Post-classical history

Timeline

1333

Petrarch discovers Cicero’s Pro Archia

1348

Plague throughout Europe

1378

Beginning of Papal Schism

1397

Medici Bank established in Florence

1400

Bruni, Panegyric to the City of Florence

1414

Council of Constance

1417

End of Papal Schism; Martin V elected pope

1420

Portuguese colonize Madeira; Martin V returns to Rome

1438

Council of Ferrara-Florence

1440

Frederick II elected Holy Roman Emperor; Valla exposes Donation of Constantine as a forgery

1444

Alberti, On the Family

c.1450

Gutenberg invents movable type

1453

Fall of Constantinople; end of the Hundred Years War

1459

Gozzoli, Adoration of the Magi; building begins on Topkapi Saray Palace

1474

Ficino, Platonic Theology

1488

Bartolomeu Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1492

Columbus’s first voyage; conquest of Granada; Behaim’s globe; Bellinis begin St Mark Preaching in Alexandria (completed 1504–7)

1494

Treaty of Tordesillas; Italian Wars; Luca Pacioli, Everything about Arithmetic, Geometry and Proportion

1497–8

Da Gama reaches India

1500

Cabral lands in Brazil

1505

Leonardo, Mona Lisa; Dürer in Italy

1506

Bramante begins work on St Peter’s, Rome

1509

Accession of King Henry VIII in England (rules until 1553)

1511

Erasmus, Praise of Folly

1512

Michelangelo completes Sistine Chapel ceiling; Erasmus, De Copia.

1513

Cortes in Mexico; Portuguese capture Hormuz; Machiavelli, The Prince

1515

Accession of King Francis I in France (rules until 1547)

1516

Charles V king of Spain; Erasmus’s Greek New Testament; More, Utopia

1517

Luther’s 95 theses

1520

Accession of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent

1521

Diet of Worms; Magellan’s expedition reaches the Pacific

1524

Peasant’s Revolt in Germany; Raphael, Donation of Constantine

1525

Battle of Pavia; Dürer, A Course in the Art of Measurement

1527

Sack of Rome

1529

Treaty of Saragossa; Diogo Ribeiro world map

1533

Henry VIII splits with Rome; Holbein, The Ambassadors, Regiomontanus, On Triangles

1543

Copernicus, De Revolutionibus; Vesalius, Fabrica; Portuguese reach Japan

1545

Council of Trent begins (ends 1563)

1554

Bandello, Novelle

1555

Peace of Augsburg; Pope Paul IV’s anti-Jewish papal bull; Labé, Euvres

1556

Abdication of Charles V; Philip II becomes king of Spain; Tartaglia, A General Treatise on Numbers and Measurement; Agricola, De Re Metallica

1558

Accession of Queen Elizabeth I in England

1567

Whitney, The Copy of a Letter

1569

Mercator’s world map

1570

Elizabeth I excommunicated; Ortelius, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum

1571

Defeat of Ottoman naval forces at the Battle of Lepanto

1572

St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre; Camões, The Lusiads

1580

Montaigne, Essays

1590

Spenser, The Faerie Queene

1603

Shakespeare, Othello; death of Elizabeth I; accession of James I

1604

Cervantes, Don Quixote

1605

Bacon, Advancement of Learning

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