al., Aspects of Anglo-Scandinavian York (Council for British Archaeology, The Archaeology of York 8/4, 2004)

J. D. Richards, Viking Age England (new edn, Tempus, 2004)

J. Graham-Campbell, R. Hall, J. Jesch, and D. N. Parsons (eds), Vikings and the Danelaw (Oxbow Books, 2001)

M. Redknap, Vikings in Wales: An Archaeological Quest (National Museums & Galleries of Wales, 2000)


J. Graham-Campbell and C. Batey, Vikings in Scotland: An Archaeological Survey (Edinburgh University Press, 1998)

A. Ritchie, Viking Scotland (Batsford, 1993)


H. B. Clarke, M. Ní Mhaonaigh, and R. Ó Floinn (eds), Ireland and Scandinavia in the Early Viking Age (Four Courts Press, 1998)

A.-C. Larsen (ed.), The Vikings in Ireland (Viking Ship Museum, 2001)

The North Atlantic

J. H. Barrett (ed.), Contact, Continuity, and Collapse: The Norse Colonization of the North Atlantic (Brepols, 2003)

C. E. Batey, J. Jesch, and C. D. Morris (eds), The Viking Age in Caithness, Orkney and the North Atlantic (Edinburgh University Press, 1993)

W. W. Fitzhugh and E. I. Ward (eds), Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga (Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000)

S. Lewis-Simpson (ed.), Vinland Revisited: The Norse World at the Turn of the First Millennium (Historic Sites Association, 2004)

Reinventing the Vikings

A. Wawn, The Vikings and the Victorians: Inventing the Old North in 19th-Century Britain (D. S. Brewer, 2000)

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