Post-classical history


Unless otherwise stated the place of publication is London.


A high proportion of the primary sources relevant to this book fall into two main groups. The first comprises the documents produced by the English and Scottish kings and the Welsh rulers together with other material about law and government. The second is formed by the writings of contemporaries about the period and individuals within it: histories, chronicles, biographies and saints’ lives. In a third category are the records produced by ecclesiastics and ecclesiastical institutions, and in a fourth those produced by laymen. The very great bulk of this material is of English provenance, although English material can often shed light on events in Wales and Scotland.

An illuminating discussion of the proliferation of records in this period is found in M. T. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record. England 1066–1307, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1993). Those of the English kings were essentially generated by government inquiries and by the output of the chancery, the exchequer and the law courts. Contemporary writing about English history is fully described in Antonia Gransden’s indispensable Historical Writing in England c. 550 to c. 1307 (1974). The Latin texts of most of the works she discusses were published in the second half of the nineteenth century as part of the Rolls Series. Since the 1940s modern editions with scholarly introductions and translations have appeared first in Nelson’s Medieval Texts series, and then in its successor, the invaluable and ongoing series of Oxford Medieval Texts. A wide variety of primary sources are translated in English Historical Documents II 1042–1189, ed. D. C. Douglas and G. W. Greenaway, 2nd edn. (1981), and English Historical Documents III 1189–1327, ed. H. Rothwell (1975). Henceforth these are cited as EHD.

Discussion of both historical writing in England and the output of English royal government falls naturally into three main periods, namely 1066–1154, 1154–1199, and the thirteenth century.


Before 1199 the royal chancery kept no record of the charters, writs and other documents which it issued. Those surviving in numerous archives either as originals or as copies have been brought together in Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum: The Acta of William I 1066–1087, ed. D. Bates (Oxford, 1998), and Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum 1066–1154, 4 vols., ed. H. W. C. Davis, C. Johnson, H. A. Cronne and R. H. C. Davis (Oxford, 1913–1969). The material in these volumes is absolutely central to the study of this period. The Coronation Charter of Henry I is translated as EHD II, no. 19.

The first surviving pipe roll of the exchequer, which recorded the annual audit of the money owed the crown, is that for the financial year 1129/30: The Pipe Roll of 31 Henry I (HMSO, 1929), a facsimile reproduction of the Record Commission’s 1833 edition.Dialogus de Scaccario, ed. and tr. C. Johnson, F. E. L. Carter and D. Greenway (Oxford, 1983) contains a translation of the ‘constitution of the king’s household’ drawn up soon after 1135. For the Dialogus itself, see the 1154–1189 section below.

The king’s courts kept no official records in this period, or none which survive, but accounts of early law cases, drawn mostly from chronicle sources, are brought together in English Lawsuits from William I to Richard I, 2 vols., ed. and tr. R. C. Van Caenegem (Selden Society, 106–7 (1990–91)). Leges Henrici Primi, ed. and tr. L. J. Downer (Oxford, 1972), is an important work on legal procedure written in the reign of Henry I.

The full text of Domesday Book has now been published by Penguin: Domesday Book: A Complete Translation, ed. A. Williams and G. H. Martin (2002).

Key Norman accounts of the Conquest by William of Jumièges, a monk of the monastery there born about 1000, and by William of Poitiers, the Conqueror’s chaplain, are now available in modern editions: The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, 2 vols., ed. and tr. E. M. C. Van Houts (Oxford, 1992–5), and The Gesta Guillelmi of William of Potiers, ed. and tr. R. H. C. Davis and M. Chibnall (Oxford, 1998). The tapestry is reproduced in The Bayeux Tapestry, ed. D. M. Wilson (1985). The main English account of the Conquest is found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which survives in two versions: a northern one which ends in 1079 and one written at Peterborough abbey which continues as an important source down to 1154. There are translations in EHD II and The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. D. Whitelock (1961). Another version running to 1130 was used by the Worcester monk, John of Worcester, whose chronicle ends in 1140: The Chronicle of John of Worcester, iii (for 1067–1140), ed. and tr. P. McGurk (Oxford, 1998).

Bestriding the whole period from before the Conquest to the 1140s is the work of Orderic Vitalis. Orderic was born in Shropshire in 1175 of an English mother and a Norman father. At the age of ten he was moved to the monastery of St-Evroult in Normandy. There between 1114 and 1141 he wrote his Ecclesiastical History, a voluminous, discursive and highly anecdotal work which gives a brilliant picture of the Norman elite. This is now available as The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, 6 vols., ed. and tr. M. Chibnall (Oxford, 1969–90); and see Marjorie Chibnall, The World of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford, 1984). Also vital for this period are the works of William of Malmesbury, a monk of Malmesbury abbey of mixed English and Norman birth, who began writing in the 1120s and was one of the most intelligent and perceptive of all medieval historians. Modern editions of his works are Gesta Regum Anglorum: The History of the English Kings, 2 vols., ed. and tr. R.A.B. Mynors, R.M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom (Oxford, 1998–9), and (covering the first part of Stephen’s reign) The Historia Novella, ed. and tr. E. King and K. R. Potter (Oxford, 1998). See also Rodney Thomson, William of Malmesbury (Woodbridge, 1987). Another historian of mixed birth and considerable ability was Henry, archdeacon of Huntingdon, whose history of the English to 1129, begun in or soon after 1123, was ultimately continued down to 1154. This is now available as Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum The History of the English People, ed. and tr. D. Greenway (Oxford, 1996). His constant attendance on Anselm makes the works of the Canterbury monk Eadmer extraordinarily vivid and informative: The Life of St Anselm by Eadmer, ed. and tr. R. W. Southern (1962), andEadmer’s History of Recent Events in England, tr. G. Bosanquet (1964). Influenced by Eadmer, Hugh the Chanter of York wrote an equally informed account of the career of Archbishop Thurstan: Hugh the Chanter: The History of the Church of York 1066–1127, ed. and tr. C. Johnson, M. Brett, C. N. L. Brooke and M. Winterbottom (Oxford, 1990). History of the Church of Abingdon, 2 (for the years after 1066), ed. and tr. J. Hudson (Oxford 2002), now makes this major monastic history readily available.

The chief chronicle of Stephen’s reign – Gesta Stephani, ed. and tr. K. R. Potter and R. H. C. Davis (Oxford, 1976) – was possibly written by Robert of Lewes, bishop of Bath from 1136 to 1166. A translation of William of Newburgh’s later account of the period is found in William of Newburgh: The History of English Affairs, Book I, ed. P. G. Walsh and M. J. Kennedy (Warminster, 1988). Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers 500–1286, ed. A. O. Anderson (Stamford, 1991) is valuable for its translations of the Hexham chroniclers and of Ailred of Rievaulx’s account of the battle of the Standard. Ailred’s Life of St Edward the Confessor has been translated by Fr Jerome Bertram (Guildford, 1997). The spirit of the early Cistercians is captured in The Life of Ailred of Rievaulx by Walter Daniel, ed. and tr. F. M. Powicke (1950). Another remarkable life (written between 1155 and 1166) is The Life of Christina of Markyate: A Twelfth Century Recluse, ed. and tr. C. H. Talbot (Oxford, 1987). It is a pity there is no translation ofThe Life of Wulfric of Haselbury by John Abbot of Ford, ed. Dom M. Bell (Somerset Record Society, 47 (1933)).

Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, translated by Lewis Thorpe, is readily available in a Penguins Classics edition of 1966. There is a translation of Gaimar in the second volume of Lestorie des Engles solum la Translacion Maistre Geffrei Gaimar, 2 vols., ed. T. D. Hardy and C. T. Martin (Rolls Series, 1888–9).


The surviving charters and writs issued by the chancery of Henry II will shortly be published under the editorship of J. C. Holt and N. C. Vincent, volumes which will transform study of the reign. Nicholas Vincent is also preparing an edition of the acta of Richard I. Meanwhile some guide is provided by The Itinerary of Richard I, ed. L. Landon (Pipe Roll Society, new series xiii (1935)).

The pipe rolls of the exchequer survive in continuous annual sequence from 1155 and have all been printed for this period by the Pipe Roll Society. The great account of the workings of the exchequer by the treasurer Richard fitz Nigel, written between 1177 and 1179, is published as Dialogus de Scaccario, ed. and tr. C. Johnson, F. E. L. Carter and D. Greenway (Oxford, 1983).

No official records of the royal courts from before the mid 1190s survive, so one is still dependent on Van Caenegem’s English Lawsuits from William I to Richard I. The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of England commonly called Glanvill, ed. G. D. G. Hall (1965), produced late in the reign by the legal circle around Henry II’s justiciar, Ranulf Glanvill, gives a remarkable analysis of the workings of the early common law.

EHD II prints the assizes of Henry II, and some returns both to the inquest of sheriffs and to the great inquiry of 1166 into knight service.

This period is illuminated by the work of some remarkable historians. As a royal clerk employed at court and on special missions, Roger of Howden was able to provide a unique insider’s narrative of the period from 1170 to 1201 and one well informed about Scottish affairs: for his writings see David Corner’s article in Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 56 (1983). Howden’s cautious and even tone contrasts with the outspoken and egotistical writings of another royal clerk, Gerald of Wales, archdeacon of Brecon, a man dogged, so he thought, by his mixed Welsh and Anglo-Norman descent. Totally different again is the humane and judicious William of Newburgh, an Augustinian canon who wrote his chronicle in the late 1190s. Another important historian and a great admirer of Henry II was the dean of St Paul’s, Ralph of Diss. Diss is only available in the original Rolls Series edition, but nineteenth-century translations of Howden and Newburgh by H. T. Riley and J. Stevenson (in his Church Historians of England) have been recently reprinted by Llanerch Press (1996). Gerald of Wales comes alive in The Autobiography of Giraldus Cambrensis, ed. and tr. H. E. Butler (1937), and see Robert Bartlett’s study, Gerald of Wales 1146–1223 (Oxford, 1982). Gerald’s works on Wales and Ireland are mentioned later. Jordan of Fantosme’s Chronicle, ed. and tr. R. C. Johnston (Oxford, 1981), is essential and exciting for the 1173–4 civil war. The Chronicle of Richard of Devizes, ed. and tr. J. T. Appleby (1963), written by a Winchester monk, is valuable for Richard’s reign, as are the work of Ralph of Coggeshall and the life of William Marshal, both discussed in the next section.

The Becket dispute inspired numerous lives of the archbishop and these are now available in The Lives of Thomas Becket, ed. and tr. M. Staunton (Manchester, 2001). The course of the dispute can be followed in EHD II, Part III (C), where the Constitutions of Clarendon are printed. The Chronicle of Battle Abbey, ed. and tr. E. Searle (Oxford, 1980) and The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond concerning the Acts of Samson abbot of the Monastery of St Edmund, ed. and tr. H. E. Butler (1949) reveal the efforts of monastic institutions to defend their rights and properties. Jocelin’s work, with its splendid picture of Samson, has become a classic. Both these chronicles provide glimpses of the Angevin kings at work. So does the life of Hugh of Avalon, bishop of Lincoln (1186–1200), by his chaplain Adam of Eynsham – The Life of St Hugh of Lincoln, 2 vols., ed. and tr. D. L. Douie and H. Farmer (1962); this magnificent biography gives a totally convincing picture of a good and great man. For the twelfth-century historians in general, see Nancy Partner, Serious Entertainments: The Writing of History in Twelfth-Century England (Chicago, 1977).

The Thirteenth Century

From the turn of the twelfth century the source material available to the historian is revolutionized by an explosion in the record-keeping of the English government. In 1199 the chancery began to record its output on a series of annual rolls so the historian is no longer dependent on the haphazard survival of originals or copies. Preserved in the Public Record Office, the resulting charter, patent, close, liberate and fine rolls for the thirteenth century have nearly all been printed either in extenso or in English calendar, beginning in the 1820s and 1830s under the auspices of the Record Commission and continuing from the 1890s under those of HMSO. An omission in the PRO calendars has been rectified by the publication of The Royal Charter Witness Lists of Edward I, ed. R. Huscroft and The Royal Charter Witness Lists of Henry III, 2 vols., ed. M. Morris (List and Index Society, 279, 291–2 (2000, 2002)). These provide key evidence for who was at court. A related publication is Robin Studd’s An Itinerary of Lord Edward (List and Index Society, 284 (2000)).

Although they had probably been kept from a little earlier, records of the pleas heard by the king’s courts survive from the mid 1190s. Down to 1245 the rolls kept by the central court at Westminster (the ‘common bench’) and the court travelling with the king (later called ‘king’s bench’) have been printed in Curia Regis Rolls, 18 vols. (1922–99). Records (‘eyre rolls’) kept by the king’s judges travelling in the localities, and surviving from the 1190s, have been printed by both the Selden Society and local records societies: see David Crook, Records of the General Eyre (1982). Local record societies have also published many feet of fines. Bracton de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae, 4 vols., ed. G. E. Woodbine and S. E. Thorne (Cambridge, Mass., 1968–77) is the great work on English legal procedure written by the circle around the justice William Ralegh in the 1220s and 1230s. Paul Brand is editing the earliest English law reports, which survive from the 1260s, for the Selden Society. Extracts from the rolls of the justices of the forest are found in Select Pleas of the Forest, ed. G. J. Turner (Selden Society, 13 (1899)).

The pipe rolls of the exchequer are printed by the Pipe Roll Society down to 1222. The Society has also printed some exchequer memoranda rolls and receipt and issue rolls. The surviving plea rolls of the exchequer of the Jews have been published by the Jewish Historical Society. The great bulk of the financial material of the thirteenth century, like the legal material after 1245, has still to be printed.

Records of the royal household begin to appear in John’s reign. They survive patchily in the reign of his son, and thereafter in abundance. Some are brought together in Records of the Wardrobe and Household 1285–89, 2 vols., ed. B. F. and C. R. Byerly (HMSO, 1977, 1986).

The returns to government inquiries of different kinds are printed in the Calendar Inquisitions Miscellaneous, 1 (1916), in the Calendars of Inquisition Post Mortem and in Rotuli Hundredorum, 2 vols. (1812, 1818). The second volume of the latter contains the great Hundred Roll inquiry of 1279, for which see also The Warwickshire Hundred Rolls of 1279–80: Stoneleigh and Kineton Hundreds, ed. T. John (Oxford, 1992). Inquiries and other material in The Book of Fees, 3 vols. (1920–31) provide important evidence for who held what land.

The key constitutional documents of the period – Magna Carta in its various versions, the Charter of the Forest, the Paper Constitution of 1244, the Provisions of Oxford and Westminster of 1258–9, and the concessions of 1297 and 1300 are all printed in EHD III, as are the principal statutes of Edward I. G. O. Sayles, The Functions of the Medieval Parliament of England (1988) provides translations of many of the early parliamentary texts.

While record sources become far more plentiful after 1199, the quality of contemporary writing declines. There are also very few modern editions of the works of thirteenth-century historians. Roger of Howden, William of Newburgh and Ralph of Diss all laid down their pens around 1200. The best chronicles for John’s reign and the minority of Henry III are those by Ralph of Coggeshall (abbot of the Cistercian abbey in Essex), and the so-called ‘Barnwell’ chronicler, so called because the only surviving text of his workcomes from Barnwell abbey in Cambridge. Both are printed in the Rolls Series, the latter in volume 2 of Memoriale Walteri de Coventria, 2 vols., ed. W. Stubbs (Rolls Series, 1872–3). The life of William Marshal, Henry III’s regent, which was commissioned by his family in the 1220s, sheds graphic light on politics and chivalry in the Angevin period, and in terms of its quality is the secular equivalent of the life of St Hugh. History of William Marshal, ed. A. J. Holden and D. Crouch, tr. S. Gregory (Anglo-Norman Text Society, 2002), which covers the period to 1194, is the first of three volumes to appear. Meanwhile EHD III, no. 3, prints the last part of the life from 1216 to 1219.

St Albans abbey in the thirteenth century was the home of two celebrated chroniclers, Roger of Wendover and Matthew Paris. Wendover’s chronicle is original from 1202 down to its termination in 1235. Its composition was probably begun in the 1220s, which explains why the later portions are the most valuable. The translation by J. A. Giles – Roger of Wendover’s Flowers of History, 2 vols. (1849–50) – has been reprinted by Llanerch Press (1993, 1996). Paris’s Chronica Majora, written within a few years of events, runs from 1235 to his death in 1259. It thus embraces the whole of Henry III’s personal rule and is a major source for Welsh and Scottish as well as English history. Paris shared Wendover’s hostility to the king’s foreign favourites and ministers and was not an intelligent and perceptive historian like William of Malmesbury. However, he knew everyone, was interested in everything and wrote prolifically, often with a tolerable degree of accuracy. He was also a great artist. The only translation of the Chronica Majora is J. A. Giles, Matthew Paris’s English History, 3 vols. (1852–4). For Paris see Richard Vaughan, Matthew Paris (Cambridge, 1958) and Suzanne Lewis, The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica Majora (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1987).

Thomas of Eccleston’s account of the early friars is available as The Coming of the Franciscans: Thomas of Eccleston, tr. L.P.Sherley-Price (1964). Although interesting, neither the life of Edmund of Abingdon, archbishop of Canterbury, by Matthew Paris, nor that of Richard of Wych, bishop of Chichester, by Ralph Bocking have the intimacy and insight of the life of St Hugh: The Life of St Edmund by Matthew Paris, ed. and tr. C. H. Lawrence (Stroud, 1996) and St Richard of Chichester: The Sources of his Life, ed. D. Jones (Sussex Record Society, 79 (1993)).

EHD III has translations of the annals of Dunstable and the London chronicle of Arnold fitz Thedmar for the 1260s and of Peter Langtoft for the 1290s. The Chronicle of Bury St Edmunds, ed. and tr. A. Gransden (1964) is centred on the reign of Edward I. The most intelligent historian in Edward’s time was Thomas Wykes, a former servant of Richard of Cornwall who wrote in retirement at Osney abbey. A new edition of his work may be forthcoming in Oxford Medieval Texts.

In the thirteenth century political songs and tracts become an increasingly important source and many are found in Political Songs of England from the Reign of John to Edward II, ed. and tr. T. Wright with a new introduction by P. R. Coss (Cambridge, 1996). The standard text of the Song of Lewes (also in EHD III) is The Song of Lewes, ed. and tr. C. L. Kingsford (Oxford, 1890). Documents of the Baronial Movement 1258–1267, ed. and tr. R. F. Treharne and I. J. Sanders, apart from containing the main constitutional documents, also prints important schedules of grievance prepared by both sides of the 1260s divide.

For Scotland there is no equivalent of the state records of English royal government. The Scottish chancery neither issued as many documents as its English counterpart nor kept a central record of them. The project to collect its output has so far produced The Charters of King David I 1124–53…, (Woodbridge, 1999) and Regesta Regum Scottorum: 1153–1214, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1960, 1971), all edited by G. W. S. Barrow. For the earlier material see Early Scottish Charters prior to AD 1153, ed. A. C. Lawrie (Glasgow, 1905). Royal accounts, estimates of revenue and a description of the royal household, all from the second half of the thirteenth century, are printed in The Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, ed. J. Stuart and G. Burnett (Edinburgh, 1878), and ‘The Scottish king’s household and other fragments’, ed. M. Bateson, in Miscellany of the Scottish Historical Society, ii (Edinburgh, 1904). The tangled question of the evidence for early Scottish law is unravelled in Hector L. MacQueen, Common Law and Feudal Society in Medieval Scotland (Edinburgh, 1993).

For much of the period covered by this book Argyll, Galloway, the Western Isles and the Isle of Man were, in varying degrees, outside the Scottish state and subject to independent rulers. Little survives of those rulers’ documentary output but Keith Stringer has brought together evidence for some sixty-five documents, mostly charters, issued by the rulers of Galloway between c. 1140 and 1230: ‘Acts of Lordship: The records of the lords of Galloway to 1234’, in Freedom and Authority: Scotland c. 1050–c.1650. Essays presented to Grant G. Simpson, ed. T. Brotherstone and D. Ditchburn (East Linton, 2000).

Documents in English state records relevant to Scotland are calendared (not always trustworthily) in Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1108–1272, 2 vols., ed. J. Bain (1881, 1994). Anglo-Scottish Relations 1174–1328, ed. E. L. G. Stones (Oxford, 1965) is an invaluable collection.

The scanty chronicle and other narrative sources for Scottish history are found in Early Sources for Scottish History 500–1286, 2 vols., ed. and tr. A. O. Anderson (Edinburgh, 1922; Stamford, 1990), the life of Queen Margaret probably by Turgot, the Norse sagas, the Chronicle of Man, and the Melrose Chronicle being particularly valuable. There is a study of the last by A. A. M. Duncan in Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland 500–1297: Essays in Honour of Marjorie O. Anderson, ed. S. Taylor (Dublin, 2000).Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers 500–1286, ed. and tr. by A. O. Anderson (London, 1908; Stamford, 1991) is a much used collection. The fourteenth-century chronicle of John of Fordun contains earlier material not found elsewhere. For a translation seeJohn of Fordun’s Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, 2 vols., ed. W. F. Skene (Llanerch, 1993). The fifteenth-century chronicle of Walter Bower has similar value: Scotichronicon by Walter Bower, general editor D.E.R. Watt, especially volumes 3–6 (Edinburgh and Aberdeen, 1995, 1994, 1990).

Study of Welsh history will be greatly furthered by the publication of The Acts of the Welsh Rulers, 1120–1283, ed. H. Pryce with the assistance of C. Insley (Cardiff, forthcoming). For the Welsh law books see The Law of Hywel Dda: Law Texts from Medieval Wales, ed. and tr. D. Jenkins (Llandysul, 1986).

There are exemplary modern editions of the two versions of the principal Welsh chronicle of this period known as The Brut after Britain’s eponymous and legendary founder Brutus: Brut Y Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes Peniarth MS.20 Version, ed. and tr. T. Jones (Cardiff, 1952), and Brut Y Tywysogyon or The Chronicle of the Princes, Red Book of Hengest Version, ed. and tr. T. Jones (Cardiff, 1955). Both versions are written in Welsh and are derived from a Latin chronicle compiled at the Cistercian monastery of Strata Florida towards the end of the thirteenth century. That chronicle was itself based on earlier chronicles kept at St Davids down to c. 1100, at Llanbadan Fawr near Aberystwyth down to 1175 (being particularly detailed for the time of Henry I) and thereafter at Strata Florida. The full form of the Latin original is lost but a version of it survives in Annales Cambriae, ed. J. Williams ab Ithel (Rolls Series, 1860) and Chronica de Wallia, ed. T. Jones (Cardiff, 1946). Gruffudd ap Cynan’s remarkable life, written in Gwynedd sometime between his death in 1137 and the 1160s, is published as A Mediaeval Prince of Wales: The Life of Gruffudd ap Cynan, ed. and tr. D. S. Evans (Llanerch Press, 1990). For a discussion of the work see Nerys Ann Jones’s chapter inGruffudd ap Cynan: A Collaborative Biography, ed. K. L. Maund (Woodbrige, 1996). Fundamental for Wales in this period are the works of Gerald of Wales, especially his ‘Journey through Wales’ (to preach the crusade in 1188) and his ‘Description of Wales’, both translated by Lewis Thorpe for Penguin Classics (1978). Also in Penguin Classics is The Mabinogion, ed. and tr. J. Gantz, the collection of Welsh chivalric epics written down in the thirteenth century.

For Wales in the thirteenth century important sources are the Calendar of Ancient Correspondence concerning Wales, ed. J. G. Edwards (Cardiff, 1935), a collection of letters written by English officials, magnates and Welsh rulers, mostly to the English government, which have survived in the PRO; Littere Wallie, ed. J. G. Edwards (Cardiff, 1940), a miscellaneous collection of letters issued by the Welsh rulers and their subjects which was put together by the English government at the end of the thirteenth century;The Welsh Assize Roll, 1277–1284, ed. J. Conway Davies (Cardiff, 1940); Calendar of Various Chancery Rolls 1277–1326 (1912), which has Edward’s letters concerning Wales after 1277 and his inquiry into Welsh law; Registrum Epistolarum Johannis Peckham, 3 vols., ed. C. T. Martin (Rolls Series, 1882–4), ii, 435–92, which contains the Welsh complaints to the archbishop; Llinos B. Smith, ‘The gravamina of the community of Gwynedd against Llywelyn ap Gruffyd’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, 31 (1984); andThe Merioneth Lay Subsidy Roll 1292–3, ed. K. Williams-Jones (Cardiff, 1976). EHD III, no. 55, prints a translation of the 1284 Statute of Wales.

The contemporary works on the English arrival in Ireland are Expugnatio Hibernica. The Conquest of Ireland by Giraldus Cambrensis, ed. and tr. A. B. Scott and F. X. Martin (Dublin, 1978) and The Song of Dermot and the Earl, ed. and tr. G. H. Orpen (Oxford, 1892). Documents in English state records related to Ireland are brought together in Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171–1251, ed. H. S. Sweetman (1875).

The records produced by ecclesiastics and ecclesiastical institutions fall into several categories. Synodal legislation is printed (but not translated) in Councils and Synods with other Documents relating to the English Church: I part II 1066–1204, ed. D. Whitelock, M. Brett and C. N. L. Brooke (Oxford, 1981) and Councils and Synods and other Documents relating to the English Church 1205–1313, 2 vols., ed. F. M. Powicke and C. R. Cheney (Oxford, 1964). The charters and other documents produced by English bishops are being steadily published in the British Academy’s English episcopal acta series. For Wales see Episcopal Acts and Cognate Documents relating to Welsh Dioceses 1066–1272, 2 vols., ed. J. C. Davies (Historical Society of the Church in Wales, 1946–8). From the thirteenth century bishops’ registers begin to appear, and many of these have been published by the Canterbury and York Society, often in conjunction with local record societies. The earliest is that of Hugh of Wells, bishop of Lincoln 1209–35: Rotuli Hugonis de Welles, 3 vols., ed. W. P. Phillimore and F. N. Davis (1907–9). See Guide to Bishops’ Registers of England and Wales, ed. D. M. Smith (1981). The letter collections of Gilbert Foliot, Robert Grosseteste and Adam Marsh are only available in Latin editions, but for that of Lanfranc see The Letters of Lanfranc Archbishop of Canterbury, ed. H. Clover and M. Gibson (Oxford, 1979). The collections made of letters to and from Becket as archbishop have now been edited and translated by Anne Duggan: The Correspondence of Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury, 2 vols. (Oxford, 2000). Calendar of entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland 1198–1304, ed. W. H. Bliss (1893) is central to the papacy’s role in British affairs, and seeSelected Letters of Pope Innocent III concerning England 1198–1216, ed. and tr. C. R. Cheney and W. H. Semple (1953). EHD III prints the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council and Rule of St Francis (nos. 136–7).

Numerous charters granting property to religious institutions survive both in the original and in copies made in cartularies, for which see G. R. C. Davis, Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain: A Short Catalogue (1958). Many of these charters and cartularies have been published by local record societies. In the thirteenth century there is also a growing corpus of material, particularly in the form of surveys and account rolls, showing how ecclesiastical institutions ran their estates. A continuous series from the 1200s of annual pipe rolls for the estates of the bishop of Winchester have been particularly used by historians. See The Pipe Roll of the Bishopric of Winchester 1210–11, ed. N. R. Holt (Manchester, 1964).

Large numbers of charters issued by laymen are known in this period, many of them as copies in ecclesiastical cartularies. Those of some individual magnate families have been brought together and published, for example Charters of the Honour of Mowbray 1107–1191, ed. D. Greenway (Oxford, 1972). The collection Early Yorkshire Charters, 12 vols., ed. W. Farrer and C. T. Clay (Edinburgh and Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1915–65) has been of the first importance for the study of society in the north. In the thirteenth century some noble and gentry families began to record charters, estate surveys and rentals in their own cartularies (these too are listed in Medieval Cartularies of Great Britain), an early gentry example being that of the Hotot family printed in A Northamptonshire Miscellany, ed. E. King (Northamptonshire Record Society, 32 (1983)). Some of the material in Household Accounts from Medieval England, 2 vols., ed. C. M. Woolgar (Oxford, 1992) belongs to the thirteenth century.

A wide variety of manorial surveys, account rolls and court records are usefully translated and discussed by Mark Bailey in The English Manor 1200–1500 (Manchester, 2002).

Numerous charters survive relating to the financial business of the Jews, one important collection being Starrs and Jewish Charters preserved in the British Museum, 3 vols., ed. I. Abrahams, H. Stokes, and H. Loewe (1930–32).

A good idea of the art, architecture and artefacts (including coins) of the period can be gained from the splendid catalogues of two exhibitions: English Romanesque Art 1066–1200 (Arts Council of Great Britain, 1984) and Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England 1200–1400, ed. J. Alexander and P. Binski (Royal Academy of Arts, 1987).


As explained in the Preface, I have set out a full version of the secondary sources on which this book is based under my name on the King’s College London History Department web site: A good idea of the profusion and quality of recent research can be gained by looking through the volumes of three periodical publications: Anglo-Norman Studies, the proceedings of the annual conference established at Battle in 1978; the Haskins Society Journal, first published in 1989; and Thirteenth Century England, the proceedings of the conference held every two years from 1985, first at Newcastle upon Tyne and then at Durham. In what follows I make suggestions for further reading, concentrating on recent work and for the most part on books rather than articles.

General Works

Three seminal works opened up British history in 1980s and 1990s, demonstrating the value of comparing and contrasting the experiences of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, as opposed to simply writing about them in isolation. These were The British Isles. Comparisons, Contrasts and Connections 1100–1500, ed. R. R. Davies (Edinburgh, 1988); Robin Frame, The Political Development of the British Isles 1100–1400 (1990); and R. R. Davies, Domination and Conquest. The Experience of Ireland, Scotland and Wales 1100–1300 (Cambridge, 1990), which was followed by Davies’s The First English Empire (Oxford, 2000). This comparative approach very much informs the chapters by seven leading scholars in The New Oxford History of the British Isles: The Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, ed. B. F. Harvey (Oxford, 2001).

Perhaps the most stimulating account of English history in this period is M. T. Clanchy, England and its Rulers 1066–1272 (1983), 2nd edn., with an epilogue on Edward I (1998). Robert Bartlett, England under the Norman and Angevin Kings 1075–1225(Oxford, 2000) covers a shorter period but is a work of extraordinary range. The best account of the development of English law is found in John Hudson, The Formation of the English Common Law: Law and Society in England from the Norman Conquest to Magna Carta (1996). W. L. Warren, The Governance of Norman and Angevin England 1086–1272 (1987) is clear and full of ideas. Studies of warfare include Matthew Strickland’s highly original War and Chivalry. The Conduct and Perception of War in England and Normandy 1066–1217 (Cambridge, 1996); Stephen Morillo, Warfare under the Norman and Angevin Kings 1066–1135 (Woodbridge, 1994); and Michael Prestwich’s comprehensive Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience(New Haven, 1996).

A. A. M. Duncan, Scotland: the Making of the Kingdom (Edinburgh, 1975) remains an essential work of reference. G. W. S. Barrow, Kingship and Unity: Scotland 1000–1306 (1981) is an excellent short survey. More recent and covering a longer period is A. D. M. Barrell, Medieval Scotland (Cambridge, 2000). Central to its field is Hector L. MacQueen, Common Law and Feudal Society in Medieval Scotland (Edinburgh, 1993). Important regional studies include R. Andrew McDonald, The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland’s Western Seaboard c. 1100–1336 (East Linton, 1997) and Richard Oram, The Lordship of Galloway (Edinburgh, 2000). See also John Roberts’s general survey, Lost Kingdoms: Celtic Scotland and the Middle Ages (Edinburgh, 1997). Individual studies by Barrow are brought together in his The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the Eleventh to the Fourteenth Century (1973). A great deal of recent work on Scotland has appeared in volumes of essays, notably Essays on the Nobility of Medieval Scotland, ed. K. J. Stringer (Edinburgh, 1985); Medieval Scotland, Crown, Lordship and Community: Essays Presented to G. W. S. Barrow, ed. A.Grant and K. J. Stringer (Edinburgh, 1993); Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Middle Ages, ed. E. J. Cowan and R. A. McDonald (East Linton, 2000). Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, ed. P. G. P. McNeill and H. L. MacQueen (Edinburgh, 1996) has many relevant maps.

John Edward Lloyd, A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, 2 vols. (1911) provides a magnificent narrative. R. R. Davies, Conquest, Coexistence and Change: Wales 1063–1415 (1987) has a wider range and is a literary as well as an historical tour de force. (The subsequent paperback edition was retitled The Age of Conquest.) A. D. Carr’s concise Medieval Wales (1995) has a helpful first chapter on historiography. Valuable new work on Wales, as on Scotland, has appeared in collections of essays by various scholars, for example Landscape and Settlement in Medieval Wales, ed. N. Edwards (Oxford, 1997) and The Welsh King and his Court, ed. T. M. Charles-Edwards, M. E. Owen and P. Russell (Cardiff, 2000). An Historical Atlas of Wales from Early to Modern Times, 2nd edn. (1959) has detailed maps.

Standard works on Ireland are A. J. Otway-Ruthven, A History of Medieval Ireland, 2nd edn. (1980) and A New History of Ireland, vol. 2: Medieval Ireland 1169–1534, ed. A. Cosgrove (Oxford, 1987). Sean Duffy’s Ireland in the Middle Ages (1997) is a short and perceptive survey. There are many relevant essays in Britain and Ireland 900–1300: Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, ed. B. Smith (Cambridge, 1999) and in Robin Frame’s Ireland and Britain 1170–1450: Collected Essays (1998).

General works on the economy are mentioned under chapter 2 below and on the church under chapter 14.

1. The Peoples of Britain

The work of R. R. Davies and John Gillingham has pioneered discussion of national identity in this period. Davies’s lectures as President of the Royal Historical Society on ‘The Peoples of Britain and Ireland 1100–1400’ appeared in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, sixth series, 4–7 (1994–7). Gillingham’s essays on English identity, including ones on ‘The beginnings of English imperialism’, and on Geoffrey of Monmouth, Henry of Huntingdon, Gaimar and Roger of Howden, have been brought together in his The English in the Twelfth Century. Imperialism, National Identity and Political Values (Woodbridge, 2000). For wider consideration of national identity see Adrian Hastings, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism(Cambridge, 1997) and Susan Reynolds, Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe 900–1300 (Oxford, 1984).

English identity before the Norman Conquest is the subject of a paper by Sarah Foot, ‘The making of Angelcynn’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (1996). For the changing identity of the Scots, the work of Dauvit Broun is fundamental. It includes ‘Defining Scotland and the Scots before the Wars of Independence’, in Image and Identity: The Making and Remaking of Scotland through the Ages, ed. D.Broun, R.J.Finlay and M.Lynch (Edinburgh, 1998). See also Broun’s The Irish Identity of the Kingdom of the Scots (Woodbridge, 1999). Bruce Webster, Medieval Scotland: The Making of an Identity (1997) looks at identity in various forms.

2. The Economies of Britain

Christopher Dyer’s Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850–1520 (New Haven and London, 2002) is a major new study and one of the few books to treat the British economy as a whole. The most comprehensive survey of the English economy is J. L. Bolton, The Medieval English Economy 1150–1500, 2nd edn. (1985). J. Z. Titow, English Rural Society 1200–1350 (1969) provides a lively introduction to the question of the standard of living of the peasantry and the size of the population on which the latest word is contained in B. M. S. Campbell’s English Seigniorial Agriculture 1250–1450 (Cambridge, 2000). A careful estimate of the Domesday population is made by John Moore in Anglo-Norman Studies, 19 (1996). Christopher Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages. Social Change in England 1200–1520 (1989) has been rightly acclaimed.

For towns and commerce see Susan Reynolds, An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns (Oxford, 1977), and Edward Miller and John Hatcher, Medieval England. Towns, Commerce and Crafts 1086–1348 (1995), the companion volume to their earlier Rural Society and Economic Change 1086–1348 (1978). R. H. Britnell’s The Commercialisation of English Society 1000–1500 (Cambridge, 1993) and A Commercialising Economy. England 1086–1300, ed. R. H. Britnell and B. M. S. Campbell (Manchester, 1995) are both very important. The latter includes a chapter by Robert Stacey on Jewish money-lending and one by Nicholas Mayhew which attempts to estimate England’s money supply and gross domestic product. A significant new article on the inflation of the 1200s by Paul Latimer appears in Past and Present for 2001.

Two important works on the peasantry are Rosamond Faith, The English Peasantry and the Growth of Lordship (1997) and Paul Hyams, King, Lords and Peasants in Medieval England: The Common Law of Villeinage in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries(Oxford, 1980), the latter essential for the origins of legal unfreedom. For slavery see David Pelteret, Slavery in Early Mediaeval England (Woodbridge, 1995). The many studies of individual manors and estates include Edward Miller, The Abbey and Bishopric of Ely (Cambridge, 1951); P. D. A. Harvey, A Medieval Oxfordshire Village: Cuxham 1240 to 1400 (Oxford, 1965); and Edmund King, Peterborough Abbey 1086–1310 (Cambridge, 1973). There is a chapter by Derek Keene on London in The Cambridge Urban History of Britain I: 600–1340, ed. D. M. Palliser (Cambridge, 2000), an important work with chapters by various scholars.

For Scotland and Wales, there are chapters in Duncan, Scotland. The Making of the Kingdom and Davies, Conquest and Coexistence: Wales 1063–1415. Coinage in Medieval Scotland 1100–1600, ed. D. M. Metcalf (British Archaeological Reports, 45 (1977)) is central to its subject. There are relevant studies in The Scottish Medieval Town, ed. M. Lynch, M. Spearman and G. Stell (Edinburgh, 1988). Wales is covered in The Agrarian History of England and Wales II: 1042–1350, ed. H. E. Hallam (Cambridge, 1988).Landscape and Settlement in Medieval Wales, ed. Edwards, contains the fruits of much new research, including chapters by Stephen Rippon on the Gwent levels and Jonathan Kissock on villages in Pembrokeshire.

Robert Bartlett’s The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change 950–1350 (1993) paints the wider European developments of which Britain became part.

3. The Norman Conquest of England

The effects of the Norman Conquest on England have always been controversial, some historians stressing the continuities with Anglo-Saxon England, others the radical nature of the break. Debates new and old are discussed in Marjorie Chibnall’s The Debate on the Norman Conquest (Manchester, 1999). Of general books, D. J. A. Matthew, The Norman Conquest (1966) and R. Allen Brown, The Normans and the Norman Conquest (1969) remain valuable, the latter a forthright restatement of the view that the Conquest introduced feudalism to England. David Bates, William the Conqueror (1989), a short biography, is a good introduction to the period in general. A full study of the Conqueror by Bates is forthcoming.

For Normandy, see David Bates, Normandy before 1066 (1982). The ‘maximum view’ of the power of the late Anglo-Saxon state is expounded by James Campbell in papers brought together in his Essays in Anglo-Saxon History (1986) and The Anglo-Saxon State (2000). Patrick Wormald’s papers, central to the same view on the legal side, are published in his Legal Culture in the Early Medieval West; Law as Text, Image and Experience (1999); see especially part IV.

For new ideas about Hastings, including the suggestion that the armies were much larger then previously imagined, see Ken Lawson’s The Battle of Hastings (Stroud, 2002). Anglo-Norman Castles, ed. R. Liddiard (Woodbridge, 2002) brings together a series of studies, including one by Richard Eales, ‘Royal power and castles in Norman England’. For the nobility before and after the Conquest see Peter Clarke, The English Nobility under Edward the Confessor (Oxford, 1994); Robin Fleming, King and Lords in Conquest England (Cambridge, 1991); and Ann Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge, 1995) which gives the fullest account of the fortunes of the English nobility and gentry after 1066. For the north see W. E. Kapelle, The Norman Conquest and the North: The Region and its Transformation (1979) and Paul Dalton, Conquest, Anarchy and Lordship: Yorkshire 1066–1154 (Cambridge, 1994). Two important articles are C. P. Lewis, ‘The Domesday Jurors’, Haskins Society Journal, 5 (1993) and J. J. N. Palmer, ‘The wealth of the secular aristocracy in 1086’, Anglo-Norman Studies, 22 (1999). I have brought together reading on feudal structures under chapter 13.

For the family the starting-point is chapter 9 of J. C. Holt’s Colonial England 1066–1215 (1997). The work of Pauline Stafford is vital both for queenship and the position of women: see her Queen Emma and Queen Edith (Oxford, 1997) and ‘Women and the Norman Conquest’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, sixth series, 4 (1994). For queenship more generally, see the essays in Medieval Queenship, ed. J. C. Parsons (Stroud, 1994).

Margaret Gibson’s Lanfranc of Bec (Oxford, 1978) is a beautifully written study. Emma Cownie, Religious Patronage in Anglo-Norman England 1066–1135 (Woodbridge, 1998) elucidates changing patterns of patronage.

Domesday Studies, ed. J. C. Holt (Woodbridge, 1987) brings together the work of various scholars. Challenging new ideas are advanced in David Roffe, Domesday: The Inquest and the Book (Oxford, 2000).

4. Wales, Scotland and the Normans

For North Wales and Gruffudd ap Cynan see Gruffudd ap Cynan. A Collaborative Biography, ed. K. L. Maund (Woodbridge, 1996). Helpful for military institutions is A. D. Carr’s chapter on ‘Teulu and Penteulu’ in The Welsh King and his Court, ed. Charles-Edwards, Owen and Russell. For Norman settlement and the formation of the marcher baronies, see C. P. Lewis on Herefordshire in Anglo-Norman Studies, 7 (1984) and Frederick Suppe, Military Institutions on the Welsh Marches: Shropshire 1066–1300(Woodbridge, 1994). David Crouch, ‘The slow death of kingship in Glamorgan 1067–1158’, Morgannwg, 29 (1985) reveals significant accommodation between the Welsh and the Normans.

Fundamental work on the structure of the early Scottish state has been done by Alexander Grant, for example in his chapter in The Medieval State. Essays Presented to James Campbell, ed. J. R. Maddicott and D. M. Palliser (2000). Alex Woolf, ‘The “Moray Question” and the kingship of Alba in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries’, Scottish Historical Review, 79 (2000) is important. For a more positive view than the one I have taken of the royal hold over Moray, and indeed over Ross, the region to the north-west, see Grant’s chapter on Ross in Alba: Celtic Scotland, ed. Cowan and McDonald. The definitive work on Carlisle is Henry Summerson’s Medieval Carlisle: The City and the Borders from the Late Eleventh to the Mid-Sixteenth Century, 2 vols., Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society, extra series, 25 (1993). Judith Green’s chapter in England and her Neighbours, 1066–1453: Essays in Honour of Pierre Chaplais, ed. M. Jones and M. Vale (1989) covers Anglo-Scottish relations for the whole period between 1066 and 1174.

5. Britain and the Anglo-Norman Realm

The key work on the political structure of the Anglo-Norman realm is J. C. Holt’s ‘Politics and property in early medieval England’, which appears as chapter 8 of his Colonial England 1066–1215 (1997). David Bates, ‘Normandy and England after 1066’,English Historical Review, 104 (1989) criticizes the view found in John le Patourel, The Norman Empire (Oxford, 1976) that the kingdom and duchy formed a single political unit. The introduction of ‘chivalry’ is discussed by Strickland in his War and Chivalryand by Gillingham in The English in the Twelfth Century. Judith Green’s The Aristocracy of Norman England (Cambridge, 1997) and her earlier The Government of England under Henry I (Cambridge, 1986) are both central to this period, as is Martin Brett’sThe English Church under Henry I (Oxford, 1975). J. O. Prestwich, ‘War and finance in the Anglo-Norman state’, in Anglo-Norman Warfare, ed. Strickland, first published in 1954, has proved a seminal paper. Frank Barlow, William Rufus (1983) is a highly readable biography. C. W. Hollister’s biography, Henry I (2001), published posthumously, summed up many years of work on the reign by a great American scholar. For Queen Matilda, see Lois Huneycutt, ‘The idea of a perfect princess: the Life of St Margaret in the reign of Matilda (1100–1118)’, Anglo-Norman Studies, 12 (1989). Two celebrated studies are R. W. Southern’s St Anselm and his Biographer (1963) and Saint Anselm: A Portrait in a Landscape (Cambridge, 1990). See also Sally Vaughn, Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan: The Innocence of the Dove and the Wisdom of the Serpent (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1987) and Donald Nicholl, Thurstan Archbishop of York 1114–1140 (York, 1964). Henry I’s relations with King David are discussed by Judith Green inScottish Historical Review, 75 (1996).

6. Britain Remodelled

There has been much debate among historians about the causes of the troubles in Stephen’s reign, and in particular how far they were due to the legacy of Henry I and how far to the king’s own character and mistakes. Another area of debate concerns the extent to which the situation in England can be described as anarchic. The many excellent books on the period include R. H. C. Davis, King Stephen, 3rd edn. (1990); H. A. Cronne, The Reign of Stephen: Anarchy in England 1135–1154 (1970); Keith J.Stringer, The Reign of Stephen. Kingship, Warfare and Government in Twelfth-Century England (1993); David Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135–54 (2000); and Donald Matthew’s King Stephen (2002). See also Crouch’s The Beaumont Twins (Cambridge, 1986). The Anarchy of King Stephen’s Reign, ed. E. King (Oxford, 1994) contains essays by leading scholars including one by Mark Blackburn on the coinage. Marjorie Chibnall, The Empress Matilda: Queen Consort, Queen Mother and Lady of the English (Oxford, 1991) is the standard biography.

Important studies of King David are G. W. S. Barrow’s lecture, David I of Scotland (1124–1153): The Balance of Old and New (Reading, 1984); Stringer’s chapter in Government, Religion and Society in Northern England 1000–1700, ed. J. C. Appleby and P. Dalton (Stroud, 1997); and Richard D. Oram’s article (on David and Moray) in Northern Scotland, 19 (1999). G. W. S. Barrow, The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History (Oxford, 1980) deals with the new aristocracy. There is a chapter on the Scots in the north in Paul Dalton’s Conquest, Anarchy and Lordship: Yorkshire 1066–1154. For Wales in this period see David Crouch’s paper in The Anarchy of King Stephen’s Reign, ed. King.

7. Henry II, Britain and Ireland

W. L. Warren, Henry II (1973) is a magisterial and finely written biography. A chapter by Jane Martindale in Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth, ed. J. L. Nelson (1992) gets closest to the thinking and policies of Eleanor of Aquitaine. The best introduction to the Angevin empire is John Gillingham, The Angevin Empire, 2nd edn. (2001). The chief study of Henry’s recovery of royal authority in England is Emilie Amt’s The Accession of Henry II in England: Royal Government Restored 1149–1159(1993), and see Graeme J. White, Restoration and Reform 1153–1165: Recovery from Civil War in England (Cambridge, 2001).

The most enlightening overall account of the legal changes in Henry’s reign is found in Hudson’s The Formation of the English Common Law. There are important studies in Paul Brand’s Making of the Common Law (1992), especially chapters 4 and 9, the latter a helpful critique of the ideas in S. F. C. Milsom, The Legal Framework of English Feudalism (Cambridge, 1976). A paper by Tom Keefe in Albion, 13 (1981) reveals the limited financial pressure Henry II placed on his earls.

The fullest biography of Becket is Frank Barlow’s Thomas Becket (1986). A more sympathetic account is found in David Knowles, Thomas Becket (1970). For the other bishops see Knowles, The Episcopal Colleagues of Thomas Becket (1951). Papers by Charles Duggan are brought together in his Canon Law in Medieval England: The Becket Dispute and Decretal Collections (1982). For Becket’s rival, see Adrian Morey and C. N. L. Brooke, Gilbert Foliot and his Letters (Cambridge, 1965). Beryl Smalley’s brilliant book, The Becket Conflict and the Schools (Oxford,1973) is indispensable for the wider European background.

Marie Therese Flanagan’s Irish Society, Anglo-Norman Settlers, Angevin Kingship (Oxford, 1989) provides the fullest modern account of the arrival of the English. Brendan Smith, Colonisation and Conquest in Medieval Ireland: The English in Louth, 1170–1330 is also important. The Cumbrian connections of John de Courcy are revealed in a paper by Sean Duffy in Colony and Frontier in Medieval Ireland: Essays Presented to J. F. Lydon, ed. T. B. Barry, R. Frame and K. Simms (1993).

The detailed introductions by G. W.S. Barrow to Regesta Regum Scottorum, volumes 1 and 2 (1960, 1971), cover all aspects of the reigns of Kings Malcolm and William the Lion. For Somerled and the west see Andrew McDonald, The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland’s Western Seaboard. Studies of Galloway include Keith Stringer’s ‘Reform Monasticism and Celtic Scotland: Galloway c. 1140–c. 1240’, in Alba: Celtic Scotland, ed. Cowan and McDonald, and Richard D. Oram, ‘A family business? Colonisation and settlement in twelfth and thirteenth-century Galloway’, Scottish Historical Review, 72 (1993). See also Oram’s The Lordship of Galloway (Edinburgh, 2000), a comprehensive work which I wish I had come across earlier. For Caithness, Sutherland and Ross there are Barbara Crawford’s chapter in Essays on the Nobility of Medieval Scotland, ed. Stringer, and Alexander Grant’s chapter (on Ross) in Alba: Celtic Scotland.

Huw Pryce, ‘Owain Gwynedd and Louis VII: the Franco-Welsh diplomacy of the first Prince of Wales’, Welsh History Review, 19 (1998) is essential for Owain Gwynedd. For the Lord Rhys’s policies towards the end of Henry’s reign see Gillingham’s ‘Henry II, Richard I and the Lord Rhys’, in his The English in the Twelfth Century.

8. Richard the Lionheart and William the Lion

In the last two decades John Gillingham has refashioned understanding of Richard’s career, in part through seeing him as an able ruler with responsibilities for continental dominions as well as for England. His Richard I (1999) is a highly readable biography. Another recent work is Ralph Turner and Richard Heiser, The Reign of Richard Lionheart (2000). For the Jews see H. G. Richardson, The English Jewry under Angevin Kings (1960) and R. B. Dobson, The Jews of Medieval York and the Massacre of March 1190(York, 1974). C. R. Cheney, Hubert Walter (1967) is a concise and scholarly biography.

For William the Lion the reading mentioned under chapter 7 remains relevant. MacQueen’s Common Law and Feudal Society in Medieval Scotland is important for the beginnings of legal change.

9. The Reign of King John

The works of J. C. Holt are fundamental to an understanding of this period, namely The Northerners: A Study in the Reign of King John (Oxford, 1961), Magna Carta, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1992), and (a volume of collected essays) Magna Carta and Medieval Government (1985). Biographies of the king include W. L. Warren, King John (1961), deservedly in print for over forty years, and Ralph Turner, King John (1994). There are papers by many scholars in King John: New Interpretations, ed. S. D. Church (Woodbridge, 1999), including V. D. Moss’s on the revenues of Normandy and that of Daniel Power on the Norman aristocracy (essential for the loss of the duchy). The weakening connections with the duchy are explored by David Crouch in his chapter inEngland and Normandy in the Middle Ages, ed. D. Bates and A. Curry (Woodbridge, 1994). Nick Barratt’s article in English Historical Review, 111 (1996) revealed for the first time the size of John’s revenues from England. Angevin kingship’s arbitrary face is laid bare in J. E. A. Jolliffe’s Angevin Kingship, 2nd edn. (1963). For one foundation of the king’s power see S. D. Church’s revealing, The Household Knights of King John (Cambridge, 1999). For piety and ritual see Nicholas Vincent, ‘The pilgrimages of the Angevin kings 1154–1272’, in Pilgrimage: The English Experience, ed. C. Morris and P. Roberts (Cambridge, 2001). Two fine studies of major players in the reign are David Crouch’s William Marshal: Court, Career and Chivalry in the Angevin Empire 1147–1219 (1990) and Nicholas Vincent’s Peter des Roches: An Alien in English Politics 1205–1238 (Cambridge, 1996). Several royal ministers, including Geoffrey fitz Peter, are usefully studied in Ralph Turner’s Men Raised from the Dust: Administrative Service and Upward Mobility in Angevin England (Philadelphia, 1988). King John: New Interpretations has papers by Sean Duffy, A. A. M. Duncan and Ifor Rowlands on Ireland, Scotland and Wales respectively. See also Brock Holden, ‘King John, the Braoses and the Celtic fringe’, Albion, 33 (2001). There is discussion of Stephen Langton’s thought in J. W. Baldwin, Masters, Princes and Merchants: The Social Views of Peter the Chanter and his Circle, 2 vols. (Princeton, 1970).

10. The Minority of Henry III; Llywelyn the Great;
and Alexander II

D. A. Carpenter, The Minority of Henry III (1990) covers the period in detail down to the mid 1220s. Vincent’s Peter des Roches gives the fullest account of the tumultuous events between 1232 and 1234. D. J. A. Matthew, The English and the Community of Europe in the Thirteenth Century (Reading, 1997) sounds a cautionary note about the extent of hostility to foreigners. There are papers relevant to this chapter and the two following in England and Europe in the Reign of Henry III, ed. Björn K. Weiler with Ifor Rowlands (Aldershot, 2002), including one by Robin Studd on Gascony. Studies in Robin Frame’s Ireland and Britain 1170–1450: Collected Essays (1998) explore the links between England and Ireland.

There is a striking account of Llywelyn the Great in Davies’s Conquest, Coexistence and Change. For Welsh queenship in general and Joan in particular, see Robin C. Stacey, ‘King, Queen and Edling in the laws of court’, in The Welsh King and his Court, ed. Charles-Edwards, Owen and Russell. Titles are discussed in Charles Insley, ‘From Rex Wallie to Princeps Wallie: charters and state formation in thirteenth-century Wales’, in The Medieval State ed. Maddicott and Palliser.

Alexander II’s role in the 1215–17 civil war is the subject of a chapter by Keith Stringer in Scotland in the Reign of Alexander II, ed. R. D. Oram (forthcoming). Also by Stringer is ‘Periphery and core in thirteenth-century Scotland: Alan son of Roland, lord of Galloway and constable of Scotland’, in Medieval Scotland: Crown, Lordship and Community, ed. Grant and Stringer. Oram’s The Lordship of Galloway gives a full coverage of Alan’s career and events after his death. MacQueen’s Common Law and Feudal Society in Medieval Scotland is of cardinal importance for legal developments. For the Comyns, the definitive work is Alan Young’s Robert the Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns, 1212–1314 (East Linton, 1997).

11. Britain During the Personal Rule of Henry III

J. R. Maddicott, Simon de Montfort (1994) has the best modern account of Henry’s personal rule and see the essays on various subjects in my own Reign of Henry III (1996), including one on parliament which gives references to other work on the subject. Robert C. Stacey, Politics Policy and Finance under Henry III 1216–1245 (Oxford, 1987) breaks new ground, as does his crucial article on the Jews in Historical Research, 61 (1988). Margaret Howell, Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-Century England(1998) shows for the first time the importance of Henry’s queen and is a work of key importance for medieval queenship in general. For Westminster Abbey see Paul Binski, Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets: Kingship and the Representation of Power(1995). In a series of articles, Huw Ridgeway has reinterpreted the role of Henry III’s foreign relations in English politics and shown the importance of the struggle to control the Lord Edward in the crisis of 1258. See for example ‘The Lord Edward and the Provisions of Oxford (1258)’, Thirteenth Century England, 1 (1985) and ‘Foreign favourites and Henry III’s problems of patronage’, English Historical Review, 103 (1989). A defence of the Sicilian project is mounted by Björn Weiler in Historical Research, 74 (2001). The difficulties of obtaining writs are explored in Andrew Hershey’s ‘Justice and bureaucracy: the English royal writ and “1258” ’, English Historical Review, 113 (1998). The early evidence for Robin Hood is set out by David Crook in a paper inThirteenth Century England, 2 (1987).

For Wales, J. Beverley Smith’s Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales (Cardiff, 1998) now begins its magisterial course. For the minority of Alexander III see the paper by D. E. R. Watt in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, fifth series, 21 (1971).

12. The Tribulations of King Henry; the Triumphs of
King Alexander III and Llywelyn, Prince of Wales

For England, Maddicott’s Simon de Montfort now holds centre stage while Howell’s Eleanor of Provence continues to illuminate the crucial role of the queen. For the resettlement of England after the barons’ wars the article by C. H. Knowles in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, fifth series, 32 (1982) is of prime importance. There is a paper on ‘Ireland and the Barons’ Wars’ in Robin Frame’s England and Ireland: Collected Essays. The rise of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd is traced in detail in Beverley Smith’s biography. For Alexander III the key book is Scotland in the Reign of Alexander III 1249–1286, ed. N. H. Reid (Edinburgh, 1990). It includes a chapter by Edward Cowan, ‘Norwegian sunset – Scottish dawn: Hakon IV and Alexander III’. The changing attitudes of the MacSorleys to the Scottish state are brought out in McDonald’s The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland’s Western Seaboard.

13. Structures of Society

Gwyn A. Williams, Medieval London: From Commune to Capital (1963) provides a lively and learned account of London politics in the thirteenth century. The best introduction to the ethos and changing nature of knighthood is Peter Coss, The Knight in Medieval England (Stroud, 1993). Kathryn Faulkner, ‘The transformation of knighthood in early thirteenth-century England’, English Historical Review, 111 (1996) reveals the number of knights in the 1200s. Work on the gentry includes Coss’s Lordship and Locality: A Study of English Society c.1180–c.1280 (Cambridge, 1991) and Hugh M. Thomas, Vassals, Heiresses, Crusaders and Thugs: The Gentry of Angevin Yorkshire 1154–1216 (Philadelphia, 1993). For the county court see Robert Palmer’s The County Courts of Medieval England 1150–1350 (Princeton, 1982). For the family see J. C. Holt’s Colonial England, chapters 9–13.

Judith Green’s The Aristocracy of Norman England is now a standard work. Also central to the early period is John Hudson, Land, Law and Lordship in Anglo-Norman England (Oxford, 1994). The classic study of the feudal structures of magnate power established after the Conquest is Sir Frank Stenton’s The First Century of English Feudalism 1066–1166, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1961). Recent work, however, has questioned how far the feudal honour was the cohesive and autonomous institution of Stenton’s picture. See for example Paul Dalton, Conquest, Anarchy and Lordship: Yorkshire 1066–1154, chapter 7, and David Crouch, ‘From Stenton to McFarlane: models of society of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th series, 5 (1995). Crouch’s article smoothes out the transition of feudalism to bastard feudalism, a transition debated by Coss, Crouch and myself in Past and Present for 1989, 1991 and 2000. See also Scott L. Waugh’s important article ‘Tenure to contract: lordship and clientage in thirteenth-century England’, English Historical Review, 101 (1986). Studies of individual honours and nobles include Richard Mortimer on the honour of Clare in Anglo-Norman Studies, 3 and 8 (1980 and 1985); John Hunt, Lordship and Landscape: A Documentary and Archaeological study of the Honour of Dudley 1066–1322 (Oxford, 1997); Crouch, The Beaumont Twins and his William Marshal; and K. J. Stringer, Earl David of Huntingdon 1152–1219 (Edinburgh, 1985).

There is a chapter on peasants in politics in my Reign of Henry III. For the manorial court and its records see Medieval Society and the Manor Court, ed. Z. Razi and R. M. Smith (Oxford, 1996). R. H. Hilton’s very readable A Medieval Society: The West Midlands at the End of the Thirteenth Century (1966) puts the peasants and the village community in their wider context.

Peter Coss, The Lady in Medieval England 1000–1500 (Stroud, 1998) provides an introduction to the position of noblewomen. Jennifer Ward’s Women of the English Nobility and Gentry 1066–1500 (Manchester, 1995) brings together source material in translation. Matthew Paris’s attitude to women is discussed by Rebecca Reader in Thirteenth Century England, 7 (1997). For peasant women see Judith Bennett’s Women in the Medieval English Countryside: Gender and Household in Brigstock before the Plague(Oxford, 1987). Margaret de Lacy is studied by Louise Wilkinson in Historical Research, 73 (2000). Scott L. Waugh’s The Lordship of England: Royal Wardships and Marriages in English Society and Politics 1217–1327 (Princeton, 1988) reveals the changed situation for widows after 1215, and elucidates marriage strategies and how wardships were exploited by the king.

Important for the Scottish nobility are Essays on the Nobility of Medieval Scotland, ed. Stringer; MacQueen, Common Law and Feudal Society in Medieval Scotland; Young, Robert Bruce’s Rivals: The Comyns; McDonald, The Kingdom of the Isles; and Oram,The Lordship of Galloway, where chapter 7 discusses ‘acculturation’. For John de Vesci, see Stringer’s ‘Nobility and identity in medieval Britain and Ireland: the de Vescy family c. 1120–1314’, in Britain and Ireland 900–1300, ed. Smith. Stringer’s work is vital for the cross-border nobility in the north, for example his ‘Identities in thirteenth-century England: frontier society in the far north’, in Social and Political Identities in Western History, ed. C. Bjørn, A. Grant and K. J. Stringer (Copenhagen, 1994).

T. Pierce Jones, Medieval Welsh Society (Cardiff, 1972) contains important essays including one on the growth of commutation in Gwynedd. The introduction to The Merioneth Lay Subsidy Roll 1292–3, ed. K. Williams-Jones, has a section on the structure of society. Changing attitudes to marriage and inheritance is a major theme in Huw Pryce’s Native Law and the Church in Medieval Wales (Oxford, 1993).

For the common culture which in varying degrees came to embrace the whole of Britain, see David Crouch, The Image of the Aristocracy in Britain 1100–1300 (1992). Written with his customary verve, this is the only book to treat the British nobility as a whole. The links with France are elucidated in Malcolm Vale, The Angevin Legacy and the Hundred Years War 1250–1340 (Oxford, 1990).

14. Church, Religion, Literacy and Learning

For relations with the papacy, see the essays in The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages, ed. C. H. Lawrence (1965), and Jane Sayers’s two books, Papal Judges Delegate in the Province of Canterbury 1198–1254 (Oxford, 1971) and Papal Government and England during the Pontificate of Honorius III 1216–1227 (Cambridge, 1983). For the Mass see Miri Rubin, Corpus Christi. The Eucharist in Late Medieval Culture (Cambridge, 1991).

The history of the English church throughout this period can be followed in Frank Barlow’s The English Church 1000–1066, 2nd edn. (1979) and his The English Church 1066–1154 (1979); C. R. Cheney, From Becket to Langton: English Church Government 1170–1213 (Manchester, 1956); and J. R. H. Moorman, Church Life in England in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge, 1945). For episcopal efforts to enforce the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council see M. Gibbs and J. Lang, Bishops and Reform 1215–1272(Oxford, 1934). Margaret Howell’s Regalian Right in Medieval England (1962) gives a definitive account of the king’s exploitation of ecclesiastical vacancies.

Studies of individual bishops include Emma Mason, St Wulfstan of Worcester c. 1008–1095 (Oxford, 1990); Mary G. Cheney, Roger Bishop of Worcester 1164–79 (Oxford, 1980); C. H. Lawrence, St Edmund of Abingdon (Oxford, 1960); D. L. Douie, Archbishop Pecham (Oxford, 1952); and R. W. Southern, Robert Grosseteste: The Growth of an English Mind in Medieval Europe, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1992).

For the Welsh church see Huw Pryce, Native Law and the Church in Medieval Wales which brings clarity to a complex subject, and also his ‘Church and society in Wales, 1150–1250: an Irish perspective’, in The British Isles 1100–1500, ed. Davies. There are studies of the Scottish church in Geoffrey Barrow’s The Kingdom of the Scots. For the church in the time of Alexander III see the chapter by Marinell Ash in Scotland in the Reign of Alexander III, ed. Reid.

David Knowles, The Monastic Order in England 940–1216, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1963) and The Religious Orders in England, I (Cambridge, 1948) remain leisurely and humane classics. They cover Wales as well as England. Janet Burton, Monastic and Religious Orders in Britain 1100–1300 is immensely helpful and is one of the few books to deal with the whole of Britain. It has excellent maps. Barbara Harvey’s Living and Dying in England 1100–1540: The Monastic Experience (Oxford, 1993) is a vintage work based largely on the records of Westminster Abbey. For Westminster see also Emma Mason, Westminster Abbey and its People c. 1050–c.1216 (Woodbridge, 1996). For the friars see C. H. Lawrence, The Friars: The Impact of the Early Mendicant Movement on Western Society (1994), and D. L. d’Avray, The Preaching of the Friars: Sermons diffused from Paris before 1300 (Oxford, 1985).

For women religious the starting-point is Sally P. Thompson, Women Religious: The Founding of English Nunneries after the Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1991). The few words I offer here on Gilbert of Sempringham do no justice to Brian Golding’s great work,Gilbert of Sempringham and the Gilbertine Order (Oxford, 1995).

The piety of the Anglo-Norman nobility is discussed by Christopher Harper-Bill in Anglo-Norman Studies, 2 (1979). Nicholas Vincent, The Holy Blood. King Henry III and the Westminster Blood Relic (Cambridge, 2001) is a fascinating study relevant to relics in general. For pilgrimage see Diana Webb, Pilgrimage in Medieval England (2000), and for an aspect of alms-giving Sally Dixon Smith, ‘The image and reality of alms-giving in the great halls of Henry III’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association(1999). For England and the crusade the chief works are Simon Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade 1216–1307 (Oxford, 1987) and Christopher Tyerman, England and the Crusades 1095–1588 (Chicago, 1988).

For the proliferation of records and the development of pragmatic literacy the central work is M. T. Clanchy’s From Memory to Written Record: England 1066–1307, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1993). See also David Bates’s lecture, Reordering the Past and Negotiating the Present in Stenton’s First Century (Reading, 1999). For Oxford University see The History of the University of Oxford I: The Early Schools, ed. J. I. Catto (Oxford, 1984).

15. King Edward I

Authoritative and judicious, Michael Prestwich’s biography, Edward I (1988) covers all aspects of the reign. J. C. Parsons, Eleanor of Castile: Queen and Society in Thirteenth-Century England (1994) is a scholarly study which is important for queenship generally in the medieval period. J. R. Maddicott, ‘Edward I and the lessons of baronial reform: local government 1258–1280’, Thirteenth Century England, 1 (1985) is indispensable for Edward’s reform of the realm. R. W. Kaeuper, Bankers to the Crown: The Riccardi of Lucca and Edward I (Princeton, 1973) unravels the firm’s complex operations. For legal developments, see Paul Brand’s original and definitive The Origins of the English Legal Profession (Oxford, 1992) and chapter 7 of his The Making of the Common Law. Henry Summerson’s ‘The structure of law enforcement in thirteenth-century England’, American Journal of Legal History, 23 (1979) clarifies the whole subject, and see also his paper on the statute of Winchester in Journal of Legal History, 13 (1992). For the development of parliament see the chapters by J. R. Maddicott and J. H. Denton in The English Parliament in the Middle Ages, ed. R. G. Davies and J. H. Denton (Manchester, 1981). Paul Binski, the Painted Chamber at Westminster (1986) shows Edward’s role in its decoration. Robert Stacey, ‘Parliamentary negotiation and the expulsion of the Jews from England’, Thirteenth Century England, 6 (1995) is crucial for the immediate circumstances of the expulsion, while Robin Mundill, England’s Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion 1262–1290 (Cambridge, 1998) has the most detailed coverage of the last phase and argues that the Jews were finding a role as commodity traders. J. R. Maddicott, The English Peasantry and the Demands of the Crown, Past and Present supplement (1975) shows how the pressures of Edwardian government fell particularly on the peasantry.

16. Conquest and Coexistence

Beverley Smith’s Llywelyn ap Gruffudd Prince of Wales is now the standard work. Sir Goronwy Edwards’s introduction to Littere Wallie offers a wellknown critique of Llywelyn’s polices. David Stephenson, The Governance of Gwynedd (Cardiff, 1984) is a comprehensive coverage of its subject. For the growing claims of the prince in the area of justice see Pryce, Native Law and the Church in Medieval Wales. Landscape and Settlement in Medieval Wales, ed. N. Edwards (Oxford, 1997) has studies by David Longley and Neil Johnstone on the royal courts of Gwynedd. R. R. Davies’s account of this period in his Conquest and Co-existence is compelling.

For Alexander III, the volume of essays edited by Norman Reid remains essential. The maps designed by Keith Stringer and Hector MacQueen in Atlas of Scottish History, ed. McNeill and MacQueen, illustrate the expansion of the Scottish kingdom. For Scottish national identity see Alexander Grant, ‘Aspects of National Consciousness in medieval Scotland’, in Nations, Nationalism and Patriotism in the European Past, ed. C. Bjørn, A. Grant and K. J. Stringer (Copenhagen, 1994) and his ‘To the medieval foundations’,Scottish Historical Review, 72 (1994). G. W. S. Barrow, Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, 3rd edn. (Edinburgh, 1988) remains the chief work on the Scottish wars of independence. For discussion related to the concluding section of the chapter see R. R. Davies, Domination and Conquest: The Experience of Ireland, Scotland and Wales 1100–1300 (Cambridge, 1990) and Keith Stringer, ‘Scottish foundations: thirteenth-century perspectives’, chapter 6 of Uniting the Kingdom: The Making of British History, ed. A. Grant and K. J. Stringer (1995).

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