Notes

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Prologue: Jerusalem 1187

1     Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 163.

2     Imad al-Din, as quoted by Abu Shama in the Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Historiens Orientaux, vol. IV (Paris, 1898), p. 333, and translated and reproduced in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 301.

3     Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 147.

4     Saladin’s extortion ceased in 1192 only when Richard the Lionheart demanded free access for pilgrims to the Holy Sepulchre.

5     Anonymous, De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum; repr., trans. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, p. 163. The author of De Expugnatione, though anonymous, is thought to have been an Englishman in the service of Raymond of Tripoli.

6     Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 156.

7     Ibn Shaddad, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, 189.

8     Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 160.

9     Tyerman, God’s War, p. 353.

10   Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 180.

11   Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 240.

12   Ehrenkreutz, Saladin, p. 237.

13   Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 280.

14   Ibid., pp. 275–6.

15   See for example Tyerman, God’s War, p. 52: ‘The question of the extent of Arabisation and Islamicisation of conquered lands remains obscure and vexed, but it appears that the process was slow, uneven and, by the eleventh century, still incomplete. It is not certain whether there was even a Muslim majority in Syria or Palestine when the crusaders arrived in 1097.’ The evidence for a Christian majority is far greater than Tyerman admits and will be dealt with later in this book.

16   Ibid., sura 9, verse 4.

17   The Koran, trans. Dawood, sura 9, verse 14.

18   See Cyril Glassé, The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, Stacey International, London 1991.

19   Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 444.

20   Ibid., p. 333.

21   Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 276.

22   Ibid., p. 361.

23   William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, pp. 406–8.

Part I: THE MIDDLE EAST BEFORE THE CRUSADES

1: The Christian World

1     Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 1.28; Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors, 44; also see Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p. 611–18.

2     Theodoret of Cyrrhus, A History of the Monks of Syria, p.165. Theodoret (393–466) is referring to the vast numbers of pilgrims who arrived from all over the Christian world to witness Simeon Stylites (c. 385–459) in northern Syria.

3     Joseph Patrich, ‘Church, State and the Transformation of Palestine: The Byzantine Period’, in Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, pp. 470–72.

4     Leontius of Byzantium quoted in Colin Morris, The Sepulchre of Christ and the Medieval West: From the Beginning to 1600, p. 53.

5     The population of Palestine during the Byzantine period was about a million, a much greater population than at any time until the twentieth century. See Joseph Patrich, ‘Church, State and the Transformation of Palestine: The Byzantine Period’, in Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, p. 473; and Gil, History of Palestine, p. 169, and footnote 40 on that page, referring to Judaea.

6     Antiochus Strategos, ‘The Capture of Jerusalem by the Persians in 614 AD’, trans. Frederick C. Conybeare, English Historical Review, 25 (1910), pp. 502–17.

7     Sebeos, The Armenian History, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 1999; also Sebeos’ History, trans. Robert Bedrosian, online: http://rbedrosian.com/sebtoc.html.

8     For example, the Mamilla cave discovery in 1992, a mass grave for those whose bodies were recovered from the Mamel cistern after the Persian massacre: see Ronny Reich, ‘ “God Knows their Names”: Mass Christian Grave Revealed in Jerusalem’, Biblical Archaeology Review, 22/2 (1996,), pp.26–35; also Yossi Nagar, ‘Human Skeletal Remains from the Mamilla Cave, Jerusalem’, Israel Antiquities Authority: http://www.antiquities. org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=17&sub_subj_id=179; and Gideon Avni, ‘The Persian Conquest of Jerusalem (641 CE): An Archaeological Assessment’: http://www.bibleinterp.com/articles/pers357904.shtml.

9     Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. 1, p. 197.

10   Sebeos is quoted by Vasiliev in History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. 1, p. 198. See also Sebeos, The Armenian History, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 1999, and Sebeos’ History, trans. Robert Bedrosian, online: http://rbedrosian.com/sebtoc.html.

2: The Arab Conquests

1     The Koran, trans. Dawood, sura 22, verses 39–40.

2     Leoni Caetani, Studi di Storia Orientale, vol. 1, p. 368.

3     Dosabhai Framji Karaka, History of the Parsis Including Their Manners, Customs, Religion and Present Position, vol. 1, p. 15.

4     Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It, p. 120. This account in the manuscript of Thomas the Presbyter is the first non-Muslim reference to Mohammed; the battle took place on 7 February 634. The Samaritans were closely related to the Jews; they claimed theirs was the true version of Judaism as practised before the Babylonian exile. Their numbers were significant in Palestine at this time, but they now number fewer than a thousand worldwide.

5     Washington Irving, Mahomet and His Successors, vol. 2, in The Works of Washington Irving, vol. 13, chapters 9–11; also Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chapter 51.

6     Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chapter 51.

7     Sophronius’ sermon of 6 December 636 or 637, in Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It, p. 72.

8     Some Muslim sources say Jerusalem endured a seven-month siege, but the oldest Muslim sources, and also Byzantine sources, say it lasted nearly two years. For the sufferings and deaths caused by the siege see Cline, Jerusalem Besieged: From Ancient Canaan to Modern Israel, pp. 149–50.

9     The Koran, trans. Dawood, sura 2, verse 137.

10   Adamnan, The Pilgrimage of Arculfus in the Holy Land, pp. 4–5.

11   The Koran, trans. Dawood, sura 2, verses 142–5.

12   Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, cited in Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 66.

3: Palestine under the Umayyads and the Arab Tribes

1     Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, Allen Lane, London, 1994, p. 335.

2     Whitcomb in Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, p. 499.

3     Muqaddasi, Description of Syria, p. 23.

4     Ibid., p. 23, footnote 1.

5     Karsh, Islamic Imperialism, p. 63, citing Hamilton A. R. Gibb, Studies on the Civilization of Islam, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1962, pp. 51–7; and Oleg Graber, ‘Islamic Art and Byzantium’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, vol. 18 (1964), p. 88.

6     Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. 1, p. 233.

7     Koran, trans. Arberry. Some translations of the Koran – for example, that of Dawood – refer to ‘the farthest Temple’, but in the original Arabic of the Koran the phrase is ‘al-masjid al-aqsa’, masjid meaning ‘mosque’ and aqsa meaning ‘farthest’.

8     For example, ‘Was the Prophet Muhammad’s Night Journey to Palestine or Medina?’ by Ahmad Muhammad Arafa in the Egyptian Ministry of Culture publication Al-Qahira (5 August 2003); this can be viewed online: www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/941.htm

9     Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 98, footnote 22.

10   Whitcomb in Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, p. 499.

11   Koran, trans. Dawood, sura 4, verse 171.

12   Muqaddasi, Description of Syria, p. 46.

13   The first evidence that the mosque was called al-Aqsa comes in Fatimid times, when it was yet again rebuilt and an inscription added about the ‘furthest mosque’ from Koran, sura 17, verse 1.

14   In the early Islamic period seafaring round the Arabian peninsula and to East Africa and India was in the hands of Persians. See George Hourani, Arab Seafaring, p. 79. Syrian seafarers were the descendants of the coastal Phoenicians who had competed with the Greeks in trade and colonisation throughout the ancient Mediterranean.

15   Leo I, Letter XXVIII, Tome 2, AD 449; Henry Bettenson, ed., The Later Christian Fathers, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1970, p. 278.

16   Alfred J. Butler, The Arab Conquest of Egypt, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1902, p. 158.

17   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 141 (from Tabari, Ta’rikh, II, 1372).

18   Al-Maqrizi, fifteenth-century Egyptian historian, quoted in Otto Meinardus, Monks and Monasteries of the Egyptian Deserts, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, 1989, p. 55.

19   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 86, citing Tabari, Ta’rikh, II, 1834ff.

20   Ibid., p. 86, footnote 11.

21   Theophanes, Chronicle, p. 112.

4: The Abbasids and the Arab Eclipse

1     A village called Baghdad has been recorded on that spot since the eighteenth century BC; the name has been assimilated to a later but similar Persian word meaning ‘Gift of God’. See Spuler, The Muslim World, p. 51.

2     Mansur’s words as reported by the geographer and chronicler Ahmad al-Yaqubi, cited in Lewis, The Arabs in History, p. 82.

3     Thubron, Mirror to Damascus, p. 103.

4     Hourani, Syria and Lebanon, p. 21.

5     Whitcomb in Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, p. 488.

6     Spuler, The Muslim World, p. 27.

7     The Koran, trans. Dawood, sura 5, verse 66; 2:62. Also sura 5, verse 69, is similar.

8     Ibid., sura 22, verse 17.

9     Frye, ed., The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 4, p. 32.

10   Boyce, Zoroastrians, p. 147; Frye, ed., The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 4, p. xii.

11   Spuler, The Muslim World, p. 52.

12   Frye, ed., The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 4, p. xi.

13   Ibid., vol. 4, p. xi.

14   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 284.

15   Ibid., pp. 171, 442.

16   Hitti, History of Syria, p. 543f; Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 159f.

17   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 475.

18   Frye, ed., The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 1, p. 122.

19   Carl F. Petry, ed., The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. 1, Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, p. 83; Ye’or, Islam and Dhimmitude, pp. 62, 64.

20   Kennedy, The Court of the Caliphs, p. 264 [240 in paperback].

21   Hitti, History of Syria, p. 543f.; Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 473f; Kennedy, The Court of the Caliphs, p. 240.

22   Ibid., p. 278 [254 in paperback].

23   Eginhard, Vie de Charlemagne, Paris, 1923, chapter 16, p. 46, cited in Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades, p. 12.

24   Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims, p. 12; Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 288.

25   Bernard the Monk’s account of his travels is found in Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims, pp. 141–5.

26   Kreutz, Before the Normans, p. 27.

27   Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800. Davis does not cover slavery before the sixteenth century, but he estimates that in the hundred years from 1580 to 1680 nearly a million white Christian Europeans were captured and sent as slaves to the Barbary Coast (i.e., the Maghreb, present-day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) – that is, about 8,500 each year. During his brief sojourn in Taranto Bernard the Monk claims to have seen nine thousand slaves awaiting shipment to Egypt and North Africa, suggesting that the slave trade was at least as active in the ninth century as in later centuries. Whatever the number, swathes of coastal Europe were depopulated by the Muslim raids, with devastating economic consequences: see Davis, p. 3f; also Kreutz, Before the Normans, p. 53.

28   Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims, p. 142.

29   Ibid., p. 142; Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 285.

30   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 483.

5: Byzantine Crusades

1     Kennedy, The Court of the Caliphs, p. 269, which quotes from al-Tabari’s History.

2     Runciman, The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and His Reign: A Study of Tenth Century Byzantium, p. 146.

3     Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 326, footnote 100, citing Dhahabi’s Tarikh al-Islam as the Arabic source.

4     Ibid., p. 477: ‘The mistreatment of the Christian population, and especially the churches of Jerusalem, was what drove the Byzantines to recruit forces for a struggle of a decidedly religious nature – namely, to free Jerusalem of the Muslims in a sort of tenth-century crusade’.

5     Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. 1, p. 310, refers to a letter from John Tzimisces to the Armenian king Ashot III, preserved in the works of the Armenian historian Matthew of Edessa, which ‘shows that the Emperor, in aiming to achieve his final goal of freeing Jerusalem from the hands of the Muslims, undertook a real crusade’.

6     Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, p. 403; Kennedy, Court of the Caliphs, p. 295; Glassé, The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, p. 323.

6: Muslim Wars and the Destruction of Palestine

1     Lane-Poole, A History of Egypt in the Middle Ages, p. 101.

2     Hitti, History of Syria, p. 572.

3     Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, p. 403, quoting M. Gil, ‘The Sixty Years’ War (969–1029)’, Shalem, 3 (1981), p. 1–55 (in Hebrew, with English summary). See also Bosworth, ed., Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 232, which describes the details as ‘revolting’.

4     Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 336.

5     Hitti, History of Syria, p. 588.

6     In the units of measurement at the time, the cross had to weigh 5 rotls and be 1 cubit long.

7     El-Leithy, ‘Coptic Culture and Conversion in Medieval Cairo’. Tamer el-Leithy is the nephew of the liberal Egyptian thinker Tarek Heggy.

8     Gil, A History of Palestine, pp. 222, 376f.

9     Yahya Ibn Said, History, cited in Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims, p. 14.

10   Armstrong, Jerusalem, p. 259.

11   Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. 1, p. 35; Gil, A History of Palestine, pp. 376, 378.

12   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 480.

13   Sir Hamilton A. R. Gibb, ‘The Caliphate and the Arab States’, in Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades, p. 90.

14   The Koran, trans. Arberry. For Fatimid policy about Jerusalem, see Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 147, and S. D. Goitein and O. Grabar, ‘Jerusalem’, in Bosworth, ed., Historic Cities of the Islamic World p. 252.

15   Landes, Relics, Apocalypse, and the Deceits of History: Ademar of Chabannes, 989–1034, p. 41. Also Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 379.

16   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 325.

17   Cantor, Civilisation of the Middle Ages, pp. 364f.

18   Cohn, The Pursuit of the Millennium, p. 76.

Part II: THE TURKISH INVASION AND THE FIRST CRUSADE

1     Fulcher of Chartres, in Thatcher and McNeal, ed., A Source Book for Mediaeval History, pp. 513–7.

7: The Turkish Invasion

1     Lang, The Armenians: A People in Exile, p. 37, gives the figure as ‘about a million and a half’. On 23 January 2012 the French Senate followed the National Assembly in approving a bill which declares that between 600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians suffered genocide under the Ottoman Empire largely between 1915 and 1917, reported in The Times (24 January 2012), p. 26.

2     Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. V, chapter LVII, p. 554.

3     Norwich, Byzantium: The Apogee, pp. 342–3.

4     Nizam al-Mulk in his Book of Government, quoted in Hillenbrand, Turkish Myth and Muslim Symbol, p. 6.

5     Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. 1, p. 355, citing an anonymous chronicler collected in Constantine Sathas, ed., Bibliotheca Graeca Medii Aevi, VII, 169, Paris 1872–94.

6     Stoneman, Across the Hellespont: A Literary Guide to Turkey, p. 206, quoting from Aristakes Lastivertsi, whose History of Armenia, written at Constantinople from 1072 to 1079, relates the fall of the Bagratid kingdom of Armenia, the destruction of Ani and the victories of the Seljuk Turks.

7     Annalist of Nieder-Altaich, The Great German Pilgrimage of 1064–65, in Annales Altahenses Maiores, in Brundage, trans. and ed., The Crusades.

8     Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 487. Sources differ about the size of the 1064–6 German pilgrimage, the Annalist of Nieder-Altaich stating 12,000 and Gil referring to sources stating 7,000; Gil also says that ‘less than 2000’ returned home safely.

9     Bosworth, ed., Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 233, and Richard, The Crusades, p. 14, are explicit that Atsiz massacred Muslims even in the Aqsa mosque.

10   Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 416; Montefiore, Jerusalem, p. 202.

11   Jacques-Paul Migne, Patrologia Latina, 148:329, in Thatcher and McNeal, ed., A Source Book for Mediaeval History, pp. 512–3.

12   Cantor, Civilisation of the Middle Ages, p. 246.

13   Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 5, chapter 57, p. 554.

14   Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 50; Gil, A History of Palestine, pp. 488–9.

15   Spuler, The Muslim World, p. 109.

16   Gil, A History of Palestine, pp. 171–2, ‘As to the rural population [of Palestine], in the main it was still Christian on the eve of the Crusaders’ conquest’; and ‘Jerusalem was certainly inhabited mainly by Christians during the entire period [of the Muslim occupation]’. Gil’s sources include al-Arabi, Muqaddasi, and the Geniza documents.

17   Ibn al-Arabi, quoted in Gil, A History of Palestine, p. 171.

8: The Call

1     V. Vasilievsky, quoted in Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. II, pp. 384, 386.

2     Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, Book VIII, chapter V. For the nature of Alexius’ contacts with the West, see Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, vol. II, pp. 386–88; Erdmann, The Origin of the Idea of Crusade, pp. 322–3, also p. 358.

3     Somerville, Urban II’s Council of Piacenza, p. 8.

4     Bernold of Constance quoted in Somerville, Urban II’s Council of Piacenza, pp. 54–5.

5     Edgington, Oxford Medieval Texts, p. 5.

6     Ibid., p. 7.

7     Ibid., p. 5.

8     Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, pp. 55–6.

9     Jotischky, ‘The Christians of Jerusalem’, p. 57. As Jotischky explains in his article, the reliability of Albert of Aachen’s account of Peter the Hermit’s visit to Jerusalem has been disputed, but recent scholarly work argues for its fundamental accuracy. See also Norman Housley, Contesting the Crusades, Blackwell, Oxford 2006, p. 44.

10   Chevedden, ‘The View of the Crusades’, pp. 307–8.

11   Fulcher of Chartres, in Thatcher and McNeal, ed., A Source Book for Mediaeval History, pp. 513–7.

12   Baldric of Dol in Krey, The First Crusade, pp. 33–6.

13   Robert the Monk, in Munro, Urban and the Crusaders, pp. 5–8.

14   Guibert de Nogent, in Krey, The First Crusade, pp. 36–40.

15   Frankopan, The First Crusade, p. 11.

9: The First Crusade

1     Augustine, City of God, Book XIX, Chapter 7.

2     Matthew 16:24. Urban’s injunction to sew a cross on one’s clothing was recorded in the chronicles of Robert the Monk and Guibert de Nogent, both of whom relied heavily on the Gesta Francorum, an earlier anonymous account.

3     Gesta Francorum, in Krey, The First Crusade, p. 30.

4     Erdmann, The Origin of the Idea of Crusade, p. 346.

5     As the crow flies, the distance from the north shore of Lake Balkash in Kazakhstan to Jerusalem is 2,600 miles; from Paris to Jerusalem the distance is 2,300 miles. Likewise, the actual land route was longer for the Seljuks than it was for the crusaders. Moreover, the Seljuks started from somewhere farther north than Lake Balkash, while most of the crusaders set out from places nearer Palestine than Paris.

6     Guibert de Nogent, cited in Runciman, History of the Crusades, volume I, p. 113.

7     Simonsohn, The Apostolic See and the Jews, p. 13.

8     Anna Comnena, The Alexiad, X, ix, 323.

9     Fulcher of Chartres, in Krey, The First Crusade, pp. 119–20.

10   Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, p. 2.

11   France, Victory in the East, pp. 286–7.

12   Helen Nicholson, ‘Cannibalism during the Crusades’: http:// www.crusades-encyclopedia.com/cannibalism.html.

13   Bosworth, ed., Historic Cities of the Islamic World p. 233.

14   Boas, Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades, p. 9, has the population of Jerusalem during the Fatimid period as approaching 20,000; others estimate a population of between 20,000 and 30,000 in 1099, when the First Crusade approached the city. See Kedar, ‘The Jerusalem Massacre of 1099’, p. 74.

15   Kedar, ‘The Jerusalem Massacre of 1099’, p. 18.

16   Raymond of Aguilers, in Krey, The First Crusade, p. 261.

17   Impoverished pilgrims who died at the Hospital in Jerusalem in the twelfth century were deposited in free charnel pits. At one, the Akeldama, the dead were dropped through holes in the roof, where ‘it was believed that the bodies decomposed within twenty-four hours with no smell’. Montefiore, p. 237, footnote.

18   Steven Runciman, ‘The First Crusade’, in Setton, A History of the Crusades, vol. 1, p. 337; Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. 1, pp. 297, 289.

19   Runciman was primarily a historian of Byzantium and its passionate admirer; he saw the crusades and Byzantium as in opposition to one another and stated plainly, ‘that is why, to me, “Crusade” is a dirty word’; that is also why he never missed an opportunity to denigrate the crusaders, their characters, their motives, their entire enterprise. See Runciman, ‘Greece and the Later Crusades’.

20   Kedar, ‘The Jerusalem Massacre of 1099’, pp. 73–4.

21   Madden, New Concise History, p. 34.

22   Raymond of Aguilers, in Krey, The First Crusade, p. 257.

Part III: THE FOUNDING OF THE TEMPLARS AND THE CRUSADER STATES

10: The Origins of the Templars

1     Wilkinson, Hill and Ryan, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099–1185, p. 28.

2     Saewulf in Wilkinson, Hill and Ryan, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099–1185, p. 100.

3     Saewulf in Wilkinson, Hill and Ryan, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099–1185, pp. 100–01.

4     Daniel the Abbot, in Wilkinson, Hill and Ryan, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099–1185, p. 156.

5     Deuteronomy 28:47.

6     According to William of Tyre, the Hospital was at first dedicated to St John the Almsgiver, a charitable seventh-century patriarch of Alexandria. Later it was known to be dedicated to John the Baptist. But current scholarship has the Hospital dedicated to John the Baptist from the start. See Nicholson, The Knights Hospitaller, pp. 2–3.

7     Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, p. 2.

8     Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 78.

9     Ibid., p. 103.

10   Ibid., p. 45.

11   Ellenblum, Frankish Rural Settlement, p. 19.

12   The spot marking the centre of the world is nowadays found beneath the transept of the new basilical church built adjacent to the Rotunda by the Franks between the 1140s and the 1160s to replace Constantine’s basilica, destroyed by al-Hakim.

13   The Temple Mount is 2,443 feet high; the west hill, at 2,528 feet, is higher; and higher still is the Mount of Olives, with an elevation of 2,600 feet.

14   Letter of Hugh ‘Peccator’ to the Templars in the East in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, pp. 54ff.

15   The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, trans. D. Whitelock, Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1961, pp. 194–5. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was regularly updated to the 1150s, well beyond the Norman invasion of Anglo-Saxon England.

16   Bernard of Clairvaux, Letters, quoted in Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 13.

17   The Latin Rule of 1129 in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, pp. 31–54; Bernard’s Rule of the Templars, in Barber, New Knighthood, pp. 17–18.

18   William of Tyre, Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum, XII, 7; Patrologia Latina 201, 526–27; repr. trans. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, pp. 70–73.

11: Outremer

1     Fulcher of Chartres is last heard of in Jerusalem in 1127. It is thought he died in a plague that year, but there is nothing that confirms his date of death.

2     Isaiah 11:7.

3     Fulcher of Chartres, in Krey, The First Crusade, pp. 280–81.

4     Riley-Smith, The Atlas of the Crusades, p. 40.

5     Boas, Domestic Settings, p. 72; Fulcher of Chartres, revision of 1118, in Wilkinson, Hill and Ryan, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099–1185, p. 45.

6     John of Würzburg in Wilkinson, Hill and Ryan, Jerusalem Pilgrimage, 1099–1185, p. 247.

7     Ellenblum, Frankish Rural Settlement, p. 32.

8     Ibid., p. 210.

9     Pringle, Fortification and Settlement, Addendum, p. 7.

10   Quoted from the Chronicle of Ernoul, in Forey, The Military Orders, pp. 59–60.

11   Ellenblum, Frankish Rural Settlement, pp. 76–7, 82–4. The list for Magna Mahomeria is for the year 1156; that for Bethgibelin is for 1168.

12   Ibid., p. 79.

13   Ibid., p. 31; see also Ellenblum, ‘Settlement and Society Formation in Crusader Palestine’, in Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, p. 504.

14   Gil, A History of Palestine, pp. 171–2. Gil’s sources include al-Arabi, Muqaddasi, and the Geniza documents. Ellenblum, Frankish Rural Settlement, pp. 21–2, dismisses the assumption, made by many scholars, that the majority of the population of Palestine in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was Muslim as being without substance; he also draws attention to the varying rate of Islamisation across the Middle East, noting that as recently as 1932 Christians could still claim to be a majority in Lebanon.

15   Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 331. See also Hitti, Syria, p. 621.

16   Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 331.

17   Ibid., p. 303.

18   Fulcher of Chartres, in Krey, The First Crusade, p. 281.

12: Zengi’s Jihad

1     William of Tyre, Historia rerum, trans. Brundage, p. 79.

2     From Usamah ibn Munqidh’s autobiography, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 77.

3     Usamah ibn Munqidh, An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades: Memoirs of Usamah Ibn-Munqidh, trans. Hitti, New York 2000, p. 161.

4     From Usamah ibn Munqidh’s autobiography, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 79.

5     Ibid., p. 78.

6     Ibid., p. 161.

7     Robert L. Nicholson, ‘The Foundation of the Latin States’, in Setton, ed., vol. I, p. 429.

8     The sole source for the Templars being involved in this action is Orderic Vitalis, a twelfth-century chronicler in the West. See Orderic Vitalis, trans. and ed. Chibnall, vol. 6, pp. 496–7.

9     Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 111.

10   See for example Asbridge, The Crusades, p. 193; Ehrenkreutz, Saladin, p. 236; Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 111.

11   Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 112–3.

12   Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 113, quoting Al-Bundari, Zubdat al-nusra, ed. M. T. Houtsma, Leiden, 1889, p. 205.

13   Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 114, quoting Ibn al-Athir, Al-tarikh al-bahir fi l’dawlat al-atabakiyya.

14   William of Tyre, in Brundage, trans. and ed., The Crusades:A Documentary History, p. 80.

15   Ibid., p. 81.

16   Michael Rabo, in Moosa, The Crusades, p. 556.

17   Ibn al-Athir, in Moosa, The Crusades, p. 559.

18   The poets Ibn Munir and Ibn al-Qaysarani are quoted in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 115; Zengi’s honorifics, as quoted by Ibn Wasil, are mentioned on the same page.

19   Michael Rabo, in Moosa, The Crusades, p. 571–2.

13: The Second Crusade

1     Eugene III, Quantum Praedecessores, in Ernest F. Henderson, trans., Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, George Bell and Sons, London, 1910, p. 333.

2     Eugene III, Quantum Praedecessores, p. 333.

3     Bernard’s actual words at Vézelay were not recorded, but he immediately followed his call for a crusade with letters which repeated his themes; for example, this letter of Bernard of Clairvaux in Riley-Smith, The Crusades, p. 122.

4     Letter of Bernard of Clairvaux, in Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. II, p. 254.

5     Letter to England to summon the Second Crusade, 1146, in Bruno Scott James, trans., The Letters of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Burns Oates, London, 1953.

6     Letter to Eastern France and Bavaria Promoting the Second Crusade, 1146, in Scott James, trans., The Letters of St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

7     Scott James, trans., The Letters of St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

8     Williams, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, p. 214.

9     Chrétien de Troyes, Arthurian Romances, Penguin Books, London, 1991, p. 420.

10   William of Tyre, Historia rerum, trans. Brundage, The Crusades, p. 675.

11   Conrad III, king of Germany, to Wibald, abbot of Stavelot and Corvey, September–November 1148, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 47.

12   Ibn al-Qalanisi, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 57.

13   Ibid., p. 59.

14   Conrad III, King of Germany, to Wibald, Abbot of Stavelot and Corvey, September–November 1148, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 47.

15   John of Salisbury, Memoirs of the Papal Court, pp. 57–8.

Part IV: THE TEMPLARS AND THE DEFENCE OF OUTREMER

14: The View from the Temple Mount

1     Andrew of Montbard to Everard des Barres, late 1149 or early 1150, Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, pp. 47f.

2     Ibn Munir, quoted in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 150.

3     In addition to sources cited earlier in this book, Steven Runciman in his History of the Crusades, p. 294, describes ‘the vast majority of the population’ of Outremer as Christian.

4     John of Würzburg in Boas, Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades, p. 35.

5     William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done beyond the Sea, vol. II, p. 440.

6     John of Würzburg, in Pringle, Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: The City of Jerusalem, vol. III, p. 194.

7     Ibid.

8     Jacques de Molay, in Riley-Smith, Templars and Hospitallers, p. 61.

9     Theoderich’s Description of the Holy Places, trans. Aubrey Stewart, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, 1896, pp. 30–32.

10   See Riley-Smith, Atlas of the Crusades, p. 36; Boas, Archaeology of the Military Orders, p. 4; and Barber, New Knighthood, pp. 93–4.

11   Barber, New Knighthood, p. 55.

15: The Defence of Outremer

1     Ross Burns, Damascus: A History, Routledge, Abingdon, 2005, p. 134.

2     Fustat, founded by the Arabs in 641, was known as Babylon in the Middle Ages after the Roman fortress of Babylon that had originally stood near by. Cairo, immediately to the north, was founded by the Fatimids in 969.

3     Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 61.

4     Asbridge, The Crusades, p. 266.

5     MacEvitt, The Crusades and the Christian World of the East, p. 218, footnote 12. The reference is to el-Leithy, ‘Coptic Culture and Conversion in Medieval Cairo’.

6     William of Tyre in Barber, New Knighthood, p. 97.

7     Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 59.

8     Upton-Ward, trans., The Rule of the Templars: The French Text of the Rule of the Order of the Knights Templar.

9     Balzaus, better known as beauceant, was the banner carried into battle by the Templars; its two colours were black and white, arranged horizontally.

10   Psalms 115:1: ‘Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory, for thy mercy, and for thy truth’s sake.’

11   Anonymous Pilgrim, V.2; Stewart, trans., Anonymous Pilgrims, pp. 29–30.

12   The French Rule, c. 1165, which supplemented the original Latin Rule of St Bernard, in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, pp. 72–3.

16: Templar Wealth

1     Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 277.

2     Gestes des Chiprois, cited in Barber, The New Knighthood, pp. 241, 243.

3     Bouchard of Mount Sion, cited in Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 163.

Part V: SALADIN AND THE TEMPLARS

1     For the composition of Saladin’s armies see Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 444.

2     Holt, Lambton and Lewis, Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1A, p. 205.

17: Tolerance and Intolerance

1     Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 59.

2     Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 186.

3     El-Leithy, ‘Coptic Culture and Conversion in Medieval Cairo’.

4     Gervers and Powell, ed., Tolerance and Intolerance, p. 57.

5     Wilkinson, Egeria’s Travels, pp. 150–51.

6     Leo the Great, Homily XXXIII, in Haskins, Mary Magdalen, p. 96.

7     John of Würzburg, in Gervers and Powell, ed., Tolerance and Intolerance, p. 108.

8     Gerard of Nazareth, in Gervers and Powell, ed., Tolerance and Intolerance, p. 110.

9     See Ellenblum, Frankish Rural Settlement, pp. 27–30.

10   Ibn Jubayr, Travels of Ibn Jubayr, pp. 316–7.

11   Ibid., p. 317.

12   Ibn Jubayr, in Hitti, History of Syria, p. 622.

13   Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay, in Barber, The Two Cities: Medieval Europe, 1050–1320, p. 175.

14   Stoyanov, The Other God, p. 279.

15   Lewis, The Assassins, p. 111.

16   William of Tyre, in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, p. 76.

17   Walter Map, in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, p. 77.

18: Saladin’s Jihad

1     William of Tyre, Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum, XXI, 1–2, Patrologia Latina 201, 813–15; repr. trans. Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History, pp. 141–3.

2     Ralph of Diss, in Nicholson, The Knights Templar, p. 66.

3     Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 369

4     William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea.

5     Saunders, Aspects of the Crusades, p. 35.

6     Ernoul, in Ellenblum, Crusader Castles, p. 262.

7     Ronnie Ellenblum of The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, who led the excavation at Jacob’s Ford, in the Arcadia Entertainment press release for their National Geographic Channel programme Last Stand of the Templars, 30 March 2011.

8     Ellenblum, Crusader Castles, chapter 16.

9     Ellenblum in the Arcadia Entertainment press release for their National Geographic Channel programme Last Stand of the Templars, 30 March 2011.

10   William of Tyre, quoted in Barber, New Knighthood, p. 98.

11   Gervers and Powell, ed., Tolerance and Intolerance, p. 13.

12   Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 240.

13   Ehrenkreutz, Saladin, p. 237.

14   Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 194.

15   Ibid., p. 241.

16   The sources give various figures for the two armies but generally they state that the Muslims outnumbered the Christians by two or three to one.

17   Anonymous, De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum, pp. 155–6.

18   Ibid., p. 157.

19   Genoese consuls to Pope Urban III, late September 1187, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 82.

20   Anonymous, De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum, p. 159.

21   Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, pp. 135–6.

22   Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Harawi, quoted in William J. Hamblin, ‘Saladin and Muslim Military Theory’, in B. Z. Kedar, ed., The Horns of Hattin, proceedings of the second conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi and Israel Exploration Society, London, 1992; online at www.DeReMilitari.org.

23   Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, pp. 138–9.

19: The Fall of Jerusalem to Saladin

1     Terricus, grand preceptor of the Temple, to all preceptors and brethren of the Temple in the West, between 10 July and 6 August 1187, Barber and Bate, trans. Letters from the East, p. 78.

2     Heraclius, patriarch of Jerusalem to pope Urban III, September 1187, Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 81.

3     Ibn al-Athir, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, pp. 142, 140.

4     Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 160.

5     Ibn Shaddad, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 189.

6     The Koran, trans. Arberry.

7     Ibn al-Qaysarani, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 151.

8     Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 150.

9     Ibid., p. 188.

10   Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 276.

11   Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p.163.

12   Imad al-Din, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 301.

13   Ibn Zaki, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, pp. 189–90.

14   Ibid., p. 301.

15   Al-Qadi al-Fadil, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 317.

16   Imad al-Din, in Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 276.

17   The Rothelin Continuation of William of Tyre, in J. Shirley, Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century: The Rothelin Continuation of the History of William of Tyre with part of the Eracles or Acre text, Ashgate, Aldershot, 1999, p. 64.

18   The Frankish bezant had the same value as the Syrian gold dinar. Some sources express the ransom figure set by Saladin in dinars, others in bezants, but it amounts to the same thing. Some idea of the purchasing power of the bezant is given by Adrian Boas inDomestic Settings, where he states that in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries a small house could be bought for 40 bezants in Cairo, for 80 bezants in Jerusalem and for as little as 25 bezants in Acre. Therefore the charge imposed by Saladin on pilgrims wishing to visit the Church of the Holy Sepulchre amounted to anything from about half to an eighth of the value of a house. This iniquity ceased only in 1192 under terms imposed upon Saladin by Richard the Lionheart at the end of the Third Crusade.

19   Imad al-Din, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 163.

20   Imad al-Din, in Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 277.

Part VI: THE KINGDOM OF ACRE

20: Recovery

1     Theoderich, Description of the Holy Places, trans Aubrey Stewart, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, 1896, vol. 5, p. 59.

2     Translated from the Arabic of De Goeje’s edition of Ibn Jubayr’s Travels, pp. 302–3, quoted in Makhouly, Guide to Acre, p. 24.

3     Terricus to Henry II of England, January 1188, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 84.

4     Al-Maqrizi, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 380.

5     Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of Jerusalem, p. 238.

6     Itinerarium, quoted in Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 113.

7     Richard I to William Longchamps, bishop of Ely and Chancellor, from Acre, 6 August 1191, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 90.

8     Itinerary of Richard I, In Parentheses Publications, York University, Ontario, 2001, p. 163.

9     Richard I for general circulation, from Jaffa, 1 October 1191, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 91.

10   Ibn Shaddad, in Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of Jerusalem, p. 285.

11   Myriam Rosen-Ayalon, ‘Between Cairo and Damascus’, in Levy, ed., The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, p. 515.

12   Richard I for general circulation, from Jaffa, 1 October 1191, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 91.

13   Asbridge, The Crusades, p. 460.

14   Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. 3, p. 130.

15   Anthony Bryer, ‘Sir Steven Runciman: The Spider, the Owl and the Historian’, History Today, vol. 51, issue 5, May 2001. Bryer is professor at the Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman and Modern Greek Studies, Birmingham University.

16   Runciman, ‘Greece and the Later Crusades’.

17   Anthony Bryer, ‘Sir Steven Runciman: The Spider, the Owl and the Historian’, History Today, vol. 51, issue 5.

18   Runciman, History of the Crusades, vol. 3, p. 190.

19   Al-Kamil, quoted by the chronicler Ibn Wasil, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 271.

20   Lyons and Jackson, Saladin, p. 361.

21: The Mamelukes

1     Al-Jahiz, Epistle Concerning the Qualities of the Turk, ninth century, in Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages, p. 6.

2     Ibn Khaldun, in Petry, The Cambridge History of Egypt, p. 242.

3     Thomas Bérard, Flores Historiarum, in Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 157.

4     Ibn Abd al-Zahir, in Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages, p. 42.

5     Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 446.

6     Hitti, History of Syria, p. 622.

7     Ibn al-Furat, in Barber, New Knighthood, p. 167.

8     Gestes des Chiprois, in Barber, The New Knighthood, pp. 241–2.

9     Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A History, p. 206.

10   Partner, The Murdered Magicians, pp. 34–5.

22: The Fall of Acre

1     Ludolph of Suchem, Description of the Holy Land and of the Way Thither, trans. Aubrey Stewart, Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, London, 1895, XII, 54–61, repr. in Brundage, trans. and ed., The Crusades, pp. 266–7.

2     Ibn Abd al-Zahir, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 337.

3     The Templar of Tyre, Gestes des Chiprois, in Riley-Smith, ed., The Atlas of the Crusades, p. 102.

4     Abu al-Feda, in Gabrieli, Arab Historians of the Crusades, p. 342.

5     Ludolph of Suchem, Description of the Holy Land and of the Way Thither, repr. in Brundage, trans. and ed., The Crusades, p. 268.

6     Ludolph of Suchem, Description of the Holy Land and of the Way Thither, repr. in Brundage, trans. and ed., The Crusades, p. 271.

7     Ibid., p. 271.

8     Ibid.

9     Ibid., p. 272.

10   The Templar of Tyre, Gestes des Chiprois, in Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 178.

11   Abu al-Feda, in Hillenbrand, Crusades, p. 298.

12   Henry Maundrell, A Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem at Easter AD 1697, London, 1703, p. 17.

Part VII: Aftermath

23: Lost Souls

1     Jacques de Molay to King James II of Aragon, from Limassol, 8 November 1301, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 168.

2     Ghazan, Mongol Il-Khan of Persia, to Pope Boniface VIII, April 1302, in Barber and Bate, trans., Letters from the East, p. 168.

3     Mastnak, Crusading Peace, p. 244.

4     Pope Clement IV to Templar Grand Master Thomas Bérard, 1265, in Barber, The Trial of the Templars, p. 17.

5     Barber and Bate, ed. and trans, The Templars, p. 238.

6     Partner, The Murdered Magicians, p. 36.

7     Barber and Bate, ed. and trans, The Templars, p. 244.

24: The Trial

1     Alain Demurger, The Last Templar, Profile Books, London, p. 62.

2     Barber, Trial of the Templars, p. 62.

3     Ibid.

4     Itinerarium Symonis Semeonis ab Hybernia ad Terram Sanctam, ed. M. Esposito, Scriptures Latini Hiberniae, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin, 1960, vol. 4, pp. 96–8; quoted in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, p. 23.

5     Partner, The Murdered Magicians, p. 61.

6     Deposition of Jacques de Molay, 24 October 1307, in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, pp. 252–3.

7     Deposition of Geoffrey of Charney, 21 October 1307, in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, p. 251.

8     Deposition of Hugh of Pairaud, 9 November 1307, in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, pp. 254–5.

9     The Portable Dante, ed. Paolo Milano, Penguin, London, 1977.

10   Frale, The Templars, p. 174.

11   The Chinon Parchment had been mislabelled and misplaced amid the labyrinthine files of the Vatican Secret Archive until Barbara Frale, an Italian researcher at the Vatican School of Paleography, found it and recognised its significance. She deciphered its tangled and coded writing and published her findings in the Journal of Medieval History in 2004. This was followed in 2007 by a facsimile publication of the parchment by the Vatican itself.

12   Rough translation from the Latin of the Chinon Parchment.

13   Ibid.

25: The Destruction of the Templars

1     Second deposition of Jacques de Molay, 28 November 1309, in Barber and Bate, ed. and trans., The Templars, pp. 293–4.

2     Barber, Trial of the Templars, p. 262.

3     Ibid., pp. 264–5.

4     Ibid., p. 266.

5     Ibid., pp. 267–8.

6     Ibid., pp. 281–2.

7     Ibid., p. 282.

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